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THE

EBONY ANCIENT

TRADE EGYPT.

OF

David

Alarshall

Dixon.,

B. A.

117 larch
. . '

1961.
11

-i-

SYNOPSIS. This trade study of the hbny ('ebony') of ancient Egypt, forms but part in itself, though complete of a investigation into the identity wider and geographical distribution in Pharaonic times of the flora and fauna depicted in the temple on the Punt reliefs of Queen atshepsut at Deir el Bari, with a view to determining the location The work beginsp and extent of Punt. distherefore, in which with previous an Introduction cussions of this of the question subject state and the present defined. are summarized.. and the scope of the enquiry In Chapter hbn-v are noted, for its evidence I the earliest to the use of references and the meagre textual and archaeological is reviewed. geographical provenance

II an attempt In Chapter the is made to determine botanical origin of this the textual wood, utilizing evidence and the results which of the few examinations have been made of objects ti, ought to be of hbny. Chapter III gives a general of the two species account trees of ebony-producing found in the Sudan and at present Ethiopia G. & P. and Diospyros melanoxylon - Dalbergia MWIliformis Hochst. Chapter disIV summarizes what is known of their tribution tu the Sudan and ecology with reference Chapters V and VI discuss and Eritrea. the evidence for tne state in Classical times of those and Pharaonic factors influence Climatic, edaphic, and biotic which distribution tree VII this within area, and in Chapter is made to determine limit the northern an attempt of the two Sudan ebonies during the Pharaonic period. the Chapter VIII hbny used in discusses the question whether from Egypt was obtained ancient with a Statement and description of of the the any of Asia. conclusions plates,

The reached,

closes enquiry a Bibliography,

ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction


for determinative foreign written without (p. 1); people of Puntites similarity physical and (p. 1); Egyptians friendly of relations nature with (pp. Punt 19 6-7); Egyptians tradition connecting (p. 1); Punt with and paucity of textual evidence lack complete regarding of archaeological evidence (p. 2); location to of Punt starting-point of the voyages (p, 3); (p. 3); length Punt design of the of the voyage (pp. 3-4); in the Red Sea vessels physical conditions (pp. in the 3-4); the Deir elcoastline and changes (pp. 4-6); Classical Bahri reliefs of the Red accounts for (p. 6); Se of little the location value of Punt in Punt (pp. Negroes 7-8); of and negroids similarity features found of Puntites to those certain among the Masai (p. 8); to locate earlier of Kenya methods of attempting (pp. 8-13); Punt (pp. Kees 8-9). opinions of Naville (p. 9), (P. 9)9 Schoff Dykmans (pp, 9-10). Hilzheimer (pp. 10-11); the location of the of Punt on the basis fauna depicted in the and flora Of necessity reliefs the (pp. considering fauna 13-14); native and flora hbny: for (p. 14); reasons transliteration employing in scholars' distribution hbny opinions regarding of times influenced ancient by its identification with (pp. 14-16). modern ebonies
I

'Punt'

Earliest from imported to hbny (p. 27); references Nubia and Punt (p, 27); of hbny estimate of quantities (p. 27); imported difficult very of hbnyother parts , in addition (p, 28); importation trees to the wood used of (p. 29); finished in Egypt hbny; hbny-working objects of the geographical textual provenance evidence regarding it was native difficulty of hbny; of deciding whether (pp. 29-33); from whence it was obtained to the lands to Punt (pp. 32-33). hbny native
11

identity the botanical Necessity establishing of of hbny before its in ancient distribution discussing tim so (p. 48); The name itself of no assistance alleged 'ebony' form of the name (p. 48); in the Classical early difficulty writers; of equating ebenos-ebenus with hbny (pp. 48-49); in the treatment Hp3 of ljU of eye -

iii(pp. 49-52); the identity 50-52); diseases of tne hp:a' (pp. tgum of the! j? na-tree' (p. 52); representati6ns of hbnyfor identification too fragmentary trees el-Bahri at Deir (p. 52); of hbny-ivood on the representations purposes the cilour moni-iments (pp. 52-55); of hbny (p. 55); varies, hbny (pp. 56-59); botblack; not necessarily red and yellow (pp. 59-61). anical specimens examination Of ancient
III

Description of Dalbergia and Diospyros melanoxylon (pp. 80-81F,; - general o-f these distribution mespiliformis (pp. 81-82); distribution in Uganda (p. 82). spp.
IV

outline of work on the botany the Sudan and Eritrea of (pp, 90-91); distribution in Sudan of Dalbergia melanoxXIon (pp. 92-94T-, -in Eritrea kp., 94); mespiliformis. and Diospyros [Erkoweitj (pp. 94-95); in the Red Sea Hills D. -mespiliformis th-es-e spp. (pp. 95-99). ecology of V Sources for climatic in the Sudan in conditions historical (p. 109); times in utilizing caution necessary them (pp. 109-112); and evidence writers of Classical Meroltic (pp. 112-115); Egyptian Pharaonic evidence remains (pp. il5-121); C-Group (pp. 115-116); Kawa stelae of Taharqa (pp. 116-119); (pp. 120-121); cattle Kerma and Sesebi evidence for basic (pp. 121-123); from Prehistoric times evidence no (p. 123). 5000 years during change in climate past
vi

Soil definition of erosion erosion, causes of (p. 130); (pp. 130-132); domestic a powerful animals man and his in Nubia. (p. 132); factor domestic animals causing erosion (p. 132); (pp. 132-135); Kerma-people C-Group Old Kingdom (pp. 135-136); thereof Nubia effects overstocked, (pp. 137-140); on vegetation of activities of wild effect (pp. 140-141); hastened by felling onset of erosion animals (pp, 141-142); of trees survival of D, melanoxylon shrubs and (pp. 142-4-37; -destruction despite D. mespiliformis erosion and by felling; tests to felling carried out prior preliminary in modern to apply tests times; of failure results such (pp. 143-146); in ancient tests (pp. 146); lack times of such D. melanoxylon probability that and D. mespiliformis at -further (p. 146). time north"than one occurred at present

iv
vii

'ebony' The Classical the occurrence of on authors 'Ethiopia' (p. 152); in to its occurrence no reference (p. 152); in the Red Sea area explanation possible (p. 153); identity therefor of specific and generic (p. 153); 'ebony' Classical the the established of not writers Kush tebonyt from bearing evidence archaeological on (pp. few sites 153-154); dug in Kush and even fewer very (P. 153); lack examination published properly of botanical (p. 154); evidence of ancient wood specimens archaeological from 154-155); Wawat (pp. large objects of wooden numbers found; few, if (p. 155); of very occurrence any, examined Dalbergia in Mauretania (p. 155); melanoxylon possible limit tF", -s sp. northern of and east and D. mespiliformis (pp. of the Nile west 155-1569 difficulty 160); of deterthe northern limit mining trees generally of hbny-producing (p. 156); the as to spp. name hbny not now regarded confined f ebonies' (p. 156); to Acacia spp. similarity of certain Dalbergia (pp. 156-157); melanoxylon use of hbnv possible ,in Proto'ebon7y-'-' (pp. 158-159); and Predynastic periods from 'royal the Abydos (p. 158); tombst of evidence Thinite (p. 158); in the Second Cataract activity area 'ebony' instance only Predynastic from one doubtful of (p. 158); for period the contrast possible explanations the Protodynastic (p. 159). with period
viii

The ebony-producing Ceylonq and further spp. of-India, (pp. 170-71); (pp. 169-174); Dio pyros Koenig east ebenum (p. 171); (pp, 171-72); D, tomentosa Roxb. D. melanoxylon (p. 172); Hiern. D. Kurzii Thw. (p. 172); D. quaesita Tcalama (pp. 172-73); (p. 173); Pers. D. Embryopteris, er wood' (pp. 173-74); D. montana Roxb. D. Lotus D. Chloroxylon Linn,, Roxb., Maba buxifolia. Pers . Diospyros Macassar A. Chev. [= D. utilis (p. 174); Koord. et Val; tl opinions of Loret, Beauvisage Indian hbny was of whether and Lucas on question (pp. known in ancient Egypt 175-76); alleged specimen of (p. 175); Dio312yros for Egyptian ebenum from Abusir evidence India C0111mercial contacts 176-79); with and the Far East (pp. Possible in Predynastic of jadeite and nephrite examples (? ) or cinnamon Egypt (p. 176); (? ) specimen sandal from Badari (pp. (p, 177); lapis-lazuli "square-boats" 177-78); (pp. 177-7 ); nephrite from tomb of Tut(ankhamun ring (pol78);

in XVIIIth to hbny from Asia Dynasty references records (pp. 179-80); (p. 180); black-wood' in Tyre flabnium used (p. 180); Theophrastus on the use of terebinth as a 'ebony' (pp. 180-81); for in Syria laburnum substitute (nt (p. 181); in Annals J/, a-os of w from Retjnu U71 (pp. 181-82 Tuthmosis M Dios--, ros mespiliformis ; in the Yemen (p. 182); Hochst. of some of possibility by there from Punt having the hbny obtained arrived ? rom further (pp. 182 ff. ); yellow-streaked sea east (p. 183); in the hbn tomb of Puyemre' representations other blotched standard of yellowish wood (p. 183); streaked and (pp. 184-85); us"u-wood of accuracy of these representations (pp. India 186-188); with evidence of Egyptian contact during (pp. the 188-190) Salte and Persian periods

Conclusions Description Corrigenda

(p. 208); Bibliography (pp. 230-31); of Plates (pp, 232-236); Plates

(pp, 209-229); Addenda and

Introduction
In the Land Egyptian of Punt texts (PwZnet, refereace Pjvane) I, occurs from quite whence frequently the to

Egyptiansp

at

least

as early

as the

Fifth kind relations 2 with

Dynastyp of aromatic with It the is

obtained, (cntyvv). land

among other Throughout have is

commodities, their been but history of very

a particular Egyptian

this

seem to that for the 'Punt'

a friendly rarely 2a ()). of the

nature. written

noteworthy

determinative on the monuments in clear these and

'foreign

people' inhabitants dress

As represented Punt are almost 2b

identical It seems towards

appearance that the 3 people ill-defined.


of the with Punt in

and Egyptians and that

with

Egyptians,

entertained it had

some fellow-feeling basis,


4 "the

some factual
to Naville,

as yet
frequent to way and of

obscure
mention show that

According mythological considered There originally their of the from the east iiome Nile. may

inscriptionsseems, they itave came before " Egypt, tradition were been from they Punt in some

Egyptians that that it had lower lying Land, gods, country* they been valley to 5 6

connected ancient Punt

a vague the

tradition and that the

Land invaded

and

conquered in the

was known

included to the

region, as the God's great

of

Egyptians Hathor and

whence

brought

A curious that the

feature latter

wherein wear the

Egyptians long beard

and Puntites turned up at

differ the end,

is

2.
is is the by Egyptian men, 7 this it had

which beard

characteristic never shown worn

of

gods. even

Though Pharaoh..

mortal

been the

worn First The

by the Dynasty* interest for its

Egyptians 8

in

the

period

just

before

and after

which

ti-iis but its

mysterious also history Egyptian of

land

has of

aroused, the possible problem reflected

not lignt of in

only the the the

own sake of Pharaonic large

on account may throw civilizationg books the and

elucidation of

on the is

origins relatively which

number

papers Yet

on the despite of

subject repeated the Land

have

appeared of the

over

y0ars. location

analysis of Punt

evidence, uncertain. of whether under

the

and extent opinion is

remain

Indeed, Punt ever

divided the

on the of to the

question

'land' was a more rulersp

in some for of

sense

a political regard the coastal

unit

one or

preferring part time the its


of of

name as a general region29 to cover the in


texts, it is

designation in the areae which to course

of

Red sea

which a larger uncertainty great


and also,

was gradually truth location


detailed archaeological

extended matter, undoubtedly


in

Whatever surrounds the paucity


lack due to

Of the is

while due
the 9a

measure
the it

information evidence,

complete seems,

the

method

of

approach

hitherto

adopted

in

dealing

with

the

problem,

While enquiry to

it

would

be premature that Punt was

at not

this

stage

of

our from

suggest

accessible

ov, rland

30
Egypt., assertions ideas to the contrary its are location, obviously ba! , ed on all

preconceived

regarding

Certainly

those

expeditions 11

about travelled

whose thither

route

we are

given

any on tiwthe posi(on

information Egyptian of the

by ship

from varied to
stated.

a base with

Red Sea coast-which apparently A 12 a south capital and followed _ .4


down that sea. It is nowhere

south-easterly
9 howeverv how

course

long
little en rate have

the

voyage

took.
it was vessels their

Even
were

this
also

information
known spent tiow at This constructionp

would
many each, la, -t stops and

be of
were tiw \ill 9 in turn made

value route, at how which

unless long the on

generally travelled. design and

poil't which.

depended

will

have

been to

dictated

by the in

materials the

conditions

be encountered

available 13 Red Sea at

and tile

by Ule 111'

til"12

year

the

voyages

w(re undertallien.
of the researches informed of of on the the ships that craft
really

As a result we are of sent the to reasonably vessels. Puntq 15

KUSter

and

Faulkner and

14 9 des-Lgn

well

construction which their ...


fast.

Speaking Faulkner those


sh4ps

Queen lines and


"

15a

remarks racing
been

Hatshepsu 'are it in suitable

comparable
weather

to
these

of

modern
have

must

That

emphasis than its

should loading

have

been

laid was

more natural

on the enough

speed when

of

the

craft region

capacity

the

4.

to as

be the

traversed Red Sea. of this

was

as

barreng the may sailed

inhospitable conclusions be drawn there equally the reefs, learn that the

and

dangerous the of

However, sea which which and would

regarding from are of good a study a purely for the and winds Yet

geography the Egyptian

vessels

general to-day. position currents certainly

character, Of and forty justified the extent

hold of coral

area the and we are at least

configuration of the

coast-line of the

centuries in

ago, asuming

we

nothing. first-named

differed alone
steamer, whole waves

from will
on shore flowing

the 16
dry

present "Farther
land

t. Ime,

as the the

following rusted
At been of one under the in

quotation wreck
time

show:
the here

on lay
the coast.

of
the

of Port to the

Lnear up of

Sudan] foothills had

had

waterp

the This

right strip

ranges. the steadily

ten-mile-wide

desert

originated

increasing land.

growth

of

the

coral

reefs, contracting

which

gradually sides*.. the

became 1117

The Red Sea is Detailed information years the

slowly

on both of

on the not

topography exist. in the

Red Sea "the Deir of the of war exact

coasts pictures el-Bari

4,000 of

ago does

However, temple of

Red Sea littoral that the Egyptian and was, this

prove

artist

was capable given

observation opportunity and peace.

and depiction of 1118 the exercising "it forms

we gather,

gift

on expeditions a certaintyp fish which

becomes of the

almost strange

as we filled the

contemplate

waters expedition

of

that to

land,

that

the for five first other villagep trees

queen her

had

sent

artists

with

the

make studies reliefs The the

edification*1119 ships already coming near are shown their canvas

On the arriving sails spread. edge form, huts,, raised up to adopted dampness have to at furledp 20

extant Punt, while The palms

Egyptian two three are

moored, up with the

are

Puntite and other hbny, of

standing of of very

water's

amid

conventionalized of beehive-shaped standing leading on

possibly probably platforms 21 them. for of

consists

a number branches

mud-plantercd supported

and reedsp ladders

by poles, type of wild they Above the trees 24 trees of or first craft the and the inability

with dwelling beastst were the in

While

this

protection the ground their their rest, the the itselfv of that to run with this the right

against on which design. nests in Naville, huts and

have been may 22 the doubtless built huts the 23 would also

influenced fro to

birds shade Masperop

flutter of which regards

and

cattle the

and dogs proximity that of

following to the

water

as an was not

indication the sea-shore

landing-place but view a creek is at

the

Egyptians

river-mouth. sight do not suggested seem to for by the have a sh pfS

Confirmation circumstance been boat,, is able laden

Egyptian up to

landing-place, possibly of to also the

provisions away from

trade-goods, vessels. close 25

seen

pulling other

first

moored very

On the

hand,

their

approach

6.

to

the

shore and

may

have rocks

been in

due the

as inner

much

to

the as

presence to the

of

reefs

hidden

channel

position unknown
rose the

of

the

Puntite

village shown

up a creek. in
of

Inland, reliefs,

at

an

distance,
famous

and not
Cnty

the
Punt.

surviving

-terraces

Fascinating details least there depicted the coast. The Classical in are,

and

informative, they spot

within do not the places

limitsv assist

as

these the for

nevertheless the been

us in

locating

wnere of

Egyptians similar

landed,, to that on

may have at Deir

a number at

el-Bahri

widely

separated

points

geographerst

accounts

of

the

Red Sea are

likewise

of

no assistancep the places it

for

not

only

is

the

identification a matter all of

of many of debatep of the the


said the

mentioned were would i. e.

by them still to locate

but

even if

possible not

or most

themp our third time

knowledge B. C.,

be extended 25 centuries

much beyond later than

century with

about

which
subject in basis the for

we are
of coral

concerned.
formation, century

From what
it is B, C, the clear

has been
that

on the situation

third-second conclusions in Pharaonic

cannot detailed

be made the topography

regarding times,
features,

of

the

area
of the

Examination

physical

dress

and

accoutrements

of

the

inhabitants

of

Punt

affords

no clue

7.
to the to of have at its precise location, Reference of has the already Puntites the been to made to

marked whom the they

physical were

resemblance clearly remain related,

the

Egyptiansp details

though There the the found determined,

historical

relationship been considerable in that

obscure. in to

appears, of of Deir shows

however, Punt, or

to

variety part known of not relief be

population sailors at

any

rate

Hatshepsut's el-Bari, a negro the stridin

expedition, position of

A fragment which could

along yellow

bearing

on one

shoulder

a log a hound negro is

(hbny? ) and

leading

with wood blotched of 26 On another on a leash. dark depicted standing of must they for the before brown-skinned present permanently constitute
and there in the

fragment one of

a lighter-skinned the beehive-huts, these 27

The or

relations

Puntites

with

negroes

negroids Whether These

the

remain a matter
settled
almost are no

of conjecture.
is uncertain.
for their

were

in
the

Punt
only

two

fragments
there they lived

evidence for Kees

presence 28 that

grounds

assertion

coastal

region

of

the

country It

in is

a state possible to which in

of that

subjection the

to

the

brown-skinned of the Egyptians

Puntites.

landing-place of the

was an emporium bro, ght the interior for barter,

the

products case the

hinterland inhabitants encampment the

were of for

which

may have during their

erected stay. as

a temporary Possibly

themselves are to

beehive-huts

be regarded

8.
the the taken extent brownplace

such skinned

and

connected Puntites. the two is

with That not

negroes

rather may though

than have to what

intermarriage improbable,

between cannot

be

determined.

As far esting the

as the

location that

of

Punt of

is

concerned,

the

interamong

discovery inhabitants at

a number land day inability

features

discernable can of be Kenyaq

of the out

that present

on the

monuments Magai the East

paralleled is cancelled of

among the to

29

by our and the

trace in

complex Africa 30 the approximate is the el-Bahri it

history

ethnic over

tribal past

movements thirty-five of

continuously The location only of

centuries.

means Punt with

therefore the

establishing at of present

material area and is flora of it

available during in the Deir

by determining New Kingdom reliefs. has yielded to of This less take

the the

probable fauna

distribution depicted

approach results sufficient nearly same, ago all

course might of in

by no means owing the to

newp but

than

scholars' noted the samep

failure above. or almost

account have erred

considerations that

Thus the

assuming in the

conditions as to-day. "The .... fauna there


of

prevailed

Red Sea area

three

millennia Naville

says: animals.
the

of

Punt

consists

entirely that
in

of

African
where

can

be no doubt
landed was

the
Africa.

place

soldiers

Hatshepsu

9.

The

animals as

represented well as as part

in of the or

the the coast even

sculiAures population. of the

-, re

exclusively ... Punt between the Lof f(Ir Massua must

African, be

considered and

being

Red south of the ... etwa

Sea on

Souakin Abyssinian Bab die bis fr mit Fauna

Massowah, coast, 31 11 afrikanisches but

further north states

certainly Kees 32

Straits bedeutet zwischen ...

el-Mandebi. gypter zur de der mit

"Punt

Kstengebiet, jenseits Bab el

Somalikste heute

Mandeb. von

Massgebend besonders und "

vorherrschende ist die

Gleichsetzung bereinstimmung im Tempel von von gelegen

Punt

Somalikste den to an

der Der Punt haben el

Flora Bahri.

Darstellungen Meyer, 33 I'die

According dass es

Erzeugnisse Kste

beweisenq muss.

der

afrikanischen

...

Trotz

dieser

sehr

anschaulichen bisher Suakin nicht oder am Golf

Darstellung gelungen, Massua Tedjura,

ist

eine

genauere schwanken, der noch

Lokalisierung ob es bei Bab el draussen remarks aux that regions

und man kann oder jenseits gar ist. t, 34

bei von

Strasse weiter 35

Mandeb

oder

an der "la

SomalikUste myrrhe et

zu suchen Vencens sont

Dykmans

communs 12or

au Y6men et et

africaines attirent noir.

de la plus 11

mer Rouge;

Veb, 6ne au contraire sur le

precisiment

Ilattention

continent

Schoff at Deir tree

identified

the richly as Boswellia

foliaged Carteri,

nty -trees the frankincensethat "no foliage

el-Bahri36

of Dhufar could

in Southern have intended

Arabiat

remarking

sculptor

to depict

by the rich

10. bare, nor but equally 37 The in

on the leafless varieties of "this trees the the

reliefs, myrrh of

the tree,

thornyq yet the

trifoliate almost "

almost leafless landing-place since the in

Somaliland must place

frankincense. therefore producing on a fertile and Schoff, coast that part of cattle" at Deir have

L6yptians is can the only

been

Dhufar, where

frankincense plain the

be cultivated of green fields to

by the

shore,

midst

conditions "There these conditions.

depicted, is no place

according on the possible in the

el-Bahri. meets Darror Somali

African objection

which the the

To the ... valleys, fertile coast, the trees, there Schoff also it is east it

Nogal and peninsulap than the far The a manner that 39 Moreoverp are In almost 41 theory are northern short of

southern produce that is

and might

a better the

foliage

may be said a c(st, which are

fertility desert.

absolutely in

stops 38 t,

however, can has depicted possible myrrh Schoff writers for

drawn

so conventional their that at identity. Deir

be no certainty overlooked other that tree has the trees these or in

about fact with

different

el-Bahri 40 foliage 41 the tree. the

may have

represented frankincense

leafless However, the asAother hold good This

Somaliland any in case

fallen that

into

same error conditions

quoted the area is

assuming

present-day

anciently. committed by Hilzheimer, 42

mistake

also

I ,,

according and giraffes, land. the

to

whom the both the Punt been of only

Punt which area Dauah

expedition were where -

b)ught

back the

baboons same is

obtained both

from occur -

Since Djibouti

together Berbera

Dire must

Djigdjeiga in that

quadrangle, cannot have

be located southern occur

region. coastq Ogadent since

it the

on the does not

Somali in the nor the

Hamadryas or in the Somalia southern giraffe The an isolated the

baboon (Italian Arabia, is fact

Gallaland have is lain here,,

Somaliland); since although

can

Punt

baboon

found

not, that both that occur they on

the baboon and giraffe 0 is no proof fragment at all as Hilzheimer animals respect factual obtained Punt. question 80 of were claims. typical of the

came from to the

same land, these in

Moreover, the reliefs Howeverv same landp position be determined, work if both they certainly animals were they south

Egyptians whole and

as A may be more even that if

this than were been in

therefore (see below). the

conventional they actually have

from The

land

may not of the

original

and context but the

fragment shown

cannot Naville's even follow

giraffe from the

on pi.

came were to been the

Southlands. in Punt, where it the to

Again, does not

acquired the region

native

Egyptians await their native

landed; arrival. to Puntq

may have if

brought giraffe

thither and

Finally, their

baboon

were

distribution

______________________

-0

at their

the

present

time in

is the

not

necessarily century

a good B. C.

guide

to

occurrence 43a Alliot the native has

fifteenth Pwn, t

regards

as the of the

Egyptian name.

transcription He thinks that

of

pronunciation survived

'Puntt comprised par with the

the

the grea which within as a place-name pu"t. Since the product Pharaonic land of . of Punt was (ntyw, and reliefs Accordingly name are to wliich the Alliot identifies liban8tos lain in this arrc*nq on the region that

excellence frankincense Punt of the of

(olibanum) Hatshepsut Africa. of the

Greek

must it

have is

Somali that the

coast survivals

be sought. (modern derived

He thinks Hafun)q from written

Opdne

of south which

the of

Periplus

and Ptolemy is

160 kms. opwone Moreover, derived doubtful, such

Cape Guadarfui, became the .. Pwone,

an original Pwn. t.

later

Pwane,

he regards from 10?f'wv

Arabic

V de ((H)o"fdnv Hafdn of lyq. tO7TW It

'0 Ofan) is very

as

a variant any

however,

whether equationsp evidence

reliance

may be placed sound they

on

philological

however

may be, as a means

unsupported for locating It is

by other Punt. clear the that

(archaeological),

if

any

progress

is of to

to

be achieved products all previous of

by examining obtained conclusions, this method, from

probable it is

distribution necessary are in

the

Puntp based and

set faulty all

aside

as they re-examine

on the detail

application thbse commodities

13.
depicted native point, reliefs to for on the monuments it is many keen which are to details of known bear in to in the have mind Deir and been this last

Punt. though

essential of the

el-Bahri result

indicate

powers

observation

perhaps artist,
pictures they

from 44

the

presence

with

the

expedition of
in

of attributing
some 45

an official to these

we must
the value be

nevertheless
of inore photographs; conventional

be wary
for than

details For

may well

exact.

example,

some of

the to

items the since

depicted Egyptians they

panthers, of of

giraffesp southern less while regularly othersp

and baboons countries imported such to the not nests sure

- were

typical were from more Nubia; possibly

as a whole, together with

aromatics been

as gold, place

may have where the

brought,

some distancep in fact, with possibly whose be 47

the

Egyptians of the

landed. cattle,

probable all) and that of

exception the 46 hounds are

(though some and the trees, in very the grew birds

and monkeys, depicted in the

eggs the

we cannot Punt itself,

fauna

shown

was to all shrubs -trees

be found of it

Of the

flora

represented, that and (nty the

conventionalizedp cattle in Punt, browsep

we may be certain the palm-,. Lbn m-,

on which actually

or at

any rate
of

in

that

part
(pl. -trees

of
IV)

it
48

where
the dug

the

Egyptians
of hbny is

landed.

On fragments shown, It and is while therefore

relief (nty on the

hewing

the

were

up by the of the

Egyptians.

48a

determination at

identity

the

geographical

distribution

that

14.

time

of

the

known

native

products

of

Punt

that

emphasis

must

be placed. elsewhere; hbn-y. been whole the In 49

With the

(ntyw

and otheraromatics study portion not Egyptts Pharaonic is of only

shall solely it

deal with has but the from

present this consider Ancient of the

concerned the the supplies period to

examining to of

evidence hbny of of

necessary question commencement

Punt,

this

wood,

the

Macedonian

conquest, It 'ebony' literation the The to problems ancient the will with have been noticed to instead. are to it that has This the use of the and word transif mind. rise

reference employed posed Egyptian European a tendency

been

avoided

seems very with clearly l4bene'p assume


been regarded derives objects the

necessary an open given 'ebano't the thatAactual


from

be approached thbny' having

word

modern

forms has

'ebony', arisen
have

lEbenholzl,
hbnv-wood or In more the of minds from too

to

must

necessarily at this present

derived as

one

the of the to G.

species some

ebony-producers. considerable thought, probably

supposition that are one a few from two

support correctly, melanoxylon

discovery of P., hbny 50

be et

made of the

wood

of

Dalbergia

ebony-producing

trees present

found time.

in

the It of

Sudan, is

Ethiopia this modern certain of

and Eritrea almost ebony scholars hbny-producing

at

the

doubtless with of

subconscious spp. that regarding trees. has the

identification influenced distribution the in

hbny

opinions ancient

times

15.
Thus Empire ne ne et venait conteste probablement to asses Dykjnans 51 states il en que depuis harkhuf's loaded after the. 52 of it his hbny -; that I'm8me Vepoque a Dalbergia que ait plus import6 au de

& 16,

ltAncien

cependant., guere ...

l'ebenier,

melanoxylonj sud sous ... les *so that etc., if with had have come Personne Thinites.. it the Loret, three

abondance llebene

llepoque journeysv with third was hbny, visit hewn, for

.0 predynastique remarks ivory, to they this published

referring hundred he

which from the from

returned Where far an

Yam., must

region very is from

travelled howeverv 18u8p 53

south.

The

basis

Z ass-+iont 'IT in

article which

1. chweinfurth's. that Dalbergia

appears

melanoxylon not found

and north of a

Diospyros line is from time

mespiliformis From the species occurred

Hochst. Massawa to that or north.

were

stretching given other have to

El-Obeid. hbn that may these Finally,

No consideration have two been may at derived one 54

possibility as well,

further

Sgve-Sdderberght

referring northern cognizing the plants

to limit the

the of

New Kingdom, hbny at this that it the

cautiously time in is the

remarks unknown. Proto-dynastic occurred

that While

the reperiod north, even

possibility yielded of
was

which

may have opinion,


from

further that
55

he is
at this

nevertheless
time it

like
the far

Dykinans,
south,

imported

17. Notes
1) on see 2) E. the vocalization Rev. The
if. Kees, Munich temple

and

transliteration 8p Deir el 1 ff* Bahari


des The as fact bound

of

the

nameg

N1. Alliotq Naville,

d'6gyptol. of

Temple

III,
alten that captives

London
6rients, the Puntites

1898.,

14-15; Agypten,, in

Kulturgeschichte 1935,, are 124. shown

SahurLt"s

(W. II.,

Wreszinskiq Leipzig 1955,

Atlas pl.

zur 5)

altaegyptischen need not be taken

jKulturgeschichte seriously.

2a)

cf.

H.

Gauthier,

Dictionnaire

des

Noms g6ographiques Ilp Cairo 1925,,

contenus 45-46. 2b) W.M. F. 12-1,3; Stuttgart in 10, of

danslesTextes

hieroglyphiques

Petrie, E.

A History

of

Egypt,, des

I,,

London

18941, J1.9 2nd ed.

f-4eyer, & Berlin (ed. ),

Geschichte 1928,119; Reallexikon

Altertumss, art.

G. Roeder, der Hall,

'Punt'

M. Ebert Berlin the Near Art 287-88;

Vorgeschichte The Ancient J. Histo Capart, London

1927/28,334; East, in 9th Egypt, ed.

H. R.

London transl. Atlas in

1936,91; A. S. II, Griffith. pl,

Primitive 19050 to the

Wreszinski,, depicted

5 (referring at Abusir Nile valley;

Puntites identified

SahurL"'s

temple the the n. 31): upper

[wrongly so also Egyptian sind

by VV'. as men of The Navy 1946,10, und die drei of

SUve-SUderbergliq Dvnastyp die Uppsala Scharpe

Eighteenth "Im Grunde unter

es nur

iiaarstrhnen

18 der die diese


"

Lockenfrisur,

Leute
Id.

von
op.

den gyptern
cit. II, pl. 60

ausserlich

unterscheiden.

(the

Ilgreat

ones "Die

of

PunC sind

on the

pylon

of

lioreinheb den das beider Haare

Karnak): gyptern Gefhl Vlker

Mnner

im Gesichtsschnitt das. daraus

so *hnlich des Knstlers

wiedergegeben, fur ist. Besonderheit,


II., 2) pl. that 6t6 eloigneep ethnique the evidence. 60. "il tenu est

die

nahe Nur "

Verwandschaft die lockigen

zu erschliessen als eine


Atlas 8., a toujours etrangere, au type by

erscheinen
3) Cf. (Rev. pays une

v1'reszinskil, d'egyptol., de Pount

Alliot'S certain les

statement que gyptiens par du type des 6gyptien" le pour

par habit6e

contree

populations is contradicted

different

4) 5)

Op.

cit.

1110

11. 11; Kees, op. loc. cit., cit, there


und would

Navillev BIFAO

OP. Cit-v 179 178 op. cit,,


loc. cit.; TUbingen

122;

C.

Kuentzt

ff.;

Capart, 91 and the


Erman

6)

Hall,
Capartp im

references
(Agypten

given;
Leben from

Ngyptisches derive Bes

Altertum,

1923,611)

Punt; w sztuce.

but

see

in

the

last 2.

instance Bozek

A.

Ber,

Endrokrynologia Bes, 270-75. of Asia in 1958). minor.

Doniesienie Polska,

staroegipski

EndrokrynolOgia Ber [I supposes know this Egy2

',Ilarszawa

7 (1956)v coasts

Bes was created article ological. only

on the from

Janssen's 1957

notice (Leiden

Annual

Bibliography

191 99 No.
7) Cf.

57041.
Atlas gleicht

j
II, pl. vllig 60 ("der lange, unten umgebogene Gtter,

e. g.

Kinnbart

dem der

gyptischen

auch

darin,

dass ist.

er 11);

nicht

der

Auslufer op.
Guide

eines p1s.
the

Backenbartes
8) Cf. British

Naville,
General

cit..,
to

69,749

76.

Museum.

EgYptian

Collections, 9) Cf. to with Naville, consider definite of

London op. the cit.,

1950,20-21t ll: Punt to is "I

fig. believe as applying a state

5. it an error to a territory or to

name of

boundaries, states, covering of to Egypt, It

or

kingdoing

a group

a vague of

geographical vast of extentp situated natiuns op. Cit-9

designationt to the east

a region the resort "

severai Erman, Land) klare

belonging 599: sie "mit Ithe

different

races.

Cf.

beiden Egyptiansi

Namen [Punt ... es waren

and God's ganz

verbanden

schwerlich allgemeine Ausdrcke

Vorstellungen; der Handel

Ausdrcke, etwa wie ilistoire


Paris vieux 1936t

wie "Levante"

sie

hervorbringt, bei uns. ";

und Aehnliches
et "Le sociale pays de gu6re de

G, Dykmansq
9Z-ykte, Vesprit II, des pr6cise. l'on midi, les rencontrait et dlot

economique
275-76;

Vancienne dans

Pount, de

gyptiens, C'6taipnt en voguant les

ntavait r4gions sur la

signification que vers sves le et

merveilleuses mer Rouge les aux

provenaient sacr6es Erman, qui Dykmans

specialement manquaient

r6sines Following

Deux-Terres".

20 compares tthe pas the name in 'Punt' with parlance. des vieux souci. convenances contenu et 'Levant'. 'Ill 'the Indies' and donc

Orient' reconstruire

modern A ltactif ils

ne faudrait Egyptiens Tout des

precisions pouvons ctest qui part, 9a) At

dont affirmer

Wavaient aux etait

ce que nous pratiques,

eu egard de Pount c6tes

que

le

pays les

dans

cette

aire d'une

comprend les

irythr6enes

somaliennes d'autre faience a body buried red which

rivages Kenya, not

de ItArabie a well-preserved stated) to position to the was

Heureuse short near

part". cylinder(which in an The dates B. Ce

Nakuru, (colour

bead Leakey

found of

considered

be that

a chief) with

ultra-crouched burial to the belonged period Leakey,

and daubed

ochre. Leakey

Gumban B culture wet phase,

of

the

Nakuran

c. 1000-850 of Kenya

(L. S. B. Cambridge (the Strings reliefs

The Stone ff. The are

Age Cultures (esp. origin 201-202), of this in to the

Colonys, pl. 30

1931,200 ).

243-44; bead Deir is

skeleton) of beads

uncertain.

represented taken (Navillet cf. the not

el-Bari by IlIt

among the

items

Punt Deir

for el

barter Bahari

Hatshepsut's pl. 691, bottom however, Appendix Leakey

expedition register;

G. A.

Wainrightt bead it

Man 47,144)ON (Leakey, op.

Beck,, cit. though Stone C. G.

who examined Fv p. 282), himself in in East 145) did

Nakuru think paper

was Egyptian,, ('The Sequence presented in trade direct of to

a later Africalp wrote:

Age Cultures Selig! n I with 1934t

Essays "Beads

found

association

Gumban industries

show that

20a

connections (such Piggott faience be as the (Man bead

with

the

civilizations existed", "the importance relationship trade which of

of

the

period to the what the Nakuru can Eastern its ...... now

Egyptian) 48,24).. lies as in

According of to from

its

recognized

a widespread B, C,, strings by of is the an the cit., 137,147; 1955,87; see T.

Mediterranean objects among the of

c. 1400 barter exports to bead, the the

included beads,

among represented trading

taken Land

Hatshepsut's Pwenet". very virtual little The

expedition a single LBeck faience Egypt Piggott 10) E. g. the 11) For Hall, Sudan, the or does

presence go on, of

of

however, "stress being from loc, cit.,

to certainty

not

the

example at least

actual Eastern 23].

import

either

from as

Mediterranean",

states, op.

A, J. Capart,

Arkell, op. cit.,

History 288. of

of

London facts Egyptian

main

Saive-Sdderbergh, 8 ff. and the

Navy

the

Eighteenth there 12) cited,

Dynasty,

literature

Sive-Sdderbergh, According fragmentary indicate and back. that to

op. Yoyotte inscriptions voyages

cit., (Rev.

13;

Kees,

op. 9.133

cit., ff.

122-23. ). three

06gyptol. found at

Serabit from

el-Khadim Sinai to Punt

were

undertaken

20b

13)

On these 9th ed.

points 1944 (the

see

the

Red

Sea

and

Gulf

of

Aden 1;

Pilot,

Admiralty,

London),

Chapter

cf,

A,

Kster,

'Zur

Seefahrt

der

alten

gyptert,

ZXS 589,126-29, 14) 15) 'Egyptian They are Seagoing called Ships'. (lit, term Eg, JEA 26p 3-9 & pls. 2-4. On the Sgve-S5derberght ff. and the

kpn. wt of the

'Byblos-ships'). kDn-ship. Dynasty, see 12,47

interpretation Navy of the

Eighteenth

literature there cited. 5 a) loc. C-t 1. 't. , 16) H. Hass., Under the Red Sea, structure Desert Chapts. 17) It would of and growth of coral of

London reefs, the

1952,77. see C,

On the Crosslandt 1913,

and Water VII-IX, therefore the traces as of

Gardens

Red Sea,

Cambridge

be futile

to

explore boat from in the

the the fact

creeks hope that to of have of

and

coves finding

Red Sea in of far any Punt.

a small Apart

the been

Puntites, possessed the places

as we know, enduring the

do not

appear features and

material

civilization, the some coralline whole

where at that

Egyptians in all deeply

landed, likelihood

indeed now lie in the

coastline distance

time, probably

inland,

embedded

21

formations,
It
to sent and at leave by Amen Wadi

appears
some

to
form

have
of

been

the
in

practice
Punt, group an

of
The of

the

Pharaohs

monument

expedition the queen found the erection Records

1atshepsut (Urk, Gasds of IV, dated the in

erected 319). to

a granite while in 1 of

inscription 119 to the

year

Sesostris refers

Treasurer of

God God's

Khnumhotep Land

a monument

(Breasted,

Ancient

of

Egypt

It

617; mentions at in

Erman, a "pillar Deir8

ZAS 20t

204)o

Strabo

(XVI. the which gulf".

49,4) q Egyptian". "tells But

( o--r-jXj

of Sesostris
African across was a Book pp. Jjv ed. 216# coastv the

(= Azzah? ) on the of times his passage

hieroglyphs

by Classical figure 19399

'Sesostris'

composite

legendary London

(Herodotus, 3 102-110;

W. G. Waddell, 288)o Even the other that if

214#

some fortunate of Hatshepsut's

chance

should or

result that of

in any

discovery monarcht they were

statuep evidence

convincing still in

would

be required

situ

and had

22.

not 18)

been

moved

some distance

at

a later Art.

date, The Egyptian

Davies, Expedition

The Metropolitan 1923-1924,44. The Egyptian Deir Deir el el Bahari Bahari reviewer

Museum of

19) 20) 21)

Id.

MA. 9

Expedition Ill, III, of c. the pls. pls. C. 15oo huts

1929-1930p 72p 73. 69-71. Soelver's f. were ... C.

34.

Naville, Naville, to the

According book (Chron. built d'9g. on 1119 membrure

anonymous

Puntlandets No. piles pl. 21 Jan.

Genopdagelse 1936,96). I'Le

not

(Ipilotisl): LXXI montrent de huttes de nattes. auquel op. cit.

facsimile quIiI dont

Naville

clairement coniques

s'agit les etait parois

de la

ligneuse formees grenier 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) Naville, Cf. Op. Meyer, cit.,

4taient d'un

L'habitation par une

surmontee 11

on acc4dait 9 12. Alt.

4clielle.

Gesch. 12. op. cit.,

d.

119

119.

Naville, Deir Ibid. Kees, H. el

pl. pl.

72. 71

Bahari

111,

Kulturgescitichte, 'Modern to F. U. remarks to explore

124p Survivors

350. from London Punt'. in Studies

Frankforto

presented 30) As Frankfort is no need

Griffith, (loc. cit.

1932,445-53. n. the 2): "There

450, for

Masai-land

rose-granite

23.

group up in agree habitat 31) 32) 33) 34) Deir Op.

of

Hatshepsut Native

and Anion which tradition that north. " the

...

ttie

queen research their

set

Punt. in

and modern Masai reached

asserting from the

present

el cit.

Bahari

111,12-13.

123 and note 1. 9 Alt. goes 119 on to die 118-119. say that "Vir eine Lof n6rdlicher Lage auch wie

Gesch. Meyer spricht,

dass

Expedition Produkte

Hatshepsutj

Huptlinger der Nemaju

und

afrikanischer hatg 11

Negerstmmeg die But in anderen

und Arem,

mitgebracht iverden.

Texten points to Eg. 35) 36) 37) Hist. Naville, W. h. Egypt Dy

zu Kusch out, the

gerechnet chiefs Punt 2). 11,276. Bahari Periplus 1912,218. 219. of

as sve-Sderbergh were not brought

NemVU
by the 9. eq hon. Deir Schoff, n. soc,. el The expedition

Irem
(Navy ut' the Eighteenth

jM and

111, of

p1s. the

74,78,79. Erythraean Sea, Londonp

Bombay & Calcutta 38) 39) Id., This op. is cit., true

not

only

of

those

at

Deir

el-Bari from the

but Tomb

elsewhere also, e. g. Rekh- nu-Ri 1; of pl. t pl. 19 (walls of of the

Davies, Petrie., so-called

Paintings Athribis, 'Punt

8.17-19; Chamber' Cf. pls. in the 179 18. ) the

temple

Ptolemy

Auletes

L80-52 these

]. B. C. trees,

inscriptions

accompanying

24.

40) 41)

Deir

el

Bahari

III,

p1s. Egyptian

69-72. Materials though 71) the and Industries, plate were that seasons for they expedition other being onto the richly at they preceding this to took not the of are

So Lucas, 3rd (Deir "quite two the both (Deir hand, carried the ships ed. el

Ancient London Bahari

1948p III,

113, pl.

coloured these

shows It at is

that

bare" forms year, shown el

as Lucas the

says. same tree

unlikely

depict as Lucas being

different cit. )p

suggests carried in

(loc. baskets

by the 74).

Bahari

III, the

pls. tbare?

69,70p trees are filled 70p

On the depicted

whereas in

baskets at Punt are

(probably (pls. shown row). the 69p being

with

earth)

74,

bottom)p

foliaged Thebes may, and

ones (pi.

carrid Possibly,

on arrival thereforeq as the if

74, all,

top

after have

be of leaf

same variety the not

come into

during this is

voyage, a point

some time.

However,

I wish

press,
42) M. Hilzheimer, Punt',,
43) 43a) 44) 45) Deir Rgv. Davies, el

'zur

geographischen

Lokalisierung

von

ZAS 68p
Bahari

112-14.
III, 8.1 The Eg. pl. ff. Exped. of the 1929-30,34. 18. E_g. Dynl., 9,, 13. 70, bottom left.

dlggyptol.., BNWA.

sgve-S6derberghp

Navy

46)

Naville,

op.

Cit.,

HIP

14,

claims

that

the

hests

are

25o
an the the of indication spring. first bird, if time area place and, indeed (or within as that Such on N. the an expedition assertion, the admits, and year then landed however, particular this on breed lain, at least ourselves is far at Punt in in

depends

identifying himself

species from at in

easy, what the this

possible; tiines) which the of

determining (and bred) But the

they may have of we

Punt

since

involves

determination of Punt.,

approximate round 47) There fish each part 48) 48a) Naville, Cf. Ip toog pl. in is

location a circle. no evidence, (assuming be

find

going

and for

little the were

probability, moment confined the to

that identity

the of

depicted could of the op.

established) Sea coastal pl. Peet, 238; in 11,, 70.

a particular

Red cit.,

waters,

Gardiner, 67, No.

C"erAy'. 173: "1

Inscriptions cut

of

Sinai (-trees)

****eLPunjt, 49) See my The

gums Aromatics

UdL'enetJ Trade of

0)". Ancient Egypt (in

preparation). 50) G. Beauvisage, 'Le Bois d')Ib6ne', RT 19 (1897)p 77-83,

51) 52)

Hist.

econ.

soc.

11,196-97. chez les anciens

La Rsine 9&j2tiens

de Terebinthe_(Sonter) Cairo 1949,18. 'Pflanzengeograpliische und der

53)

G.

Schweinfurtli,

Skizze des

des i\', othen

gesammten Meeres,

Nil-Gebiets

Uferlnder

' Pettertaanns

Geograi-)iiiscite

Mitteilungen.,

26*

54)

Slive-SBderbergh, 219.

Agypten

und Nubien,

Lund

1941,

55)

Op.

cit.,

5,22.

27 reference to Dynasty items hbny that of can be traced

The in at the

earliest occurs where furniture (hrt-().

certain in the

texts

Third various

tomb

Kha(bauseker this wood, ink it was they geo-

Saqqara

are

listed (e. g.

made of and

including container in use for

'stool') hndw, VBy the Fifth and 2 though piece is this of

a pen and Dynasties not

Sixth does wood. in

larger

objects, a single of

mean that the

were

each

made from provenance it is or nearly Punt.

whenever the the Egyptian items the

graphical records, from Nubia

hbny

mentioned

always As in from form either

included the case south

among of and of figures

received other howevert importedt

many of south-east, the

commodities it is difficult the

obtained to

the any

estimate give no and

quantity at not all or

since refer loaded

monuments to ivory of

merely

vaguely with

"ships and

Lsize

capacity to

indicatedi In at a rockKasr Ibrim

3 hbny. 11 or Hts

man-loads. Weser-Satet 4 but

inscription

Amenophis with_hbn-y" of

vizier are

111000 men loaded is given of

mentioned., size each dating the with logs, issue

no indication On the reign of of supplies, occurs I

how many logs Papyrus III,

what

man carried. from to the

Verso

Leningrad which deals

1116B. with

Tuthmosis

artisans

Of hbik-y and to various

ivory quantities are


size

in

connexion of hbny 4a

shipbuildingv but here again

reference their howeverp


afforded

dimensions
the average

not
of

recorded.
the logs

A rough
in

indicationg
Egypt is

of
the I

received

by

tomb-paintings. to the height 2 to

4b of the

There

the

length suggests In Ma-woud

of

the

logs they

in

proportion from 1.497 among

bearers in length. of

that the

ranged Harris are listed

about

3 feet or

Papyrus

containers
the iternQ

receptacles

and_tknj
thP

28. 5
In have addition imported. can in are be to the It wood, is other parts of hbnv-trees whether the seem much to

gods.

been

doubtful., to the the where

however, form wood there of

significance of the the word

attached whether in cases speaking, of the

determinative other parts of re-

deciding meant Broadly

and/or is no

plant

accompanying to be used

presentation. when it may distinction in cases is

seenis wood or objects but rigid; the made even

a question denote be where be other correct, 1)arts 6

thereof, if for this --may deterin

while

parts it of and in use the

of is

the by no

tree, means

occurs

tree

other 7 word, hp? of and

than

wood both 6 or

possibly minatives combination. of In certain ttie

meant

vice-versa; the of is same the

sometimes

are 9

found The

separately the from libny-tree the New Nvere the

the intreatment kingdom. to be 10

eye-diseases of Embalming %vith

attested certain

Ritual

objects gum of

Uixed

"water

of

hbny-tree" refers to the

J4

JLA _J

Dioscorides

agreeable Whether is

odour

given

off this the

by

'Ethiopian' property is and unlikely three

'ebony' not since, that millennia known, if

when but it

burnt. since

12 th e re

ny possessed ._ in no mention of it smellv handled it the arises species Egypt.

records, very for

did

produce

an aromatic could it, been have the

seems wood

the

Egyptians lioticing may have hbny-wood

without 'ebony' the

question

whether to that

Dioscorides' which yielded

a different

Of Pharaonic

29

Hbnv

is

mentioned, in 13 the, hbny the

however, composition

in

a Ptolemaic of a particular

text

as an kind of

ingredient incense. Of were

objects

shown for possibly

on the example, items of

monuments, 'wands' of the where

some (tisw) 15 14

imported

ready-made, and

Lplam). but it is likely that

furniture finished the with Lple. from

the

majority Egypt,

objects of hbny,

depicted commonly was one The earliest of

were

made in in

working that IIJM whence when it of

practised the skilled

conjunction crafts. 16 area

ivory,

indication dates the third the Nile from

of the

the Sixth with to

hbnv is

was derived among after or near of to the his

Dynasty

listed

commodities journey Valley Cataract, there or

turned lay in

rewhich Harkhuf 17 Yam, which probably than is the not

latitude stated from

Second grown

no further south 18 it However, even to have been

have

obtained

thence. In the New Kingdom all temple the at sides It---the such very Deir of indications A hbny which shrine are more numerouso in

but

unfortunately

vague. el-Bahri, a large she

panel

found

atshepsutls formed hight her one of is father

originally over six feet for

inscribed: Amen-Re'

made as her for him of

monument an excellent

making

30.

shrine

of

hbny a)

of [pl.

the IIII, is

best but

of

the

highlands" is

(or

Ideserts'v which actually

)19

there

no indication hbny-trees passed

highlands grew its there, way to On his states gold, Ellesiyeh lands'. (temps. in his 21 that ivory,

or

desert or

meant, the

whether

whether

wood merely

through

on

Egypt. statue he taxed and hbpy is hbn from the 20 . Medamdd, chiefs In the Minmose of (temps. with of of Tuthmosis electrumv Nehy the at tSouth III)

Ta-Neesy

inscription the tribute

listed in II)

amongst that at of the

and again

Viceroy 22

Iveser-Satet In an inscription Hatshepsut) 23 part On the of the

Amenophis tomb to at

Kasr Nega,

lbrim. Tehuti of it

Drah

Abu'l shrine of

(temps. Ta-Sety'. forms

refers Jebel tribute Dynasty Ta-Setyp

'great a stela

of, hbny III

Barkal

Tuthmosis Setyu it is 24

brought funerary however,

by the stela like defined

and .

on a Nineteenth by the a vast but Iuntyu area appears Sety, which to 26 25

delivered covered

Ta-Nehes, southern

had no sharply have been Even mentioned, considerable some parts of

boundaryq Egyptians 27 of or

extended when the the area in

upstream provinces covered theory but not

as the of

Kush

advanced. 28 Wawat are too, have

by each hbn-y-trees in others.

these, might 29

was very grown in

and

them,

31.

Again., cannot with within

even

when

more II
C=; >

restricted Such and

areas is the J r-t

are

named, for both the

these examplet lying tomb 30 of

be closely two lands. whose Thebes if

located. roA Yetr inhabitants delivering it were 31

case, Miu,

Kush, at

are int. possible in that none

depicted al. to of logs

in of

Amunedje4

hbny the

Even location is any of these

determine the above

lands, afforded

instances in the Such their

indication by the

hbny it

actually was

grew

areas legends tribute in allp official

inhabitants arrival backs", 32 are are

of of

which [the

delivered. of the Yetr,

as "the upon their

chieftains]

accompanying of course the of

tribute-bearers at

Amunedjehls composed to

tomb

no significance of

as they whom it in

from

standpoint little the the fact

an Egyptian the the a

probably were

mattered actually

whether produce that Thebes, on one also of in

commodities lands

question or not. in the

mentioned

Finally, tomb of

fragmentary the what axe 33 arrival is

scene of probably indicate

Nubian a log

tribute, (or logs?

Ineni at who a manbears ) of that grew. took travelled hbny

showing shoulder an

carries had would

need

no more wood where that well

than it this have

he himself But place to there in his

possibly

hewn the to

be

no necessity country, where it for grew

assume

native place

he could to

the

32.

cut

it.

In

any

case,

the

accompanying vaguely, the

inscription as the arrival of rather have been

merely of the 34

designates Nehesyu The

the prisoners

scene,

somewhat after is in

captured himself clad the

overthrow

'vile

Kush'

hbn-y-bearer figure, part of

a brown-skinned, who might 35

Egyptianat home

looking in any

a kilt,

northern hbny of is

Sudan. shown or in

Occasionally in the possession 36 is of It of

New Kingdom

tomb-paintings negro

negroes doubtful,

men showing however, for

strong this

admixture. circumstance the their northern as now, to it. habitat

is

whether the

any

significance treest though at

determination particular has shown that

of

hbny-producing limit, of true of For

and in Junker this 37

northern limit viz.

the same

negroes the of Fourth

time

was much the there is nothing

south that that

Cataract, trees

suggest 38 Only

hbny-producing

coLncided

with

in

the

case that it

of

the grew of

hbny in reliefs

from land

Punt

can we be whence el-Bal. iri of the wood is it was

reasonably obtained. illustrating depicted. stela have bring from 39

sure

the

from Deir hewing

on fragments atshepsut's [Pl. Serdbit IV]

from the of

expedition on a fragment Sinai, mountains 'in'?

a New Kingdom is in said to to

el-Khddim, through the (or

an official of Punt

"travelled

order 40

[hbjny

from

) Utjenet

33.

! , of

:: =

"I,

= =%

C: fti southern

--4 countries r, -as God's

occur at

in

Tuthmosis 41 at and Edfu

III's Gauthier in the order 'mountains to from if probably hbn_y-trees also have

list 42

Karnak,

cites with the

a landC Punt Sinai and

occurring Land. it 43

connexion break to in reach of suppose Egypt the is, in been Punt,

Despite that the in

fragment, one had it lay first

seems to cross

Utjenet Punt'. that as

whence Utjenet

would in the

seem same

reasonable direction afield. as of may it

Punt,

and

apparently lhbky be known

further correct, occurrence that they

restoration in it view is of not to

the

improbable Utjenet. 44

native

34.

Notes M. A. Les Murray, He et Ille Sagqara Mastabas 1. pl. 2; R. Weill, 1908,

Dynasties

Agyptiennes.

Paris

253-54.

The name of occurs Abydos the the

group wood

hbn, in

written the of tomb Second

in of

the

sait: e way

as the also from Tombs 24t II, Illt of

Kha(bauseker, jar-sealings Royal pl. &b ydos . Abydos

on fragments and Hierakonpolis Dynasties op. 16,8 op. II, cit.,

Dynasty Petrie,

(W. M. F. 11, London

Earliest

1901,

207,208, London pl. 10Y

213 = Weill, 1902, pl.

191-92; op. 202; cit., J. E. 1902, its

Petrie 197; Quibell

Weill, = cit.,

24 = Weill, Hierakonpolis, cit., certain, It of


as

& F. W. Greeng = Weill, is far op. from

London Though has

pl.

70p 14-16

203-204). it in wood probably any

significance with

here

no connexion to It
Tombs

hbn(y)-wood. for word the hb name plough'

would the

case

be difficult

account not the

on jar-sealings.
suggests (Royal

is

Griffith

11,54);

elsewhere

(Hierakon20lis., word loc. listed hbn cit. in 'ebony' also 9 H.

11,55) occurs regards Die Hbn(y) Dynasty

he says: probably hbn as

"in as

tliese a proper

[sealingsj' name. " It is

the Weill, not

a proper

name.

Rankej,

ggyptischen does occur

Personennamen, as the name of

Berlin a dog

1.935-1952, in the

thsough

Eighteenth

(p. 75,

n. 58a).

35.
2) E. g. statue in the G. Steindorff, labelled accompanying K. 'throne' Wb. Sethe, or Ilp inscr-iption pyramidentexte 'seat' 467. of hbny; as 11, Das Grab des Ti. pl. II, 66,70: bed -462,1906c: 1,43; a further described

pls. 133:

rzi p. Urk.

_j

,-sici; hndw, examples,

3) 4) 4a)

Urk.

IV,

695.,

702v op.

7090 cit.,

7159

7209

7289 iv,

754. 1346. No. No. 1115,1116A 1913P

Siive-SUerbergh, IV. Golenischeff, et p1s. 1116B

207;

Urk,

Les

Papyrus Inip4rial

hieratiques

de IlErmitage

"A St. -Peters

bourg.,

26-28. for example, 270 Wreszinski, LAmunedjehIp 1; Nina Atlas 285 M. 1, p1s. 247 293 Tomb of , LTomb 9119

4b)

CF..

floreinhebj, 334-337 Paintings P. 6) Harris,

[Amenmosel, Ancient

RekhmirV, L: 1, pl.

Davies,

Lg_yl)ti_an

16 LReklimirVj. 5. Cf. 34a., 13. the hbny; elsewhere 57p 2-4; 629

1,71a.,

E. g.

P. Ram. III by

A,, 14-15: (P.

PpI3 of Ebers,

determined 6. ) 7) E. g. 1909)v P.

62,18-21;

c', ardiner, 32; pl. 5,8:

Adnionit. 31 5:

tons

of

an Egyptian (hnw) of of

bage

(Leipzig N%

boxes

westcar,

paddles

(w4rw)

(Sethe

ReqypLZSCke

LesestGcke, 6) 9) P. Urk.
kknlw)
II-,

26,1.20). 3.8: 1375:


- --A

Koller, IVt
of

rajjq
11%

Lfor

53-1

P.
; Pap. B. M.

V,, estcar,
10068,

7,12:
recto, pp.

Palanquin
39 8; 26p

6.. 7: Twentieth

hbny

coffin-lids

(Peet, Dynasty, II

The

Great

Tomb Robberies pls. 10,12,

01' the

11

Egyptian

(plates),

36.

Note

also

the I. Texts

determinatives pl. 13, statue

in

Davies,

Tomb of and

Ken-Am5n, Pyramid 10)


11)

1906c:
d,

pp.

49ff. Le's eu vr. )5 17. Loret


eclyo(le-ris

Mu-scle

"Boulaq'I,

irarl,s f871
v Pap. No.

Mariette, 9

31 =p
de

RT 60 128;
Pap. Boulaq.
Zij 9, f7 J-L'

Sauneron,
111. PaD.

Rituel
Louvre

I'Embaumement_,

_ 35- 36 EF -booln

5.158,

Cairo

1952, .Gum has (Lucas, probably from Verso Anc. the

been Eg. greater

identified Materials# part acacia. a reference of

on 3rd. that In to

mummy bandages ed., used P. 11). but

was obtained IV, of the

species 1.9,

of

Sallier

occurs (Caminos, This goddess can I

"Thoris Miscellanies, form to of occur

hbn-y-treell 333,340-41).

Late-Egyptian particular

the

hippopotamus nor

does suggest with ..

not any hbn-v. being

seem

elsewhere; for "The her

explanation 12) Is, 129:

association Ebenus. like

Aethiopick

layed a sweet

upon

coales

& burning

incense

yields

37.

sinell,
Herbal As was of not t1iis

and
of'

without
Dioscorides, by the ti,

smoake.

"

(R. T.

;unther,

The Greek

Oxford CIassical the area known coiqprisin

1934,68). writers forniiny as the the term modern but I,. 'tIiiopia' country desigmitod k. 1). qUotatXI

used

confined name, vague (cf.

sometimes region !)unham, this la(t,, r

Abyssinia, N'orth-east id. El

a rather of Iien ions used from

Af rica Kurrti, in

28,1-2;

tri the

Classical

authors,

here

a1ways

enclosed

in
13)
14)

inverte(i
'j 6t
JEA

comias.
130.
28t 51; pl. 5. Cf. id., Tomb uf Kcn-An'511
m

Loret,
Davies, pl. 18.

15)

Davies,

',Ock Tombs . tribuie browjit 'Y


no

of

I-Ai,. i. irna : by
)". the by

III,

pt. ar,,
cjioico is

15; 's and


examiples a rnodel

amoru the
"Chairs of Nubian of of (of

Lhe Nubians 4
Among tomb an of the

ebony, tribute gold ebony, Lliy,

doubt in

shown "Supported on 22; a

Huy

chariot perhaps Tiie the Tomb black

attendant

negro, (Gardi tie r-, lv i es, some arnicli-airs Of i

oJ. d pedesta] .,,, pl. 23 24). = stoolb,

of'

Do"sibly beds,

furniture

shown

may also to
r)l.

be of in which

hbny. the

The model Nubian

chariot.

is

very (op.

similar cit -9

that
28).

)rincess

arrives

16)

Cf. 3

Steindorff,

i)as

; rab

des

Ti,

IT,

pl.

Davies,

Rock

Tombs "ho

of

beir

;k1brnwi g

ToW-, (-)f

38.

53;

and

the

oft-quoted Irtysen "from (Louvre Eg. 1925 sur silver

boast of

of
so n5

the

M. K. in to ivory M. A. 33 ff;

artist-sculptor all and materials hbny". Anc.

hisxskill and gold

stela (2)9 la ).

C14,11.14-15. fig. 1& pp.

Murray, H. Sottas

'9tude

Stle

C14 du Louvre'v

RT 36 (1914)t 17) 18) Urk. Dixon,, BIFAO 1.127.

164-65.

JEA 449,40 52v 173 ff;

ff; Edel

for in

other 0.

views

see Yoyottej, (ed. )v ff.;

Firchow 1955,67

Agyptologische Arkell,, 19) Naville, Urk. IV,, Hist. Deir 2969 von 20) 1.11; (1926). 1927v 21) 22) RApport Les 54-55. Lfor Sfive-Sdderbergh, 1345-46. pl. 80. Also Cf.

Studien,

Berlin

Sudan. 42-44,175-76. el 6. Babari 11,1-4; p1s. RT 22v 25v 123: 27;

Spiegelberg, (? ) der Fouilles par 14-42. IV,

den Hdhen sur les

Berglainder'. de Medamoud E. Drioton, Cairo

Inscriptions Urk, IV, Urk. Ag. Naville, Davies, Atlas I. u.

983p

16. Urk. = IV HIP pl. what 18 is

Nub. v 2070 Deir el

Bahari

Tomb of pl.

Rekh-mi-R(# logs not of

= Wreszinski, almost certainly

335:

hbny,

though

so named,

39.

among the land, the the tomb

tribute Iuntyu-Sety of

of

the and hbny

"chiefs

of

the

South11 of In the

Khent-hen-nufer. from the "Head

PuyemrL! lt is 1., 103;

South" of 23) Urk.

(Tp-rsy)

depicted. pl. 43. )

(Davies,

The Tomb

Pu-yemrel, IV, 423p

17 LtheNorthampton 'Die the Northampton Marquis E. of

stela']; Stele', RT W.

Spiegelbergv 229 115-125;

Northampton, Report

Spiegelberg Excavations winter Unlike IV9 423, of

& P. in

Newberry, Theban

on some during the

the

Necropolis 1908,15-16. 123). Sethe the found

1898-9.

London

Spiegelberg note to at is Deir b)

(RT 229 doubts

(Urk.

whether

shrine by

referred Naville 24) L. 29;

the

same as that

el-Bahri. Egyptian 1237. op. 45v 139 cit., n. 1; 210. Posener, BIFAO 7159 cit., in 7209 50p Kush 6. Readingboo Iv 60v

de Buck, IV,

13 = Urk. 25) 26)

Sfive-Sdderbergh, Gardinert 62; IM

Sauneron IV, 6959

and Yoyotte, 702v 709v op.

174 n. 2. 1375 Hbgy

27)

jjrk.

7289

(= Sdve-Sbderbergh, from model Kush letter is also

208-209). a Ramesside tribute (P.

mentioned

concerning

Nubian

40o

Koller Texts: Kollerv Egyptian Caminost Logs not of so

3.8. the

Gardiner, Papyrus

Egyptian I

Hieratic and id., Papyrus LateR. ) they are the temps.

Anastasi

Leipzig

1911,41

11E 94; r 119; Oxford hbny,

Miscellanies, L, -Eg. what labelled, of Kush IV, at Atlas from is Miscq probably are in

transl.

1954,438. though

also

depicted of

among

tribute Tuthmosis Wreszinski, pl. Beit Bet Up 28) 29) Urk. From 293

the

tomb (Urk.

Horemhebp IV, [cf. 1592; Atlas temple

Thebes It pl.

247; and in

It of

Kush? ]), (Roeder,

the

el-Wali el-Walit pls. IV, the

Der 1938,

Felsentempel pls. 32v

von

Cairo 167-68j 7289 734.

33 = Atlas

circumstance III hbny,

that with

in but

the two to

Annals exceptions

of

Tuthmosis (Urk. IV,

728 and, 734; not cf.

according

Sethe's

reconAx, u. Nub. 9 of time Wawat lay in

struction, 219) the the is

Sfive-S8derbergh, among of the tribute at this

recorded boundary of cit., the

southern vicinity op.

which

Second

Cataract Kush

(Sgve-Sdder6.52) -v

bergh,

182;

Posener,

41 & 42.

but not

of

Kush, in due

it

would

appear at

that least

hbny-trees in quantityg at

did

occur

Lower to

Nubia,

possibly an earlier 30) Urk., IVp

over-ruthless (cf. however,

exploitation pp. Atlas To the 157-58). I. left pl. of

date. 947-48; JEA 28p registers

Wreszinski, pl. of of 59

270 (behind)

Davies, = the stood three

Nubian

tribute-bearers now destroyedg forward of precious oo*oJ*" Noms


op.

a large by

figure the

Amunedjeh,

accompanied wondrous gold, stones 31) On Yetr

legend: of vile Lall of

"Bringing Kush, consisting ofJ land des


Miu,

the

products hbny, the

ivory, Lby cf.

and

manner every

chieftains

Gauthiert
1.114-115;

Dictionnaire
on

geographiques,

idemo

43.

cit.,, Urk. 1736.1

IIIv IV,

11. 1246 shall

To (Armant

the

references stela,,

given

there 111),

add: 1560, of these

Tuthmosis the

discuss

elsewhere

location

lands.
32) Davies, JEA 289 pl. 5. top register.

33)

Vreszinski, !,
Nc). Tome 18969, 81

Atlas

I,

pl.

265.
de la

Sheikh
Mission par

Abd el
arch4ol.

Gurnehp
fr2lip Paris

Memoires = Le 15 Tombeau not

XVIII. pl.

d'Anna,

11. Boussacp in the

(plates

numbered

publication).

34) 55)

Urk. Cf.

IV, Junker

70. JEA 79 129. not Indeed, at of Wreszinski, all, but Nubians. reproduced, not permit loc. the the cit. t

thinks

he is

a Nubian

one of

it gyptischen scale on which

Begleiter" the figure

the is

ilowever, both one to by be

Wreszinski definite
36) . E. g. Gallery N. 19 ebl LTomb 9ij , de pl.. G. Nina of

and on this
de G.

Boussac, point.
Davies, Art], JEA of' 26,

does

Egyi)tian pl. p1s.

rromb 3 [tomb 23,24 Att-as

Paintings of Sebekhotepi;

Faber

Oriental

Davies, tolilb

Wreszinski, = T, pl. 24-7

Atlas (? ) 293 orem-

285

Amemnosel;

357

top

register

37) ,

JEA 7v 121

ff.

44.

38)

The

choice

of

a hard, in the hbny J.

black

or

dark

wood,

usually is representations

termed almost of

'ebony' certainly

publications, (Cf. pp. 55 ff.

and which ). for

negroes

(e. g. II,

Capartt 1905,

Recueil pl, of H.

de Monuments 68 = W. M. F. Petrie, Man, 1901,

4glptiens tan 129p Egyptian pis.

Brussels Ebony

statuette

a Negress'. Carter London

I-J Tut.

LUC 14210); Ankh.

and A. C. Mace, 1923, Oxford pis. 19519 69,

The Tomb of 70b = P. pl.

Amen 1.

Foxp

Tutankhamen's

Treasure,

14 [ceremonial

walking-sticksi; der

W. Spiegelbergq aegyptischen Strassburg, H. Fechheimer,, pl. 151) SammlunZ Strassburge, Klein-

AusgewUhlte der Kaiser 14-15 der

Kunst, -w4enkmdler Wilhelms-Universitdt & pl. Agypter, 11,19a-b; Berlin

19099 j2lastik

1922,

was Wood (Cf. a belief confined or II, of dark pl. Spiegelberg, that to, it the

probably op. specially of also cit., two of of

due cit.,

to

the

colourrather

of than ofv

the to or black cit.

15)

was

characteristic the used pl. negroes; (e. g. 22 for Carter, stone

country were op.

other op.

materials 50 = Fox,

Lblack

heads

negroes form

terminating the The fig. pedestal Scepter 200

rectangular a cylindrical Egypt black so II,

cross-bars cosmetic Cambridge, inlay jar]; Mass. figuresq

which

W. C. Hayesq 19599 late 318t XV111th

Lopaque ).

glass

Dynasty]

45.

also

in

the

Hellenistic inherently to the

period: black sculptors stone in the in

"the for

suitability representing and there are marble.

of black

some material skin

now occurred of basalt,

instances (G. H.

black

and

black

"

Beardsley,

The Negro A_Study of

Greek

and Roman Type LJohn 4jp

Civilization: Hopkins Baltimore 39) Naville, of hbwy University

Ethiopian Archaeology,

Studies ff). III, also

No.

1929,101 Deik el from in in

Bahari, are

pl. shown

70, in

top the

row. tomb Of

Piles

Punt

Puyemrel scenes (Davies, 30,4; hbn-v are among 136; wrongly in tomb the pl.

a scene middle Tomb of 34. )

"distinctly terrace Puyemret., of the what tomb from of

modelled Deir I., is of 80v el

on the Bahri". pls* certainly (No. 89) (JEA 284 Nubia]); [here and 269

the The

85;

32t also

Logs in

almost

shown

Amemose Puntites

goods

obtained

the I.

25 n7Wreszinskip interpreted No. 143 at as the

Atlas produce (Davies, 3).

pl, of

Thebes

BMMA. It is

The Egyptian possiblev from Punt

Ex2gdition however, grew the there, position

1934-35,48 that not all

& fig. the hbny

obtained Deir

On a fragment of which cannot

from

el-Bahri, and which

be determined

46.

appears hewing matter, a log (Naville, showing one only Punt. lay coast ing 40) in of of

to of

be placed hbny solely is

with

those

depicting of its

the subjectshoulder on a leash and another before the in habitat the (includ8). Cerny, 213.

on account shown bearing

a negro hbny 4oc.

on his a hound

(? ) and cit. ).

holding This

fragment, standing

a lighter-skinned the beehive-huts, for is quite the

negro constitute presence possible and that

almost Negroes their

evidence It the

of that they the (cf.

interior

came to produce pp. 7-

periodically hbny 7) of V their

to

barter country

Gardiner,, Sinai, 64; 1, cf. pl. 803, 89,427; No. 184.

&Peet 0 Ilp

Inscriptions 41) 42) 43) Urk. IV, Dictionnaire Chassinat, Sinai oo It pl. t1-9ps 799,

of No. des Edfou 679

Noms g6ographiques, 1.429; 238; IIv LPun1t Cf. 213 perhaps and

1.209. Inscr. c:

note

(? ) gum

Ud[enetj 44) On his as being

so Cverny). from in the the Serpent Red Sea, Islet the envisaged Ship-

departure somewhere

47.

wrecked (nt giraffes' monkeys, part of

Sailor hkn ,

was iwdn

presented

with tl-psq

various Ws, tusks, typical (11.162-165.

commodities msdm. t. hounds of that A.

hg3y. tp .

tails, apes, the etc.

elephant which as a whole. Stories 46-47)o I were

world

Blackmant Ilp

Middle-Egyptian Brussels too 1932J

[Bibliotheca Although for

Aegyptiaca this to reason the is

much significance of the it list, would

cannot

be attached

details hbn

a conspicuous appear a fair

absentee inference,

9 whence the

whether (see Sailor's

Island

be regarded 'Zeberged: JEA 329 31-38;

as mythical The id., Myers, on the

or

not

G. A.

Wainright, Island'.

Shipwrecked 'Zeberged: 'Zeberged'. story that islands of

A Correction'. JEA 34t the was the 119-20;

JEA 34p

119;

O. H. tNotes

W. Vycichl, Sailor'. of

Shipwrecked not thought

Kush

5.70-72) on the

hbny in

as growing

Red Sea,

48.

ii.
It in to is clear from the the the foregoing of It is they is that little assistance trees that first no knowis

determining be had from in this

distribution texts,

hbny-producing equally clear without produced

progress ing which

direction or trees the

possible were must will that

tree step

hbny-wood. establish,

The next as far identity The 'Ila trois XXIXq et only hbM fait forme as

in

enquiry evidence

therefore allow,

be to the

the of

meagre

botadcal

hbny. affords du mot No. no help. Habni est According Hab, 1.12p '@tre aigu, dont 6; je to Loretv I

name itself primitive (Ti.

connaiS 9

exemples 28); cette

134; signifie

Anast.

Zeitschr. pointu',

racine aux

allusion this one time, primitive"

6pines

de VEbAnier". the

Howeverp identification species as exhibiting or late writings2; in shows of

not of the 'Ila

does with

statement of but the the are spiny

presuppose

ebony-producing regarded

present forme for Third

examples merely

defective of at

the

earliest

certain tomb of

occurrence

the

Dynasty rm. rJj the several such 3a

Saqqarav

wordp 3

the the

fu 11 erfo Under describe none in

name

(h)ebenus of wood, their it is

k&vo5 African specific

the and

Classical Indian, can exactly

writers though be they

kinds that

detail

identity what

determined.

Indeed

not

certain

49. understood descriptions time word by the that term, it 4 Though it seems which also clear would possible a number or even from at their present the other

included 5 it

woods is

the

be regarded was used not

as ebonyp rather loosely to

that of

to

embrace

species

belonging ebonies, 6

the

same genera, as it further may,

families# not be botanical (whichever linguistic it does

as modern misled identity they were) into

Be that without

we should

assuming, the plants

evidence,

the

of

producing merely on the the

(h)ebenusground latter, with of

Cvo the

and hbnyt of that the

derivation not follow

former is

from to the

Similarly Dalbergia of hbn-y,

hbny because seems

be equated Arabic

melanoxylon Viz. though andq as woods

G. & P. merely Babanass Abnas,

derivative to in this

to

be confined known certainly

species; Egypt

D. melanoxylon we shall termed see, hn. 7

was certainly almost equally

ancient included

among the

Consideration which the is hbny Papyrus one of of was put

of

the

useso equally

other little 20)

than

in

woodworkp

8 In

to

yields (No. 415

information, the hp:,' of the

Ebers the

62p = of

hbny-tree in the treat-

constituents

a pommade to h3ty

be used as with
flour

ment

the

eye-disease 10
viz.

called to

identified together

ciliary the other


coloquinth

blepharitis.
ingredients,

It
ht V_

was
Iwa, I

be mixed
green

eye-paint,

of

(k-3.wt Plant

or

dkw,

a dlr, all

t)p

acacia-leaf, in equal beaten hbny was

and water proportionst in water

of

the

kbw-

present dry# then

and made into and applied to contract to the the

a paste; eye-lids,

left 12

to

The hpzl of

also

used

50* 13

pupil of

of

the of

eye the

when iris Upper

it

had

become 14 it

dilated With was to

as a result an equal be beaten Among a leucoma the Papyrus specks black are the 111 20 19 eyeto in

paralysis of

(mydriasis). Egypt' eyes for is very the

portion water number corneae, Ebers which paint 0

IsU33 of

and applied of

to

the

frequently. of in

prescriptions or albugines

treatment 16 listed

oculorum, (remedy for

is"another arisen in

dispelling 17 The YM-tree hbM eyes. M and The .

white 18

have

the

eyes):

(galena)t ground is

and water, and put in

galena hp:13 of

be finely hgM-tree in It a recipe was to

both in of

again for

mentioned rid water does

Papyrus

Ramesseum in the eye,

getting in 21

a thm, -injury

be beaten

(??? ). not translate "Scaillell., hpl; Ebbell 25 most Loret 24 22

The W6rterbuch renders Hermann literates,, renderings Hermann Pliny all of is (N. H. "Acorce,, 24a "SpIne

" Lefebvre oder

23

1chipto trans-

Von De i ne,

Sligemehl.

and jj 91' 1'

merely of

11h22. - Teil appear apparently XXIV, liip to the to

vom Ebenholzbaum. be little based 89). the use more than

these That Of

guesses. (IX,

on Theophrastis and of of in Dioscorides dust or

xx,

4)t

(1,129), of Pliny employed 404 629 = in to 6. ) t but 25a

whom refer in

scrapings

t ebony'-wood addition dispel says white

treatment root applied

eye-diseases. water (cf. was

the specks

on the hLp]

eyes

Ebers cord', of the

A connexion is suggested by

with identical

'umbilical writings

tumbilicus, two words,

510

without it is

knowing not at all to the

which clear as two its

species what

of part

hbnv, -tree of it might

is

meant, figuratively sharp the spines Sudan, merit is that in a

be referred of viz. this one of

tumbilical

cordt, species would

The of

ebony-producing G. & P. likely the or

Dalbergia description.

melanoxylon A more and of denotes trunk might this

hardly

possibility which,

hPol =navel' cross-section coloured

heartwood

seen

branch

surrounded the

by lighter idea as that far the as to (cf. to q_ green that of a nave 26

sapwoodp of

have

suggested however,

The weakness modern of the Sudan to

suggestion, spp. are is latter used 27 with

as the proportion suggest

ebony

concerned, not usually to the

is

sapwood

heartwood of is the

such navel

resemblance hpi and ,

00. 27 9 eyeall

Moreover, w(npaint these feature justify case, could cites li-q 29a be, 27

also

reference

gntr-trees 28 and

(w3dw items

and probably . 29 3h-loaves and one . have physical) the see on P.

also feels in

and bkn X-trees should . (perhaps not necessarily application But Barns it 30 is not his to it of to

common some which in would every

the

one word what Ram. fact that III,

easy note

feature A159 that fintr-p

in p

Dawsonts

suggestion, are this all takes

based

on the that

and wn-trees but to

resinous, no account green

hp3 means the application

fresinbead'. of the word 31

of

jLbnM-trees, the

eye-paint, but

and ? h-loaves. T adds nothing,

Grapow

summarizes

discussion,

52.

So the from

far

from

the it

identification would it be easier

of

the to

hp3., helping identify the

to hIJ

identify if we knew

hbny-tree, what species

came.

Reference
hbny-tree' the Gold as Coast

has
an the

already

been
in the

the 32 to/use made


ritual of

of

'gum

of
On

the

adhesive

embalming. exudes from

dark-coloured

gum which

the

bark

of at

Diospyros present pots.

mespiliformis found 33 It in the would

Ilochst, Sudan, is

the used

other

species

of to

ebony mend

as an adhesive however-,
this species

broken
without

be premature,
that it was

to

conclude,
wjUch yielded

further

evidence,

the

Igum of The only

the

hLn -tree'. . -Y surviving LP1IVj representations are too of hbny-treesp and namely

at

Deir

el-Bahri for of

fragmentary 34 We do, from

conventionpossess

alized

identification representations of its

purposes. of

howeVer, which Now "the

a number

kn y-wood , and colour. are

some idea characters and features obvious


from

may be gained available identification that are known for

appearance

distinguishing should to

woods

not

numerousp of

be based

on an examination rather than


that

be reliable,
and therefore

on the
tend to to

more
be draw far

characters, consistent.

e. g. 9 colour 35 " It is

weightp not

intended

anv

cunclusions
Of ancient

regarding
Egvptian

the

possible
from

generic
the

or

specific
ot'

identity
these ex-

hbny-wood

colouring

amples.
following labelled

Nevertheless,
list lhbny' only and

some points
examples the colours are

of

interest
which recorded.

do emerge.
are 36. actually

In

the

included thereof

53,

n. V. (a) Steindorffo Das Grab des Ti. 119 pl. 133,

Above two men at work on a bed is "polishing ed black. (b) Daviesq Rock Tombs of Deir 10 (tomb of Djauj stated Its Carpenter a couch of hbLny

the inscription: The couch is colour-

el Gebrtwip working

II,

ple

on a palanquin

in the accompanying is indicated

inscription

colour

on Davies'

to be of hbn(y). 37 plate as y(ellow)o

[P.1. V1
Dyn, XL,
Lacau,, (tomb one the Dyn. XIII. Id,, op, cit, 11,57 scribe's painted (sarcophagus palette white veined of of r" . with black, Amenemhet from Sarcophages of half other Harhotep, of which is anterieum Deir is au Nouvel Empire 1# 46

el-Bahri): yellow Described

scribe's veined
j __

paletteg with
q4lj,

painted

blackt
&-A

half

white.

as

El-Bersheh): bottom Dyn, XVIII, (a) Daviesq part

Tomb at

of the

Ken-Amn, tip,

I. labelled

pl.

18. Itisw

Three 301,

staves,

curved

All

three

are the

of, hbnylwith materials the

gold being

tips noted

and at

silver proper third is

ferrulest points, red. LPI-

the the

Two of VII

staves

are

black,

54. (b) 29; 18 = id. BMMA. The v & fig. (labelled the names are hbn(y) shafts of 28: Two 'ispr the viz. the are black

Id.

op.

cit.,

pl.

Egyptian sets 2201) materials 'gold' shafts of to

Expedition three the of for of

1916-1917,20 whips which parts ivory whip. LP1. 50; pl. Yetr of =. on the the hbny VINj 5. logo left are

charioteer's right which ends of the and

thereof and

made, for

the each

alternate

The

and white (c) tribute (Cf. the Davies, of

alternately. JEA 289 the land

(tomb of of

of black the

Amunedje): hbny

inscription forward ivory,

scene: of vile Kushq

"Bringing of (d) (line) from gold,

wondrous .0 01j)38

products Lpl. 1.80p the Igj 85;

Davies, 34 = Punt

Tomb of (colour), two

Puyemrep Among

pis.

32

products

received black

are with

piles

of

hbn_y logs

coloured

streaked (e)

golden

yellow. 'Excavations pl. de la 24 at Sheikh Abd el Gurneh

Mond & Emery,

1925-26'p Monumentsde tives pl. I,

LAAA 14 (1927)9 I'Agypte et

[= Champollion, Notices Denkmiler Tomb of servants DescripHIP

Nubie.

Paris cf. staff ivory of

1844,530-31 Urk. in IV, hand, and 1468

a Lepsius, (text)

122 g.

Pahekmen, int. column and al.,

watches logs of

Pahekmene ing bring/forwardv him is a

tusks

hbny. silver,

Before gold, to

inscription: from the

"Receiving treasury".

ivory,,

hbM

According

Lepsiusp

55.

Denkmiler Leipzig Ebenholz.

aus_ Xgypten 1900,280, "the

und logs

Xthiopien. are "Scheite

Text,

Band schwarzen

III,

Noteworthy in colour. they The accord

in

these

pictures of

of

hbn_v is

the

variation no comment rooted Thus in 39

black with

examplesq the hba black point

course,

arouse

since

equation, = ebony colours to the of

by now firmly black = used wood. in

Egyptological says: chair ebony tomb which of "The of ... of

minds, white and

Newberry the and in 40

depicting of Ivory

sedan-

Tehutihotep 11

combination wooden articles

Among a number is is (the lashed lebonyto tomb in of the

depicted statuep

the

RekhmirCb' says wood

an unlabelled of "ebony of a post Againg or

standing blackened is

royal

Davies

1141 wood.

A log

unnamed is

colour to 42

which in

indicated for the

as black)v sawingo Nubian fifth is tributeman

which

being as the

readiness

described scene carries was black A pile tomb Davies UserhLtt because to of of in

describing Davies that says: it

Amunedje, other hand;

"The is

a wand is

a wand of

indicated

by the logs

legend the

'wand Nubian it

(, Isw) tribute

and once )43 ebony"* in the 44 tomb of

"Jet-black" termed

among

Huy is says at the of

tebony'. royal figure was tomb of of

though statue is

has depicted

no label, in the

a standing "The statue in the

Thebes: cult

black; 1145

primarily, Finally, for is

no doubtp referring the white black. this unplat-

ebony. Apy: this

a naos with

shown coloured

"except naos

form

decoration, roof is presented

entirely work,

As the

canopied

as carpenter's

56.

usual

colour Now it

must is very

be meant likely or blackish and

to that.

indicate the woodv to And it

ebony. greater

t,

46 if of not this all, colourp as that

yart,

the

unnamed in the

black tombs,

and objects in is the

shown lebonyt.,

referred hbny. or dark

publications true

does the

represent black Egyptian 46b

doubtless for also

much of fine what


for

hard of yellow
colours?

wood

employed 46a is

examples of
these

wood-work and red

some very 46da But hbny. we to


with comment

the

hbny?
the

flow are
colourp no it tomb is

account
perhaps on froin that of these the

Beyond scepticism, at of Deir the that with noted staff

recording 47 Davies 48 in

a slight yellow his he

note specimen

of

makes but the

el-Gabrawi, tisw-staves the tips at or 49a red of the

is of

clear

description does not are

Kenamun ,,rwo of rhe was

believe of ebony being A similar

specimen gold proper of and

hbny:

staves the red. the

ferrules

silverg t1iird t'ound is in

materials It 49 of

points. red wood not, to

baton This

tomb

Tut,,

cankhani5n.

has

my knowledge,

been

botanically not at follow the

examined, present that

but regarded the there

even

if

it

should it not

Drove would

to not it as

be

a species necessarily hbny. the


parts of

as ebony,, did

Egyptians seems

regard to

In labels

meantime, 'hbny',
on . and all itis,

no reason do not.
depicted Davies'

asstime to
the

that

'gold',

'silver'
staves that

apply
in only

the
tomb

indicated 50

three clear

Kenamu-n

reason

57.

for It is

not would,

regarding of the course,

the

red

example

as matter

hbny to

is

its

colour, that either rendered this

be an easy of colour, wood

assume who has

due to

carelessness the wrong

the or but

artist has

painted the That and too

hbM of

correctly it

colour the

a certain Egyptian beyond the

labelled could but

wrongly. slap-dash him to ask his stems

ancient is in why it in the from one such the or

painter dispute,

be very

careless hastily

before

condemning pause question here

present should first the more

instance, have occurred Surely

we should to the belief nowadays us to

ourselves colouring very have and largely been that At


usually and

place.

reason that

commonly-held of the black, it


woods most family some a dozen woods in that blackness, such as

hbn-y Must 'ebony'

woods

are time,
black

woods 51 is

termed

present
to of

true,
of of great which

the

term

'ebony'

is

applied

hardnesst are produced and are good to though hardness the

heavinessp by genus Of ebony.

closeness

texture# to of p the which

species Diosp-yros these, There and it yet in

belonging Linn. howeverp are, vie other such toop with

Ebenaceae 300 species

known. black

scarcely black ebony

produce belong

other differing or

families from structure.

characteristics, is African blackwoodt PdPLLLOndCecle

Among

Dalbergia

melanoxylon

G. & P. also woods

(fam. to are woods true that eboniesq are

The

applied which

name ebony, 52 not black, those from

however, Moreovert the genus

is

even

58. 53 of and

Diospyros, the of more or

are less

not

necessarily black such forms central as D. a solid along to the

black, portion ebenum central trunk,

For the D, core even in

example, wood of

while a number from for species of thick ebonies bands of a

DiospyroS

spp.,

melanoxylon extending in the In these form other or

India

and Ceylon,

considerable the black

distance wood is liable by

be arranged

interrupted strands the =md black wood is lighter-coloured (Diospyros light of Still yellow Ceylon kurzii) in

light-coloured interspersed for the and bands from example, Andaman the or

wood, with the

always wood, from patches; shows

patches

so-called which wood black wood ebony',

marble-wood is (D. and of black quaesita) brown. Diospyros and the is hpain at and

Islands,

Calamander streaks is of

which

further

removed (India), in ancients

blackness is 54 termed There not is

the

chloroxylon yellowish-grey wood of the

which colour.

'green

no reason been equally were

why

should

have

variable not black

colour and have even included 55 Davies himself all. admits, as febony' in (hbny) varying streaks lhbol' seems,
comprise range

woods almost

which

certainly whicho

correctlyg though 56 or not golden blackp even has is

wood

not

so labelled, with

streaked olive-green C2 the label It


hbn had -v did

degree and applied

er light/colours, 57 and

patches; to logs

he does with ancient

question 58 yellow* Egyptian


probably in probably families.

streaked though
or

therefore,
mostly than

that
black has been

the

blackish realised

58d. woods, it and embraced and

a wider other

addition structure,

woods possibly

differing belonging

widely to

in

colour

and

different

botanical

59.

Which

those

families nor can woods appear

and it

species

were

cannot what to one; also

at were

present the

be

ascertained, whereby colour to which certain does they been

be determined were to adjudged have been

criteria

be hbny. hardness,

Certainly the uses OyfjirL

not

were

put,

and factors. method

possibly

geographical

may have

deciding certain

The only wood is

of

identifying of is of at it its

the structure

species under to

of a of "it

by an expert However, from

examination not only

microscope. the is species not always

difficult the the dead

be sure 59 but

an examination to of to arrive

wood,

possible

correct ....

specific although ta it

name is

from usually of

the

examination possible species. of 61 to a small and the since

a single down The of

sample the

narrow 1160 area this it

identification necessitates can entails explains thought only to be studied

group the under amount pre-

related

examination wood which

paration the of why have of lens, damage

inevitably doubtless objects 61a the

a certain to

object, Egyptian examinedt that

some extent hbnY

so few so far

Ancient been date 62 best E.

be of

published those 64 stage. ebony African)

specimens dealt The last with by

Pharaonic

can

be traced 63

being

Beauvisage; tioned will

Schiemann, be considered

and Wittmack. at a later of Ceylon (both

men-

(p. 175) and Dalbergia with twoAncient examspeci-

Beauvisage melanoUlon Egyptian ination

compared

samples brauna to be

and Melanoxylon specimens and chemical in colour stated tests

'ebony', that two both

Micrographic the ancient of

showed

mens, q which

resembled

the

samples

African

60.

ebony

rather

than melanoUlon

the

Ceylonese G. & P. was this in

example, Beauvisage employed that temple together This wood, of

were

made of conEgypt and

Dalbergia cluded that 'hbny' Medinet 30-40 , it . 65

accordingly in Ancient Egyptians Ramesses wooden had III

that

this the Stone

species of

was 66

wood

tree the

the of

termed at

blocks been

Habu had cms. long. in

fastened

with which

dovetails re-

survived

markably
Dalbergia

well

the

dry
the

climate
so-called

Egypt,,
African

was

"apparently
wood

melanoxylong

granadilla

or

Senegal

ebonyp Schiemann,

according

t+

sample

analysed

by Professor

Elisabeth

Berlin-Dahlem. identification assumedt

66a " has been that the the original identified


that grows viz.

Beauvisage's of scholars

accepted Dalbergia Egyptians word

by a number melanoxycalled is derived

who have qnly Lucas

however, what

Ion, was the hbn. y. from known


wood Africa.

species says: 67

producing "As.

Thus the in
of

however, the been


tree

ebony ebony

ancient ancient
Dalbergia 1168 The

Egyptian Egypt,

hebenyp which has


a

lat was

as the
in tropical

melanoxylonp material

examined,

however,

a Twentieth

Dynasty XIXth permit certainly in this

amulet Dynasty of

from date

Thebes from

and

a mirror-handle was clearly far seen,

(? ) of too hbny Further of

XVIIIto almost progress a much

Qurneh, and,

limited did

generalization, comprise a larger

as we have of the known

number must await of

species. examination date

mattert number 69 discussion of

however,

larger

hbn_y specimens

and

provenance. The

so far

may be summarised

thus:

from

at

-16

61.

least wood facture

as early known of

as the

Third was

Dynasty employed In

references in the the Egypt

occur for

to the an

a manu-

as hbny a variety part in date In

which of of the

objects. hbny-tree, treatment the

New Kingdom hpi, is eye hba-tree being lighter It

unidentified as a medicament and at a later

mentioned diseasesp was used mostly coloursq was almost to

the still

of gum of

certain the

as an adhesive. black but or also blackish,

colour sometimes entirely

hbny-wood streaked red species or

varied, with yellow, one, it has only

occasionally derived genera with from and

certainly different to identify,

more families.

than

belonging been one of G.

So far certainty, Dalbergia Diospyros producing next

possible the et. plants P,

reasonable namely that, the in

producing It is

hbn_y-wood, possible one of

melanoxylon mespiliformis 'gum of

further been are

Hochst. hbny. l These

may have species

trees the

discussed

chapter,

62.
I.

La Flore In

pharaonique, discussion fomMjSein

2nd.

ed., (KT

1892,60-61. Loret Ti 134) (H. himself Brugschp

2.

an earlier the

69 127) tomb of

regards Die for this

the GrUberwelt,

altdgyRtischeg, the fuller It at all

No. occurs

as an error in is

writing is in very P.

which

elsewhere hbny 6.

tomb.

doubtful Anastas.

whether 1,129 competition

mentioned passage two the

The between the into

concerns to of

a figurative see which can tree

scribes branches thou

penetrate difficult me: 'A

farthest to high climb: .. -

a lofty

"Again

sayest

concerning

-tree

(rjjemj4jf-_--)is
Hieratic New Kingdom. of Turin the 62) Texts. I.

before

thee'.
I.

"

(A. H. Gardinerv
Literary In (P. Texts the two

Egyptian of the

Series Leipzig of the

1911,15*). the tree text

versions and P.

continuation the name of

Anastasi as

appears

"Enter In says: (cf.

thou his

into critical seems Turin

the

difficult note that as lectio

(? ) Gardiner (op.

-tree. cit.,

" 43)

"It Pap.

likely 1).

difficilis,

was the

62a.

original due to

version, the influence

4te of

being h3b

an

easy and

corruption h(, 3)bni

of

SZD -!

"plough"

"ebony";

the that

absence h(J3)bA

of

a variant meant, why to of des [J. "

with Cf. the Wb. Ilp

makes 486. should the

it There have

improbable isp been in

was

moreover, chosen. a tomb Examen tion at

no reason According Thebes

hbU-tree QIT

Loret

6.9 130). which des

discovery (C. S. de la raisonn4 Paris Espke Kunth, collecet

a few fruits

seeds et

Kunth

botanique

plantes

Sgyptienne des ff.

Passalacqua,

Catalogue

historique 18269 227

antiquit6s

decouverts as reported Ascherson, Woenig, Die "nous que

en Egyptep "Diospyros. to

v 228)

described

de

plaqueminier" Kummel Hochst.

(subsequently [Braung 15 M; Leipzig point croissait F.

be MimusoRS Ueber im alten jusquI A une a

and Magnus, Pflanzen autorise

Pflanzenreste, Aegypten, un certain recul6e., y etait que,

1886,3371). A supposer naturellement " Elsewhere Empire, (V.

I'Ab4nier, 9gypte, en

epoque

ou au moins est probable natur-

cultive. sous I'Ancien

he says: Vgb6nier Loret,

"Il croissait

ellement
d'a_pr6s_les

en Egyptell.
documents

La Fiore
et

pharaonique
les specimens

hi4rogly_phiques

decouverts 60-61; et
951:

dans Cf. A.

les

tombes,

2nd ed. R9vue

Paris,

1892, Appliqu6e Juillet 1934p

ChevaAlier troRicale.

de Botanique Annge.
G.

d'Agriculture
"on le

l4e
melanoxylo

L=Dalbergia

] & P.

cultivait

aussi

probablement

ggypte; en

il

gtait y

connu

63o

sous ebony though


(N Flore

le

nom de Habni, Dalbergia rarely,


and G.

")

During melanoxylon gardens in

the

last G.

century

the

species very

& P,

was cultivatedo

in

Cairo

and Alexandria
de I'Institut There hbny-trees or natural found culfor in (on the the isp la

Ascherson d'Egyvte Tome no

Schweinfurth, prAsent4s Caire for the in 1889). existence the be

Illustration et p, lus 70) of

[MAmoires 11, Le

4gyptien, however, in Ancient

evidence Egyptp It would passage one Gardiner, 35v

either

natural much either trees

state more

tivated, author Egypt of or

therefore to of choose the The 669 860

the possibly see Illt

a tree of Papyrus,

tall Wilbour 119). ZAS

Syria. Oxford

hSrw-tree, 119 32;

1948.9

26t third

Loret's

example,

299

28

is

very

64.

late., dating Stele

in from

the the

so-called reign of

'Famine Ptolemy Cairo

stela' V (P.

at

Sehel, La pl. P. 6, col. 26)

Barguet,

de la A further

Famine,

a S6hel, of I,

1953,30; h3bny, is

example Mastabas

h: )b for pl. in 2.

Koller,

3v8.

3) 3a)

Murray, A.

Saqqara (art.

Hermann

'Ebenholz' IV, Stuttgart

Reallexikon 1958, Col.

fUr 479)

Antike identifies

und Christentum the 'Ethiopian'

'ebony'

as Diospyros on the other

mespiliformis hand, (XVII, thinks 29 2) was that to probably

Hochst. the have

Chevalier,

'ebony'-tree been abundant

stated in

by Strabo the Island

of

Merod,

Dalbergia Appliqu6e Juillet any the

melanoxylon et d'Agriculture

G. & P.

(Revue

de BotanicLue l4e Annee, cites similarly, 11,116-117)9 and cit. (in Pliny ) to be

tropicale, writer, identification. (Georgics Periplus by Hermann Thiselton-Dyer ed. Hort, of the

1934,951). evidence Indian to 'ebony' (IV, 20) is

Neither support of iv, stated while his Virgil 6).

however,

Theophrastis (N. H. X119 Diospyros Enquiry this

(38). (loc.

ebenum, into Plants, to

Theophrastus gives of Indian

LCL. the better

11,446-47) two (IV, kinds iv, 6),

name only

lebonyt identifying again

mentioned the without

by Theophrastfus inferior evidence. variety

as Diospyros Warmington and

melanoxYlong

Finallyp Roman Empire to

(The

Commerce

between 213)

the refers

India,

Cambridge

1928p

a Itmuch-

65.

favoured by the

and Romans

variegated from India,

kind

[of

ebony] from

...

obtained 7

perhaps

DLiosvjrosJ

quaesita". 4. Paisanias
idea states heard for grow at about

for
the

example
plant

seems to
which of

have had but


i EV05. xlii 5): at ebony

the

vaguest
lie

yielded I.

(Description a man of medicinal leaves but or

Greece, who was say that or

"1

have herbs not sunlight are dug

Cyprus, purposes, bear

skilled the

sorting does in the

f ruit,, of

even

appear roots

allq

consists

underground who have

which at

up by the ebony". reference of burying

Aethiopians, This to passage the

men skilled to

finding by

is

evidently still a time to

be explained

practice, for

followed darken of the its

by nativesp colour.. Coastp that 162. )

the

wood

(Loret, Thus is

RT 61,126; Theophrastfos, close-grained It against does not

Irvine, followed

Plants

Gold

by Pliny, ).

states and

'ebony' very

hard,

( TTUi<vo, 5 float, decay; Plants, IX, lxxviii, IV, xx, lasts the I,, 4; 212; vii,

therefore timep is vi, N. H., and

heavy. proof

a long heartwood v. 4. -5;

is

natural Hist, iv, 204; 2;

black. 1.2; XVI, Cf. On Plants


Virgilp of

(Theophrastues., Vp iiip 186; 1; lxxvi,

Pliny, lxxix, 16;


XIv fullest

lxxiiit

213; Idem,
ff;

Aristotlep
II, ix,, 6;

Meteorologica
Ovid,

Metamorphoses ). The

610

Georgics

119

116-117.

description

'Ethiopian' "The Aethiopick

'ebony'

is

that is

of best

Dioscorides and blackg

(1.129): and not hauing

Ebenus

66. like which biting coales in in to an horne thick that hath or being been compact] laid smellp put vnto & "

veines, wrought, being vpon

smoothnesse being the broken tast, like But kindled yellow

showes and gently

Lclose

binding, yields is

& burning smoake.

incense that by [when Herbal which

a sweet new,, being

and without ye it fire, growes is

quickly

reason rubdj of

of

its

fatnesse,

somewhat

on a whetstone. Oxford

(R. T. 1934p 6.

Gunther, 68).

The Greek

Dioscorides,

Dioscorides, ye wood what of

for

example & of 11

states Acanthus

(1,,

129)

that they

"Somme sell are some-

Sesamon for form and is see

(because

like Hebrew 15,

Ebenus.

7.

The

0'J: 1f1 equally Cheyne

occurs

for

certain For

only other

in

Ezek. poss-

XXVII, ible London 8. For 969 H.

uninformative. in Encyclopaedia

instances 1901,1153. see

Biblica

Ilp

which 514;

Loret, in

RT 69 128-29; Oxford 11ist. dans 65-9.

Lucas,, Technology Vancienne

op.

citg

495ff;

Aldred

1.684 ggypteg'

de Morantt 3018

'LlebenistArie (1938)t

La Nature 9.
10.

ot
I So Lefebvreq pharaoniquet Westendorf, 1.

Essai Paris Grundriss der

sur

la

M6dicine von Medizin

Agyptienne Deines, der Texte, Grapow alten

de

lL9), L o_q_ue and IV 47:

1956,70; der

Agypterp Berlin 19589

Cbersetzung

medizinischen

"Verschieierung".

SO MW,

von 16nes

eat.

10C. Cit.;

Lefebvre:

Ileau froide".

67.

12)

1-3)

11sur le 'dos des yeuxl Lefebvre: vonDeineset al "an den Aussenseite der : De 5et dl. f'ric ,/on IV IV 59; W, dfd. op. cit. dfd. "iris". Ebers, No. 345 op. on the 6. passages,
of] is the here

(les beiden IV

paupi6res)"; Augen". renders

2,64,,

14) 15) 16) 17) 18)

P.

57p = cit., eye,

3. 80; Dawson, JEA 19p Irty. m) 135-36.

See Lefebvre, White No. specks 404=, 62,, the

s'hdw nw (or

As in

above
Llhp3'

by

'hbny-treel
t full:

here

is

to

be

understood 19) A15. The

hbn-y-tree. spelt in

word

20)

\/c)() f)e, f)e, )

NoL tFLa @M, op. Five

cit.

of IV Papyri,

'' 19 53; Oxford

Vp 90 = Barns, 1956, pl. 10.

Ramesseum

21)
22)

111,366.
RT Iv dans earlier 57,3 132; l'Ancienne suggestion and 62,20 followed by Hartmannv Paris 132) L'Agriculture Loret's by in Ebers

jtgyptej, QT lt with::

1923,34. connecting rendered

LCJ ,

VO 632

"Mark? " Lcore,


writing 23) 24) op. cit. in p P,

heart,
Ram. III

pith],
A,

is
=15.

refuted

by the

full

70,809 Ebersq

81. Copenhagen 1937,589 69,759 82,

The_Pap-yrus 92, et

passim. fr Antike und Christentum, Band 4, Stuttgart

24)a

Reallexikon

68.

1958., 25. 25a. Op. Not

Art. IV

'Ebenholzl, lp 47p 59.

Col. (Cf.

481. Vorwort, as Ebbell v, no. 4. ) ('Ein 61-63. 7L)


1. 11, each

cit.

'Pudenda',

'genitalia' Agyptisches 'Hp? = Umbilical


. in 'navel', the 2. centre in the

asserts ZAS 65p

misverstandenes Cf.
26. Cf. knob 34;

Wort', Cord'.
'umbilicus'; of pl.,

Gardiner,
OtMXO. 5 or 13t boss 192);

ZAS 669
also (Iliad at

a shield the knobs

end 27. 28.

of

the

stick in No.

round et

which al. 8:

books

were

rolled. V1,412-13.

References P. Ebers,

Grapow 533

Grundriss, 9 W, - 0 43 0 '' .

710 = VI,

Cf.

Gra pow, 29. P. to Kahun

op. 6.

cit. lp

413-14. C= bread (Gardiner, Wb. is 31 h "thought

22: of 1.15; passages

be some kind

Ancient

ERYRtian 29a. 30. 31. 32. 33. If Op* hpi cit. in

Onomastica all 18. 9 VI, 413. these

1v 12. ) indeed the same word.

Grundriss Z6 P. Irvine, 162.

Plants

of

the

Gold

Upast,

Oxford

1930,

34.

Navillep I do not the 79)

Deir el agree trees are

Bahari with

IIlv

pl. (op. the

70v cit.,

top

centre. 12,14)

Naville near ebony

that (pl. minel.

growing 11certainLy

beehive-huts LItalics

trees"

Admittedly,

69.

the from cattle the lie) left

configuration of is these

ot' alleged

the

branches hbny-trees

of

the

third which of are be the

(under the But branches they to

very

similar shown

to on for

that pl. any

of 70.

fragmentary really placed 35. H. E. 2nd. 36. In too on Desch, ed.

hbn-y-tree conventionalized them. Timber, its

reliance

Structure

and

Propertiesp

London of

1947,53. cases the colours of the hbp_y and

a number

objects (a) (line): column the (b) from


(c) 119

thereof Davies, five to the of

shown Tombif logs right) the of of

are

not

indicated, 1.103; designated commodities

e. g. pl. in 42

Puyemre, hbM (so

the

among the (Tp-rsy). III,

from

"Head Naville Punt,


Lacau, 125

South" Bahari

Deir el

pl.

78:

hbny

logs

Sarcophages palette Assiut. 11,139:

ant4rieurs of ) headrest hbn(y)

au on

Nouvel IX-X

Empiret Dyn.

(scribe's from op. cit. of Tomb

sarcophagus (d) on (e) (f) Oxford id,,

of

hbn(y)

sarcophagus Daviest

Tehutinekht, of Ken-Amu-n Four pl, 2: fan

EI-Bersheh. 1.29; pl. 20. Tombs, with.... '

Sdve-SUerbergh, 1957t 4;

Eighteenth of 'hbny

Dynasty overlaid

70.

37.

Cf. is

Deir shown

el

Gebrdwi

I.

pl.

14,

where

a carpenter also is not

working yellow,

on an though

identical here the

palanquin, material

coloured noted. 38. According are

to

Wreszinski Holz but der

(Atlas Farbe

I. nach not pl.

pl.

265).

these

logs

"Kostbares minej.,

nicht

Ebenholz)" the colour.

Litalics 39. 40. Newberryt Davies., 19439 41. Op. pl.

he does 1.30;

mention 18. at

EI-Bersheh The Torab of 55. 51. Cf, 1900,37: III

Rekh-mi-R6(

Thebes,,

N. York

cit.,

Newberry# "a

The beautiful black,

Life

of

Rekhmarav statue

Westminster of Thothmes of

finished and tiierefore

(coloured

probably 42. 43. 44. Davies, JEA 282 Gardiner

ebony). " Rekh-mi-R! (, 51; pl. 52.

Tomb of 51. in Nina

de G. Davies p1s,

and

A. H. Cf,

Gardinerp Davies, Art. 3: tomb The unnamed No. 143

The Tomb of Bulletin Egyptian black at 45. logs of

flu-y , 22; the

23,24;

Metro politan 1934-35,, Puntite 'ebony'. Tombs

Museum of 48 & fig. in

Expedition among called

'tribute'

Thebes

Daviesq 1927v

Two Ramesside 23; pl. cit., could 15. 65.

at

Thebes,

New York v

46.

Id.

op. 9

Many more

instances

of

the

above

equation

be cited:

Davies,

Tomb of_LuLemret

71.

1., 9.. n. was

3:

"The "

black ; Cf.

colour G. M. A.

... Richter,

shows Ancient white on

that

ebony Furniturep in a diphros (madep

intended. 1926,32: ...

Oxford Boston, Lbackless perhaps It 68: his 35;

"On the

charming is sitting

pyxis ...

a flute-player stoolj with and Id.

a black ivory). "

and white Davies. Nakht, papyrus necks coloured Egyptian London extent their simply of

seat-rail Tomb of

of pl.

ebony 36;

The Tomb of in a light at the

Ken-Ainun New York 1917, skiff ... birds. are " aiming The not

"Nakht ebony

stands boomerangs (pl. 24).

the black,

boomerangs labelled [Faber 7. jects plates are

though Davies,

'hbn_y'; Gallery of indeed,

Mrs. oriental

Tomb Paintings 1958,16; of terming pl. ob-

ArtJ, to the

Davies, 'ebony' or in

goes

without the (e. g. text,

indicating presumably of

colour

on his they 13; from

because 17; pl.

black.

The Tomb pl. (at

Antefoker, 48 (logs) pl. 5,6; 1933t which they

Tomb of the

Rekh-mi-Re, -C 46; Rekh-mi-Ri! at at

Paintings = 23;

Tomb of

Thebes, 55; pls.

The Tomb of

Two Sculetors Nefer-Hotep (logs; term

Thebes, I,,

The Tomb of 35; led are pl. 46 to

Thebes,

New York

possibly them

one of the reasons Hew'ebony'Xis the fact that tusks. Scepter left; 161; II, pi. ) of Egypt II,

Davies depicted

alongside 46a. E.5. W,,C. Hayes, 192-939 146; ments

elephant The

New York 115;

1959t fig.

fig.

1089 fig.

2oi-2ol, J. Capartv 68; W. S.

fig.

2412 des The

266-670 Agyptiens

Recueil Smithp

MonuArt and

72.

Architecture worth, Tomb of Cf. el also Medineh Middx. Tut. B.

of ].

Ancient 1958,

Egypt pis.

LPenguin 117; 1923, les,

Books, H.

HarmondsThe

114A9 London sur

Carter, 53,63.

Ankh. Bruy6re, (1934-35). of an

Amen I,, Rapport Cairo

pls.,

Fouilles fig.

de Deir 127 in 19329

1939,247-49p L.

(fragments Studies 257-62 einer Holz,

'ebony' to ('Eine Szene F.

stela); Ll. Griffith,

Borchardt London mit

presented & pl. 25

Holzschachtel in Nubien'; untersuchen Cairoj, of -

Darstellung dunklem (p. 1914p coniferous later"t is Of 257); 138-39t

Lndlichen das ich

Itaus

nicht LCat.

habe

lassen" Leipzig of or

G. Roederp pl. wood 44a from

Naos

G6n. door

(bolt

on the

a shrine Salte das

Saqqara, (dunkelbraun

"presumably und hart),

IlEbenholz ist. 46aa) Thus shrine, from 46b) 11) the

glAnzend

I , et po

natural which is light hbny ff.

colour actually brown veined

of

the stated (see

wood to p. 78,

of

the

Deir hbn

el-Bahri varies .

be of n. 69). with

dark

to

On the see pp. el

black 183

or

blotched

yellow

or

sim.

47)

Deir

GebrAwi

11,11:

"The is

carpenter it,

working of 48) 49) 49a)

on a palanquin,

making

is who ... here we are/informedt

" ebony, does Montet, La Vie 1. priv6e, 28. Amen 119 London 1927p 308.

Neither Daviesp Carterv 35-36;

Tomb of The pi. 8. Atlas

Ken-Amu-n

Tomb of

Tut. Ankh.

50)

Wreszinskiq

1,

pl.

306,

seems

to

regard

all

three

73.

as hbny: Gold, Helck,


51. As

1130 Kdnigsst4be mit IV,


of is

aus

Ebenholz,

oben 11 Cf.

mit

unten jrk.

Silbergold 1393.
how the ingrained concept passages (A

beschlagen.

instances mind the

in of cited

the

popular, as a black

and

poetic, wood English Historical Oxford (a) 1846 1633 brow 1802. air 1588. coloured 1601. Dod2. jej blacker and

ebony in

following Dictionary Principals 1891, s. v.

k1urray's on

New English .... ed. 'ebony)

Dictionary J. A. H. may Murray#

tebon'.

be qtioted:

'Ebon'. Lytton P. Lucretia Pisc. to an (1853) Ecl. ebon 301. V11. bow. ' 11 An iv 246. 196. ebon 'Deep mass. 'The in ' the 'Dark as ebon' 'tier eye-

Fletclier, like

black,

Coleridge. darkp

Sibyl. substantial,

Leaves black, 11

Shakespearep Inket. Death VIII. than Earl 256. black. '

L. L. L.

ebon-

Huntington

II,

in

Hazl. ebon-facldv

'Pitch-colourld,

(b)'Ebony'. 1608. an Oke Norden. oe. blacke Smith. half-naked, Sury. as Dial.. Ibony'. 434. as 'Real ebony', downright I saw pales made of

1878

Bosw.

Carthage black

negroesp

74.

1834. (1849) the 1850. Sam son 1878. the 52, ..... of

Mrs. 308.

Somerville, 'The skin of different the

Connex. tribes zone

Phys. of to.... vi, than

Sc.

XXVII from

mankind, ' 35. any

ebony Mrs.

torrid Tom's

Stowe, three on the

Uncle shades place'.

Cabin

'Black other

about ebony Bosw.

blacker

Smith, of

Carthage the

39,

'A

race

of

savages...

ebony such

negroes perhaps

Soudan', most familiar from Timbers 3rd in the of ed., modern West the commerce Indies. Worldp 1948t

Among is the

the "green

so-called Howard,

ebony" of and the

53.

A. L. their

A Manual

Characteristics

Uses,

London

182. 54. Em. Perrot, Paris des


si6cle Appliquee 1934p 55. In 959. with the red and yellow hbn-y, it is worth

premiT%AQdu Mati6res/usuelles
.es

Rgne 'Sur

Wg4tal, Vorigine

Hp

1943-44,1730; gbnes
et

A.

Chevalier,

commerciaux
de et I'Spoque d'Agriculture

de I'Antiquit6,
contemporaine'. Tropicale

du XVII-XVIII
ReMue l4e de BOtanique Juillet

AnnAe.

connexion

noting genus it with is

that

a number also

of

Indian wood these hbn_y of tree Konkan

representatives of spp. these are coloursp to

of

the though

Diospyros not the

have that

suggested red

be identified Thus coast and a

and yellow (a from small the

Ancient the

Egypt. western

Diospyros Western

Tupru Ghats

of to

Mysore)

produces

75. hardp lines large and N. Bedd. very reddish-yellow and occasional tree of' the has wood black evergreen a hard, with irregular D. of faint concentric Wight. Coastp D. nilagirica Thw. a wavy a p Konkan

patches. forests red wood;

Candolleana the Western of

Kanara, is

the hard.

wood D.

yellowish-brown, tree found in

moderately the evergreen

crumenata of in North the

large the of

forests and

Kanara,

between region brown 4530 (if and 56. For


of nfrII Nina ly pl.

Gairsoppah at

and Dodmune 2-4000 ft., has

Ghats, hard, of spp.

moist reddishLondon 19CP

Ceylon (J. S.

close-grainedv Timbers,

wood. 460p indeed the

Gamble,, None

it lNianual of these D. . at all, logs,

Indian is having

462-63). they ever three two


of tomb Davies though strongly

now regarded very little

as ebony heartwood

were) none of

Tupru

other

example,
the in de "chiefs the G. 16, still

piles
the of

such

depicted
21wntyw-Sti of

among the
and 26;

tribute

Southland., Rekhmir6t A. H.

the (Tomb

Hnty-hn-, pl. 18

Rekh-mi-RE(

and

Gardinerp (Ane. by LS. the

fAncient Paintings hbny

Lgyptian Ill. = ebony

Paintings 36) no wood

Gardiner, influenced

doubt

black =

equation,,

remarks, in
of

quite

wrongl-vp ) Cf.

that Mrs.

the

light

streaks Eg.

"have

no justification
8; pl. 3: (tomb

nature".
Sebekhotep)

Davies
Log(s)

I'omb PaintinKs
buff and

unlalbelled

yellowish-green however,
scenes 57. Davies,

in colour
suffered.

colour is

described probably due

as to

'ebony'. the ravages

In

this which

instance
k

the
have

the

Paintings

from

the

Tojub

of

Rekh-mi-R'at

Thebesq,

New

York

1935,

pl.

6. 1, the pl. tomb 34. of Dauneheh (No. 125) at Thebes

58. The Tomb of 58a. Note the

Puyemre in

scene

76.

(temps. master's preSUmably

fiatshepsut) chair so a little called

which

shows black

sitting puppy

under named colour.

his

'I-Ibny',, (Davies,

because

of

his

MENA 34p No. Art 59. 60. 61.

12 LBec. Anc. 495. 53. 54 ff.;

1939j, Eg.,

284 140

& fig. & pl.

7;

Smith,

and Architect. Materials, op. op. of


those

100 A).

Lucas, Desch, Desch, clopedia

cit., cit., World

F. H.

Titmus,

A Concise ff.
more

Ency-

Timbers,
which

London
one would

1948,13
like

61a.

Many

of

about

informationt

for of

example art which

the

pieces

referred are

to

in

note

46a,

are to

works see

museums

understandably

reluctant

mutilated. 62. 63. RT 199 77 ff. In U. H81scher,


Temple

The Excavation
of Rlamses III.,

of
Part

Medinet
11,

ilabu
Chicago

IV:
19519

The
311,

Mortuary

ri.
64. In

21.
L. Borchardt, 68. the Das Grabdenkmal found at A. D., des Karanis is stated K8nigs in the Nefer-ir-kalFayum, to op. a Nieroitic period Botanic in many C. 100 Gardens, ways dating have cit-P

Ip re from been 496). grave B. C. Kew,,

A specimen 3rd-5th

century as Dalbergia of N. 81 was of

by Yeivin (Lucas, from from the

identified and at as "a

melanoxylon an (10). arrow shaft"

fragment

Shaheinab, 150 "the A. D., wood

datiny, at of the

identified a species

Royal

Dalbergia,

similar known

to

African

Blackwood as Dalbergia

which

is

derived

botanically

melanoxylon".

frum the tree Shaheinab, / (A. J. Arkellp

77.

93). the

Mace jewel

(Ancient boxes the of

Egypt Princess had

1921 Sit almost.

(I)p

4)

says

of

one from

of

Hat-111or Yu-net entirely that it (Cf. had

Lahun: but of the light

wood remains

disintegrated, consisted The to Scepter

powdery streaky of

showed ebony". the

Sudanese 13:

Winlock., "appears The

Treasure have of been

EI-LahTin,

woodwork

made of 19 245, ) earliest of Ancient

Sudanese

ebony";

Hayes,

Egypt, The

attempt Egyptian

to

determine hbny seems VIII,

the to

botanical be that Ip 18, of of tome

identity A. Bertolini

(Miscellanea who connected which ebenifera it

Botanica, with

1 (1849) ia

a Leguminosa under was to in the

Abyssin-

(Ethiopia),

he described Bert.

name

Fornasinia thought only viz. qu4e the one M. to

and which According

subsequently Baker (1929)

be a Millettia. is at

Millettia ferruginea

present

known

EthiOpiaq Bot. Appli7that

Hochst. thinks

Chevalier(Ov. it is more

14,951 Fornasinia

& n. 2) is

probabIe G. & P-

Dalbergia

melanoxXIon

(q. v. ). 65. 66. RT 19,78p Admittedly not is actually therefore 83. the specimens labelled no absolute among but in those of or examined inscribed proof which the that the uses by Beauvisage 'hbn-y' the and wood were there is to

be included as hbny,

Egyptians to which

regarded hbny was

view

78.

put,,

and

its to op. 495.

usually deny cit., the

dark name 31. fig.

colourp to

it

would

be specimens.

perverse 66a. 67. 68. H51scher, Op. Cf. l. cit.,

Beauvisage's 34 and n. 21.

Chevalier

Rev.

Bot.

appliqu6e

14#

951:

'Vest d'avoir 1897 notre ique doute. 2.

au Dr. montre que ilebne

Beauvisage d'une des

que

revient indiscutable ggyptiens la

le

mArite en 4tait bien anatomaticun

manibre anciens de

Dalbergia. des ll gbenes

Ltexamen pharaoniques

structure

ne laisse

Saive-Sderbergh, versteht

AS.

u.

Nub..

5:

nter

Ebenholz Holz aber, kommt von 69, von wie fr

man jetzt

im allgemeinen ebenumg habeng nur " be an HolZ

dem indischen Loret das und alte

Baum Diospyros Beauvisage gezeigt

gypten

eigentlich in Frage.

Dalbergia

inelanoxylon instructive of the wood

Particularly examination Deir el-Bahri

perhaps

would

(p. Z%nd, 'Lqny'.

from of the shrine III is PI. N) since this Roeder (Naos [Cat. schweinfurth, hart ist und
3

actually G9n.

labelled Leipzig it .... bis as

Cairoj,

1914,1)

following Ebenholz; des schwach Holzes

describes schwer

"Athiopisches Die Naturfarbe

und

dunkelbraun

hellbraun,

gemasert

79.

stumpf. Oberflche eine

Wo die

unter

Hatschepsut erhalten ist, Farbe sie, liolzstifte unsiclit,

bearbeitete zeigt mit sie schwarzer durch sind baren _. 01, aus Zapfen Holz. planks cms in 6-8v ll aver-

unberhrt

glnzende

braunschwarze ist

Maserung; poliert. Ebenholz; jedoch aus The aging lengtht sometimes 2.0

gleichzeitig Die die verwendeten von aussen

wohl

hellbraunem of hbny in as in

minderwertigerem used were small 50-60

pieces 2.7

cms.

thicknessp long

occasionally 10, cms.

as 70 cms. p and

breadth,

z5u*

III.

Dalbergia Papilionaceae) various Sierra names

melanoxylon Lpls. such as VII,

Guillem. VIIIJ I

et

Perrott.

(family under Senegalp Arabic:

(known

commercially African Blackwoodo Ebonyv etc.

African

Blackwoodp Ebony,, usually twenty-five China

Leone., or Mozambique Abnas) BabanCs, / is a much-branched, tree as or much or shrub as less fifty from ten feet. or to

multi-stermiied feet is and short, rarely the high,

deciduous but occasionally cylindrical, one woody foot in

The

trunk

seldom over sharp, and often to

more

crooked The

irregular, are of The

diameter. being leaves the and

ranchlets tips 2

spinose., branches is pale

spines

hardened flowers,,

short bark

bearing thin,

grey

grey-brown,

smooth, usually is very

and from hard

flakes

off

irregularly. to (up logs in half to at an inch 78-82 present from inches.

The

sapwood The cubic

is

vellow

and whict is

a quarter and 3 heavy The vary four takes insect to

wide. per

heartwoodv foot)p

lbs.

purplish-black. and est .. Africa from but to

exported 2 to 4 four

from feet is

iozambique in and difficult and

length

diameter to work.,

twelve

The wood is is
ex

a beautiful pests. 5

J)OliSh, The tree

very

durable

resistant

slow-growing*
A. DC. (family Ebenaceae) as Zanzibar

Diospyros LPI, Ebony, or The IXj (Arabic: and in

mespiliformis Gughan., West is Africa a large small

Hochst. Jukhan),, as swamp tree up

known ebony, to

commercially West fifty African feet the in

Ebonyp height. sapwood

Monkey bark

guava., is black

with

regular

scales;

narrow

is

white

and and is

the

keartwood by natives

dark-brown in the

to

black. for

It making

takes

a fine 6

Polish

used

Sudan

clubs.

81.

According only
proof"

to that

Unwin it

7 is

it

is

term. ite-proof, resistant


Dalbergia

8 to

though fungi,

Eggeling almost
this

9 termitespecies

says

"fairly
Like,

Litalics

minei.

inelanoxylon,

is

very

slow-growing. C, > 10 Dalziel states

that

"it

seems

clear

that

the

freshly-cut

stern of
is, white, in the in

a tree
fact, and,

in
white

sound condition
or light darkening a black a whitish true probably as dark ebony reddish, to

shows no black
or dark centre. wood, tree and is orten brown,

wood.
or

The wood
greenis even

greyish it

although stem,

may never, to

a thick tree in

develop yields the is

According, is therefore jet, i

Warnecke, called,

Togo whereas

jeti-jigi, ati-ibo, describes polish, bep ing as ...

called melanoxylo

ibov

also

which

Dalbergia brown of to

Metzgor a f'ine but

the not

heartwood

black,

giving ebony,

the

Liack uniform markings the the fresh redwood


in Harris the 12

colour on a black state, Baphia.


heartwood give as

commercial background---. after Chevalier


are

brown occurs in the

watered not case in of

The darkenand exposure, Iluit


" of d1stri-

but

cutting

suggests

ebony-black Eggeling bution through the of

portions and

pathological. area

the

general and

Dalbergia and

melanoxylon Kenya Colony and Togoland it also

I'Sudan to

Abyssinia

sout. hwar(l and through "

Uganda Northern Nigeria states de Nord

mozambique, to Angola. k

IIhod(, sia, Extends and la

Transvaal, and that I'Afrique du Mossi,

westward to the

Northern Chevalier sah4lienne de Kayes,

French I'dans et du

Sudan toute Lac

Senegal.

occurs

zone region jusqu'

Occidentale Monts

Tchad: francais

humbori,

Niger

au sud

de VATr,

Baguiriiii,

et

l, anein. ',

---

Nous

ne

l'avions

jamais i

82.

! 'ME

vu

dans

la

zone les

soudanaise endroits Soudan et

proprement rocailleux le Sahara (region Mauritanie


has Gilg 14 a very

dite, de la et qui

mais zone

il des

crAt, 4pineux

C: et a ,

16 dans entre bien existe


Diospyros

com, )rise autrefois plante

le plus

sletendait La IAdrare
rangep bis Senegambien,

au N[ordj en pleine

sah4lienne). dans
similar 15

encore

1113

mespiliformis according to

extending,

von 9"

Yemen

vorn Sainbesi in

bis

Angola,

auch

in

der

Aequat, ori, ilprovinz

und

Deutsch-Ostafrika" Engler 16 describes

[Tanganyika]. Dalbergia parkartiger der


weit

melanoxylon Gehlze der


im

as "ein und verschiedener Dornbuschsteppen


tropischen Afrika

Bewohner Arten
und

lichter Steppen,

Wlderg wie

von
der

Bauinsteppen
verbreitet

Akaziensteppen,

In

Deutsch-Ostafrikas
hufig, 1t17 und zwar

Steppen
auf

und

Trockenwldern
sovotil wie

ist
Hgeln

er
und

stellen-

weise

Ebenen

Berghngen.

In Karamoja, 3WO ft.,,

Uganda

it

is

found "in stated " 19 dry

in

Bunyoro, savanna, grow "on

West at

Nile,

Madip

Acholip

and Mbale, 18 It is rocky is sites. very

elevations dry, of

below often Dios2yros West Nile,

to

very

extremely Iljformis Niadi,, in in

Tlie

distribution viz Nlengo,,

similar, Karamoja,

Bunyoro., It occurs also

Acholi, forest

Teso, in in

and Nibale. on hillsides, and Eastern

"usually

scrub open The

rocky the of

gullies Northern

savanna, only two

common 20 11 Provinces. distribution limit in

hope species,

establishing particularly

the their

approximate northern

of

these

83.

North-east lie in an

Africa ecological in of area

during study the such Sudan

the of and

Pharaonic them Eritrea, as there is at

period, the present

appears time, by the an

to

particularly examination in this

followed for

evidence of their the

state and biotic

anciently

climaticp

edaphicp

factors

influencing

distribution.

84.
G. Benthamp Journal to Troj)ical Flowering Legnosedell' Ueutsch-Ost-Afrika. und B., 309; der Nachbargebiete. A. Engler, Die 'Synopsis of vol. the IV Africa Plants,, Eritrea, of Dalbergieae, of a Tribe the of Legumin'I . Oliver,

osaelp

Proceedings Botany., 11,, 233;

Linn-ca-ii-S-o-c-i-e-t l8bO, Broun., A. 47; D.

SuP21ement Flora of of

London A. F.

Catalogue Boschi

Sudan

1906,24-25; Firenze Band V.

Fiori,

e Piante E. Gi1g.,

1909-1912,186-37; Die Pflanzenivelt v. der A. Engler. Saimnlu. 211 und Ost-

Afrikas Teil

herausg, Vegetation

Erde. v.

Pf lanzengeographischer 0. Drude. jn IX Die

Nlonographien 11flanzenwelt GrundzUge Ciiarakterpflanzen Leipzig 1915,629; Africa. Press, Flora Official I. of Afrikas der

herausg'.

A. Enuler Seiner

insbesondere Pflanzenv, Afrikas. E, (;. II: 1929)t Sudan, to 4th the

tropisch! in fI Afrika

Gebiete. und I die lieft,

I'l)"01 -i t,, u it," von A. r. n,-Jer. The

'I' Band. e3urmirosac-

Bakerp

oV Tropical Papi Broun Botanic Ucoiloniic 81; ctilture J. M. London Fifteen British IVj A. Lionaceae. and Gardens, Botany, Chevalier, tr! tcaLe. DalzieL. 1937.. Uganda Empire, Oxford Tile 237-38; Timbers ed. L. (Unitas %iassey, Kew. No.

Part Ostend, the Guide

Suborder 5-1o; 192), A... '. i%' oya I of 1930,

2, 7;

Museums ed. London et 950-51;

Dicotyledons, de Botanique Juillet of 'Nest and Trees J. Burtt

Revue l4e. Useful

kppliqu6e 1934., Tropical C. M. and

d'Agri-

Annee. Plants 1', J. ',

Tricaq , Harris, of the

Eggeling

Forest L= Chalk, A. L. Treese by The

Timbers A. C. 82;

Davy, op. cit.,

lJoylep W. J.

1939,93-98; The and Indigenous enlarged ''. F. -. Andrews,

loward., of the

Eggeling revised photo.

Uyanda

protectoratep )t1an

London Flowering

50;

1951,300-301 E 4tE/ Plants of

Sudan 2.

II,

Arbroath is
either

1952,192. given
species

No description
and seed of

here

of
(for

the
which

leaves,
see

fiowers,
Andrews,

fruit
Op. cit136.

11,192 LDiospyros Egyptian known. fragmentary (P. 5Z 3. The )

LDalbergia

melanoxylonjq and of pls.

367-68 VIII or at for

& figure. and IX),

mespiliformisi representations The hbny-trees and

for

no are too purposes,

them

ancient Deir

specimens are

depicted

el-Bahri

conventionalized

identification

colour

does,

however,

vary

considerably

(Cf.

Howard,

op.
given of

cit...
wood

287:
is are to to tief 9 82,

11, rhe
always so find Gilg, purpurner describes

task
one

of
of

describin,
the utmost

gy the

colour

of

any
Degrees

difficulty. that it becomes the "Das Farbe. --op.

colour

numerous adequate op. cit., bis it plum is "dark 300,, than

and

minute to B.,

almost

impossible According ... von

words Teil fast as

express 309,

differenceEIII, Kernholz " with cit. Howard9 a tendt and usually in says the 237, ist

schwarzen black,, 11 Dalziel, to to not loc.

op. cit. ency says to the

"almost

a dark-purple heartwood op. or cit., brown "

colour. purple

brown-black"v

Eggeling, more colour heartwood 4. 5. Roy. Cf. 97, very Bot. Dalziel, note, purple

"purple black.,

brownish-black, always cit., f uniform 951,

throughout. is black.

Chevalier,

Gdns. op.

Guide cit., that like

to

Mus.

Econ.

Bot.

Dicotyledonsp Harris, is is op. considered sometimes

81. cit

237-38. though Uganda

Eggeling "the Ironwood

and

however,, ---

heartwood Litj

durablet

86.

attacked 6. Broun, of 110; 11,367; Forests op. cit.,, 293-94; 7. 8. Op. H. L. London ments,, but iable. the cit., the

by a borer op. cit.,

in

the

standing

tree.

" Flowering 1928, op. West Dalziel, Fiori, op. cit., Plants pl. cit., African

44-45; and Central

G. M. Crowfoot, Sudan, cit., B.,

Northern Broun

Leominster 239; 222;

and Massey, op. cit.,

op.

Andrews, Unwin, 384; 105; 1877)9

Gilg, and

Teil

Forestry,

London Eggeling,

1920,178p op. cit., (London

347-48; Oliver, 384. (Timber

op.

cit.,

III

518-519.

Desch

_,

its

Structure says that to of

and "contrary

Propertiesq to

2nd.

ed. state-

1947,206-207) no timber range --in is

popular

immune

subterranean different to fungal to

termite timbers decay is is

attack,, apprecnot

resistance resistance of

Moreover,

necessarily teriiiite ion of

an indication attack. " Again, of tend

resistance of

subterranean is no criter-

"hardness

a timber while

its

powers timbers

resistance"t to

though

"naturally --hollowed the outp

resistant softv except 9. 10.


11.

be gnawed

by termites

non-resistant for an outside 105. 348.


cit., Teil Baum 11

species skin

may be completely of " wood.

Op. ()p.
Gilg, tlein

cit., cit.,
op.

B., mit

222, hartem op. duro,

describes weissen, cit., 293-94,

D. im

mespiliforinis Innern says it. oft has

as

kleinerer liolz. di color

schwarzen I'legno

Fioriq

rosso,

omogeneo

e resistente;

sec[ondoi

Schweinfurth

nei

vecchi

alberi

si

ha pure

un durame

nero

al

87.1

centro, Eggeling to and

cio'

che

per6

osservasi wood (op.

di

rado cit.,

nell' 105) brown, in

Eritrea. as "white hard, very wood, death. Oxford gradually It is black

"

describes slowly grain,

the

grey-pink, even in

darkening close

to

dark

fine&

and uniform yield to

texture,

strong black Irvine coloration likewise

Some trees reputed says "the after the

ebony-coloured only Gold at after Coast, first,,

the "

develop of is the brown of the the soil

(Plants

19,309 162): turning that quickly. 12. 13. Op. Cit. black by burying " 96. 9

heartwood the wood death in

tree. it turns

believed more

0 Rev , Bot. stretches sea. of the It

appliquAe from the

14,950-51. Adrar the and Levrier Moors of of the

The Sahel Akjoujt

in

Mauretania to the and part the

region Akjouitp also

comprises Adrar.

Bay area, the Rio stony term

Amonp, the Spanish Sahel with

includes The greater plains (Mokhtar

whole part

of of

the the

colony

de Oro. or rocky

consists isolated stir

interspersed ould Hamidoun,,

peaks la

and dunes.

Pr6cis No. 4. )

Mauritanie

[9tudes S4n6gal

Mauritaniennes 1952 14. 15. op. one cit. of 1. t two and 222.

Centre

IFANIP Saint-Louisp

end-map.

species Forsk5l

of

Ebenaceae Hadie

collected mountains "about el

in

March of the hours' and

1763 Yemen,

by Petrus between journey El

among the (Ersch) the east

Urs

and Aludjev from Beit

six

towards

Fakih,

about

88.1

fourteen Equator. Diospyros

degrees " is

and

a half by Hiern

of

latitude

north

of with

the

stated

t, ) be identical (W. P. Hiern,

mespiliformis journal Admittedly, branch and remain "the the

11ochst. of Botany, the which

'Third V!,

Notes London of a

on Ebenaceae'. 1877p fruiting and the 97-96). leafy leaves only that beyond " uf tilis

new series, specimen the consists

from

fruits of

are two

missing, fruiting Hiern is deter-

fragmentary branch. of

bases

calyces thinks mined certainty. bution to

on the

Nevertheless the species not the witii

identi

fi cation doubt, that over in

reasonable He adds species

though view tropical of

absolute distriextension to op. by A. anteced-, cit. Defler4 faite


suivie noms arabes,

ver. y wide "its

Africa,

Yemen cannot probability" (London

be considered (loc. cit., (It d'une


de

as greatly 98). is Cf.

opposed Oliverv

ent III

1877).

519. journal
montagnes plantes

not. mentioned excursion

Voyage
en du 1887

au Yemen,
dans les des

botanique
heureuse,

l'Arabie avec

catalogue ).

recueilles

leurs

1889. 16.

Pflanzenwelt

Afrikas

---

III

Band,

1 Heft,

629.

17.

Details Hist. i

of are

specimens as follows:
shrub.

from 1.
2.

Tanganyika Turiain
Locality: wooded. See,, 40

in Rd.

the

B. 1M. LNat. Miombo


altitude tree. Lindip 11 4. und 3.

Habitat:
Tendaquru.

Country-notes: 600 ft. Habitat: "Lindi,, ni. u'. M.

grassland Lutamba -

Notes: kin.

tall westlich

Locality: 200-250 Locality:

Uferumgebung. Ulanga-Ebene,

5-15 mit

m. 9 ha**ufig. einzeinen

"MahenFe:

Bdumen

89.

Strcluchern. 3-400 N. O. m. 11 5.

Kleiner Locality:

Baum

8-10

m.

hiiufig.

Ulanga-Ebene,

I'Morogoro, 550 rii. ij. M.

Uluguru-Gebirge, Kiroka. Kleinerer 3500 " 4000 ft.

Trockenwald-Savanne. 11 m. "lig, medium lit tree. 1100 large in 6. Locality: alluvium 7. metres. in

Baum 4-6 Habitat: small province. On the coast Wigg. 4000

Tabora. common Locality: "A the grass small dry and

altitude widespread. Pombwe, tree forest.

Notes:

Tabora in near clans the

growing also " (Coll.

anthills

short-tree-tall 8.

savanna.

L. T.

24/12/1927). ft. Habitat: " op. and op. Notes: cit... Harris, cit.

Locality:

Shinyangav

altitude and "

"Commiphora-Combretum "Trees. 3W., op. 105. cit., 96, On all soil

thicket types.

savannah. 18. 19. 20. Eggeling,,, Eggeling Eggeling,

90. IV.
Passing found (e. g. By of in the the flora of his the two trained of nearly in the in be

references works of

to

of

the

Sudan European in

are

to

a number of of

early journeys

travellersp 1813 and 1814).

Burckhardtts explorers, were by as made. Cailliaud

account some

some plants

them

botanistsp a hundred course the of

collections species his of journey Isnla*il-'S were

Specimens in the 1820-22 Blue

collected as far

Fazogli

on

Nile,

company

victorious Delile, 3

army.

2 4

These to

were earlier

subsequently researches embassy Khargdh and From von to in

studied by the

by Raffeneaubotanist Lippi,

who refers of

a member in the

du Roule's in Nubia the as

ill-fated oasis far of as of

Abyssinia the deserts the

(Ethiopia) west of

1704-05,5 Nile in

Korty. Joseph of

1837-39 Itusseger's

Austrian 6

Theodor collected published


on the

Kotschy,

a member

expedition, wilich were

an enormous after
southern

number death
eastern

specimens, 7

some of Valuable
was

his
and

by Schweinfurth.
parts of the

information
added by the

sudan

large

collection The botanical

made by Schweinfurth collections published Sudan of the

himself. Speke

8 and Grant expedition in 1872-75.9

of The for

18043were plants the first and in of

partially the time his

by Oliver were of 10 the

and Baker

western

systematically enormous of

investigated collections made

as a result collaborators. and


Jebel

by Pfund collected
The

A list was later


extreme

the

species by Zarb,
of the Sudan

Darfur
of

Kordofan
Marra in

published
west

vegetation

the

was

studied

by Lynes

in

1920,12

and

the

geographical

affinities

91. of but
parts

the this

plants region
the

from

these

mountains botanically

were one

discussed of the

by Good, least

13

remains

explored

of

Sudan.

Between by Broun, now been


which plants however, is in its 18
type desert, a plant's information

1906

and

1929 15

hand-lists

and

flora 16

were

published have of
the

14

Crowfoot,

and Broun

superseded
in Sudan

by Andrews'
1956. gained research Andrews Despite during

and Massey 17 tlie last workt


increased the last with the the
land,

These volume
of years,

appeared of the

knowledge thirty individual Introduction conditions


forestp and other in isp the in

ecological infancy. tj very


of time habit

connected writes in of
or and has plants low

species to of his

flora:
viz. or of This

little
soil, of high

information
land

growth,

woodland cll,, Iracters text. generalp

flowering of about, growth the

fruiting, been of included the

6udan

unrecorded.
The of and al Eritrea a number works on

19 11
earliest was of the contribution made Italian flora of by Schweinfurth botanists the country. to the knowledge between later 21 1881 of the flora 1892 20 gener+ak-er

and

published But as in

various the

case

of

lacking. "unable any


After

the 'Aidan, research Drdr 22 1 writing 9 to I'ind references

on individual in or 1955, obtain states reprints

species that

is

still

lie was with " 23


of

dealing of
the

special
these

ecological
preliminary

research
remarks,

on the
we turn

plants
to

Eritrea.
discussion

Dalbergia_melanox. Sudan and Eritrea*

ylon

and Diospyros

mespiliformis

in

the

92.

Lying adjoining on the el-Arab, an annual Dalbergia especially portion bowl or of

mainly French

in

the

south-west Africa, bounded

part the

of

the

Sudan,

Equatorial and

Congo north

and Uganda by the Bahr with

south is

and west, the

on the and

Broad-leafed of 40-60 and of

'Noodland inches Diospyros high grass

rainfall melanoxylon in this the

Forest region 24 Here both LP1. XJ.. mespillformis woodland gallery in are the

found, southern and of the

area

region,

depression

contains which 25 forests. The north-east and Forest region land, land are

forests portion large locally

Broad-leafed stretches 'toich'. higher trees of

Woodland seasonally areas

contains known are fotind

inundated of 'toich' "where

as by

These non-flooded as --Many of

interrupted such 26 "

islands

woodland

Diospyros the species

mespiliformis of this

Hochst. Broad-leafed to Smithts of the

Woodland 'Mixed Bahr in

and

Forest Fire-swept to and the

region

(which

corresponds

Deciduous el-Arab on Kordofan

Forest southern

27 ) 1 stretch parts of the

north sand such 28

invasion are

western

southern

Darfur.

Among

Dalber,,,, ia the in

inelanoxylong lattcr the and region throtigh


30 the sand south. seasonal Diospyros

and Diospyros found near the

mespiliformis. sandy 29 . edges West


rolling

In

Kordofan

is of the

of of

watercourses

Nuba mountains
Darfur towards Granitic watercourses. is the gently

the

Nuba Mountains
often heavier soil shrubs with soils alon, found

country portion and alluvial

'qoz -1 to

northern

outcrops

occur Among the

and

the is

trees

and

93.

mespiliformis.

31 occurrence the of Dalbergia melanoxylon seasonal Short-gruss Grass Forest the in

The northernmost the natural state at in the

Sudan seems to limit of the of

be near

watercourses Scrub region. former Fasher south. the of belt 12 to region, 32

southern

the Acacia Tall

as an outlier Reference consists north to the of

Acacia )I. i)ejt

map on

X will

show that

region in It the

a narrow

bounded

by Dueim and the where rainfall but the

and Gedaref, tne northern

Singa, boundary The area period of

Uni Ruaba in and of Jebel Marrav

skirts narrows 20 ins. is

considerably. and a drought in

has an annual 4-6 montlisp for

rainfall time to

sufficient to maturity

quantity grasses

and lasts and herbs,

a sufficient

bring

and to maintain too is, in

a rather general,

open woodland

type

of

more water-retaining. in
is of Lake

country. 33 the
already West far

The soil

West of Darfur,
Dalber, the ja Q., melanoxylon zone former the French of

approximately
found, Chad Colony as and as

sai-tie latitudev
statedt throughout in as the Baguirmit southern in

Sahelian the of AIr.

Africa: north

Kanem, edge the

Niger Hombori Soudan, 361.1 plateau

mountains, latitude nun. of rocky and the

and

Kayes.

Ilombori, has of an 6-7

former

0 20'N., 15 a dry LFrenchl season

average 34 months,

annual On the

rainfall limestone

Soudanp and gullies

Diospyros here x-,, woody a

mes2iliformis temperate vegetation. and 35

occurs humid

in

ravines

micro-climate

nurtures

a dense,

94. East mellifera spinachristi north at of the Nile ('kitr'), (Isidr') both occur. to pietrosi m.; 37 Fiorit del 38 the former is common in della vallate Nlaldi. specialm. presso Messeb " 40 Eritrea Colonia del " 39 Itingo Ghinda e at Malakal Dalbergia grow Dalbergia near local forests melanoxylon, the river. 36 and of Acacia and Ziz. Yl.)hus

Benth. Lain. Gallabat

Further Diospyros

nielanoxylon

mespiliformis According "nei da luoghi 1300

versante

OCCLidentalej spingesi e nella "qua nelle valle e la

a 1700

raraLmentej come is stated a 1600 Val m.;

versante D. i al

or[ientale]

a Curo-h to occur

mespiliformis torrenti Dongollo da ed ov'e 800 in

Hamasen Bogos,

e precisam. Mensa 11,11go il il Niareb.

Cecca,

ChenafenA

abbondante

massime

lungo

The Nile is

northernmost in and the in

occurrence of'

of the

this Sudan lies

species where towards


and

east it is the
east

Of

the

Red Sea Hills the moist


and Though Lpl. its in

found east
si6es Scrub luxuriant

towards
the the region vegetation principal also almost sea. meets and fall

zone

which
the in the

of
of

Erkoweit escarpment. of the

plateau 41 Sudan to occur the

includes lying Xi.

north Acacia has rainfall.

the

I)esert, a more 42 light the up

plateau and

owing rains during continuously

topography the winter,, During by and mist mist

The showers hills from the the liorth-east ZRI may are

though the which blowing on the

summer. covered

winter blows from Erkoweit

A portion no plateau. obstacle As

of

the before

rain

impinging abundant

escarpment

a result., of

evergreen spp., is

vegetatiOng in this

including

a number

Abyssinian

maintained

95.

area

and It

on is

the clear nor soil to

sides from

of the

the

escarpment. that

43 neither is confined Dalbergia to zone. that the railging represent it c1ay cannot or loam. front 144 be former a

foregoing mespiliforinis belt it sites figures in or has with do either

melanoxylon particular With can from the said "typical With regard grow

Diospyros or soil rainfall texture, on these respect be or

vegetational been a clay not shown

successfully 57%. and in this to sands", to rainfal.

content

2% to limits therefore, of regard

necessarily

direction. of

a species "a species

"typical which

soils" a fresh ranges

requires

19 Oalbergia

melanoxylon

areas Very size of

which little to which country

receive inforniation these

12,,)o im. is two

annually available, grow

to

those

receiving regardiny parts produce. sayo the factors

45 360 min. the

howeverp in different

species quality that

the

and the

does of in

not

follow, is

however,

of the wood they grow on o-.si in a plant , receiving, than for soil "the of tree one of other surface most Sudan

It 361) Inn'.

rain

necessarily which such

more

stunted 1200 of mm., the

same species are the

a region

receives nature

involved, rain fails.

as the Smith the is

on which and taking requires timn 2Xx sand

Thus fact in

notes

that

striking trees, which less

elementary COUntry 3Xx inches clay

distribution that the

the

as a whole, inches of rain species of rain

species requires boundaries

on clay ---in

soils The any

on sands. barriers that

between ----

and is by

are

given is

rainfall more

LTherej used

outstanding

evidence

rainfall

efficiently

96. 46

the

perennial

plant

on

the

sands

than

on

the

clays.

t,

Again., natural
on on sandy the In

"indigenous occurrences
or heavier Uganda, rocky

Sudan (their
soils

tree

species

have in
any

their lightest
chance

most

northern

occurrences
and never, by

rainfall),
of nature,

clays. where,

1147 as we have seen Dalbergia melan-

oxylon "straight
is and

is

found logs
in variable

on "very of
the

dry, diameter
of

often are
logs quality.

extremely scarce
3 to 1149

rocky "The
in 50

sites. timber
length cites

"

good
form in

1148.
5 ft. Fiori

expoi-ted very

short and

girth

Schweinfurth's the bark and

statement sar)Nvood) but does of

that this that

the

trunk

(includingg attains

presumably.; of that

species in his

a diameter and

up to of

50 cms., it

adds not (D.

own experience ems. in from Eritrea* trees at

Senni, of of of

exceed

20-25

bmall said to at grow the

pieces South time

tebony' Sennar,

Lq_q ?? ), melapoxy. on sale visit in in in the

were

market but. the

Shendi

Burckhardt's one foot

1614., 51 logs

largest to Broun Dr. (D.

fie saw and Arkell

Nvere about Massey, informs ?) lie 52

length. sound

According are rare.

good-sized

and

A. J.

the 'ebony'-trees, me that all 53 in Darfur saw were stunted, about six to eight feet high,

babanns, being from little which

melanoxyl than of

more

bushes any size

no logrs

be obtained. could 54 Kassas lofthe writes has to the The its

Erkoiveit

areaq Occurrence

where in

Dios2. yros the Sudan; iill be

mespiliformis "the the nearer habitat.

northernmost

nortli-eastern south and

boundary South-western

t. be wett. cr boundaries

mergoq,

97.

into more tion line,

the moist in

inland it will plant local

arid be.

plateau. In

Againg consequence to due to the

the

higher is

the

levelp

the zona-

there

a marked

the

cover differences

parallel

north-eastern " and Kassas

boundary-

with

elevation. fromp Of the

distinguishes parallel to,

five the

zones

minning

inland boundary

hly rotiv, -,, 55

north-eastern

plateau,

dthin It.
and which roll is

the

moist
by,, the

zone

(Zonej),

which
border winds is 56

extends
of the and foun(I it

parallel
escarpment

to,
and as they being

bounded faces inshore.,

north-east the water-laden mes on iliformis

directly Diospyros abundant

sea-mists everywhere, occursp toog

particularly

Jebel

,, anaweb.

near
of the

the

ton

of

Jebel
oasis,

6ela
lying

(4p244
at the

ft.

),

the

iligilest

mountain
edge of the

Erkoweit 57 the

north-east-ern

escarpment. In and but. Zone the is I It part On the (3p787 plateau. ated Sist slope by D. is of

transitional

Zone

1-1.

lying 111, that 11. " which here III D.

between

tile

11joist

Zone

Euphorbia-dominated included and is the less also among important found in oasis, Zones about the

Zone species in Zone but 11 200 slope with Rhus Zone 111,

mespiliformis "characteristic

occurs of

are 58

occupies "of is above minor Jebel the of

the

middle "

Erkoweit betveen rises

is

status. Nafeib level scrub of

boundary ft. ) which on its

and feet is

the

east-facing abyssinica and by

a cover

domin-

Euphorbia mespiliformis, also

abundant abyssinica.

14aytenus "The with

senegalenwest-facing rare

dominated

Euphorbia

abyssinica

98.

individuals 1954) dry

of and

the

above-mention

bushes. to

These those

were of

(April the

depauperate " zone, the


the

as contrasted

east-facing The area,


they

slope. fourth

59 lying on the south-west boundary winds


moisture.

of

the

receives
have lost

sea mists
greater

and water-laden
part of their

onLy
I'most

after

of are in

the not

trees

and

shrubs here where Kassas


does the lies

cnaracteristic except local makes


it occur desert loutsidet effect by

of rare

the

wetter --I'or

zones found water

recorded places 60 "


nor

for

individuals allows to

certain

tonography no reference
in plain the the the

accumulation.
in ates this the

D. mespiliformis
zone which separ-

zone; fourth "The from

fifth that

from zone

extends oasis jebels

%Ve-st of' as --it is

Erkoweit. cut off

r. rkwit Exkivit

tne

maritime

The ground fragments


Finally, range of

is

undulated

into --notes show

lowly The Dlant


that

hillocks cover

covered is
species variations

and boulders
Kassas

very

%vith rock 61 sparse. "


wide

"certain

%vitti

distribution

morphological

indicative

of

habitat into

features. a tree and of

"

Thus

in

the

moist size,

Zone but in

D. other

mesniliformis zones it

grows is

considerable in the form. size 62 of

smaller

bushy t3 the

111ith regard 0 the utility timber and wood. of

the

logs,

we must

judging beware of/ of the

ancient

libnv-wood Most ones the hbny were

by the objects, not used

standards it is true',

modern are piece

inerchant. the larger

small, of

made from in the ;jejl-

a single el--ilahri

Nione of

-pioces !

99.

shrine, Even frDin than so, the that

for the

example., average

are size

longer of (p. the 27),

than

70

cms, logs, very

(1). 78 as much at Uganda.

n.

69).

utw., orked was not

dedticed less nresent

representations of from Uie lo-s of

Dalberp-ia '.Vest Africa,

melanoxylo and

exported

imiozambiqueq

100.

Notes.
1 J, L. R. L. from 2. F. Burckhardt, 11illt the Cailliaud, A Travels Bibliography times Voyage to in of Nubia., the 1937, akj London Anglo-Egyr uxf'ord Flenve 1819. )tian L9.39,53 See Sudang, ff.

earliest

N14ro4, _.

1j1.anc_. 1'1-deld _'L. _ __1 _z!

de Fazoqj 3. Cailliaud,, Plantes

--op.

Paris . cit.

1826-27. IV (text)., 293-401): "Centiirie de par

d'Afrj(itie et 295-99.

du Voyage decrites

5 ae m4ro', " rectieillies oc par M1. IRaffeneati-Delile

M. Cailliaud, 4. 5. Op. cit.,

On which Gloucester

see Crawford, 1951,227-36. Tothill, of Theodore 'Some

The

Fung

Kingdom

of

Scanar,

6.

See B. H. Travels 109-121.

Extracts

froin SM,', 25(l)

the

Lil'e(1942)v

and

Kotschy'.

7.

G.
und

Schweinfurth
Abbildung

(ed.
einer

) Reliquiae
Anzahl

Kotschyanae.
oder Kotschy 1839 von freien als

Beschreibung
wellig auf Begleiter und

unbeschriebener welche Theodor bis

gekannter seinen Joseph's oberhalb gesanuaelt Kotschy's, Reisen in

Pflanzenarten, Reisen von in den

Jahren in

1837 den

Russeg,,,, er

stidlich der

Kordofan Neger Skizze Ehrenbergg

Fesoglu hat. Berlin Aegypten,

gelegenen Nebst 1868. Libyen, i-'-eisen einer

Bergen

biographischen See also: \fubien durch C. G. und

Theodor

Dongola und West-

(Naturgeschichtliche

Niord-Africa

Asien
Berlin Cf. ,

in

den

Jahren
'Lnot

1820-23.

Historischer

Theil

t. I)p

1828 for

seenj. G. Sch-weinfurt. und 19, der h. 'Ein VegetationsZeitschrift id. 9,

example, zweischen

streifen fu*r 'Flora der

Suakin

Kassala',

allgerneine des k. k. Soturba Zool.

Erdkiinde an Botan.

Berlin

1-865,403-407; Kfiste, in 1, lien

nubischen

1 Verhandlungen 15 (1865)v

GeselIschaft

537-60. 9. D. Oliver and J. G. Baker, 'The Botany of the Speke and

Grant London 10.1.

Expedition' 29 (1875= 'Reiebt-lel'e der 121-305.


j, les en Rapport exp&litions 1875 et 1876, stir les

. aus Kordofan und Darfurp' in 1t22! L(9

Pftindp Mitteilungen 1876-77p J. H. Zarb

Geographischen

*eseltschaft (-,

& specimens

botan_qjet au Kordo_l'an

COIILsj(-s et-au

pendant Darfur

4gyptiennes Cairo 1879.

12.1-1.

Lynesq
sNR. 4p Jebel Normanp 62 (1924)v

'Notes

on the
L. V.

Natural

History

of
'Some

3ebel
Plants

llMarra'q
from C. Bot.

119-37; Marra', 'Plailts 134-38.

Lester-Gurland of Jebel Botany Mlarra, 59

Journal -from

(1921)9,46-48; Darfur', Journ.

13.

R.

(-', Ood,

IT"he Geographical
The New

Affinities
23

of'

the

Flora
266-81.

of

Jebel

Marra.

i-)hytologist

(1924)v

14.

A. F. 1906.

Broun,

Catalogue

of

Sudan

Flowering

Plantsp

Khartoum

102.

15.

G. M. Central

Crowfoot, Sudan, Broun and

Flowering Leominster R. E.

Plants 1928. Flora

of

the

Northern

and

16.

A. F. 1929.

Massey,

of

the

6udan,

London

17.

F. W. Andrews, Sudan, 3 vols., 1, is

The

Flowering

Plants 1950-56. ix.

of'

the

Anglo-Egyptianj j.

Arbroath

18. 19.

Op. The cit.,,

cit. same

Introduction, true of Uganda ix), Drar, Zone 'Lgypt,

(cf. and of

Dale

in

Eggelingo 2kfrica and Lcology. 163: the

OP.

Introduction, (M. in of Arid

North-east Libya Plant 1965j, individual in

generally Sudan'. R.eviews "ecological or 20. G. plant

Lritrea, VI Paris with infancy

Research LUNESCo. connected is in its

'esearch research

species the whole region. ")

comiunities

Schweinfurth, Bulletin

'Sammlung de

arabisch-aethiopischer Boissier 2 (1894). apq.

Pflanzen'.

I'Herbier

2; 21. A.

4 (1896)9 Fiori,

266. e Piante
'Piante Nuovo

Boschi
id., nel 1909'., 19p

legnose
raccolte Giornale

del'i-xitrea,
to nolla

Firenze

1909-1912; Lrit. 1912p 'Flora Botanico 22. 'Egypt, VI 23. Plant rea

colonia Italianov R. R. Pirottaq InstitutO

Botanico 345-493; Annuario

No. della

412-62; colonia

NO. E*ritreal,

2op

di

Roma,

1907,103. Libya 164. of information is dell'Arrica given in: (-;. 'Negri, ILaliana, ' and the budan'. Arid Zone Research

Eritreap Ecology. amount della

A certain 'Caratteri

Vegetazione

orietitaLe

103.

Relazione studi Serinolli, occidentale Botanico 24. On the Sudan, Agriculture Sinith, elation ,. Agriculture, 1949, the Part map do

e communicazioni coloniali ' in Firenze sulla

tenute 19,37,15.9

al

III

Congresso R. del

di Pichi-

3-34;

ffsorvazione dell' Altipiano 47

vegetazione i,.tiopia'. 609-23. of the vegetation Tothill 1948, in Nuovo

versante Giornale

Italiano. principal see F. Vv. in Distribution to ainfall i.,., Sudan 2, not, on these of rainfall. of the

(1940)v

divisions ndrews .;. the 6udan, of Tree in

of )p

the

J. D. Oxford

(ed. Chapter tile

4;

J. in

Species Texture

sudan

and

Soil

LNIiIiistry No. boundaries hard-and-fast species they cross 4J,

of Khartoum shown lines cross wide alon

Government. I& course, for pl. 4.

Bulletin rhe as

Chanter of

existx

traceable most ranges 25. all

ground, boundaries,

individual Just as

A specimen Hist. j

Diospyros from

mespiliformis Azza in Forest, second

in socith canopy tree

the of of

B. M.

LNat. is

Herbarium, as "

Ieridi,, N;

described ion forest.

"ever, reen

high ft.

depress-

A spreading-crowned

80-90

(Gallery of the larger rainfall forests ranked --and

forests streams by tlie

occur and

as are

fringes enabled

along to exist

the

margins a

tinder

lesser "Gallery single Beativ.

more

abundant streams

round-water. ,.,, consist. only of a

on smaller fringe the dominated ebony

by Syzygium

owariense 110chst-T-1

(L)iospyros

mespiliformis

104. (Andrews 26. Andrews


of came 'Nau, Notes 27. 28. 29. :-,mith, Smithp Andrews op. 30. cit., this from at an shru or). op. in

in in

Tothill., Tothill,
Lcoll. left

op. ()r).

cit.,
Cit.. I. E.

5(,, )
-16t '. ndyi -ia

).
489 in 500 the Jur m. 62. B. IM. at orinti ,,,, Bush; (A specimen Nat. IIist,. below J

species the

bank of

of c.

the 400-

River 500

altitude b. ") cit., cit. Tothill, 2,39. Arabic 9 14 15.

"Habitat:

ff.

&

pl.

4.

op.

cit.,

44-15;

Broun

and

Colloquial

'sand

-dune';

jile

j_c1,111 I(ioz-countryt I

is

applied

to

any

part at

of the

the

vast

area

of

fixed in tlie

dunes, Darfur, udanAt .

generally Kordofan 107,125,, 31. Andrews Travels ebonyIj L the hardt tribe west.. " in of in in

reddened and Northern

surface,

occurring (Agric. in

Provinces

832,859). Tothill,, Nubia, grows in or). London the cit.,, 46. Cf. "1 J. L. Burckhar(Ity that it

1-619,314: adjoinin,

understand -, to Darfour

deserts to

According front

information of of the,

obtained Beduin the

by Burckijeni Hassan

P, -Iecca Dar

a pilgrim west

Katakou,

iliornu, the in rnapj

ebony-treep waterless lying between (op. cit...,

was very districtp Dar Rouka fifteen Lnot 1.481). habitat 1-jist. of

common in days journey B. 's on

uninhabited leni, th, and

marked

Darfur

Appendix The B. M. LNat.

a specimen

of

j).

mespiliformis front near

in -, arsila,

the

j Herbarium,

obtained

105.

Darfur,

at

an &44t savannah

altitude areas

of and

c.

2,500

ft.,

is stream

noted beds. "

as "moister LColl.: 32. Andrews LNat. (by Jebel Cf.


The 33.

occasional

D. it, hist-J

Francis, rothin, is later

9/12/571. up. cit. 39. p . collected H. In the in Lynes B. M. 1921

a specimen Rear-Admiral,,

May

Cztpt., INIarra, C.

i. N. ) at 4000 ft.

Darfur. 'Plants

Kellokittingp from Jebel


(May cit...

altitude Marra,
136.

Norman
of in

M,, irfur't

jourmil

Llo. a! y 62 op.

1924), 38.

Andrews

Tothill,

34.

P.

Jaeger,

'Les A:

Plateau

greseaux

du Soudan 21,

occidental. No. 49

'v

BIFAN Oct. 35. 36. loc. G. A.

LSerie 1959,1148. cit., Booth,

Sciences

naturellesj

1150. 'The Forests


(1) 9

of
113.

Upper

Nile

Province.,

1862-1950' 37. (a) "Flora Dalbergia von

SNTR 33 p

inelanoxylon: (3rallabat.

e. g. Umgegend

B. M.

LNat.

Hist-J: gesammelt

von

Niatanitna.

von (b)

Dr.

G.

Schweinfurth. mespiliformis:

1865.11 Broun, op. cit. (1906)p

Diospyros

44-45. Cf. Count Gleichen, prepared 1905,, (ed. ).. The Anglo-Egyptian of' the 6udan Sudan: (lovern-

a Compendium ment, 38. 39. op. I. cit.,

by Officers 107-1()8.

London 186. in and

Specimens Eritrea

tAte B. M. thiopia

LNat.

ilist.

Ilerkirium from the

from Takaze

(Abyssinia)

come

106. river 1. and Keren: iter versus d. 1. iai in Abyssinicuni. fluvium 184C). 11 demissis d. del "No. versus 6 Aug. dei fluvium 184-0.11 Bogos (Abissinia inclanoxylon. Tacaze Tacaze "Arbusculum infra ad latera.

Schimperi montium anne.

Dscheladsclier-

"Arbusculum prope 3. , u.

Dieladjeranne.

Beccari-Piante

Paese 37.

Settentrionale).

Dalbergia

Abita: 5500 40.


Fiori, Hist. sotto SagalU' j i op.

Keren, p. 18T. "


cit., from

sul

Jte.

Deban

fra

4600

293-94. tiamasen m. and

Specimens I'lungo 1600 il

in

the

B. M.

[Nat.

came monti and

turrente and

Ghill between m.

Deksan,

c. s. m. ", Nionte

Aidereso;

Assaorta,

Dijotv

1200-1800.

41.

Andrews 44-45; 'The 44 from (1959) collected Dept., Mist

in

Tothill,

op.

cit., op.

55; cit.,

Broun, 239; Journal of D. t

op.

cit-t

Broun Oasis

and Massey, of Erkwit,

M. Kassas, of LC0109Y

Sudan',

(1956)v the in

180-194. vicinity the B. M. of

Two specimens Erkoweit LNat. in flist. the

illespiliformis 04/E. 37 and the ) are

0 50'N, (18 ] Herbariumt herbarium of

othersq

by Kassas, Cairo University dated

Botany V.

(Communicated 29/9/1959). from

by Professor

Tckholmp 4-2. The annual

letter rainfall 1950,

varies

40 mm. in wet year

1951

to

over loc.

600 mm. in cit., 181).

an exceptionally

(Kassast

107.1

43.

Andrews, exist seems letter 29/9/1959). on to

in

Tothill, Elba, been

op. but renorted

cit., no

54. inbtance from here V.

Similar of

conditions

Jebel have

1). mespiliforinis Murrayp letter 1., Sq. " dated

dated

19/9/1959;

Prof.

Tckholin,

In passing Hiern (op. to

addition reference

to

the

two

spp.

discussed a third, is described forest

above, Alaba abyssinica by Andrews tree up barN

may be made to This

(family cit. 11., high, in

Ebenaceae). 370) with

as a straight-boled (lark-grey Though has, takes in it not to

80 ft.

black-browng

shaggy

scaling producer, a dark stocks. Ghazal.

strips. the tree

regarded to polish Kordofanp

as an ebonyBrokin and and Nlasseyq is used for elgun-

according a fine Sennar, has the

wood which It. In occurs Arabic viz.

and Bahr

same name as Diospyros (Broun and Nlasseyq op* that markings Fiori boschi f"-ecca,
Acrur, di ma con con nodi ed al

mespiliforinis, cit. 158). the near cit. 900 , X35

Gughan, op. cit.

Jukhan 44-45; cit.,

opo

Broun,

Gleichenp 108) states

cit.,

i%gggeling, whitish the wood, centre,

however,, though is this not sp.

(op. hard durable. occurs

and %vith ebony-like According in Eritrea ed in to "nei Val

(op. da

292-93). p a 1600
M.

m. :

(; hinda.

al

Dongollo
Cheren, it

Chereng Hatnasen 3-4 m.,,

Lalamba

presso lie

Chenafenap as an

e ;\ensa". glabro,

describes al --od

"alberetto

simile

Dios! ) ros legno anche bigio

niespiliformisp rossigno nei

fugliame marezzature

verdescuro. nerastre

nero-ebano

103.

centro
of that the it

duro

e pesante.
another stessi

" Fiori
benacea, , caratteri

(op.

cit.

292)
I\ellau del

says
Hochst-

wood of has "gli

Euclea di

(Itiello re piccole in

Diosp. yros 44. Smith,

mespiliformis.,, of

ma raggiun,. Tree Snecies

dimensioni. ---

"

Distribution

the_.,.', udan

34.
45. 46. 47. 48. 49. Id., 01). op. cit.., cit., 23-4. 37-8.

Op. cit., Eggeling,

57. op. cit. 3()(-). , Fifteen Timbersp Oxford Ug* anda

Eggeliwg- and ilarris, 19399 96.

50. 51. 52. 63. 54. 55. 509 57. 58. 59. 6(--'p . 61. 62.

Op. cit.

186-37. 9 Burckhardt, Travels v and time of Ecology,

in Niibia,

314.

Op. cit. Locality Journal loc. loc. loc. loc. loc. loc. loc. loc.

of year? 44,184.

Cit., cit., cit., cit.,, cit., cit. cit., cit.,

182 fil(, -. 1. 184. 186,188. 188. 189. 189p 191. 9 192. 194.

109.

3.

The in of the

evidence

for

climatic the

conditions republic of

in the

historical Sudan consists

times

area

now forming records however, bear and in

written

archaeological using are these uncritically other

remains. sources.

Caution Often

is of

necessary, which climate of written they

changes to the

witness considering in

ascribed The

without

factors. is

interpretation of some diffi-

records,

particular, with

a matter of

culty. and event data against siderably the

We may be presented possibly to is have given which also been which it the

a statement cause, but

an eventt assuming additional the background is conin the

attributed

even

accurately provides

described, some indication the value of

unless of

occurred,

the been

evidence omitted or without the causes

diminished. opinion is required, or

Facts they

may have were

because

narrator's

accidental to establish

interest,

Background of a single

however, a group of

probability and to to

cause other or

interacting which From

eliminate the is event an active

possible in and

factors question. often

may have the

contributed onp man in effecting

change agent, from this

Neolithic one,

a destructive onward, changes, therefore, or

change, must

and

period natural

a distinction due to and been

be drawn

between of

changes activities, have very to

conditions changes started evidence,

outside which, or

andunaided natural In not in view

by human tendency, of our

though

either incomplete this

helped however,

by man. it is

always

easy

retain

distinction

or

to

separate

prime

causes

and

accessory

factors.

In
of is is

Darfur

a southward
towns. "Uri near and at the

trend
J[ebell Kobe N.

has

been

noted

in
(ca. (ca.

former
1500

sites
A. D. ) A. D. )

northern now almost

mutarrag N. W. of A. D., About of the Fasher Marra but

waterless Turra

1800 was supply the Kawa lt

waterless. inhabited only route

end

range the A. D.

densely supports E. -W. Dueim,

about a scanty

1500-1600 population. and Wara

now 1500

main near now

across

Darfur Bara, Uri

Kordofan and N.

ran of

through Lake Chad.

Faragab,

passes Lake

through Chad. " "The 2

Kosti,

el

Obeid,

el

Fasher,

Abeshr

and

S.

Of

pilgrimage from Gao via a retinue that

in In

1497

of

the

Emperor

el and

Haii Bilma

Muhammoud (lat. horses and it is 016 and

to

Mecca

Gades 800

and Agades people must the and have time,

0 N. ) 17 with donkeys shows

of

numerous been whereas century fertile

this

region at the

comparatively part of the of

well-watered desert. the Sahara Since

today the

fifteenth to have

southern

boundary and to

appears The

advanced to the

southwards north of Tahoua

be still

advancing. by people Gale of living

region

was occupied line and sand, Ansongo Lake Gao - In the

in as

permanent as the can the still

villages eighteenth be seen appears the Wadi

on the century in to the be

Agades these

late

remains The

villages of -

present

boundary Lake The Chad evidence Africa

Sahara of

Zinder -of present N.

source as

Hawa in to gradual era

Undar,

a whole the

points

desiccation and the

and E.

between by the

pre-Christian fertility

day,

shown

mainly

decreased

ill.
of of the the Libyan Roman shore Empire, of the Mediterranean, the southwards once extension a 'granary' of the

and

Sahara lat.

froin 0 N. " 15

perhaps The

lat. question

0-19 0 N. 18 arises, climatic advent


in

to

the

neighbourhood whether or 3
of ancient

of this it

however, change of man.

desiccation has been

represents brought
of

a real by the
of

whether

about
failures

Records

water

wells

or

habitations are not

abandoned always

and

now poorly evidence for in of the the the

watered of former

or

waterlesso abundance of

satisfactory the of reasons

water, known, ground are not

nor

are

reduction form of

in

water in

resources the tract

Signs

dug wells, by mounds proof but of

hollows in

surrounded necessarily wells,

'spoil', erstwhile signs which and Past the

seen

a barren of

existence of energetic existed

successful unsuccessful Again, history may have enough, it

may be merely to find water

but there. a

attempts

never

a well-centre, of waning

once

active

productive,

may have

productiveness. and while progressively human of and

achievementsq waning increased

however.,

been

exaggerated, to

may be real consumption with 4 in the

may be due population, in is excess only

by a larger past, and "It such is cases

animal, from the

as compared natural fundamental

replenishment to assess

sources. causes El

possible of

by means within to

observation historic times, of in rainfall,

and measurement. of progressive Failure population in of and small

Obeid

an exampleg not due

exhaustion replenishhuman well-

clearly ment

failure increase

may be due to destroying

animal

activities

surrounding

vegetation

112.

centres. affected deposits seepage. fall in

--by in

A shallow a heavy its place wells floods barren flood

water-supply which erodes

near

a valley

may material

be and

pervious clays which year

finer in and

impervious a watercourse which because aquifer are

which are after

impede allowed year, to the to

Shallow during

re-dug gain impede of is

eventually level This supply few of of is the one in the

become

clays and

access

underground of the Sudan, which All by the of are aid the

water-circulation. of These diminution only be analysis All are waterare of a

commonest and the

causes effect explain causes,

destruction enduring.

the

cases

may local of area

progressive and would scientific

well-supplies. appreciated of the history

a very under

precise

consideration.

independant LItalics The climate sistent accounts. "The

of mine].

climatic 4 of in

(i.

e.

rainfalll

deterioration.

"

statements of and the only Pliny, Sudan

the

Classical

writers times can first of

regarding are often

the incontheir 5:

Graeco-Roman conclusions in the

general writing of the

be drawn

from

century Ethiopia, that trees from are


" 6

A. D.

exploration to of
are

geography Nero, to
of

states lately had/been which Syene rare, on the and

reported frontier
there

the the

Emperor empire
except

showed ...

Merog
the palm

none

species.

Howeverp

"round

Meroi! forest This

(they

reported) and not

greener the tracks

herbage of

and

a certain

amount

of 7

appearedq passage need

rhinoceruses explorers

and elephants.,, had come

imply

that

Nero's

113.

upon

thick

forests; that of through what grass the

that

quoted

from found

Book near

XII,

viiiv was their

19 the long aliquid"

suggests beginning journey

centurions more country, abundant

Wierog after I'silvarum

and

trees Pliny's

desert

and

might still dense of

well found

refer near

to the in

the site the

groves of Island

of MeroLl. of

acacia 8

(Acacia was, Strabo smelting found at

raddiana) however, 9 of speaks iron,

There

vegetation thickets judging

Mero4. the of slag

large

there. by the 10 huge

Certainly piles

which, and

Merog must have

elsewhere.

was carried quantities of trees, though brought use

on on a large of 11 it to of charcoal,

scalep which mostly possible

required more than

considerable areas to-day; been

implies acacia, that 12 much by

extensive are found

doubtless is also

charcoal river. forest the

may have At any

Merog

from

some distance

ratep

the

iron

tools also

clearance fauna of the

generally. Island were wild arid mentions superiority of of

6trabo elephants,

speeded up probably 13 that among states lionst for that criteria and leopardst from and

as well the hotter "

as many other and more He also chosenp existence Island of

animals regions to

who "flee those of the

refuge are watery

marshy. kin-s 0 implies In and Naga, In the

as one in

whereby 14 which

were the the

cattle-breedingg pastures. of buildings at the

extensive

Meroe" rentains are other itself found localities and

of such Shendi South

some size places district. ttierefrom as 15 i

degree

elaboration and Merog

inland in stretching

Musawwarat, region of

114.

are

numerous

ha

irs,

16

or

water-storage

tanks,

which

are

partiCLIlarly 17 line.
is in itself

thick The fact

south that

of these
for

the

Sennar-Jebel sites are


the

Moya vmWd from the Nile

away

interesting,

all

important

Egyptian

Pharaonic
the

remains

further
of

north
these

are
hafirs

near
and in the

the
stone area

river.
and then

Does
red-brick than now?

existence, in'PlY

then,

buildings

a heavier

rainfall

The
were

date

of

the

hafirs

is
during

uncertain,
the great

but

the

majority
of the

probably

constructed

periods

Meroitic for
may

kingdom purpose.
an indication

when 18

plenty At
of

of

prisoners

of

war

were their

available presence
coupled

this
be

the

same time,
in 19 fill rains

however,

a diminution in rainfall.

water-suppliesq Arkell present, soil in 20 points they and

perhaps that all

with though

a decrease few of the these end

out would

hafirs of the

at the

do

so

if

at

in

front

of

them

was puddled the tlie

by human rain water instead climatic out the more the part

feet, of

thus the of

concentrating year into then 150,000 in of that Berber the the were

it from hafirs.

and preventing soaking Crowfoot into

following

ground that pointed in

running

believed

conditions that in 1907

same as now and durra which of were did

much the 21 of ardebs provinceg

produced not comprise

desert titan opinion, of and the

wadis a third too, year.

ancient some of

Island the he sites

Merog. only 23 :

22

He was of for

were writes end:

occupied "These cannot

Uf Musawwarat

palaces have

temples

answered much longer

no necessary in the Irear than

they

been

occupied

115.

is

a shooting

box works 24

in of

Scotland. a dynasty thinks

---great that

they in

were peace durra


lie wadis

in and

fact

the "

superfluous Jackson,
1907 the been and Nile, vation as such been is not far was present reliable cultivating " as

prosperity. of
whether have upon of the

however,

the

yield
doubts would living banks boil

apparently yield of

exceptionally grain to inner describes not the found Shendi as during these it from support valleys them. worth 26 the "a

good., desert settled as 25 well So while

and

enough the

people as far to the the

Crowfoot has as

Conserhafirs

Board north elaborate erected

construct too 27 would

area. those

He is at

doubtful

whether have

buildihgs for use but rainfall.


stated,

Musawwarat only. indicate

a few remains

months may

The

evidence a

conclusive, greater
As already

perhaps

slightly

Pharaonic

Egyptian

remains

at

all

periods, Nile the Valley river

both

in and

Egypt its

and

the

Sudan,

are

confined that

to away allow

the from of Egyptians and

vicinity, were The are in to to that he had roof, when one

an indication generally only the them. his sixth while found which feared year, on his the had traces desert too arid of mines

conditions settlement. the Nile leading dated records Thebes, up to of year its

to

permanent away from

the

ancient

and quarries,,

on the

routes

On a stela Kawa, Shebitku all It at sanded a time Taharqa at

found

in

Temple to of over of join

T at

way north built covered

temple, been

mud-brick, with rainfall. earth. 28 ,

the

occurrence

In

the

very rains

year in

in Nubia

which which

this "made

stela all

is the

dated, hills

there glisten"

were 29

again 9

heavy

and at however, repeated the time

the

same time though claim of

there

was an exceptionally need whereof be attached had not

high to been

Nile. the seen oftsince

no significance that of "the old. and like " this the

those

was nevertheless inscription recording

obviously it was

a very repeated in the

unusual in region

event,

three

do occur Occasional heavy rains places. 30 to-day, but the sanding and even further north, arid east climate. of the during rate Upper of to Nile Valley, however,,

up indicates The does times tribes Nile the at high high

a normally ground have

and west more at herds. at rain

seem to

received sufficient

Middle permit

Kingdom pastoral of the

and earlier, to live with Eir

any In

their Arib pass

Egypt

east

Nlegwel

an altitude Gebel Garf, to could ground

509 metres,

below dated was

mountain only

of

a cattle the live above

cemeteryp period, 31

(though found

by a single where a Gilf culture

potsherd) no cattle

C-Group to-day.

on a site to of 'C-Group'

According the of till cliffs the

Murray, the

the

high

600 metres, inhabited been finally

below by people deserted

Kebir,

was certainly have

about Near

2500-2000 Jebel broken and Tageru

and may not 32 B. C. " Newbuldts of " pottery Other bore party

in

1923

came across many broken near at Um Gerein/ patterns.

"Countless stone furtiier querns

sherds pestles. route,

and sherds

a good obtained

north

on the

well-marked

incised

117.

On the habitation

north

slope sites

of with

the

Wadi

Hawar heaps

traces of

were bones,

found

of

old

scattered

potterysimilar

to

that

obtained similar of Jebel

at to

Um Gereinatq those 33 found

and along

sandstone the

grinders of

and the also

pestles cliff been

underside grindstones and between nature used dry 2000 present. relatives is

Tageru.

Pottery Bir its

and Natrun

have

found

between Pottery

INIerga and being discovery, seed, in indicates higher

Lagiya of for for B. C. " 34 of the little grindpera

and Merga. use ing to

from

breakable with areas stones

nomads, its or grass

along these to rainfall of these

grain

now too "before tne

manent phase

habitation of somewhat see in

Arkell than

He would cattle-owning impossible old

the

owners of

C-Group that it was

whom lie

remains 55 "it says:

by no means of their

the

increasing

desiccatiun

homelands, till they were, wherever and where conditions hact tnenprobably in present those day northernKordofang resembled t thas brought the C-Group in Nubia into Valley tiie Nile people from the steppe the is/more probable from Wadi It deserted the or have size the is Howar country ------either pots which west or east of it. been The west brought pots. now determine waterp may months in " 36

and potsherds are connected in of its the

have with case of

C-Croup an area to way of

difficult, shows

however, traces

which of length the

former

habitation, in the in for

population, its sojourn. of

demands The places used

of

question a few

been

some sort

transit-camp

only

over

a period

of

centLiries,

or

settlements

ocetipied

for

118.

period population

of

a few and

years. rainfall

37 over

Again,, the

ver, , precise period of

statistics would

of be

occupation

required changes
area

before alone
water

it were

could

be proved for

that

general.

climatic move from


I emmigration

res-Oonsible
originallYabun,,

an enforced
iant. For

an

where

was

may

have by In

been an

the

result

of human

the and

overtaxin animal Arkell

of'

the

water 38

supply

increased near the

population. thinks that "the

and

Nile

Valley

fact of

that cattle

the in

C Group Lower
that

people

could

keep

a considerable conditions are

number so

Nubia,
the

where
of

desert
an

severe

to-day

owner

oxen-driven

water-wheel

has the

difficulty year,

in indicates

keeping that third the in river Nile

one

or

two

beastsalive has B. C. increased To keep there provide

throughout in cattle must have this

desiccation millennium C Group the rainy "

latitude in the

since numbers

the that rain the of

people reason 39

did,, to

been

sufficient outside bank 4'0

grazing to Cataractt is are

grounds the west

valley. in the the

Again, of of the the

referring 6econd west

the

region

he writes: now too traces inhabited west fact present bank of

"Although to

hinterland any human

bank there have

waterless of villages or at two

support graves would This

habitation, it must needed

and forts

there,, not have

and

been

been

on the with of the the cattle

Semna. river at

inhabitation, being the 26 feet presence

together above of the those

the day

levels

Semna and

C Group

119.

in

Lower

Nubiat

indicates

a climate

rather

less

dry

than

at

the

present the

day. 11 significance 41 of here it the Nile records only at Semna I that,

With have
while during they since

dealt
they the cannot that

elsewhere;
do

need
to

be remarked
flood than at level

undoubtedly to

point Thirteenth

a higher

Twelfth be date. suggest cited

Dynasties of of climatic the pasture in fact

presentp in Nubia does

as The

evidence

change cattle

existence abundant there

C-Group in

admittedly than at

more but was

Lower

Nubia rainfall?

present,

a heavier

Many al
of

of of

the Nubia

Pre-dynastic in
"The

bodies were
to

found in

by the

Archaeologicstate
of

Survey

1907-08
degree

"truly a
the .

wonderful"
preservation

preservation.

which

even

the

most 11 (No. was was the of

fragile 42 45) For at

parts

of

the in

body many Dehmit, and

is

carried in skin

is the large

astonishing. cemetery the body

example,

bodies "the hair, being

Shem Nishai, complete, and

covering of the ...

practically fresh-looking of paraffin ancient

the of other

even

eyebrows, without The like for skin ... special

capable any

removed

aid these The

wax or bodies of is eye

preservative. hard of thing at and the papereye calls so after does may be "The reason a the

has the

become tissues

preservation for as five every it the

mention, a structure

a remarkable should years. of its remain Yet gross condition.

that all

delicate lapse eye of

four

or but

thousand detail and

not

only

remain,

anatomy 43 11

identified

in

a dried

shrunken

120.

for that air reach

the they was,

extraordinary were in buried part, they When, in with

perfection in shallow excluded became however, the Middle simply

of

these in them; dried were New

bodies the hot

is

the dry

fact sand; did not

graves from

great and " 44

moisture up and sunk

them;

naturally to a greater the bodies their

preserved. depth, came as into

graves and moisture

commonly contact

Kingdoms, which

subsoil

hastened

decay, quite Middle whilst with are often it

for

"desiccation grave, caused

occurred and the

only digging of making where the

when of this of

the deeper

body

lay

in in the

a shallow Empire in the

graves

a diminution the In graves 46 it seems had frorn just at

preserving deep pits did these

actionp away periods are

New Empire, 45 1?

completely. in well these itself shallow

cases near

bodies surface,

of

buried very From

they

too

preserved. remarks, moisture medium) there buildings

clear

that

in

the the earliest

Nubian sand

Nile

Valley

never above

penetrated since the there have the First has

(a very bodies In the

permeable were buried

before Kerma

Dynasty* certainly had

47 not the 48 on to the west 50

mud-brick

been rainfall The

as much deterioration since the state bodies since the time of fuund the of

as would their

occurred been hair

construction of 49 the

heavy. skin

excellent the

preservation in time paving was th tumuli of of for their

and

some of dry drain wall

likewise

points

conditions beneath at Sesebi

burialt'cLftether gateway in off the

stone

the

(Dyn.

XVIII)

carrying

rain-water

121.

seems chapter,

doubtful. it appears

In

view unlikely

of'

the that

other the

evidence regular

cited rainfall

in

this was

heavy

enough The

to

necessitate on the of Abu

the surface Simbelp


preservation, of that

construction near of the

of KhafrO

drains. quarries, of
that

discovery

60 km. north-west
Kingdom than date in away, 51

a copper
and was has the

crowbar
fact standing no as great already

Old
less and

perfect a stela

a mile

Khufu there

found been

unweathered, of rain

suggests the Valley

amount notedp

outside

either,

except,

on the In that

higher

ground. times took In climate (about slight than high it "evidence place Egypt which 4000 at to-day. plateau to from there there ended B. C. ). its close, East of the in Sudan suggests times

Prehistoric interlude B. C. ) in ... the

a rainy

Mesolithic

(8000-4000 amelioration predynastic the rainfall

was a corresponding in the 'early this interlude was

period' was hotter on the

During the the

and, is

temperature Nile the of that have the of

probably climate Galala

limestine

(1200 have

metres)

mountains

may be presumed as a few northern of the

resembled trees were of

present-day to remind ... the us.

Palestine, The West sea and

terebinth

survived

Red Sea Hills river the aspect

doubtless the plateau been Northern and and seen be / may

wooded between that Sudan, over the of

the

Qattara ... like chased those the of

depressiun south of again,

must in

have the

modern the

Cyrenaica were

plains the "

Kordofan the rainy

to-dayv giraffe interluae

them

hunters 52 M

ostrich, this

elephant.

Relics

122.

in with

the

Wadi the

Qenaq of

for

example, tamarisks rare of

where and

"the

floor of

is

covered

trunks the wind

dead the shells

mounds have which

humus which been able

neither to carry

nor the

floods snails out

as yet lived soil

away; vegetation

on the over in a wide about channel silt years

former area 4000 of in

may be picked Desert. this; ...

of The

the

the

Eastern

situation main the drainage fine

B. C. was country it had but 'wadis' " 52

therefore the begun Nile to

in

the

the

was depositing bring down of from the

black 4000

which before, into rain.

Abyssinia desert. ran

the

watercourses only

had degenerated with water after

which

occasionally

However, present not

"after of for

the total

cessation aridity The and

of in

regular Upper

rainfall Egypt would treesp

the

conditions

be reached

some time. Balanites moisture The wind

larger dom-palms,

desert would but the

acacias, from could at the not

tamarisksp air sufficient

obtain seeds all

to

live,

53

their humus

mature. the

would would

not

remove sink very after

once

and

subsoil the " 52 rain The border

water would finds of

slowly. it has ceased

On the in the

foothills plains. the

continue from

along Bovier pottery both ly

southern

Egypt,

discovered sites eight 54 by dated which were included area in the have Dynasty some deserts subsequent-

Lapierre disks east

as generally which occur of the

'predynastic'v "over Nile. with a wide 1,55 First

and west found

Such or

disks

been

associated

Second

123.

pottery. wide

56 district,

These now

finds quite

indicate uninhabitable,,

human

occupation round the

over wells

of rain

Sheb but

and Tarfawi. an occurrence


people to live

At of

these subsoil
in

places, water
oases

however, near
for

it the

was not surface that

enabled

there

some

centuries

after

the

cessation
of the

of
area,

rainfall,
perhaps table,

and the
c. 57 3000

cause
B. C.,

of
was

the
the

final
fall

abandonment in the

subterranean

water

In writers, indicates of Nubia

general, the that after Committee of

then,,

the texts, has

evidence and

afforded arctiaeological change

by

the

Classical

Egyptian there the

research in the climate

been

no basic The

Neolithic.

same conclusion Sudan '58 Government history research in the

was reached to of consider the covers distrithis

by the the

appointed soil

by the

question

conservation: from and

"The

Northern a period bution period ially or or

Sudan of

as known years of to

archaeological there is nothing

5,000

condition of graves from

buildings suggest of

erected that to-day. the " 59

throughout climate

was essent. -

different

that

L24.

1.

Sudan

Government, 1944,125 in cit., cit. XII, Strabo op. cit.,

Soil ff, 154.

Conservation

Committee's

Report#

Khartoum 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Arkell Op. Op. N. H. Cf.

153-54. 126-27. viii, XVII, 19. 19 53: "As for those Ethiopians who

extend either, inhabit id. part

towards nor

the

south collect

and Meroi,, in one stretch

they mass, of "lead

are

not

numerous as they " most the Of

do they

inasmucit river for

a narrow, lp 3: and the " xxxv,

and winding these

land; the of

XV11v 9

'Ethiopians' life of the

a nomadic of

resourceless and

on account

barreness its 7. N. H. climate. VI,

country

unseasonableness

185:

"Herbas apparuisse

circa et

Meroen

deMLIM viridiorest elephantor-

silvarumque umque vestigia. 8. Cf. too

aliquid 11

rhinocerotum

Wainright, from rain claims VI,

SNR 26 xxxv,

(I)v 196

21. that as far

Certainly in

it

cannot the as

be inferred tropical Lavauden past, Soc.,

Roman times north of to

forest ('The and

extended Equatorial

as Khartoump Africa: Journ. of the its Roy. Upper fauna if

Forest Supplement ('Forests 113J near

present, 1937);

future'.

Afr. Nile

followed

by Booth SNR 33 (I)p

Province, tioned,

1862-1950.1 "elephants

Of the

the

menthe

could

have

lived

Nile

125.

country of es grass can

was or

fairly marsh

thinly remained very dry

populated, by the

and river; "

a certain while

amount rhinocerus'Changes

withstand

climates.

(Jackson,

in 59;

the cf.

Climate p. 54.

and Vegetation Cf. SNR 34

of (2),

the 317)

Sudan,

' SNR 38,

XVIlp 10. 11. 12. Cf. Cf.

29 2. Wainright, Arkell, Hist. loc. sunt to-day SNR. 26 (I)J, Sudan, cit., is 20 ff. 147. n. 5, notes that "hard wood negro "

Wainright, such as the of 2v 3. cit.

21 and considered for the

necessary of

by various good iron.

smelters 13. 14. 15. XVII., loc.

production

See Hintzeq 1958', Kush At

'Preliminary 7p 171-96. ten miles

keport

of

the

Butana

Expedition

16.

E. g.

tAlem,

north-east 42

of ff,

the );

Merog Crowfootp Ip 29 2; J 4;

pyramids The

(Addison Island London 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Arkell Idein,, Op. Agric. An ardeb Crowfoot, Op. cit., of

and Dunham, Merog Land

SNR 5 (I)v Nleroltic 22-23,280

Inscriptions, 29; p1s. in

1911,14-159 in Hist. Tothill Sudan, 166-68. in the 336 = op. 40. 61. Sudan, rotls. cit.,

13. 15.

(ed. 166.

).

Agriculture

the

Sudanp

cit.,

15. Ll 10, rotl n. 2. = approximately 1 lb. ]

SNR 389

126.

25.
26. 27. 28.

op.

cit.,

29.
loc. see cit. Hintze, The Kush Temples IV, 7.179-83 of Kawa, of and I. year p1s. The 4b-49. Inscriptions,

Jackson, On which M. F. L. Oxford

Macadam, 1949,15.

Inscr.

stela

6.11.10-11.

29.

Macadam, 1.9.

op.

cit.,

25v

27.

Inscr.

V,

stela

of

year

6,

30, 31.

Cf.

Macadam,

op.

cit., of

18,

n.

26; in the

Jackson, Eastern Egyptian 117,433. ware

SNR 38p Desert

56. of

G. W. Murray, Egypt'q

'Graves 248 -

Oxen

JEA 12p

49;

id.,

'The Journ. incised

Climate; The

An Historical one sherd found pottery.

Outline',, was of 11

Geo! j. W "brown

resembling

C-group 32. 33. Id., D.

Geogr. Newbold,

Journ.

117,432. odyssey pls. 1-3. Background (ed. ). of Sudan in of a Thousand iviiies't

'A Desert

SNR 7,54,59,62; 34. A. J. Arkell, 'The in Oxford London in

Historical J. D. Tothill

Agriculture', the 35. 36. Hist. Cf. Soil Sudan, Sudan, Idemv

Agriculture

1952,14. 1955,49. the Sudan, 14; Report, Sudan Govt. p 19449 Climates in

Agric.

Conservation XXV (G. 153. to which

Committee's Andrew, 'Notes

Khartoum

Appendix the 37. Such

on Quaternary

Sudan'), may prove Sudan

be the have

case not

with yet

some sites been fully ---

in

the

north

western for

examined, between J.

Il

example

Arkell's

"Iron-age

sites

127. Meidob Cons. 38) Soil and J. Teiga, now waterless 154) Appendix Creep'. XVII, 127. G. Andrew, and deserted" (Soil

Comm. Rep., Cons,

Comm. Rep. on Desert 49.

'Memorandum 39) 40) 41) Hist. op. Sudan, cit,,

66. IX of my History Empire to of the Nubia fall there Archaeological Report on the of from the decline

See Chapter of the

Ramesside

MeroLd (in cited. Survey of

preparation) 42) Elliot Nubia (Cairo 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) id. Smith id., id., Murray, Reisner parts "in two ibid. Smith

and the

literature

& Wood Jones, vol. 190. II.

1907-1908v 1910)t

Human Remainsp

& Wood Jones, op. op. cit., cit., Geogr. (Harvard I-III, recent or three gentle Heavy 192. 193. Journal

op.

cit.,

189-190.

[italics

mine).

117,432. Studies 269-70) has In which such been V: Excavations that at at Kerma,

African Mass., there

Camb. times, years.

states a slight 1913,1

Kerma every a day at

rainfall witnessed all years

February, lasted as occur southp Kerma,

steady long. Napata according once in

shower rains, year

intermittently every are few

and every to the

farther at

almost

unknown be impossible

people "

but

may not

a generation. from

Apart

sacking

and

burningg

the

poor

state

of

128.

preservation to 49. centuries keisner, (K (K

of of op.

most erosion cit., 465

of

the by 357

Nubian wind-blown (K 1074,

sites

is sand.

due

entirely

E. g. 27,3 363

Body Body 1088).

A), B).

451 F C1.

& pl. pp.

1806)9

& pl. B and of pl.

309 C),

1 (KXX, 364 of 1.6) to is be (K

1085,

Bodies at', aa 267-68; this at

49a.

The Kerma prove the

finding IV-V, that region

figures 55v was

elephants not found even if

(Reisner, sufficient in it or near to

pachyderm that not note 249 152, time.

Moreover

wasits

presence rainfall. 50. Fairman, 92-93. 51. 52. 53. Murray, Murray, Throughout

would (Cf. JEA

necessarily 8). followed

indicate

a higher

by

Arkell,

Hist.

Sudan,

Geogr. loc. the

Journ. cit., whole

117,432. 429-31. distance from Deir Tasa to

Khawaled

Brunton

found

tree-roots,

probably

of

Acacia

distance or Tamarix spp., sometimes at a considerable below the present edge of the cultivation, and often well from the present/-desert "Their seems surface. presence to indicate that at the water date when they either into had the been flourished froin Nile, dug direct than through that there the periodp .--

there rainfall, is

was a better or from

supply,

sidestreams O. K. were froin graves clearly Badarian

now. " the

Since trees date 67-68).

roots,

growing times.

before

and may well Mostagedda

(Bruntong,

54.

P. A.

Clayton,

'The 1930-1931, 19,254-65.

South-Western Bull. LNot 432. pl. 9; MUrray Bull. have Soc. seeni.

Desert Roy.

Survey de G4ogr.

Expedition, dtEgypte, 55. 56. Murray, id. JEA

orn. -To = Geogr 117p 259 pl. du D4sert, 38-39; 20,1; 1

and de not

Myers, ItInst.

JEA Fouad

19,132; Ier. named].

Murray, (1951) LI

seen

the

last-

Journ. 57. 58. 59. id.,, Soil Cf. _= Conservation cit. that has since Geogr. 117., 4321,434. Report, .... very 6. strong with its for wet evidence normal better phase or of Committee's "There climate is of

op. the in/Sudan

8: t the

to-day

variation worse

undergone close [the of'

no basic the final

change major in in which the

the times

Pleistocene civilization Northern is against in

Makalianj at 145: change years. w.ithin back any least "The in "; the into

a Neolithic Central of and

flourished, Sudan. "; any the p.

balance climate p. 157:

evidence taken evidence by times

secular 3,000

having "The covered

place of

last

measurable

changes research of

period

archaeological shows

pre-dynastic changes. "

no indication

major

130.

vi.

Thjfough during the

Nubia last from fifty

has

experienced centuries, effects of on the the of the

no

great area

climatic has suffered Erosion forcesp

changes very may such be

considerably defined as of rainfall slope and as the

the

soil of under cover. and the

erosion. climatic varying It result I.Inder balanced by is

result wind,

impact land

and

conditions one of of its the action most

natural of natural

vegetational processes of of

fundamental is seen in

the land, is

the the

configuration normal rate

natural by the the natural developes balance coverp soil erosion, is rate

conditions of soil

erosion being is it of it by is

formation, cover; erosion by

protection erosion can the or, carry removal as

afforded and VAien

vegetational faster upset, than

retarded away. the

topsoil the

however,

vegetational termed, treatment, ruin to of

accelerated sets steadily The in, and

erosion, unless and to

usually

checked leads which to

adequate eventual is liable

becomes the land. varies with

worse extent

the

erosion

occur

the by: (a) (b) (c)

conditions,

but

at

any

point

its

incidence

is

determined

The The The land.

amountp force of

distribution the prevailing and

and

intensity winds. the

of

the

rainfall.

configuration,

particularly

slope,

of

the

(d) (e)

The

erodibility

of

the

soil.

The vegetative

cover.

131.

(f)

The With

system regard

of to

husbandry rainfalIq

and it

soil is not

management so much

practised. the amount of

rain

that

falls it very

during comes. severe

the

year

that heavy losses

is

important, fall in damage, of of

but a few while

rather

how and when may occasion

A single soil over

hours the days or

and

same precipitation weeks depends equal, run can cause little slope

spread

an interval rhe rate and more

several of

harm. of the the slope, moving

movement things does

water

on the the it,

land, the

other rapidly has

being water

stee, -)er and

down

rapidly

water

great

erosive

power,
Some soils erode easily while others, under the same or

comparable erode factor, easily resist and The very

rainfall little. Coarse-textured

with The

similar texture soils the

slope of the

and soil raint'all run-off have

vegetational is

cover,,

an important to penetrate thereby sub-soils occur. of wateran important is

permit of

and

thus

reduce but

amount such

and

erosion, impeded structure of

where

soils erosion

impervious

drainage, of a soil

serious (by

may nevertheless meant the into


also a crumb and

which soil

is

state larger
has

aggregation
stable influence well ingress structure receives;

the

ultimate

particles
as in to crumbs) which erosion

compound on

particles

known Soils resistant deep

erodibility. are more and

structure allow Crumb easy

developed of

rainwater is intimately continuous

root

penetratioti. with tends the to treatment break

connected cultivation

the down the

land soil

aggregates,

while

resting

land

under

a snitable

fallow

cover

132.
tends to promote crumb structure.

lt viz.

is

in

connexion system of

with

the

last

of

the

factors that the

listed influence

above, of

the his

husbandry has made

practised,

man and

animals

itself

felt.
The archaeological and textual evidence animals taken alike in attest Nubia the from after

existence a very his raid

of early into return

numbers of domestic 2 Among the booty period. Nubia through was and (Ta-Nehes) Lower were Nubia

large

by Snefru cattle third small

200,000 his and of

and sheep. journey cattle' Setjuv JwJand to

On his

after

Yam Harkhuf (i. e. sheep 4

presented goats) later

with by the

'cattle chief Sixth of

Irertjet, live of

wawat. cattle Irtjet

Rather appear which

in

the gifts

Dynasty the chiefs

and wndw-

among the Pepinakhte between Eleventh The

brought the the

to end

the of

Residence. the Sixth

Wawat and 5 Dynasty and the arrivei

At beginning in Lower

some time of the 6

cattle-owning of to these people them they

C-Group cannot the forced

people

Nubia. recent west

origins tends

be discussed steppe to migrate the

here; country

opinion of the

derive whence

from were

Nile

from 7

by increasing pastures lich wohl (cf.

desiccation, possibly caused 13 ff. 9 8 thinks pp. 11'711. Steindorff of 1 Hirten, die die vergleichbar Grassteppen

by overgrazing them den as QrsprUngBaqqrag

nomadisierende

'dem Rinderhirtenstatrunel, bevolkern, 5stlichen (P. 117) to the Wadi oder den Maldza, "

Kordofans der been Natrun,

heute

Idem Ziegenhirtenstammel Reference Merga Tageru, has and of already Bir

WUstenstriche. the Howar, discovery and near

made along

between Jebel

incised

sherds

133.

resembling, grinding that the

C-Grouo

pottery., grass the such, to

associated (7) seed. if not Nile

with These the entirely Valley.

stones finds of

used suggest these even

for

grain C-1 anTstors were their

(? ) or of

C-Groupq were the

owners

remains before

indeed migration

nomadic

Be that sedentary apparent cemeteries,


Settlements a number near of

as

it

may,,

they

certainly in their of Lower large the

became Nubia. and graves 9

comparatively This is

after from

their their the

arrival pottery, development


or notably the 13 west That

numerous therein.
nature

and
of

10
existed at L2

a permanent

semi-permanent at bank at Aniba, of ',. adi ',, the 11 ;Nile

localities, 11 and on at and/i--aras.

',", 'adi

el-Arabo

Amada, 12

ot)posite consisted of

Korosko,

el-Arab

"a small
set upright

group
in

of
the the

huts

constructed
and having of of wattle the door

of' rough

boulder
of r. 11

stones
and

ground whole

bonded

by means

a rubble 14 The slabs

'cement'. inud roofs formed two with bones included pots; el-Arab argue ment corn were the

a mud renderin,,, and in daub. eacii The were

presumably threshold

Flat room. floors

stone In

one were covered animal whicl-i cooking at VO'adi did settleof four not

bins

and of

a small charcoal

magazine. in rubbish, of bowls, were also which

were

a deposit and other many sandstone "the a very covered

interspersed as and pottery rough Though

village 0 fraginents -Drinders of

as well jars,

found. and

depth long

the

charcoal 1115 at area,

rubbish

deposit the

occupation,

Anibaq

where was

a much larger

evidence

found

134.

Occupation separated 60 cnis. in

levels, by layers

each of

averaging sand varying

about in

2,'--', cms. )laces

in from

der. )tIt., 30 to

depth. their evidence round semi-settled tnat their the existence, main interests herds and however, of flocks. the there C-Group Next

Despite is abundant centred

people

large

to ladi

the

entrance

in

one

of

the stone at

rooms

in

the

settlement 17 The

at

el-Arab, stone

was a small stelae bear placed incised incised or

tethering-posC. in the

large 0

intervals

cemeteries Of herdsmen of placed


the of

frequently cattlep are cattle,


or near

Painted of 19

representationS cattle Skulls were and their and horns

18

and

drawings pottery. and

common on C-Group goats,


the

sheep,

gazelle
of the

sometimes
20

on

superstrLICtures placed sheep, has been in

graves were These than of on

Ainont-r clay inodelso

objects animals which beings, to of as his milk, period animals, detail-, the

comwonly more cattle, care

I he

graves

figures on of liuman

and

goats.

expended

those and to tile

siiow

a close partiCLIlar

observation care 21 being These the to

nattire

attention shaning intended in

applied fi. gures deceased supply In to

head

and

horns, for the were in

were had him the bury in the

c1o(irly possessed with later sacrificed grave

substitutes lifetime and it

herds supposed the

and clothing became usually

meatv C-Group

hereafter. practice also goats,

a frequent sheep but

with

the

deceasede

22

Frequently

bodies

were

wrapped

in

leather,

23

135.

and

numerous

examples with caps. under tliou,,,,, Iits of of the

have

been 23 and,

found less

of

leather

kilts sandals 'tibn' with his the other herds. burial .6 23

embroidered and were tasks, On the chambers,, at Aniba leather placed the walls

beadwork,, 23 the of Leather head. the

comi-jionly, stuffed with occupied to also

pillows 23 Even

when man

C-Group and E. Uptian incised or

turned

shafts, in the of

occasionally New Kingdom

tombs

cemetery

are by

a number the native

painted on

'doodlings' their con.. zitructionjo in these 24

executed The

Nubians cattle

employed and of

frequency is in the

with surely minds

which an of

herdsmen what. In

appear

drawings place

indication the 'artists'.

occupied the Annals

a prominent of Tuth-

mosis

Ill
So far

cattle

figure

regularly
only

among the
evidence there herds at is

in, post
from

of Wawat.
better

25

we have area of

discussed Lower Nubia,

the

documented for the

b(it

abundant in the

evidence

existence south. year,

of On his

large

flocks

and stela

region to into sheep belonghis

further eighth Nubia ing to In "there buried of the

boundary III places of "any

Semna,

dated entry or

besostris of this

a ban on the cattle, goats

nortli t Lhe were entire. large

point

Lumuli in

at

Kerina, all

in

additi. from

on to one to the of

the

human sacrifices rains edge

almost 1127

graves surface

a dozen southern over,

On the K. III Reisrier

along

tumulus in which 28

was a crescent would found see in the

a Jiundred of the always

Ox-skulls, funerary

rentains and

feast.

Commonly

graves,

nearly

136.

in

pairs, were of they or

were

small

cylinders as

of

bone,

ivory,, for

or placing

inlaid on In

wood the

which horns cases Ox-hide

identified Ue sacrificial were actually

horn-protectors rams found to in CUt tfie prevent position to fit.

goring. on the for the the inside lifting,

several horns, the were 29

rams' of

sheep-skin and with 'Nubian were sheep, with of the uses thongs and

covers, a tag at

bed-frame common Cemetery The er hides or cured in

head-end and on oxen Leather the in

the hides of

Cemetery'p also goats,, hair for and found and on.

'Egyptian' under the bodies. into were put 30 leathto a

beds were

also and

tanned

rawhide

great sandals, stringing found

variety plaited beds were

making girdles,, etc. 31

bags, caps, The it

skirts, pot-netsq

scabbardsp for garments to they

stools, skirts. animal and

most was not

common

leather from goat, to of pairs, of which

Though the skin

possible of have 32 wilich

determine were skins the one made,

was would

taken all leather.

sheep, the

gazelle of every from

yielded Most of

suitable sandals, or more strips

production probably cut

this grave

which were ox-hide

contained piece were of tised was

originally 331, thick for cowhide. the of

a single the hair

Narrow diagonal strips

without the

bed-stringing; of goat-hide was a very with

stool-stringingr hair material hairnins, still at on. 34

ustially

the

Bone awls, The goat.

common

Kerma,

being inlaysp of'

used

for et. C. or

threadersq bone 35 most

spatulae, commonly used

bracelets, the leg

was

from

a sheep

137.

In imports

the from

New Kingdom Kush, 36 In

cattle the

appear Papyrus

regularly Koller, for

among

the a

example,

Nubian is

chieftain "in
cattle, their pastoral

is all

warned its

to

make

certain namely.,

that

the

tribute Of
----; land ;37

made ready

details,,

oxens, yotinglings
gazellesp etc. to their

long-horned their barges, Among

short-horned cattle-ferries ileoples the

cattleg ---

being

ready of

survival-value

animals
very

is

of

--reat C1
and

importance,
since the

for

without

them life
cannot know

is
in ad-

difficult,

cattle-owner

vance having against


ruthless

which the

of

his

beasts

are

the

hardy, 38 the as
the

the only

best

looking guard let

often

lowest

survival-value, is
of

way to and
do

disaster
process

to
the

breed
survival

as many
of

possible
fittest

the
weeding

tile

out. as they

Moreover, obviously to

among did

people to the

to

whum animals there social

mean so much, is and of a strong domestic the cattlebond q

C-Group, all

tendency activities,
owning Under limit

associate so much

them so that
his

with the

attachment
becomes is, In

tribesman such the

to

beasts there herds.

circumstances size of the

almost a religious doubt(ess reluctance andAwas, great Nubia certain

to

Pharaonic

factors, check about probably stationed


by the

it

is

true.,

existed Apart is to or in from known,

which the large

undoubtedly incidence numbers for the of of

did cattle

serve

as

on numbers. which nothing

diseasep were troops taken


were populatioN

animals

slaughtered in
temple

provide transit.
in

meat

Egyptian doubtless
live the

Nubia
estates,

Others
the New

were

and to Egypt.

Kingdom

cattle

regularly

exported

Nevertheless,

animal

138.

particularly and Nubia The livestock become dry was result on

sheep almost of the

and

,, oats,, .

must

have

been

very

considerable.,

certainly over-stocking

overstocked. is oastures over-concentration which low in consequence or the a long available gross produces structure prevents inhibits hnchor' the is overof

available In

over-grazed. concentration water of land of is in

areas of

with livestock

rainfall around consequent Trampling

season, of

sources trampling such badly the

more their

intense vicinitY. that grazing, trees annual

with

compaction affected. waRd

the

soil

its

physical and shrubs which treading and

Persistent of of

regeneration of a cover

and weeds

formation

would

the would these to

soil

and which, surface become This even of in

by the

growth more rain

and

death

of

tiieir

roots9 do

make tile layers depth. why, rainfall

layers that lack areas what of

permeable, does fall into

So hard cannot the soil

penetrate is the

any

percolation receive

reason buted

which

a fairly the

well-distrimay be rainlife the is desexposed

reasonable spp.

quantity, Under in off

vegetation

dominated fall when truction Ate swift Large liave been, is of

by xerophytic little of of the the

such relation

circumstances to plant IJth surface and trees rain.

significance water runs

most

the

surface. the soil

vegetational and desert are,

cover, erosion scrub, destroyed (as well as

deterioration tracts and still of

by wind forest to

and grass for honey-

clear

areas and

Cultivation

and grazing

by hunters

139.

gatherers, Where leads the to

who

use

the are

smoke

from

fires native soil the

ti)

overcome agricultural and are the g.

wild

bees). practice

clearings an undue of tney is

cultivated, of the

exposure the are soil. invaded by fires

surface clearings

to

swift

deterioration for of of grazing, which cases tO fires plains the 40

IVhere by

destined

grassland,, bi.irnin. of' control

rejuvenation In and the cause and for the majority serious annual open which proplains

guaranteed grass adjacent are and the

periodical get out

these the

damage grass grass are vince.

vegetation. elements largely 'heglig', at present

iiuman

habitation

responsible Balanites iii the

scattered 1'eature

aegyptiacaq tipper ()f Nile the

outstanding Much of' the

!)resent

savannah

woodland

around the
of tend few

the

Imatong of
has the

Mountains the forest

was for

originally cultivation.
fires

destruction
grassland to invade each

produced 41 Once aii


in penetrate decades destroved. it

through area

been

established, of so the forest in of the

arisin, and may of be

will it or a

edge

metres

year,

that

course will fire as it the

centuries Apart direct froin

considerable direct actit, of and the effect

areas on

forest

vegetation, life

exercises leads to

an a gradual of

in-

harmful

ri on soil

nlant by

degradation matter, the

inhibiting wiiich 42

production inseparable

organic

accelerates of natitral

erosion, regeneration.

is

from

problem

In for

addition

to

c;4ttle, of

sheep

and

goats The

43

are

responsible live on

much destruction country than

vegetation. while the

former can

can exist

poorer

cattle,

goat

on anything

14-0.

that

is

not

absolute

desert.

It

suffers

from

few

epidemic

diseases
means states the which ularly camel, but the of

and

short

of
its camel

Corced
numbers. and roots

slaughter
Flo%ver, do thus not

there
cited -, raze loosen Both

seems
by but the

no
44-

limiting "the by

Robinson, tear fertile are " out

that vegetation is

goat and

the

soil partic'i'lle 45 CelUtin

blown

away

from to all not

the

land. of in

animals or shrubs.

destructive of course, has trees

kinds known been

trees Nubia The

was always only are

before occurrence enclaves,

komail of where period every

goat of

there. mountainous for

species domestic

within concentrated

animals

a certain

year
cases

in

the

plains
to

surroundin

those

mountains,
), tjctjjirly tj,

is

if'

MMAY

due

mainly

bro,. \, * -siii,, C) anim. -Als,

among >

spineless is out mainly of

species. confined of

At. Jebel to camels to the and

Elba.

for

exaiople., places, Donkeys peel for

Nioringa which

aptera are

most

difficult 16 often rather metres,

reach of

goats. They

too off the and

do a certain the bark of

amount young material peeled on the

damage

trees. for for with food,

'sayal' it strips steias.

trees contains,

or

astringent sometimes hanging the

over the

two

to,, -ether >I 46

browsed

end

remain

Considerable

destruction

of'

ve, .,,, ctation

j. s due

to

Nvild

animals. example,
ing, trees

Tn the elephants
up to

Imaton:,,

ountains i,,

in

the

southern of damage

Sudan,

for

do a surprising
12 in. high and

amount
3%' cins. in

by uprootstril)Ping

diameter,

141.

the

bark

from

standing over wide

trees, areas. increases zone of from or in area fire of by

and This the more gra,, later

smashing damage danger less is burnt,

down in im-

the

undergrowth mature especially shrubs the forest

great_iy when the

from

fires,

or

fire-resistant destroyed; and forest Considerduikers and eat the

separating will

forest, sooner results the also

sland be

grassland

elephant-damage and able which by the rats bark The thus extending is

entering grassland. bush-buck milan. iiantis

the 47 and

damage browse of of

caused Podocarnus species larger vegetation

young various somewhat of

treesq, which

and

porcupines 48 onset

trees. and

removal

of

erosion

has trees for

been and

accelerated shrubs for and of

by indiscriminate purposes grazing I other building than

felling clearing huts domestic for charcoal. every part and

of areas fencest

cultivation

manufacture and so on. has

implements, of in and

charcoal, trees almost the the

fuelt and of the has of

Oestruction taken in made place Egypt

firewood Eastern aiready charcoal at cut i'leroLl. down

Desert been

Sudan. large

Reference quantities , industry s, )ecies Desert mostly at

(p. 113) for the to in

to

require(I According for

iron-smeltin, 49 the

Drar, the

charcoal

Eastern

present

14-2.

is the bark

the

'sayal', of and the bark

Acacia

tortilis.. to never required trees. have by the been

Bedouin 11'he make ropes from They leather of

cut the also taiining,

off

branches fibre all the

young 0 trees such material of adult trees

recover. for Bushes largely in olive is rather

obtain from Acacia making

'salam, destroyed J'or The

chrenbergiana, sticks carried of Erkoweit 50 to its as the

Arabs

the

desert. Olea

extermination from to the Drar,

golden-leaved however, as firewood by probably

chrysophylla according

plateati, use stated

due,

than 51 its

for It

walking-sticks burns resinous Grant 1862) that extremely

Kennedy-Cooke, i-n,,,, to o%v,

well.,

oleo-

substance. 52 it says is of Dalbergia the melanoxylon very best (in UYanda,

"consi(jered

firewood".

Baker This and in

53

mentions of like and

a fire wood a torch; is

"of

dry

babanoose

wood

species burns colour Despite

exceedingly it is of its intensely to

inflammablep hard, lignuin and vitae". vegekitiOll formis badly

grain tfie

it

similar erosion

i, )act _i_,, Sudan,

on the

of

what

is

now the

)j,.0 , sT)vr, os mespiLi. do grow even the in

J)ergia and Dal., eroded side of areas. the

melanoxylon For Imatong exaiiiple,

much of consists

north-east of bare

Mountains

n,; Iss between eastern

rock.

'Jhere

a little

soil

has collected is found. in the The general vegetation

bouldersq foothills

L). iies_j)iliformis _,., of the mountains that the grasses

have in

been so overgrazed have been eliminated and at eroded in the that

and replaced the surface to but


sites

by weak shrubs. soil has been so and crevices larger trees


formis. more formation
Dalber., of Ija-

same time it of
found tKat titan

is

confined

-)ockets among the


is i).

a rubble

boulders;
on such this many
The

frequently Smith notes

mespili. fire

54

snecies others
sharn afford browsing

resists

successfully
of corky bark.

by extreme
s-ines some animals. of

55

nteianoxylon, protection

prestimably against

measure

Vrolon,,.,, ed

and

indiscriminate

feiling,

however,

is

a d[fferent

matter.
P-eforring to the ebonies of Ceylon, 'H. ht 56

ays t lie the in

I'The talit tree

occijrronc(- cunt)m

of'

elmin,

t to ! ci, t lic occurs in the

%ti-kin ; i:; e of usually young, central ly it

I)e st io ,ti Me black is

i.n - , r; ns of' heartwood orten

...... stem (tr,

the

ink) t but .... often

present of

twigs black

and wood

roots is

The erratic,

occurrence thoughLuiost,

-isuall.

144,

decreases some d. Les

in

volume ...

from the

below black at or

upwards heart-wood

...

In repeatedly along 57 secills -,ound -, in fact,

instances away and length Diospyros the shows or light

reapoears (of trunk

different branch). "

points Dalziel "I t ill is,, or

a given says c-, -ear con6jition white witite, never, Metzger, savs depend fringing smaller black of in that of

mespiliforinis freshly-cut no black stein wood. or darkening stein, of colour than on almost savannah in the of' oFten

hochst: of' The a tree wood

that

reudish, although in a thick

greyish to dark

gi-eenishmay "

and.. even 58

L)r-o%vn,, it a black in aT),, -)ears

develop same the

cerilre. Togolaild, to from

speaking dark on age

species wood

the

less

locality no

large V 'j ebony-like almost all

trees heart# sitow a

forest ones heartwood facts from

having open 4-8 is is

while

inches that by no ebony off all the

diameter. for

The profitable one, by felling

consequence ebony

these

search

ebony-trees In Ceylon and

means is the

a simple obtained peripheral trees

'It-he stripping to fell

the It or (6

tree is

sap-wood. have of attained,, 2 in.

usual

those

which

exceed(_d, ft. ),

a breast-height providing the

circumference preliminary

examination

143.

indicates black consists extent wood) to has

the heart-wood. of

existe.

rice The an

of

a good

pi-oportion examination

of

solid usually the

preliminary incision and

making the

determining, (blackening

which

discoloration .*0 59 it

of

the

proceeded

In
has have from been

a number ot
exercised introduced extinction 60 For

aeeas ,
or

either "Oweve", Ano control


such to save as that

at

all

pracLices too or late drastic referring

described spp. in so-called oocarpa the supply

been total

certain

redLICtion to the

numbers. Andaman Thw., of even

examp-Lep zebra-wood,, says: sound

marble-or ioward 61

from the

Diosp. yros 1939 war

"Before trees

reasonably

seemed

practicalLy

exhausted., inferior
Diospyros exported decreasing nearer to the

and in size

those and
oelw.

logs

which "

were

shipped

were of
been in the

condition.
(? ) 63:

I Inwin

62 says
has of

Dendo for

"The Calabar., to the Perrot,

timb,. r but

many quantities,

years

from owing

late of

exhaustion 65

sources Iadagascar to four before pres

of

supply,,, ebony

64

referring Jum., exported

Di, )sp-yros tons says suite of that

Perrieri were is

three annually peu

thousand 1914, par

which it

"aujourd'Imi irraisonneell;

disparu

d'exploitation

another almost

species, completely

D.

microritumbus

Hiern. Finally,

has

likewise 66

disappeared.

Chevalier

146. concludes que cleat vous la Us avons review cherchA de of ebony A mettre plus en witli en plus the lumV! warning: re aussit des "Ce

rarAfaction

grande

bonnes il
frein de tout avec se lea cet

esp6ces qui

productricess vont disparattre


des exploitants de le ce moins la

Toutes si
foret -----valeur du

se

sont ne met
Le

rar6fiees; un
coupable est avant

en est

Von
-----

h 11appAtit appauvrissement 11homme cupidit6 preoccuper indigNnes precieux". In ancient blanc, tout le

tropicale

mercanti qui du a une monde a abattre

Rechercliant marcliandep il arbres San$ poussa

lendemain, tous lea

primitifs,

a bois

Egypt

hbny

was

eagerly

sougitt

afterv

during and as we have Nubia. resulted produced any The in it.

the seent

New Kingdom a regular

in

particular# of the of the

it

formedv Of have which that

feature for

impost

continual the ruthless

demand felling is

wood must those to trees

Since

there

no reason

suPpOse by the to and

preliminary of to the

examination areas where their

was undertaken they grew prior

natives in both (as order

fellingo since too

determine

suitability, and Diospyros are

Dalbergia well

melanoxylon African of been these

mes_piltformis slow-growing would In the

as other

ebonies) particular

81) supplies (pp. Q, . eventually view two of have these

species

exhausted it

67 in

some arease likely have that occurred

considerations, trees But may at how far

seems time

Sudan

ebony

one north?

further

north,

147.

1.

H. A. in the

Tempany, British examplet

The

Practice

of

Soil 2ff.

Conservation

Colonial Reisnery for

Empire,

2.

Cf., of

for Nubia.

Archaeological passim.

Survey

Re]2ort

1907-1908.,

3.111,

Schliferp 19029 figure

Ein_Bruchstflck 30; Breasted, nave fact,

Alt4gyptischer Ancient been probably Records

Annalen, Ip 146. but

Berlin The

may perhaps in

exaggeratedv large.

was nevertheless, 4. S. 6. 7, Urk. Urk. 1.127. 1,134.

Sdve-Sdderbergh, Arkell 153; 14; Id. Id. lv in Soil in Iiist, v

Ag.

u.

Nub,.,

39 Report, the Sudano

Conservation

Committee's in

Tothill, Sudan,,

Agriculture 49. Hamburg

8.

Aniba, Griffith,

Gluckstadt

and

1935,5.

cf.

LAAA 89 67. Ermenne, 11; Steindorff, op. cit., Aniba 41, p1s, Survey p1s. 88-96. between 21-23, Wadi cf. 1.5.

9. 10. 11. 12,

Junkerp Cf,

Slve-Sdderbergh, Aniba

Steindorff, Emery

1,202-219; Excv, and 106-108;

and Kirwan,

es-Sebua pp. 13, 2099

and Adindan, 212. JEA 36t 24.

Arkello

148.

Iz,'. 15.
16. 17. 18.

onery Id.

ano op. cit.

i i,,. ,

adwi. 107.
1, op.

cit.

106.

Steindorff, Emery Id. pl. op. 35 and

, nibzKirwain,

202

ff. 107; Arch. . pl. 21. Nub. 1909-1910,

cit., FirLh

cit.,, a,, 1 95; Iji, b.

! )1.20;

Sury.

19.

Aniba

)Is. op.

54,

8; ci t.

56;

57,, 24.

65

(pot

marks);

Emery-KJ 20A. Steindort'l', plS. 21. Aniba sop

Lnibq 82.

1,

193

and

n.

')

(with

furtAier

references);

1,1199 pl. 30-31

122-24; 37 )nd d. [1.

pl.

7.3 ;

i'irth,

'xch.

Surv.

Nub.

1909-1910, 2'21 Ani ba It

3,162

pl.

21) c9dfs

hee lp OnJ yi

Emery 23.
24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

and and
11, IV,

Kir

a ")p.
Pl. 7030

cit. Cit.
31. 721p

90 f 9. P

Emery
Aniba Urk. de

Kirv; iit
55-56; 6969

716

7259 Ip

728. 78.

3uck,

L,,, yptian . 1xcavations 9 71,78; 253-54t

1", eading-boo at pl. pl. Kerma 3

Reisner., Op. cit.

1-111,71. (K. XX). 3; r)ls. 'crloa_ I-III, 10,19 3; pl, 22 t 26,4. 1; 23 9192.

299

Kerma

IV- V,

52v

30. 31.
32. 33.

o! ). Op.
01). op.

cit., cit.,
cit. cit., 9

219;

Kerma

I-III,

18-19,303-11.
100-102., 3,06. 304.

34.

op.

cit.,

4-. 31-';

149.
35.01). 36. . 37. cit.,, eferences .., P. ioller, 248,249 in ff. on. cit., Jisc.,, Aeg, _ypt. VII, XIX) from 132). of the Sudan', Ip-portq of the writes to into The cilitivates. Nuer: with have any 116. 223-24. 438; Brussels 'Kush' Aswan to Gardiner, 1937 j, Nvas often Abu 11amed

SUve-Sbderbergh, (Caminos, L-- Bibl. by whole Kush 'Note Soil on this Nile time

3.5-7

L-, g. 119). applied (cf. 38. C. P.

Miscellanies However, to the

(Dyn.

valley

Vercoutter, Fisher, XV,

7,1289 the

Livestock

Appendix 39. CF. E.

Conservation

Committee's Life Lampen impossible taking herds. less fie

Evans-Pritchard,, SNR 20(2). to the of

', conornic 209-245. G. O. "It is

Cattle', reference understanding their and

B; a&-, -ara: these on and tribes love

without of their the

account better ----

dependence wealthier the

cattle-owner

have

asked

how many cows am told them (except in that ---, his

will

keep

a man and enough all and

his

wifev

and have into cattle gold.

usually acquired cattle

no number The wife's Baggari

seems puts

when you his savings

ornaments) as a miser of Darfur'.

ac(luires

as an end " ('The

themselves, Tribes

collects SNR 16(2)t 999

Baggara

101. )

150. I Arid Zone V 1)L1 ikesearch ioIt; i, ii)ya PLant iast tree Ethooian of , xid "Otin 636-41 and Ecology Zone and co., the

-1 VI. "Fropical

I-,icjji-Ser!, i'-iioto Vi-LI

,y, _o, Africal,

_udall' (cf'. 169. 01). with q Balanites Ct.

scattered estern ..

grassland lowlandi). 44. vesearqh

ae-yritioca -i 1. 4 2. 43. ackson, Ilichi-Sermolli, See in 44. A. on Bennett, Sudan, ".

, ournal

V1,3&_).

,,obinson,, inci-ease the 18 (I)v W op. Arid L: 3,

in TothilL, Agric. iiewison (goats),, (sIw, -, ) 642-14 , t Deg Lcti I %Iotcs or Destruction, -ion Val-Ley'., Areas in tne Nile of Desei-t

45.

See Arkell,

1,ucas

TothiLl. cit., Lu. Research

A:?*iic.

in

Siidan,,

24-25;

and

46.

Drar,

Zone

Vl.,

167v

47.

J.

Iackson, Soidan' iountains., . ioc.


cit., cit., Cons. A. Grant of the of 62 (No. The 135

K.

I, rhe 34.6.

Vegetation okiri-ial of

of

tlic

Inuttow, I. i, 34-6.

Ecolo-v

418.
49. 50. 51. 52.

id.
Loc. Loc. SOil Jo

c.it.
167

168-9 Conmi. in 1). teport, Oliver 55. and Baker, ""lie

Botany

Spe,, the 64). Nile

Transactions (1875)p 53. S.

"rant Lxped-ition' Caid 1 , -1 Society !, ondon Linnean of

'A*- 4')ak. erq 186, i,

Tributaries Sofi, on 449

of the

Abyssinia,

London 34. 55. 56 Jackson, smith. 'The

(near of'

Journal

Lcolog,, y

tl)ara). .,. 5480 .358-59. its Morphol(p\,, the (19', 4)t Royal 22-959

34, op. cit. 9 j _Yenus Diospyros in aiid TaxonomNrIq Peradeni op., of op,,

Ceylon: Annals ya., cit.,, ii 183. Tropical 348.

Anatomy, B,otanic quoted 57. 58. The Cited

of

Gardens ,-I in tioward, PI-ants Dalzi. el,,

Useful by

', es. t C,I-t.,

Afr. ica,

348.

151.

59.

Wright, 183.

loc,

cit.,

quoted

by Howard,

op.

cit...

60.

Cf.

Gamble, of says as 2600 "a rate of

Manual the that tons which the

of

Indian of

Timbers,

457, ebenum started

who from as

speaking Ceylon, much of,,

sales

Diospyros Conservancy (1881) soon "

before a year would forests.

were

disposed the

have

exhausted

resources 61. 62. 63. Op. Op. cit., cit.,

355. 387. really 346). t op. from cit., Old 184-85, Calabar who says has that D. atropurpurea. Gdrke (Dalziel,

Probably ON cit.

64.

Cf. the

Howard, import

now ceased

entirely. 65. Matieres 11,1729. 66. 67. Rev. Cf. Bot. app. 14 (Juillet Les Ve8; etaux 1934). Utiles et 964. de L'Afrique les Bois sont du premibres usuelles du Rbgne Vggtal,

Chevalierp

Tropicale Gabonv assez

Francaise. Paris 1916,32: dans

La Foret "Les la les se sont foret districts fort

Eb6niers et

clairsemes lentement, indig6nes

comme ils exploites

croissent par les

appauvris.

11

152.

Vil

According forests, to Nerot' the of among Merot' mostly ---

to of rich

Plinyp

'Ethiopia'

had

"flourishing refers ebony-tree"t the 2

'ebony'-trees". in use at the of foliage "ebony of

1 Lucan of the

and to palace that of

lavish Cleopatra the

Merotult' 3 in Strabo

Alexandria. found in

4 reports in the and that in in was and Island 'ebony'. the the

plants the palm, (1st "much

abundance Ikeratiat, B. C, ) says

were

'persea', century 'ebony"'. in and

Diodorus, Island fifth

5 toot there was

Herodotus,, there

century, of 6 to the

says

that

'Ethiopia' all

"abundance febonyl,,, nearest towards who lived the 200 Persians olocks On the of the

elephants, Elsewhere

woodland that subdued and brought

trees, the in also

7 he reports

'Ethiopians' his march

Egypt,

"whom Cambyses Ethiopians". holy other 8 of lebony' Nysat year,

long-lived about the

those to

as gifts thingsp

every of

among other

'ebony'.

occurrence

in

the are

coastal silent. 'ebony' "it

region The at

Red Sea the for

Classical does

writers not

Periplus, any African is the

example, port, and certain" (A. D.

mention to

according that 176-180) the

Warmington is

by no means Digest List

wood

included from

in

of

goods

Arabia#

153.

East Maris

Africat Rubril

and

India

subject into from

to

the 9

tvectigal The explanation enter overland period the these the Red hard-

on entry 'ebony' Red Nile, was and that 10 that Sea,

Egypt. this area

may be that Egypt by the

did

not

but

travelled in the

thither Graeco-Roman

and down the the ships Nile route

though little it was

used partly

on account to oLviate

of

involved,

difficulties Sea route. However from the

the

Ptolemies

developed

may be, is of that

the in

most

that

can

be inferred times termed probably As we despite sp. or spp.

foregoing species in

Graeco-Roman producing

one or 'ebony' as far have

more grew north

trees (i. of it

a wood Sudan)q

'Ethiopia' region however# contraryp wood,

e.

the

as the seen, to the this

N, Iero@ itself. is not possible, the

already

assertions that yielded The texts proper, have is

to

identify

uninformative hbny

statements from as the far

of province as the

the

Egyptian of Kush CataraCtv evidence few

concerning i. e, already more Kush

northwards been

Second

discussed.

The

material

even in

unsatisfactory, have been

Comparatively excavated, and nearly of and all the even

sites fewer and

properly badly

published;

were

denuded of

plundered.

Moreover,,

specimens

154.

wood found examined. seem to number as these little they tell

very 11

few, Many,

if

anyt

have

been

botanically fragmentsp

indeedv left are

particularly site. to 12

have of

been

on the stated

A very

small 13 but

examples 'identifications'

be 'ebony'. made by eye In

were be placed of the

only, any case the

reliance us of

can nothing the odd

on them, species. or two

Moreoverv of Dalbergia would species they not

discovery melanoxylon itself the

specimen

or

Diospyros to proof of for in

mespiliformis that these where of

by

amount

grew were was,

in found. it is

neighbourhood suitable plentiful 111

the

site

Timber true, of

a variety Kush;

purposes Jebel

on the is

Barkal the

stela hewing of

Tuthmosis

14 mention for

made of

dOm-palms able Kerma, sisted

(m_3: 5-trees) )m,; of trees, of

shipbuildingp objects were seem to of palm

and found have and

considerat con-

quantities 15 Such very

wooden

howeverv species in times and Nile Egypt

largely

acacia Provinces,

which are still 16 in anwhich furtiier The Second of of the the north stretch

plentiful Pharaonic in Wawat of the

Dongola were

and also

Berber to 17 of the

be found

itself. north which

Valley

Cataract province best

as far of

as Aswan, is in

formed

part one

Wawat, areas

archaeologically having been

known

Africa,

systematically

examined

by two

Egyptian

Government

154ci

S17E
cemuk ,

KAVE I DATE N2.

OBTECT(s)

KEMAKKS

REFEKENCE.

69 200 N. K.
go

W-. j"
kAt- uuAA

Eirdlam"

JLmw. Fti, AAcA.,


76. , FvZC4,,, a., 197 o. Nw4,. 1108-

jo

N. K.

,rA4x-

a-

pf

lo?

i oz

Nak IqOj-la., 41.

N. K.

k&At-. A"

Q*%44

0-

14-S,

A"t

3o %#4m
wt, na

jc&av. t4 ,

f 4t"At

mdull

"L

96.

106

N. K. "kal

O. I fAw Ot

a
A c.

A"A
&4 -4

Fv&, 0.

151.

110.

Z53
C- rx

d"AT& im, w"

AACh.

JWW,

94k. lqlo-ll)

sz.

AvL4ku. 5. S. 1,1 kAt- LU wt 4 Gm. 10. wt ) I is. , PAI%-%45. Uhl,

H. 11.0 c*vA. ,
0

1171 L- 40, (r.


ct., t, ot-a-,
K

k J6ffido+, Ar, U,
114,176

L. q. 6, c4o%4.

Gwu, )A4c MVUL4

Igo-

1 58.21.4"Al. so

7AIwwlt of i#.

L. 12.6C*, %4.
k#U-: jkA. SA.31. Fr. ll19. L. 7.1

225' id., T. 6t., 124., [4uvw, d"c", 44WUbj OA


1.45, Isi'.

wekt

id

-V

Ut

-,

119,233.

(Cf. p-118 '46L, Pttle, A& %t4v.A*wr, :

qJ&

A
ItJ -A: "t

N&&k

4-Z' dAx3ut
L ,, ptuk ws, W,

dA&

odtx

X"
Ci. e. ) 53Z
&WAAM YovIr
AA

0
x alA ----

W. 6t-& Ok,

t ocL 1c*,. ;I" 0, e

13AL&JUM , 170.
6t
---

--- ,

"

*Lb;

L--------

----------

Fig. Occurrences of 'ebony'

1. in Lower Nubia.

155*

surveys on single of date this

18 as well sites work, the were of intact ants, and we are or

as by other groups of

expeditions sites. of graves, to the In the

working course in

some thousands Early Predynastic

ranging Christian

from

periods, number of white

uncovered, burials. a very

including Despite large were number found,

a reasonable the of ravages wooden here io as lack Here to be of too

objects again the

fragments faced with

19 Yet

the namely of

same difficulty the complete

southern

province, examination reported, very few,

botanical the

these

specimens. or wrongly,

examples are The

rightly 20 evidence and by itself the

'ebony'

archaeological

is

thus

very

incomplete for

and

unsatisfactory regarding

affords or

no basis otherwise mespiliformis circumstance rocky fact and that other

conclusions of in that sites Dalbergia Kush both in and

occurrence and Diospyros from on very and found Adrar the

melanoxylon Wawat.

However, do occur

species Uganda

dry, the

eroded

and

the is

Sudan, still

Dalbergia of Africa in

melanoxylon as far north

on the in

side i, e,

as the

Mauretania I

rouglily

the

same latitude to of place the Nile the at

as Dongola, northern least as limit far

am inclined of these as

provisionally species west

north

156.

latitude still The

200 N. further

in

the in of

New Kingdom, the Middle northern

and and

possibly Kingdoms. east they the of Valley, the at

north

Old

determination the

their is

limit but near north

towards probably as they

Red Sea

problematical, north perhaps with than rather possibly

occurred do at of Elba.

further

present, Sudan,

latitude Jebel

Port

a pocket

The generally, impossible, was not

northern howeverp to confined

limit is

of even for to

hbny-producing more difficult,

trees if seenp not the name

estimate, only

as we have at

species included to

present of

regarded others. if of

as ebony-producers, Which the those specific wood were or is

but

a number say, of for

impossible identity from

even numbers

generic

large

ancient it that woods example inscribed. would

specimens difficult

Nubia to was called actually

had been

determinedt

be very

show with included IhbMt

certainty among the an or

a particular which the

species Egyptians was found

- unless

thereof

so labelled

Schweinfurth Benth.. bildendes Das Holz gefrbt for example, schlankes ist wie gleich das

21 says "Diese

of

Acacia Acacie dar

laeta stellt

R, ein

Br.

ex

stannHhe.

Bumchen hart und

von

10-15t auch der

schwerg Ebenholz

hnlich Dalbergiat

afrikanische

157.

mit

weisslichem

Splint

und findet Nubiens, auch

schwarzem sich

Kern., diese Art

--in

In den

besonderer Bergen slucklichen Sennaar Kotschy und an

Verbreitung den Ksten

Abyssiniens fand sich

und

des im Tacasse, ersten

Arabiens; im Inneren sie wo

dieselbe am mittleren

Abyssiniens ferner sie im bei

sammelte

Syene

an

den in

Nil-Katarrhakteng

Januar

1837

Blthe

und

Frucht

angetroffen sammelten Auch Scheibun fand

wurde sie sie

----Unger

gleichfalls 1858 hufig von

in und

Oberaegypten Ehrenburg, zwischen 10 Mai

Kotschy sdlich

im Nubalande Kordofan [ltalics am minej. Bruce may

und Tira,

1837

in 22

blhenden suggests

Exemplaren", that a little the 'ebony' of

Jackson saw at possibly which what found Wad el have he says like in

which Sennarp ('Kitr') leaves 23 24 the fact not Annals It

Tumbel, been has

north

Acacia "a black

mellifera heartwood

Beiith. and

someis

ebony" the

LDalbergia and already two, tribute whence plants, of Nubia it

melanoxylon]. central been Sudan, made to

northern has

Reference with onet

thatt

possibly among III, the

exceptionsq of Wawat

hbn-Y is in the

recorded of

Tuthmosis

might any in imply which

be inferred did not

that occur Such of the

hbny-producing as far north

species, the

as Lower would

New Kingdom. that the woods

a conclusion above-mentioned

further spp.,

Acacia

must

have

occurred

158.

in

this

province However, scanty to

at the

that

time,

were regarding

not

regarded hboy from

as Wawat con-

hbny. is too

evidence the

form

basis

for

any

definite

clusion. Whether dynastic attested (pp. royal at hbny was is in use in the for the the of was Protothe and Prenot

periods for

uncertain, before from

name is Dynasty and two of burnt

certain However, or

Third robbed first

27,48). tombs,

cenotaphs, quantity which

the

dynasties small

Abydos

a fair and

recovered described

objects Those blackish species have activity Dynasty as the inscription the west I

fragments seen are

are

as

lebony'. or the

25

have wood, later

made of probably hbny,

a hard, is one to is

dark-brown or more of

which called .

None, Little

my knowledgep of Thinite First upstream a rockon records a

been

examined in the

26 and

known but as

south

south-east, penetrated

the far for

Pharaohs vicinity of bank

certainly of Djer the at half or

Second Jebel

Cataract, Sheikh west ofq or

Suleiman, of Kor,

about

a mile

campaign doubtless it, In dug in

against, followed

conquest flag

Nubia,

27 and trade have preceded

the

may even

contrastv Egypt (as

the well

thousands as the very

of

1'redynastic few found

graves outside

159*

the

Nile

Valley rich of

28)v grave

including equipment, and be due

many have that entirely white the were of

intact

burials, only date. the 29

some with one This impact instance

produced doubtful to ants,

'ebony'. cannot

situation of natural

chancet or of

conditions, may be that

plundering. the or, away thithert the state However, limit of thdt

The explanation wood(s) if they later were, that

qualities not it yet

known the

as hbU

appreciated, so far way until

plants only to the

producing odd piece and it

grew its

from

Egypt

found

passing advent the this of

from of the

tribe

tribe,

was not Thinite 30

powerful, to arrive

well-organized in any quantity, that that

wood need

began not

necessarily plants the First have

imply lay all

the far the been

northern south Egyptian recorded

hbny-producing for unlike cultures upstream If

Egypt,

Dynasty, not so 31 as while far

Predynastic further

than

Dakka.

now we sum up the period, undergone we find

evidence that

far

back

as the

Predynastic Nubia very has

climatically it has suffered by overaffected

no basic from soil

change, erosion This and

considerably of of and eroded

caused has

concentration the vegetation

livestock, the area,

severely Dalbergia do grow

though

melanoxylon on badly

Diospyros, sites,

mespiliformis we are probably

justified

in

160.

inferring north is than

that they

earlier do at by the dry, in rocky

they present.

occurred This

further conclusion that that D, they are

strengthened on very occurs

circumstances sites in and

found still latitude their the

-melanox_ylon the same of on but latitude in the The hbny-

Mauretania

approximately determination is present roughly of not possible available, in

as Dongola. northern limit, the it i. e. and

An accurate however, at

basis

of

material

provisionally of Dongola,

may be placed within possibly the

the

province north

Kush, earlier.

New Kingdom identity producing may Nvell Cataract. and

further of other

distribution cannot occurred

possible but near

spp. have

be determined, at one time

some of the First

them

161

NOTES

1. 2,

N. H, VI. 9 xxxvp Civil

196, Hosius, Civili, C. (ed. Libri )# decem,

War, X9 303-304. Lvcani. 1892.

M, Annaei Lipsiae 3.

de Bello

Xg 117-119. editorial There obtained is

The MSS read emendation no evidence from, or via, is that

'Mareotica'v undoubtedly 'ebony'

but correct. was ever

the

Mareotis.

4. 5. 6.

XVII,, Ip IIIv 33.

2v 2.

114. 97. location of here, grown the since there, 'holy Nysa' is is of not no said of it (apud 201 a),, 2000 from

7.1119 8. The

relevance to the have area

'ebony' and the

inhabitants obtained

may therefore According

have to

elsewhere. Athenaeusp logs of

Callixenus ' V. by Ptolemy

'Deipnosophistae. 'ebony' in V. the as were triumph stated Social Worldq carried of

'Ethiopian' II (not Cf. of the

bearers Ptolemy

by Loret, and 1.407). Economic

RT 6v 128, History

Rostovtzeff, Hellenistic 9. E.

H, Warmington, and India,

The Cormnerce Cambridge

between

the (, f.

Roman p. 307:

Empire

1928,213,

162.

11--up in it

tite the

LDigest-j time back of farther

list Marcus

as we have Aurelius, the I

it ---

was drawn but I believe tfirst by

goes

than was,

Antonines, think,

the issued

edition'. Nero". 10. Cl. avec (Jan. 11, Such is Preaux,

so to

speak,

Sur

les

communications

de VEthiopie Chron, d'Eg. 53

I'Egypte 1952). the objects

hellenistiquel, 257-81. case, for example,

with

the

numerous fragments

wooden of

(kohl-potsp etc,

kohl-stickst ) found at Bulien in the

boxes,

armlets,

Middle

and

New Kin,,,, dom. cemeteries and Woolley, same is variety Excavations Studies, VIj, true of Butien, of which at those

(Randall.

-Maciver The and

Philadelphia from Kerma,

1911,231-32). the (See number G. A. African

was surprising Kermat IV-V

Reisnerv

L= Harvard Mass.

Cambridge, there for

1923,207-47). boat-models, head-restst combs, razorknife-and it

Wood was used beds, dishes casesp stools, and

coffins, tablesp

foot-stools, spoons, kohl-sticks, small throwsticks, in the form

mirror-cases,

boxes, etc. of beams for doors.

wands, In for

mirror-handlest was also mud-brick passages, freely used walls, for used

addition

strengthening rooms was and

as columns, doorposts and have

roofing "Wood

and must

been

locally

available.

163.

At

present

Dongola sunt

Province and other is

is

rich

in

wild arid from There a Berber is the no

trees, great Province reason province

mainly deal of beyond to doubt in

acacias., down

d6m-wood the that Middle

rafted Cataract,

Fourth the

same trees Kingdom" "The seemed has been (Op. wood to

grew cit. in

in

the

207). 9 the beds

Elsewhere wtAch (Suilt), have did cit., samples of hard the not were ----

Reisner well but

states: preserved there

be acacia to Ebony legs" 26). (Op. LFour

no opportujiity ---. the pl. two

wood occur

examined in any

by a botanist part, even in 137; and

218. of

cf. hard

Dunhamg, wood

26p LEA Kerma pyramid Boston, of

from

fragments Meroe are

wood examined

inlay for at

from me at the

N19 at but writingj for been

being are 12. This such

the

results

not is

to

hand

time

particularly that few however objects. Merog of

unfortunate, could have are taken

it spared to their

is

just for

fragments

examination; sections, wooden 13,

museums small,

prepared from

see finer

Tomb W415 at a folding (D.

LB. C. 'ebony'

100-100

A. D. J contained decayed) from of the Fine

stool 'Two

(completely of Furniture of the

Dunham,

Pieces I-lulletin LJ

Egyptian

Sudan'.

Museum

164.

Arts, figs. were at IVJ,

Boston,,, 5-6,8-9), found in and

46

(Dec. and

19413). three N36,

No.

2669

100-1019 of 'ebony'

small

fragmentE

pyramid Barkal

(Dunham,

Royal

Tombs of Kush

Meru#

L= The_ -Royal.

Cemeteries

Boston From the

1957,184), town-site of is of Merog, excavated are reported, by but From of

Garstang, most what w. iich Temple' F. Ll. of

no examples the material is, for

febony' still

unpublished. the found A. City 11har+ood" in H. of the 'Lion

species a model is

example,

temple-pylon (J,

made?

Garstang, the 1),

Sayce, the

and

Griffith, 1911,22; "Frags. of

Nlerok!, pl, 229

Ethiopians,

Oxford

wooden

(ebony? from at

) rods, 6 at

the

longest

71 cm. 11 were (Dunham, and 0.9 at three cm., this Royal

recovered Tombs

tomb and

Barkal 99)v diam, Tomb 2 wood on one with ce

Mero8 an

Barkal, rod, 23).

fragments from site in tomb yielded relief 93;

of

'ebony' cit., of

12 (op. a piece on two fig.

blackish and

dbsign a end (op. 0.

long 62; pl.

sides 70D).

cit., Bates

and D.

Dunhamp

Varia

Africana 1927P 50:

IV Gammait

Harvard

African

Studies

VIIIJ,

165.

Cem.

100, ),

grave

175:

"circular "

wooden

box

cover

(ebony?

much worm-eaten. 'ebony' 2 to

Fifteen height tombs north from of of the the

gaming-pieces, came from Ballana

varyi, the

in ig

3 cms., at

royal just

X-Group

and Qustul, border.

Egyptian-Sudanese of 87), ;kg. Ballana and

(Emeryp Cairo

The Royal 1935p 14.11.29-30. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19, see n. n. 345;

Tombs pl,

Qustul,

Sgve-S8derbergh, 11 above.

u.

Nub.,

219-220,

11 above. op, cit., 25-26.

Sgve-SBderbergh, A tiArd See, 95v is now in

progress. Aniba 118v II, 71t 76t 148t 78p 151

e. g., 112v

Steindorff, 114v 116-117p beads, rods,

123-124v

(ushabtis, kohl-tubes

rings, and

armlets,

hairpins, vessels. passim; and etc. pls. D. );

headrests,, pp. 152 C, L, ff.

and Tomb Registerv 60f 61t 63,65, etc.;

Woolley

N TI ie Romano-Nubian Randall-Maciver, Karlp gg: . 1910, 69-729 Cemeteryp Philadelphia 116 ff. (Analysis (Catalogue 20, Toey are of of listed Tombs and their contents),

passim

245-48

Objects). in Fig. to I in case such it as should have prove survived. can

possible In the

some day meantimep

examine

however,

no conclusions

166.

be 21. 22. 23, G.

based

on

them. (ed. )., Reliquiae Kotschyaikae, 1,

Schweinfurth 62.

SNR 38t CF.

Andrews, 11,136

Flowering fig. Trees of 58*

Plants LA.

of mellifera

the

Anglo-Egyptian and Eggeling, 301

Sudan

Indigenous fig. 24. 64 LD.

tf, ie Uganda

Protectorate,

melanoxylonj. cit. In and Uganda Mbale, where it is it occurs found op, cit. in

Andrews, Acholi, in the

loc.

Karamoja, very driest

"only

savannas"

(Eggeling,

211). 25. (a) The 'royal tombs'. Petrie, Royal '11'ombs 1.

Ilp 17; ope seals pl.

22,, 40; 112 4= cit. Hp t from 34p 60

pls. 15p

Ilt

3=

15p

15; of 28 of

11,15 tablet (model top pl. 38; one of

15, = of Udimu).

18 (fragments pl. 32,27t

36;

cylinder a chair 50-51 39p 48-53 a bull's 28 (from leg).

B16). ('ebony' cf. of 43t

63 (portion rod). pl, 37t p. 14).

35; p.

349 pl. of 45v

(arrow-tips; (fragment leg. tomb pieces 1 (tablet label 10p 2= 6 (tablet of ) pl. of

carvings, 5-9

including

(arrow-tips? p. 19;

) pl. pl. p.

Khasekhemui). of tablet of Aha), 3At of Aa); (8 from pl,

10,1 20; pl. part p. 110

2v 4 (2 = 3v 2= of 21; 2= a pl. 3At B18 and Ilp

B18). 39 4. of

(upper tablet),

pieces of

5 (tablet Aha, found

Aha, ) pl. in 2 pieces,

1 in

167

the of pl.

otiter cylinder 5Ap 13

in

B19). seal (piece

pp. from of pl.

22-3; the tablet). 7A, -2 Abydos 29; pl.

pl. of p. (frag. I.

59 11 Djer). 24; of pl. pl.

(part p. 23;

tomb

6AO

5 (label). pp. 25-6;

p. pl. of

25;

label). 7&p. of

7Av 4= label. ) p. (b) the

110

7 (piece label Petrie, 4; pl.

129 4 (frag. of 6; the pl.

from

B18), of

The

tombs

c6urtiers. 5t 4; (C) 16 (rod); ple Ajn6 ineau's 1;

Tombs 29 4;

Courtiers,, 4; pl. 29,1;

39,11:

3,9 10;

2p 2;

3p 13 ('ebony' Nouvelles of cf. frags. pl,

cylinder Fou_ille_s Umm el

seals).

excavations, a couple (p. bois 306;

A Abydos-_-(_815-J Galab 9) as are described de

from 31,

Nos.

8 and "

"fragment Royal 697 =

dlebclne

incrust6 Tombeau

d'email. Royal, 191 1.217

Nagada, 6969 (Nos.

Tomb.

de Morgan, Quibellq Hp pl.

figs.

Archaic 44 (pieces

Objectsp of of pls. boxes

14107,14108); EmerYq Ilemakap

(? )

Saqqara.

Saqqara 13p 35-9p name of stated Oxford 26. Nor are are

3035 fig. Djer); to Hist. they

(reign 8;

Udimu): 17a, 18a box inlays 1,697). be, since

The Tomb of (label this

bearing tomb is

a circular narrow

from of

have

'ebony'

(Aldredv

Technology likely which to cannot

the

majority

objects

be spared,

168.

27. 28.

Arkell,

JEA 36P 27-29; and D. E, of

pl. Derry

10. 'A Predynastic Man 23 (9)p Burial 129royal Rapport W, B. K. pre-

G, W. Murray on the 131; F.

Red Sea Coast Debono,, Oriental 1949. from

Egypt'.

tExpedition (Keft

arch6ologique -Kosseir)'. 59-91; Libyan

au Desert liminaire 'Two Burials

ASA 19519 the South ?? ). 40,53; size, Area Egypt 2200,

Shaw, JEA

Desertv'

22p 47-50 29. Brunton,

(Predynastic Mostagedda, child's grave. that

pl. from

259 31: the filling

'ebony' of

(? ) bangle, a robbed 30. It is true

Badarian

(?? ), materials to the from of from

was receiving than Nubia prior

much further First Dynasty#

afield for

example

lapis-lazuli and quantities of

North-eastern obsidian (Abyssinia), in these from

Afghanistan the but materials Egyptians of the Red the

Sea coast organization in

Ethiopia of the trade of the

was not

the

hands

Predynastic but in those

(Amratians "Square-boat"

and Gerzeans), people

(See pp. 177-3715). 31. E. Massoulard, d'Egypte, Paris Prehistoire 1949,3639 et 366. Protohistoire

169.
Vill

Before hpnZ-wood from the India main

discussing employed and in

the Ancient it

possibility Egypt be may

that. have

some been to as

of

the

obtained

Ceylon,

will species

convenient (as well at

enumerate of

ebony-producing of that area, and

a number present

others) time. (a)

further

east,

the

India

and

Ceylon.

The

ebony of

of

India

and

Ceylon

is

furnished some very

by various coimon, Ceylon, extend in South

species

the

genus

Diospyros, mainly in Only

some scarce, Burma, to and

occurring Eastern India. in Western and the

South four

India, species

Bengal. In Ceylon India 22 in

Northern 17;

there 13; nine

are in

22,,

India Bengal species

Eastern eight in 2 the the the wet

and Assam; occur in

Burma. the to

"About rest

dry

forests,

evergreen commercial

" I ones. kinds of of of two

According ebony Diospyros or three

Gamble, from 'ebony'

chief

obtained are:

Indian proper,

representatives "the wood'. "the ... produce and species in order

different

trees". Observing

Icalamander that

'Andaman of to

marble-wood'. require which not.

Diospyros ascertain are

more are the

investigation black-wooded ebonies

species into:

and which

" Gamble

classified

170
1. Heartwood Diospyros 2.11jeartwood or etc, 3. Heartwood brownish-grey etc. very small, or grey merely wood: black D. streaks in the Kaki, grey: black

wholly ebenump regularly D. kurzill,

or

only

slightly melanoxylon, with black

streaked: assimilis. and brown

tomentosa, streaked quaesita,

oocarpa,

oppositifolia,

Embryopteris,

4.

Heartwood D. montana,

none,

wood

red,

wiite,,

grey etc. tree

or

yellowish:

Lotus, ebenum of forests the

Chloroxylon, Koenig. Deccan in the A large

Diospyros in dry the "forests

growing chiefly in

and Carnatic., Ceded Districts,

evergreen and

especially dry regions but "a in company that extending

Kurnool of to

Cuddapah, chiefly in round soil, of

scarcer the

southwards; Provinces, " found It

Ceylon, the

Northern coast. is

south-east well-drained other species, cut in found it species "the India,

the and

prefers chiefly

rocky. with this little and But writer one

Diospyros,

" Gamble .. tree, being and of very

3 says " is

chief "the here one that

ebony-yielding trees and of the this not there chief species other

very

commong size. same

being in

only is

small " "the The

Ceylon 4 also

woods. is

states

only or markingsp"

giving

a black

wood without

streaks

171.
be'tn3 heartwoodk"jet never with is seen no of any

the have black,

black". Ceylon in close, somewhat

3 Howard, or Southern

5 however, India The hard India grain, African a marble-like streaked

says: wood

"I

absolutely including brittle,

variation a very

colour, dense, resembling

wood, rather

Ceylon, with

a consistency

blackwood smoothwith a

LDalbergia ness, It

melanoxylonjv is rare to find

with

almost not

a piece

darker but which

or

lighter of the

brown

and

sometimes blackness Coast 7A in

even

a golden

colour,

never can

same intense on the West Roxb.

as some ebony of Africa.,, (Circars) India; the and Berar, to the but is very Ravi Bijnor; Ctiota Godavari. is also " 6

be found

Diospyros or in to small the (N.

tomentosa India) tree, tract in

large

growing and Western

"Northern from

sub-Himalayan most comion

Siwaliks

Nepalt ...

Saharampur Provincesp down hills, It or

Bengal Nagpore, This found to

; Rajputana, Orissa and the in

Central N. dry,

Circars stony soil. the " field

ebony

"delights any either

on almost

forest in

difficult

distinguish, D. dark

Herbarium, is very black hard, heartwoodt

from is

melano3(ylon. reddish-brownt streaked

The wood, with with 8A in

whicli

an irregular purple large the or dry rare or

occasionally

brown, tree of dry found the Mahratta

melanoxylon. in 6outit Indiap Deccan comon

small forests in the

country,

and Carnatic;

region

172.

of

Ceylon,

Large is

trees small,

are

uncommon, "The tree

and affects

the

amount chiefly with

of dry an

ebony rocky irregular

available hills". black kurzii

The wood heartwood. Ifiern.

is

hard,

reddish-brown,

D. wood. ' in the

9 'Andaman tree, it one grows of

Marblethe the in is

or most

Zebraimportant and

An evergreen Andamansp upper Islands. in more " 9 often or

where mixed

in also

tropical the Nicobar

moistare and Coco and grey quite very

forests; The less heartwood

"streaked layers, it yellow as or

black rarely with or

alternate 10 describes wAte, or

black, light,

Howard creamy

black streaks

patches. D. forests 1000 the ft. trees quaesita of the Thw. moist A large low country that "this tree of growing Ceylon, is the in the

below chief as of

Gamble producing wood,

11 says the which

variegated is the most

ebony valuable scarce,

known

Calamander wood of

ornamental having been is narrow or

Ceylon, for

now unfortunately and the trees cut.

much sought "hard, belts

" with

12 The wood broad of or

greyish-brownt of black, wood species " 1*3 that of

variegated Howard it is

14 says the

Calamander which are

Coromandel different they

name "by

several when

ebony

(Diospyros) kind of

known and

possess

a particular

marking

colouring.

173.

According wood it as is D.

to

holtzapfell,, hirsuta ....

Coromandel Linn, Certainly whether to marked different f,, of Supplies one,, and two.,

or but later of or

Calamaii(ler Gamble years gives it. is

Diospyros quaesita doubtful been

exceedingly wood iiave

Coromandel even three has beeii

confined

varieties. obtained from

Similarly several

coloured sources

wood and from

different

varieties.... Coromandel of Ceylon

Yet wood ebony and

another nas been

source found D. " in

of

supply

of

so-called trees

some occasional which

(probably colour.

ebenLIIII),

show the

same marking D. "throughout and along Jumna to

Embryopteris the streams; Sikkim; India; in greater in

Pers, part the

15 An evergreen of India, in

tree wet

found places 1'rom the Western

sub-iiimalavan throughout common in in tree Burma; of low swampy

tract Central,, the

Bengal;

and South Martaban It is "a of

especially

Circars; of in Ceylon, many "

and Tenasserim characteristic India, shrub, so much but often is

counLry places to

parts a large girth. darker

branched again

as often reaching by Gamble

resemble

a considerable as "grey in 11 the with centre

The wood streaks ), and

described

a darker

irregular

patch

(heartwood? D. tree,

moderately Roxb. very

hard, 16 A small

close-graitied. or yet

montana

moderate-sized very widely spread,

nowhere

abundant,

and

174.

being

found

throughout only): in Central, and often from

most the

of Ravi

India

and

Burma along

(var. the in

cordifolia Himalaya;
21

eastward and dry with Southern region yellow

Western, in the

India of Ceylon. or

deciduous The wood streaked towards D. himalaya, Afghanistan Europe. hard, D.

forests, is with the Lotus in grey,

tinged of

brown, especially heartwood. in also Punjab in

narrow centre,, Linn. hazara and 9

patches but 17 and has

darker

colourp ebony

no regular

tplaqueminier'. Kashmir It at 2-6000

Found ft,; to

Baluchistan. is grey,

extends

Southern

The wood

close-grained

and moderately

Chloroxylon

Roxb.

18 Moderatelyllard

wood,,

yellowish-grey. (b) Philippines Maba buxifolia yielded discolor Calamander (c) Celebes. Macassar
Chev. Celebes. of 1.50m., to [=

and

Indo-Malaya, Pers. 19; "Bolongata" and Blanco are often


"camagoon", and very 1). similar to

by Di-)spyros Willd., wood.

pilosanthera

respectively,

ebony
D. It utilis

is

yielded
Koord.

by Diospyros
et Valet, of j, 40m,

Macassar
a tree and black

A. growing in

attains and D. produces guaesita

a height a very Thw.

a circumference wood, Thw. of It is Ceylon, 20

hard D.

related

and

Moonii

175.

On the

question

of

whether

any

of

the

hbny-wood

used

in the

ancient definite

Egypt

was

of that

Asiatic it

origin, was not. 21

Loret

expresses

opinion no doubt by him

Beauvisage,, of specimens

tiowever, examined any definite [i.

conscious was altogether

that

the too

number small "A la to

support ainsi both were

conclusion, e. whether une qu'aux


le bois de plutOt

says or

22: African

question or suis

pos4e usedj

Indian reponse temps


de

hbny, je

j'apporte

partielle:

en mesure

d'affirmer,
en Egypte

pharaoniques

on travaillait
11 4tait

Dalbergia__me. que les

Lanoxylon, anciens que

certes

permis

supposer VEbene

Egyptiens I'Eb6ne bien de imprtidemment

employaient l'Inde; que de mais

d'Ethiopie staventurer en des

cletait

petit-etre cette j'ai

transformer --si v

hypoth6se reconnu, que

une

affirmationg, travaills

positive

objets

par

les

anciens

Egyptiens je
provenant

etaient

fabriques bien

en bois d'affirmer .1 etait


a few

de que
inconnue

Dalbergia
1'Eb6ne en later Dynasty entification,, it from worthy material "most India of Egypte de

melanoxylon,
I'Inde, aux temps 23 from

me garderais
des

Diospyros, Indeed, of

pharaoniques". identified Abusir as was that at so

years of Fifth id-

Wittmack date

a specimen Diospyros doubted by

wood

ebenum. Lucas have period there the who been 24

This

however, improbable or note used Ceylon that, in

considered obtained ----was not it is any

ebony such far an as

should early is until

known, about

ancient

Egypt

Eighteenth

176.
Dynasty that can be traced to India. 1,25

However, comes to certain in ancient light, species

unless

or

until not

more entitled

definite to not of

evidence that known between during


detailed

we are were

assume have the For


the

not,

or

could

been,

Egypt

merely

on account and that


elapsed 26

distance research
last

their
the six

present
decades

habitat
that

land.
since 5

have

discussion very the much lands

of less of

the

question than

ham had

shown formerly even for

increasingly been in supposed earliest

how

isolated the ancient this is

world not for

were, the place

the

periods. sideration with India

While of the

a detailed

concontacts may

evidence east,

Egyptian some of the

commercial main to 27 points

and further upon. As Lucas First,

be touched existed. Ceylon

the

inUcientive observes,

such

contact and and

himself other

"India

possessed,

among and

commodities, resins demand transported. two

precious and in

semi-precious woods, that materials are of

stones that bulk

odoriferous in great

fragrant and A

were and

Egypt "

small

easily

passing the

reference

may be made to at Hamra

Neolithic

settlement date, and from

Merimde, Dom, 29

from stone axes, one 28 the other, of which 30 two-handled d6bris be may just possibly

Predynastic be of jadeite

nephrite contents in

respectively. of a large

Secondlyp pot, at dated Badarip 31

among the to was

varied found

SD 37-38, some bark

Predynastic though it

village could not

whichp

177.

identified by Mahmoud

at

the

Royal Bey 32

Botanic to be is

Gardens, "possibly no evidence

Kew, sandal that or (despite or in

is or

stated

Abaza 33 and in of

cinnamon". the ever trees grew

Since plants the the

there producing

any

of

sandal-wood Sea area

cinnamon the

southern Classical source 34 unless

Red

statements itself, have the been

writers), of at supply this

Egypt presumably occurred

nearest India,

would time they

further too,

west needs More

in

Asia.

Howeverv before it

this can

identificationg be accepted however, of 5

confirmation definite contact

material with the

evidencep East sites is in then, 36

Egyptian discovery the in

afforded Egypt of

by the lapis-lalulip Badakshan Predynastic, type straight seen by Winkler connecting


further

on Predynastic source of

nearest north-eastern appears

which

as now, was In the Early

Afghanistan, in Egypt

there of keel in its

a peculiar)quite prow and -,

foreign, stern witich found otlier and is

vessel ttie

with

high

vertical

so-called form the in

"square-boat" tlie

purest in
Valley

rock-drawings and
and

and others
the Nile

Wadi
and the

hammamat
Red Sea,

routes

sporadicaLly

down the boats has

coast. long

37 been

The

appearance

in

Egypt of

of

these with reason to

regarded

as evidence types they occur.

contact is foreign

Mesopotamia to believev

where

similar that

38 There

howeverv

may be equaliv

178*

that

land

also

and

arrived

there between

and the

in two

Egypt or

either

from even very and

some point from further

intermediate east, means between on the trade that,

possibly they were

However whereby Egypt of

that contact

may be, was and

probably maintained, Moreover, the lapis

the

establishedp further for is east,

and

Iran

basis at this

evidence I

collected believe there

a study reason viewv in Egypt

of to muchp in

time, to the of entered

suppose if the not

contrary greater part, period conveyed

generally this material that these

accepted used

the

Predynastic been

country "square

f rom the boats", that

south, which of which western be

having on their Egypt's

there

in

way up the obsidian this

Red Sea also (probably The winds Sea, not have

collected the and

portion part) of the

supplies area.

greater

came from Indian attempted to this

currents of

Ocean

and Arabian would activity. times are Egypt., the

discussion presented

which

caikiiot

here, maritime

insuperable

obstacles

From with the

Pharaonic Middle to northt East

indications equally though land-route

of numerous.

commercial

relations

Lapis-lazuli almost Asia. entirely 39

continued from the

enter via

now apparently across Western

A ring it almost
too,,

found

in

the

certainly a few of

nephrite" the

tomb of TuOankhamu-n 4-0


. It is

is

stated

to

be

possiblev

that

179.
unidentified been there case. resins at the hbny of is 41 may Indian as yet "From have date commodities origin no the come indigo. Dynasty, and then or definite Eighteenth from, 11 42 or received even from evidence Dynasty through, It is that in the not from further that Punt may east, such onwards India, until reference form of have though was the and the the varnish possibly middle occurs finished to of

a later Eighteenth from

however, it is

Asia,

objects. to

Among

the

large III

number after his

of

costly

items campaigns

dedicated is a of

Amen by Tuthmosis of of the gold chief "six

Syrian 43 captured

"clothes-chest the of towns Megiddo and

and of

hbtV)" Kadesh

Among the after foe, and " 44 objects entitled was further been down of "a

booty the ivoryp statue

battle

were

palanquins wrought wrought wood with with of

of

that gold", gold.

hbny of

s'gndm-wood, foe, origin obscure of hbny of but further in in

that The

the

which

these not it or

were to

made is assume

we are

certainly that Asia

without

evidence Western question had

furnished east. heirlooms to the terms or the made Syrian with woods that one chief that

by species Some of from the

growing items

may have been handed been the other

African

woodwhich by ancestors

Chieftains Pharaohs to of of them the

who had presented On the was

on better objects, hands of the the view

who may have as gifts. 45 captured

fact rebellious and

objects

a statue this

Kadesh,

possibly

tells

against

suggests

it

was

180.

made in which

Syria,

but hbny,

without it in is

knowing very

which

species to say

they

were

produced ever

difficult itself objects or

whether

hbn-v-trees

grew in both

Syria

Palestine. rightly No plant appears so-called there Syrian in is 'blackfor in hbn_yp 50 palanquins. geographical the "a being among

On sites or wrongly, to any of

countries 'ebony' are

be of modern

very

stated, 46 rare. species III's the scene Djahy forms of

resembling the flora

ebony-producing in Tuthmosis (many any other from 34 of

Syria

depicted at 47 Karnak or the for and in

'botanical purely

gardens' imaginary), 48

vegetation. Annals palanquin wood' which Despite origin, of

Among III

booty year

recorded campaign) This

Tuthmosis of

(9th

black-wood to

s's'ndm-wood 1149 . here in substitution 96ndm-wood its did botanical not to bear

seems is

be employed used

elsewhere its colour

alongside

and whatever evidently in Egyptian

and sufficient its

'black-wood' to term. date via (4th been terebinth hbny

resemblance under this At supplies and later

eyes

justify

inclusion

a later of still have the

(6th the

Century Dedanites

B. C. ) Tyre of

was obtaining 51 Southern Arabia P inhabitants for 'ebony' also say very that of Syria

Century as

B. C. ) the a substitute

seem to wood of

using

the black

(TF-fL%/605) which at least in Syria

"is they

and close-grained;

181.

it

is

blacker tneir they purpose wood blacker. of has "

than dagger also they to 62 grain be

ebony, nandles; 2 it

a-i", t;

in and

fact by

they means

use of the

it

for lathe---; but for

making chisel this the and

make use,

it is for

tTheriklean' said, then the it to timbers, ( i<wri 53 it He grew

cups heartwood, comes the

oiled, Again, of of

comelier and U says

referring yarious laburnum

weight

closeness that to the resemble

Theophrastes a-o-s also in mentions, Syria, has like )

heartwood that of

seems t1iough

'ebony'. that the that

without tree reddish ebony, tnings It

actually which, as

saying well as so are

"another a sort of

black it

colour, looks and

variegation, and of of it

variegated and other

made quality.

beds " that 54

couches

superior

seems

therefore,

the

wood

from

which

had

been

manufactured from from it the

the

hbny

objects chiefstud than their

plundered been

by the by but

Egyptians the from latter

Syrian

obtained

elsewhere is not easy of the

own country,

whence

to say. ReUnu recorded in the 55 which Annals (quantity throughout apart from mentioned Red Sea

Among the of not Tuthmosis stated), III

tribute for

year par land of it

34 is excellence of

Lntvw of

the

source was I the know and had

Egyptian from this

history example than the

Punt.

Indeed, of that t,ntyw that the

no instance is clear

elsewhere here in

Punt,

Annals

originally

come from

182.
Strabo 56 that straits from of of Arabia their of in of his Bab day el (lst Mandeb which

region. B. C. ) Arabs boats sent along reason have in to up

states the

century in they skin then and is no not Egypt

crossed

obtain the west the the doing to

aromatics coast produce inhabitants this

'Ethiopia' to own Southern earlier

Syria-Palestine land. Arabia and have such way Howevert from one of There

with why been

should

centuries other It is

includedv as that the insofar the modern

addition

aromatics, 57 Tyre

commodities,, in city. this

ornamental Habnl(m) as hbny

woods. used may in in

possibly that derived Diospyros no for did that Red

reached have been viz. been Mandeb probably however, from the

part

ebony-producing Hochst., the in It straits the does to Yemen not the there of 58

species, may Bab and have el

mespiliformis even this in hbU region the to cross occurs times. mav all Africa. from end may have have 59

necessity it, so for too

species

ancient which would Yemen or or

follow, Syrians from

any Sea in

come been The even of

derived occasional further the Red made It is to

species from could coasting up Arabia that Egyptians

growing India, have

cargo east, Sea in way

Ceylon, arrived at and

possibly southern of this

the some

vessels, to some may Syria. of have the

have

its

possible the

hbny. been

bartered in

by this

the

Puntites way,

obtained

183.

Among items tomb of Puyemr9I with

received are two

from piles of

Punt of

depicted black logs and

in

the

prominently golden yellow. of varying the 61 ' a to such draw wood New In the

streaked They black degree Kingdom are or

various

shades

yellow

labelled blackish shades as far

lhbny. wood of

160 Other streaked or are

representations blotched in from

with and

yellow

attested

back wood labelled, It is,

as the is usually it of the which however,

Third

Dynasty.

publications Though variety any from it of is

this not

termed

leboaX. well depict

may very course, availability it appears

hbny.

impossible of in

conclusions the frequency

regarding with

the infer

tombthat

paintings. it was highly

One might, prized and not hbny all shown black but it therefore that being or is though is

reasonably of its

on account often common. delivered sometimes never much streaky,

decorative and therefore as is the colour

appearance possibly of it the is

imitated, Now insofar

by Nubians streaked or wood with

recordedg

colours, yellow. the

either 62

lighter with in

streaked of the

blotched now sold of these more

Again, as ebony

sudan

no species shows

African pronounced those what on is known tk5

wood at

present

regarded markings, now found

as ebony which in

golden-yellow certain species

resemble Asia

producing or

Calamander

wood

and Andaman

marble-wood

zebra-wood.

184

Is one It

this or is

yellow-streaked more species at

hbny, present

then, found that

to in

be identified India

with ?

and Ceylon these Red Sea,

by no means found their in

impossible way to the

products end

from of the

lands

southern

particularly Before consider Referring Rekhmirl, Puy-em-R; which had the aroused to vivid I, the to

the

New Kingdom. this of question, accuracy tribute 63 and toas in of scene the however, these in we must representations. the tomb tombs interest dynasty of from artists available writes 64 of of

pursuing standard the

foreign says

Davies

earlier the keen

Amen-wosre, foreign seems have

sen-mt, of the

expeditions still studied " Old study yielding has

LXVIIIthJ each set

maintained, the Mrs. Kingdom of Old subject C.

appearing data with "the or

anew R.

memories. to writer's from puzzle, the

Williams

reference present far color in there

tomb-paintings Kingdom colorp

although every colors that

a convincing given are her to

explanation that seriouslyp the

for the

confidence be taken to

wall is

decorations no compelling for his The

reason effect of

suppose or flights to the

artist of

allowed fancy of to

a desire control ....

aesthetic choice

pigments of truth

exclusion the with tombs in

truth

presumption by Egyptian held that

within accords in to

conventions the belief

adopted generally for the

colorists the decoration him

had utility

deceased,

enabling

enjoy

185

the been

next his

life on what disposal,

the earth. the

environment " artist he was to Naturally saw able agree

and

possessions was with

which a difference the means Neverthestatement

had

there and to what,

between at less, his it

reproduce. with Davies'

is

difficult

that chair is

a hardwood found in

leg, the the with

rung, tomb of which

of the h Mentuherlepeshef and part in Egyptian 1166

seat at

of

a 65

Thebes is

"evidently black

wood

paintings For the

coloured in question

yellow to to

markings. be "of

pieces a fine such colour even o means blotched at

are it

stated is hard artist

a dark that

wood with in depicting than that,, loss

grain,

" and

believe could

wood the it black

Egyptian and bright

do no better It. is clear

yellow. been made due a dark yellow Old

after

allowance in

has

for to limitation streaked in

accuracy

representation copying, shades of

of or Egypt

and mechanical with least various as early As we have would of this

wood

was used

as the already to

Kingdom. however the colour (Chapt. species alone, II)q or it

seeng 'identify' of been

be hazardous wood on the

genus

basis

however Again, in

accurately view of the of regular possibility

this what has and

may have been said

rendered. the

regarding of this

consequences treesq wood

ruthless remains

felling that

j1pny-producing black and yellow

186 was long equate at derived ago from exhausted, yellow-streaked found it in was little of their have this India always is an African Moreover, hbny and species, even with supplies if it one it from the in in it the Asia may island be were or would thence, of more not of which possible species necessarily Even these now species They or even in were to

this

present that

Ceylon,

follow

obtained known of

comparatively and may, Africa. refers the to fourth nothing therefore, In the

ecology ancient further noted of

distribution occurred

times, west that

connection on of

Theophrastus (Tylos) heavy in wood, 9

existence B. C.

Bahrein a very

century

a tree

producing

variegated suggested Among Tushratta mostly

"like might the of

the

tiger's

skin".

which

Thpselton-Dyer 67 by

possibly gifts sent were but made of

be Calamander to Amenophis of

woode III

and Akhenaten apparently and Of a the

Mitanni

a number incltiding

objects,

unidentified

a mirror-handle 68 In to esi his edition

dagger-handle, Gudea 'ebony'. denotes the that esi the it B inscription There a kind

uSvu-wood.

Jensen the of

proposed word

identify (Akkadian

usu-wood ugu or

as e9u) by

Sumerian as well and giS.

stone na4 they a hard

as a wood, From each this other.

distinguished Jensen inferred na4

determinatives in is appearance 'dioritel, which 69 of

resembled dark

Since that

stone,

he concluded compared has recent been of

wood

would

be most Jensen's

appropriately suggestion the most

with

was ebony.

adopted

by a number is Leemansp

scholars, as

70

whom for the

who gives

an additional

reason

187

identification from either for of Meluhha. W India ebony ebony or

the "As

fact

that

Gudea

obtained

his

ugu-wood

Meluhha to the south, probably was far . %, East Africa, this seem to be consistent, would from India and tropical 71 Tropical Africa It is Africa. are further wood of blacker The kinds than 7? -

comes which India terms

come from

those that (ulum

from the

and Ceylon". 'Meluhha-wood'

suggested Meluhha'

'black and

Meluhhi) may also M-ht-The weak Meluhha is known point lay about in in

denote'ebony'. this Arabia, reasoning, Africa howeverp or India, of these is not that nearly

whether enough or the

the tracts, from

ancient for any of one it

botany to

areas# that hard or

intermediate wood obtained derived present of has III 666p not the

be asserted was necessarilyr of it have the

black even spp. the hbny, of

them or less

probably, of the

from dayp still

more that

ebony-producing

was a wood which regarded in the hbny IV, a 705 as Annals

Egyptians It

New Kingdom been noted

would

already

(p. 180)

that between

Tuthmosis IVp It is

a distinction 16; 667v 4-5) that

was drawn and tblack

(Urk.

wood' the

qLrkL of

impossible

during

course

centuries
a wood (or

us*u shifted
woods) If other such

its

meaning and came to be applied


than that case, which the it originally occurrences

to

designated.

be the

earlier

188

of the

the

term

would of

be of the wood

little

assistance in the

in

determining Letters. had only in Egypt; of

identity is no his

mentioned from cases

Amarna Tushratta are the

There obtained

indication ugu-wood* of

there The the

whence cited of this u9u

recorded usually Western itself rulers. obtained raises wood and ivory employed was differ While it

instances is the 73 It

receipt

wood to the

Egyptians is not could

who send clear, have

kings

Asiag

howeverwhat been

wood

Egypt to these

produced This utu the from

which rather

so acceptable Pharaohs which it

suggests southern of made, Like Hbny. its int. hbny,

that

the

may have in turn

from possibility

their

provinces, being al., it was was hbny. beds, also not ,

was the head-rests alongside only wood

which

were 74

chairsp used the for uses

footstools. b-r in

75

however, with ivory;

conjunction [cf. those P1. of

99nd

so used from the

JJJJ* hbnyp that

The medicinal being these much more two there themselves terms is

examplev 76 of ugu

extensive. designate insufficient to establish the the

possibility cannot the

same wood(s) evidence identity in

be excluded, Letters

Amarna doubt.

beyond

1890

In sent with to gold

the the

Twenty-Sixth Lacedaemonians and cotton

Dynasty, a linen

Amasis

II

is

said

to

have

breastplate 77 . The

"decked cotton it is seems

embroidery" from whence into it

home of westwards;

undoubtedly to have been 78

India,

spread

introduced

Assyria writing 79 in Egypt the

by Sennacherib in also the the 4tii-3rd in

about century

694 B, C. 9 B. C., on the

and Theophrastus, that of the Tylos cotton-plant (Bahrein) Conquest, rest parts of

states island the

grew Persian

abundance 80 Gulf.

With increasingly Foreigners officials, their Egypt

Persian with the all

came into

Achaemenid the country the

contact 81 Empire. as soldiersq products who was of in

from

entered 82 and

and merchants, native c. 450 I) lands B. C., in also refers

doubtless

arrived. to 83 at the

Herodotusq employment is, tinte. of

cassia no reference mayp of it is

embalming. in

There this

however, This

to

Asiatic very

'ebony' possibly to of note the was

Egypt

course,, interesting the ivory

be fortuitous, that palace both in an inscription of Darius from

Nevertheless at Great, Susav 84 (

recording the ). 9

building employed

the

though

Africang and Arachosia,

'Ethiopia' the (i. 'ebony e.

and Indiang to have been

from

Sind

185 is

stated from

brought Egypt) In view

only and of the

from there fact

Egypt is

obviously of the

'Ethiopia' from Asia.

via

no mention some of

lebony' ivory

that

190

was obtained perhaps (p. 152) the

from

thence,

this Reference

omission has to

of already the

'ebony' been Persians

is made by

significant. to the delivery and the

of one African is

'ebony' also

tEthiopians'. 86 It imported that would into

reminded

Of Dioscorides's to from time, the 'ebonyt the

assertion Indian, being reverse

wood was then, from case. that Asia at

superior so far this

appear, Egypt the

may have

been

191.

1) 2) 3) 4)

Gamble, Op. Op. cit., cit.,

op.

Cit,,

453.

452. 456-57. by G. Watt,, London 186.


Guide to tne Museums of Economic

Followed Indiag, Op. cit...


Official

The

Commercial

Products

of

1908,498.

6)

Cf.

Bo 4ti-t ed.

[Royal London

Botanic 1930.,

Gardens, 147:

KewJ, are

1.

Dicotyledons. forms of the

"T. iere and with


black

wood with
streaked

brown
or

iieartwood
with

Vie
pale

heartwood
yellow. "

speckled

and

Specimens Museum at 7) 8) 9) 10) Gamble,, Gamble, id. Op.


of

of

such

wood

may be seen

in

the

Wood

Kew. cit., cit,, 458. also designates


or

op. op. cit.,

460-61, 461-62.

op. cit.

howard

as a producer
Diospyros Nicobar., he describes

Andaman

marblewoud (India,

zebra-wood Andaman, of which ebony and not

oocarpa and (op. with Gamble Coco cit.,

Thw.

Ceylon, the wood

Islands), 355) of cit., as

"of

a dense, yellow does

blacKq " oocarpa

stripes (op.

golden 459)

whitish-yellow. D.

mention

as a supplier that "the wood

of is

tAndaman like

be used like probably as "irregular purplish-black, with paler streaksp

but says 01" L(I. v_j Calamander can and it. " He describes the heartwood marblewood. here ooe hard. " aikd there

moderately

19Z.
11)
12)

Op.

cit.,

459.
mentions D. wood. rhw., of by oocarpa Cf. Thw. 191 p. rare he says (D. ti-iis has " says that quaesita), out a plain completely. white wood, as a producer . of Of the cit., wood but 462): of

(Jr. also

Calamander-like D. oppositifolia lo%v country quoted that

n. 10. tree (op.

a very Ceylon, Trimen,

moist

"Thwaites, resembles the H. with 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) id. op. specimen Wright always ibid. cit., op.

the

of does

Calamander not it bear ... centre,

says

that

a hollow

156-57. cit., 455-56. 454-55. . 455. 458. Asia, of Indiap Indian Ceylon, Timbers; and Ceylon, Uses and an of Burma account the Trees (J. S. of and and but

Gamble, id.,, id. id., Also oo. op. op.

cit.,, cit. cit.., in

found

Gamble, the

A Manual

Growth, of

Distribution, India of and

Shrubs on the

London and 14v in

1902,452) West thinks Africap that

coasts (Re"v, is

Madagascar Bot, App.

Chevalier here 20) it

959)

a different R9v. 184, Bot states

species. appliqu6e, that origin, 14v 950. ebony descri)es (Ijowardq is it a wood as

Chevaliert op. of cit., unknown

Macassar and

botanical

193.
varying with tints. in black ) appearance, bands, but being sometimes often reddish-brown variegated with other

21)

RT 6,125: 6thiopienne, ici. 11 78.

"Les

Egyptiens la seule

Wayant dont

connu je

que

1'6bene

clest

m'occuperai

22) 23)

RT 19p In

Borchardt,, 68:

Das Grabdenkinal "das Mittelstck von einem

des (Berl.

Onigs Mus.

Nefer-ir Nr. 18171) 20 cm.

-ka-rL*c, eines lang

Schiebdeckels gewesenen

kleinen, dessen

etwa Material

Holzkstchen, als

Geh. -Rat. bestimmte 24) 25) 26) Anc. Op. G. Eg. cit.

Wittmack

Ebenholz

(Diospyros -ebenurn)

Materials, 531 9 'Le

495.

Beauvisage,

Bois

d'Ebnet

kT

19 (1897)9

77-83. 27) 28) loc. h. cit. Junker, d. Vorlufiger Ak, d. Bericht in ber Wien die d. zweite vorges [Ak. Jahrgang Cairo von Mus.

GrabunZ

Wissen.

auf

chiciltlichen d. Wissen. Nr. 157954; Wissen. in

Siedlung Wieng

Merimde-BenisaLiiie Phil-Hist. 66,679 80; Klasseg pl. 7. d.

1930, \oo , d,

V-XIIII, cf. in id. Wien

Bericht nach and

ber

1. AkgL

dem Westdelta Leipzig 1928:

entsendete fragment of

Expedition,

Vienna q

194.

a small "nephrit"

stone and

axe..

variously (pp. right

referred 15., 479

to 49;

as pl.

"jadeite" bottom

4p 47 = 14b. 29) 30) Quibell, Lucas, that

corner), 236; Apart pl. from 49p small in Egypt NO. 14259. quantities the have

Archaic op. exist cit., at source in the in found

Objects, 453. various of

localities to

Europe, would

nearest been rivers also

nephrite of the

valleys

Karakash

and Yarkand It is

the

Kwen Lun north

mountain at the

range. river of

further in various Chau, It also

Kashgarp China, and of in and large viz.

and occurs Shensi, Manchuria. water-worn Siberia, Distinctive Precious Jadeite, district Yunnan op. ever, based gravity chemically cit., since only of

provinces Kwang Tungp occurs, near Smith, in Lake

Kwei

Yunnan, the form

boulders, (G. F. H,

Baikal

eastern their M. Weinsteinp 1930t in the 102). Mogoung and

Gem Stones 1912,262;

Characterst and of of Semi-Precious the Upper finest Burinat of

London

Stones, qualitYp and also in is

London found in the

Shensi (smithy 99-100). are

provinces 262-63; these upon the or

China,

and

Tibet cit.,

Weinstein, tentative the

op.

How-

identifications of could without the not

determination which

specific be examined

objectst

microscopically

destroying

195.

them, 31) 32) Area

they 3200.

are It

far stood

from 31

certain. inches Section, below the modern Ministry surface.

Director, of Agriculture.

Horticultural

Egyptian

33)

Brunton London

and

Caton-Thomp 629

son, 63.
Kew.

The Badarian

Civilizationo

1928,46-47v Botanic of Gardens, Economic

34)

Royal Museums 4th ed.

Official No. The 1.

Guide

to

the

Botany, 191; London A Manual 560 of in and a Watt,

Dicotyledons.

1930,184v of India,

Cominercial 244-45# Timbersp

Products 310-316; London 35) Recent found

1908,976-79p of ff. a specimen of Indian

Gamble, 1902,584-879 re-examination by Wainright Tffckholm

material at Egypt

Predynastic M. Drar, Flora

grave of

Gerzeh(V.

III,, ramie (in

Cairo fibre, Petrie, and

19540 as

540-41)has originally

shown reported

that

it

is

not

by Midgley The Labyrinth known

Wainright Mazghuneh,

and Mackay; 6).

Gerzeh as China perennial, in

On Ramie " a tall, Asia

(also nettle-like ---

Grass native Japan

and Rhea). of and

Tropical other

widely

grown see to

China,

Eastern Kew. Botany,

countries".. Guide 19 211-212;

Royal the

Botanical Museums of

Gardens, Economic

Official No.

196.
Watt, Midgley's by Lucas op. cit., 143 ff, The had 171-72),, of Egypt the at correctness already though Far so been largely East early could of doubted on not the

identification (op. that cit., a product its way to

grounds have

found

a date.

36)

Lucas,

op.

cit.,

455. paper Egypt.


Drawings 40;

On this on The

see

in

detail Trade

jnY forthcoming of
37)

Lal)is-lazuli

Predynastic
Rock

'Ninkler, Ig 26-289

of pls.

Southern 229 im 239

Upper 35-41;

Egypt id. 9

36-399

Vlker

und

Volkerbewegungen im Lichte neuer pls.

vorgeschicittlichen

Obergypten Stuttgart

Felsbilderfundeg 31-37

1937,10-169

38)

Frankfort, East 1.138 IV., 7220

Studies ff. 668.9 7-89 2 (Retjnu); 6860 8;

in

Early

Pottery

of

the

Near

39)

Urk. 14;

13

A " L,Y ( -,, M); 708, 5 (Ia); 9 (Djahy); (1926).

669.,

2,15; 1-3

717p

701v

(Sangara); les par Fouilles E.

6880

Rapport Les

sur

de Medamoud Cairo : "I

Inscriptions of lapis-lazu1i

Drioton, 1.8 op. cit.,

1927,54-55 Retjnu ---

(statue gold,,

Minmose), 4o) 41) Lucass The

taxed

453. of the renderings 'cinnamon' and

correctness

tcassia'

for

tl-9ps
Ancient

and kdyv
Records 354;

for
Il,

examplep
Jilt The IV, followed Ebers

(so Breastedt by Lucas,

Op* cit.,

Ebbell,

Pap_rus

197
86 et
III,

passim;
Leiden

Forbes,
1955,79

StUdies
8; Lefebvre,

in

Ancient
Essai

TechnolM
stir la

Medicine
Von DeirleS

69YPtienne, et al.

64 n. 8.159,1650 d. Med. VIq d. alt.

172

(with IV9

caution). 19

18., 679

Crundriss 9 238, t 290; "ti-sRs4 proved. materials period can In

&merely

8.3., 220v

549-551, )"; of been

transliterates: is in the far which from

(Zimt? neither have the (Lucas,

"Zimtbaum the two

(? )". cases from be 354). and

these

reported

Pharaonic

identification op. that. in that


1-, ta iij -

considered Although cinnamon there is it

satisfactory is not

cit., cassia the they

improbable reached Egypt

may have no positive

New Kingdoniq did.


in 11. Ebers

evidence
of

Ebbell's

rendering

813

as

"nialabathron'19 dubiously op. cit,

(The

followed very vonDeLne -9et al.. merely The word name of translit. occurs an oil

Ebers, Ea_. apyrus __ _ _, (op. by 1, efebvre IV, 1,, 282; even

citp

94;

VI v 3t33-84 more dotjbtful. as the its it is

erates),, as early and j. the

seems

as The Old raw material ).

kingdom used Though the in

manufacture unsafe availability frequency lists9 to

(urk. base of with

127, det., conclusion material the the

any the which

regarding merely

on the in gained in the is offeringthat

name occurs impression commodity

nevertheless

hknw was not

an uncommon

Egypt.

198.

According obtainable (Urk, ivhich 140 The out ff; offer, that 1.127). the from

to

the

inscription in Lower among

of

11arkhuf, (via from

it

was

somewhere and apoears Sailor

Nubia the items to Stories

Yam? ) Egypt (11.

Shipwrecked Blackman, however, hknw was not

offered

the

Serpent 1.45-46), who Island

Middle-Egyptian is scorned only by

the

Serpent on his

points

obtainable

(which clearly actually op. cit.,

whether regarded one 46: (to of

mythical as being its chief

or

not in

the

see

p. 46 n. 44 - was but was

Red Sea)t (Ip 152;

products thou

Blackmang say this would island,


311-13 vand Egypt in

"that it
(on

hknw which is the chief


see

didst of
op. reached Nubia

be ")*

brought
That

me),

thing
watt, have

malabathron op. via cit., the

which ) Sea

cit.

Gamble, the O. K.

561. Red

could and

Lower unlikely,

is

not in ever a product coasts*

absolutely quantity, of the

impossible, and islands there in the is

though no Red

especially that it was

evidence Sea or of

tile

surrounding

199.

Equally
for 36v offer more k9t. 589

doubtful
t and

are
'indigo'

b 4ell's,
for

renderings
dr-nkn For first-named b (Flpellt neither

'costus'
op. does little cit., he

87v any

105; evidence; a guess

38P

101). the

seems

than

based

on

phonetic

resemblance.

42) 43)

Lucas, Wreszinski, the top, IV,

op.

cit., Atlas no. 76;

531; II, Urk. 6679

cf. pls. IV, 4-5.

pp. 33a, 633.

4089 33b,

410; 5th

173-74. row from

44)

Urk.

666,16;

In in

a scene tomb the NO.

showing 119 at half

the

arrival tAbd

of

Syrian

tributev dating

Sheikh of the

el-Curneh,

from

first the

Eighteenth on his

Dynastyp shoulder a log

one of of

bearers

carries

dark-looking as

wood, 11kostbare from but the lhbjay' the

unnamed, 31zer" H? left). looks

which (Atlas The

Wreszinski 1,, pl. colour like other Moss oxford scene is is 340p . not the tombs

describes fifth figure

indicated, logs among labelled the

wood

somewhat in

which

appear Porter I. (? )".

Nubian

tribute. Bibliography

and

(Topographical 1960# 234) term

2nd ed. The

it

"ebony

discussed zur Frage

by Scharff der far

CAgyptologische des Landes

Bemerkungen "Keftiu"O' 11 but (1952/52),

Lokalisierung kleinasiatische

Jahrbuch Heidelberg

Forschung tafel 4).

1953,101-104, to the wood.

he makes

no reference

200.

45)

Cf. kings

the of

rich

presents

found

in

the

tombs the

of

the

Byblos
Montetv

contemporary
Byblos et

with
IlEgypte,

Twelfth
155 ff.

Dynastyp

46)

M. Ebert Berlin,

(ed. 1925,1.

Reallexikon 9)

der

Vorgeschichte,

Ill,

47)

G. Schweinfurth, Karnak (Theben)'p 464-80;

'Pflanzenbilder Englers-Botanischer Davies,

im Tempel

von

jahrbUcher Egyptian Atlas UP

55 (1919)v Expedition p1s. 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) E. g. Urk. E. g. Ezekiel 26-33.

BMMA. The Wreszinski,

1929-30,34-35;

Wreszinski, IV., Urk. 705 IV, XXVII,

op.

cit.

II,

pl.

65.

666; 15. Hist.

P.

Westcar,

7.12.

Theophrast9os,
elsewhere to

Plants
terebinth,,

V.

Mv

2.
U

Referring
says

the

Theophrastes

(III, it say with It and 53) 54)

xv, abounds, that

3) it there

that is is

"in tall

the and

Syrian

Damascus, indeed is grows which to

where they

handsome; hill which else roots impossible

a certain though

covered on it. run deepv "

terebinths, has the tough tree 1. 2. wood

nothing strong is 1. )

and

as a whole (CF. This IV is vi.,

destroy.

vV iiiV Vviiiq

identified Sissoo. Hort,

by Thiselton-Dyer (LCL 1.433 ed. n. 6; 11,485. )

as Sissoo

woodp

Dalbergia A. F.

Theophrastmos,

ed.

vol.

201

55, 56.

Urk.

IV,

706p

11, (H. Frisk, de Le P6riple 1927 [G6teborgs Hdgskolas 3; Schoff, Periplus of


Cf. Cl. Preaux, Chron. d'Eg. 53

7 xVl,, 4.19; Periplus la Mer erythr6e,, G8tebor Arsskrift XXXIII 1927: llp
Erythraean the (Jan 1952). Sea, 276-77. 25.

57.

) notes (loc. Miss Preaux that the panther cit, - skins in Coele-Syria in the third B. C. by obtained century the agents from Africa. of Zenon were probably pp, 82., 87 n. 15

58. 59.

it was actually Though whether is unknown. exploited Ohler (Lexicon Testamenti in Veteris and Baumgartner 1953,224) Libros, identify Leiden the OF OIJITI 15 with Diospyros Ezek. XXVII, mespiliformis "bezogen Hochst., is clearly but this aus Nubien". Cheyne's identification mere conjecture, as is also ) (Encycl 0,6A. 1154. Biblica. as Diospyros ebenum paedia Davies, The Tomb of Puyemre, 1. 34 (= pl. pl. 32, in line).

60. 61.

Eg. Naville, III, Deir 71; Daviest el Bahari, pl. Paintings from the Tomb of Rekh-mi-RE' Thebes, . 19 at (backless blackish and chair, with golden-yellowish 25 idem, The Tomb of Nakht, greyish streaks); pl. (chair, black., streaked almost very with pale yellowt Gardiner The Tomb of Antefo_ white); and Davies, 25 & p. 23 (chair; here assumed to be 'ebony' pl. Newberry, 11 (2nd row from top)O 35: Beni Hasan 19 p1s. id. 12 (right-hand 19# 32t I. El Bersheh p1s, side)t v 34, etc.; Davies, IIv Rock Tombs of Deir el Gebrdwi 4&p. 5; Blackmant Rock Tombs of Meir 9&p. 32 19 pl. pl. (chair, here too assumed to be 'ebony); 14t IV, pls. 159 19p I (toilet box) & pp. 38p 52 (here termed again 'ebony'); C. R. Williams, The Decoration of the Tomb of Per-Nib. The technique and the color conventionst New York 1932, 12-13; J. E. Quibell, p1s, Excavations at (1911-12). Saqqara Tile Tomb of liej, 1913, Cairo p1s. 17-18p 11-14p 20; pp. 17p 19-20 (termed 'ebony').

zoz

62*

E. 9, N, M.

JEA

289

pl, and

5,

tomb

of

Amunedje Ancient

(black); Egyptian Paintings

Davies

A. B.

Gardinerp

Is, pl. and of 63. 64.

16t

tomb N.

of

RekhmirV Davies,

(streaked Paintings

with from

light the

brown Tomb

olive); Rekh-mi-RE(,

de G. pl.

6 (olive-green at Thebes, of

patches). 18. the Tomb of Per-Nebp

The Tomb of C. R. Williams, 73-74

Rekh-mi-RE4

The Decoration

65. 66.
67.

Davies, ON
V., Hort)

Five v
7. 1.444

Theban

Tombs,

pl,

17

Cit.
iv.,

6
Theoplirastus, n. 3; Enquiry into Plants, attemptv (LCL ed,

11,485.110singts

howeverg

to in

show that the Persian

'ebonyLtrees Gulf is

once

grew

on the (G.

islands 'Die

unconvincing cols,

HUsing,

Ebenhoiz-Inseln'.

OLZ 10,

126-29),

Z05.

68.

Amarna 48-49,69; The Tell

Letters, Col. el-Amarna No, IV, 29 25,

No. III,

22,

Col. 5-6t

1.32-34; 19p 22

Col. (S. A. B. 1939, 111,20,46v

II,

Mercer, Ip 80-81p 49-50;

Tablets, Col. 11,58; op. also from cit., No.

Toronto Col.

86-89); Col.

(Mercer,

1.138-39,140-432 13,1.27 ?, (very Op. cit. fragmentary 1.40-41).

146-47); list of

possibly articles

Babylonia
A-

69.

P.

Jensen

in

Keilinschrifi4ftbliothek, und babylonischen herausg. 1892, pp. von Gudea 36-379 Texten E. B. in

Sammlung Unschrift Band

von

assyrischen und I

Obersetzung, Berlin 10-11;

Schraderp Col.

III,

HRlfte, VIIt F.

V1.26-27;

Col. 70* Lel.

40-41. de la hultlime 64-65;

Thureau-Danging de_Sargon, Paris

Une Relation 1912,52-559 und Assyrien v. W. Foyp (vielleicht war, --11. ); and und 3]9

Campagne B.

60-619

Meissner,

Babylonien herausg.

[Kulturgeschichtliche 1, Heidelberg 1920,

Bibliothek, 549 353 ("Das Hrte

IUXULHolz sprichwrtlich benannte

'Ebenholz')p das A. T. London man darum olmsteadg 19239 in 949 959

dessen nach History 999 (ed.

dem Dolerit of Assyria,

New York 3499 der 383;

1809 ),

2269

3069

Meissner,

m. Ebert 1925.9

Reallexikon

Vorgeschichte

II. [p Berlin

W+-

art.

'Ebenholzl und P. aber

("wahrscheinlich Assyrer in in das Ebert, den Ebenholzi op.

bezeichneten mit cit, dem

die Namen

Babylonier V^ usu"); ist V^

Thomsen, dem

("Mglicherweise fter erwhnten

unter

Amarnabriefen

usu-Holz Reallexikon

ELbenholzJ der Il.

zu verstehen"); herausg.

E. v.

Ebeling E. Ebeling (art. wenn Holz

in &

Assyriologie, Berlin

B. Meissner, 'Ebenholzl) in

& Leipzig wurde Worte in

1938,265 Babylonien,

("Ebenholz

man

dem babylonischen zu mancherlei ; Lucas, of Anc.

uSwu/esvu dieses verwandt. Materials, (ed. A. "); 499 Singer, Hermann, 481 ("In

erkennen

darf,

Zwecken Eg,

Mercerg ; C. Aldred and fr

OP- Cit. in

A History I,

Technology 1955,685; IV, weniger Holzart

Holmyardg Reallexikon Mesopotamien der dies Gudea (Indien?

Hall) Antike war

Oxford und

Christentum nicht diese

col.

ELbenholzi wirklich

beliebt, meinte, wird.

wenn wie Schon

Ausdruck aufgrund liess )

V usu/egu der

Aiparnabriefe Hartholz ).

angenommen aus

dieses

dem Meluchcha-Gebirge

einfhren". 71. W. F.

Leemans,

Foreign by texts

Trade from

in

the

Old

BabyloniaDL

Period Leiden 19600

as revealed 11 & n. 5.

southern

Mesopotamia,

5' o,

72. 72a.

idem, Contra "in

ibid. Leemans, ebony op. was No. cit. also 11, called n. 5, who says 'black III )t to wood' that ". -

Egypt

73. E. 3-Amarna Enlil No. Col. No, the with 14 I

Letters, of

5 (Amenophis (Karduniash)

Kadashman

Babylon

11.20-25,28-30; King of IVP requests V% is USI,, Babylon), lp 20; from inlaid

(Akhenaten 55; Col. 24 (the of ---logs), 5.11. l. ZO see R. Botany, Thompson Egypt

to

Burraburiash, 7v 75-77; of Alashia of of

11,, 34,20j, king gold

1119 king "one

Col*

bedstead

" and

1114 pieces

't-su96119 presumably

unworked 74. 75. 76. Cf. Nos. No. 5.

20-25p 14,

28-30. Col. M ', 31,1.37. 75-; Col. IV, I (cf 11,15-20) A L)ictionary-of Academy,, 1949p 290-91.

On which Ass rian

Campbell Londons thinks

Thompson, British iJesi,,

Campbell

su is 2iuj! u!:

a willow.

206.

77,

Herodotus

111,47,
LT"o

KEKO'r?.

jVV'VOV

Xrurw

KCXL

78. 79. 80.

Campbell, lit. IV,

*Thompson,

Dict. tree",

Assyr.

Bot.,

113

"wool-bearing vii, 7-8; in 5-12; and contacts of the Chron. the cf. the

SEIISrLOV TO' N. H. XIIp see xxit Griffith Agric. cited, by., canal 26 [july en int. by al. Darius 1938]9 Egypte,, those of 271 48 ff. ff. ) 9 the in 38 and the xxii, 39.

Pliny, Nile in

On cotton JEA 29-30, 81. Such cutting (Posener, id. 82. Cf. found Memphis 1119 83. TIt 46; 86. 20v

Valley Tothill,

Crowfoot, Sudan,

Lucas

literature were facilitated

there

Nile-Red d' jZ. .

Sea No.

La_premire 1, the in terra-cotta the 1., pl.

Domination heads, quarter pls. 39-40;

perse inclkjding of

Indians,

foreign 15-17; 42).

Memphis

(Petriev Memphis _and

idem,

%Meydum

He appears,

however,

to

have

only

the

vaguest

knowledge cinnamon. the which only

of

the After

place stating which

of

origin (111,107)

of

cassia that

and Arabia was

country

yielded

cinnamon

and

cassiap in

latter lake

he describes around and says

(111,110) in of kind which

as growing lived bat-like (1119 nurtures 111): it

a shallow creaturest "Where it

Herodotus grows

cinnamon of land

and what

207.

they

cannot

Say#

save

that

it

is

reportedo

reasonably

enough, reared" 84. R. G. 2nd

to

grow

in

the

places

where

Dionysus

was

Li. e. Kent, Old

Indiaj. Persian _TextS, 144: 1953,110i'5 D(arius) .9A Granunar, Lexiconp

ed.

New Haven F., , 11.40-41. lit,

S(usa) 85. asd of d5ru its

'stone (so d5ru-).

wood'. op.

so called cit., 190;

because

hardness s. v.

Kent,

Lexicon 86.1,, 129

CONCLUSIONS (and From at least Third Dynasty as early as the though the texts earlier, still silent) probably are hbny - probably the Egyptians made use of a wood called Whenever the Egyptian of a vernacular name. rendering is mentioned, it is nearly the geographical origin of hbny been obtained from to have Nubia or Punt. stated always In the New Kingdom an unidentified of the hbny-tree, part in the treatment the of was used as a medicament date gum of eye-diseases, still certAin and at a later the hbny-tree was used as an adhesive.

W8

'ebony', it Like the English to which gave rise, lhbnyl does not appear to have been the name of a but a general term for a number of particular species, belonging to various species probably genera and families. Not all time be regarded as of these would at the present the linguistic ebony-producers, relationship and despite 'ebony'. the two do botanically of the names 'hbnyl and black In colour hbny was usually not correspond exactly. lighter and or blackish, often coloursq streaked with rarely all red or yellow. One of the species hbny-wood was producing Dalbergia G. & P., which melanoxylon even at the present time is found as far in Mauretaniap north a8 the Adrar in approximately 20 In the Sudan Republic latitude N. its northernmost occurrence seems to be near seasonal Shortlimit watercourses of the Acacia at the southern Grass Tall Grass Scrub region, of the Acacia as an outlier (pl. Forest X). region
but distribution in Pharaonic is uncertainp times during the New Kingdom it of the occurred west probably 0 N., Nile Valley 20 and at least north as far as latitude further Red Sea coast. possibly even on the north Its

It has not proved to determine the identity possible hbny-Producing treest some Of and distribution of other than which may have occurred north even further D. melanoxylon. it While is not impossible that of quantities (India, from Asia Ceylon), there were also obtained that yet no definite evidence such was the case. hbny is as

Returning now to the starting-point of our enquiryp it must be admitted the results that have shed obtained little disappointingly light on the location of Punt. it may well be that However., the study of the aromatics from thence, on which obtained considerably more evidence be more illuminating. exists, will

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'Agy! )tolorricclie der Frage Beinerkungen zur ' Jahrbuch Lokalisierung "Keftiu", flir des Landes kleinasiatische Forschung 11 (1952/5.31 heidelberg 19539 101-104. London, Kor-bThe Periplus Sei, Erythraean of the G., Kassala', (Berlin 'hin Vegetationsstreifen Zeitschrift fr 1865) 403-407. ulld zwis: chen buakin 19 Erdkunde allgemeine

'Flora des Soturba an d. k. k. Zool. Botan. 537-560. 'Pflanzengeographische und der Uferlnder Perthes' aus Justus neue Erforschtingen

der nubischen Gesellschaft

Verhandlmwen Kste' g in Wien 15 (L865)1,

hie gra 155-1699


-

Skizze des gesanunten Nil-Gebiets des Rothen Nleeres'g littfteilungen ichtige ber le', Geograptiischer Anstalt Zier Geodem Gesammtgebiete auf

von Dr. 244-248.

A.

Petermann,

Gotha ir

14 (1 86d). p 113-1299

(edj, ', eliciuiae Kotsch3, anae. Beschreibung einer und Abbildung Anzahl Pflanzenunbeschriebener oder wenig gekannter in den Theodor arten Kotschy Reisen welche seinen auf Jahren 1837 bis 1839 als Begleiter Juseph's von Russegger in den sdlich von Kordofan und oberhalb Fesoglu Bergen der freien gelegenen Neger gesamielt hat. Nebst biographischen Skizze Theodor einer Kotschytst Berlin 1868.

226
Schweinfurth, G., Bulletin (1896)9 'Sanunlung arabisch-aethiopischer de 1tHerbier 2 Boissier 266. Tempel von Jahrbcher Pflanzen', 2; app.

(1894),

'Pflanzenbilder im Englers Botanische Sethe, K.,

(Theben)1, Karnak 55 (1919)9 464-480. Dynastie Steindorff, LUrkunden IVJ,

H. 1)V., Urkunden and Helck.. des aeg. Altertums, herausg. L-eir'j-)zig 1906 ff. Die altaegyptischen

der 18. v. G.

Pyrainidentexteg

Leipzig

1908

ff.

Aegyptische Unterricht. 1924. Urkunden Altertums, 1932-33. Shaw, 22 'Two (1936)t

Lesestcke Texte des

im akademischen Gebrauch zum Leipzig jeichesq Mittleren

des alten herausg.

Reichs, v. G.

2nd ed. Steindorff,

[Urkunden des Leipzig, Ij

ae. &.

Burials 47-50.

from

the

South

Libyan

Desert'p

JEA

Smith,,

G. E., F., The Archaeological and Wood Jones, Nubia 1907-1908, 11. Report vol. on the 1910. Cairo
G. F. H. Gem Stones q , 1912. and their distinctive

Survey 0 Human Remainsp


L, mdon

Smith,

Characters

Smittiv

J..,

Distribution in the Sudan in Relation of Tree Species --l-Nd-n-istry to Rainfall T of Agriculture, and-S-o-il 1949. Sudan Government, Khartoum BTi-Iletin No. 4j, of Ancient 1958. Egypt I LPenguin

Smith,

N. S., The Art and Architecture Books, Harri h, Middx-j H., '9tude 153-166. IV,, stir 'Die la Segle

Sottas,

C14 du Louvre'p RT 22

RT 36 (1914)0 (1900)v 115-125.

Spiegelberg,

Northampton

stele'q,

r
er
.

vers

Strassbourg

Steindorff,

G., Das Grab des Ti Expedition von Sieglin Aniba stadt [Mission and

der Ernst LVerffentlichungen in gypteni, 1913. Leipzig de Nubie 1929-1934ig Gluck-

Archeiologique Hamburg 1935-37.

bu(jai,
Vickht1m,

jovernment, Khartoum

kuns(2rNtutioit oil 1944.


of of

)ort.
Egypt Universityp. LCairo 17,28t Nos. Science,

Flora V., M., and Drar., Bulletin Faculty of the 1941-54. Cairo The H. A., Colonial Technical 1949. 'The A. S., Journal P.,

30J,

Tempany,

in the British Conservation Practice Soil of Science. Bureau Empire of boil LConutionwealth Enjand Harpenden, No. 45J. Communications

Thomas,

Vegetation of Ecoiogy

of 31

District, the Karamoja (1943)t 149-177.

U,, an(la',, -,,,

Thomsen,

'Ebenholzt Vorgeschichte

LB. PalAstina-Syrienj (ed. M. Ebert), Une Relation de la

III, kuitieme

der Reallexikon 1925.. 1. Berlin Campagne

Thureau-Dangin,

0 Sargon,

F.,

Paris

1912. from the tAfe of and Travels (1942)p 109-121. SNR 25 (1) in the Sudan, Forestry,, Oxford London 1952. 1920.

Tothill, Tothill, Unwin,

'Some Extracts B. H., Theodore Kotschy'. J. D. A. H., (ed. ). 'Nest J., Agriculture

African Gold

Corests of Kusht,

and

Vercoutter, Vycichlt

'The

Kush the

7 (1959)p Shipwrecked 1939.

120-153. Sailorlp

W., 'Notes on the Story 70-72. Kush 5 (1957)v W. G. (ed. ). Herodotus

of Book

Waddell, 'Nainright,

II,,

London

'Iron in the Napatan C,. k., , 5-36. SNR 26 (1) (1945)v


'Zeberged: The Shipwrecked 31-38. JEA 32 (1946)9

and Meroltic
10ailor's

Agest,

Island'.

'Zeberged:

A Correction'.

JEA 34

(1948)v

li9.

Viarmin, gton,
I'Viatt, Weill,

India,

E. H. . The Cotmaerce between 1928.


Cambridge Products Me and Dynasties of

the Roman EmLire and


London 19., 8. Paris London 1908. 19-30.

G. , The Conwercial R., Les He et

India,,

4gyptiennes, Stones,

Veinstein,

N1.. Precious

bemi-precious

Zzo

Williams,
Winkler,

C. R., The Decoration The technique and


H. A.,

of color

the Tomb of conventions,

Per-Neb. New York

1932.

VdIker und Volkerbewegungen im Lichte chen berSypten Stuttgart 1937. ., of Southern Upper

im vorgeschiFelsbliderneuer

Rock Drawings 1938-390

Egypt.,

London

Winlock, Woenig., Woolley,

H. E., F., Die

The Treasure Pflanzen

of

EI-Lahun,

New York Leipzig

1934 1886.

im alten

Aegypteng

The C. L., D. 9 Karanbg-. and Randall-Maciver, Romano-Nubian Cemetery University of Pennsylvania. Eckley B. Coxe Junior to Nubiap vols. Expedition 3-4j, Philadelphia 1910. W., Atlas zur altaegyptischen 1914 ff. Leipzig J., 'Pour une localisation 52 (1953)t 173-178. 'Une epith! orientales', te Kulturgeschichtep de Iam'v BIFAO

Wreszinski,

Yoyotte,

du Pays

de Min comme explorateur 9 (1952)p Rev. dligyptol.

des r6gions 125-137.

Zarb,

J. H.,

Rapport botaniq sur les specimens les expZditions pendant igyptiemic. et au Darfur en 1875 et 1876,

es colligIts au Kordofan, -, Cairo

1879.

Barguet,

P.,

La St6le de la Famine d'Archiologie orientale, XXIVIO Cairo 1953. The Fung Kingdom

L=Institut a Sehel Biblioth6que Sennarg of the

franpais d'Etude 1951.

Crawford, Crossland, Hillq

O. G. S.,

of

Gloucester Red Sea,

C., Desert Cambridge

and Water 1913, of

Gardens

R, L. v A Bibliography from the earliest

SudanIv the Anglo-Egyptian 193S 0 to 1937, Oxford times

Z29

Leakey,

L. S. B.,

The

Stone

Age-Cultures

of

Kenya

Colonyl

Cambridge

1931, Stone Age Cultures to C. G. Seligman, East in East 1934 Africa'.

'The Sequence of Essays presented Piggott, Sauneron, S.,

'Early in Trade Foreign 23-24. 1948). Man 48 (Feb.

Africa'.

de 1'Embaumement. S,, Rituel 5.158 LService Pap. Louvre 1952. F. H,, A Concise 1948. xford Encyclopedia Foreign 1947).

III. Pap. Boulaq Cairo des Antiquit(! sjj World East Timbersp

Titmus, Wainright,

of

'Early G. A., Man 47 (Nov.

in Trade 143-148.

Africa'p

2?5oDESCRIPTION OF PLATES

1.

The
Yetr

delivery
and Miu. XVIII.

of

hbn-y and
Tomb (after of

other

items
(No. JEA 289

by the
84) pl. at 5).

men of
Thebes.

Amunedjeh Davies,

Dynasty

II.

The manufacture and ivory. (after pl.


Hbny

of

furniture Rekhmirt

of

hbny

and

other at

woods,

Tomb of

(No.

100)

Thebes II.,

Davies, 53. )
shrine of

The Tomb of

Rekh-mi-Rfat

Thebes.,

Hatshepsut

from

Deir

el-Baari

(after

Naville, IV. The III,, V. hewing pl.

The Temple of 70). making Deir Deir hbny

of in

Deir Punt

el (after

Baharip

119

pl. op.

25). cit.

Navillev

Carpenter IDJ L) of , Tombs of

a palanquin (after Il.

of

y(ellow) Daviesq

hbnl. The RoCk

Tomb

el-Gebrdwi el Gebrdwi of

pl.

10). in the tomb of

VI.

Tisw-staves

and whips

hbn-y depicted

Kenamun (No. Ken-A mGn


at VII. Dalbergia deciduous (after

93)

at Thebes
I. pl.

(after

Davies,

The Tomb of

Thebes

18) et perr. Tree in the

melanoxylon state, Eggeling,

Guill. West

Okollo,, The photo.

Nile

Provincep of the

Uganda Uganda

Indigenous 50). Guill. et size). Flower

Trees

Protectorate, VIII. Dalbergia vertical panicle

melanoxylon branchlet ( 4. nat. Staminal ( size).

Perr. 2. in

1.

Flowering

nat. 3.

Fruiting vertical sectiong fruit

sheath,

X 10.5.

Immature

(nat.
IX.

size).

(after
mesPiliformis branch.

Eggeling,
Hochst. Both nat.

op.
a.

cit.

301 fig.

64).
branch.

Diospyros b. Fruiting

Flowering (after

size

Eg,--elingp -

Op.

zi
cit.
X.

106

fig.
map in

) 25.
of the the Sudan. 34 (after fig. 1) Tomb Atlas No. 119 1. pl. at Thebes 34-0). Andrews iii Tothill"

Vegetation Agriculture

Sudan,

X1.

The

delivery XVIII.

of

Syrian (after

tribute. Wreszinski.,

Dynasty

ADDENDA and CORRIGENDA


Introduction A general Bissing, Die Welt des survey 'Pyene des of (Punt) the Punt und die question Seefahrten is given der by W, von

Agypter'. zur

Orients.

Wissenschaftliche 1948,146-157.

Beitr9ge

Kunde

Mergenlandes,

p. 35,

n, 2 Ti : the most recent & H. publication Tombeau is : L. Epron, fasc..

Tomb of F.

Daumas, tr,

G, Goyong dArchgol.

Wild

de Ti2

Institut
Chapt.

orientale

du Caireg

1939-1953.

Il. Javk A smalliwooden

figure,

9 cms.

high,

representing

corpse

without

its

wrappings,

published

by A. Berlin is

Hermann 1940# 101p 'ebony'. (119 78)

and W. Schwant and They to this of (Cf. Col. wie in vor assigned connect been

Xgyptische by them it with to hbny, suggested to the

Kleinkunst, the Late Period, stated feasts, possibly use Antike Figuren Plut, Mahnung gezeigt Is* for

termed

figures at was its fUr

by Herodotus If. the such und eines 17; as is sombre an effigy.

have

shown is that of

guests it

probable, colour

figure the wood

Hermann., 481 sie der

Reallexikon der kleinen 2,78; als

Christentum Leichnamsq Petron. sat*

IVt

: "Eine nach

Herodot. Spdtzeit auf

34

Agypt.

zum Lebensgenuss wurden, ist

dem Tode

Gastmhlern

z 313

bezeichnenderweise P. 59 A fragment in the of the

auch

aus

Eibenholzl.

"

upper

arm of

a statuette Art, New York Professor false

of

Akhenaten No. Forest 20.2.12)

Metropolitan

Museum of J.

(Acc, of

was identified Products, (Unpublished Its high it is length polish. mentioned Williams, is Yale,

by Samuel as

Record, sp.?

"Dalbergia on wood cms., and

ebony% dated has 20/12/1921), received is Ijt unknown; 288p and but details a

report 15.8 The

specimens, the of surface this of (1)

provenance

piece Egypt (1930)t For

by Hayes,

Scepter 111 published. Young,

by C. R.

MMA Studies has to yet Mr. been Eric

93 n. 80t the above

no photograph I am indebted

Chapt,
I have

V.
not yet contain seen the following relevant two to studies this which chapter in Egypt Bulletin de la :

doubtless (a)

material

K,, W. Butzerg during


Soci6te

tEnvironment

and Human Ecology Dynastic


32

Predynastic
de Giographie

and Early
d'Egypte,

Times'q
43-87.

(1959)9

(b)

Idem, der

Studien Sahara. III.

zum vor-und Die und der

frhgeschichtlichen gyptens Zeit, der

Landschaftswandel whrend der

Naturlandschaft Dynastischen und

Vorgeschichte Akademie der

Wiesbaden

1959

Wissenschaften der

Literatur.

Abhandlungen

mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen

23+.

Klasse,
p. 125 Jackson which more Chapt,

Jahrgang
n. 12. (SNR produced probably VII, 28

1959.

(1947)p the

207)

states for than iron A.

that

the

acacia at or

species was ('sunt'),

charcoal seyal

smelting milotica

Merot'

Acacia Fig, lt

arabica

Add

: Faras, date

the

tWestern

Palace'. (7) (Griffith,,

Four

fragments

of

carved 30;

febony'. pl,

: Meroltic

LAAA 13 (1926)9

15p 2-5). VIII Leemans, Foreign Trade in the Old Babylonian Period LStudia vol. I of e9d have the or et VIIP not yet

Chapt. W. F.

as revealed Documenta Leiden had time

by text,. - from -, ad Iura Orientis

Southern Antiqui late

Nlesopotamia, Pertinentia. forAuse and

1960, for

reached more

me too

than

a cursory esit

examination Akkadian

material

presented, pp. 11 ff.,

On the 170 in

Sumerian

ugd, see

125-26;

on Meluhha, W-

pp. 159-166. Beekman, Hout in Hout het in alle

On Ebony Tijden Deventer hout bij

general,

see W, Boerhave

: Bossen, 1949,

Bomen en Toegepast Hoofdstuk 7: 429-31 all

Verledeng

Bossen,

Bomen en Toegepast 434-38 (Dalbergia).

de Egyptenaren, is nearly

(Diospyros),

The material

derivative.

z 3,51

Bibliography.

For Peet., 2nd

v : Cerny', T. E., ed.

J., The

Gardiner, Inscriptions and London

A. H., of 1952-550

and Sinai,,

Oxford

read

Gardiner, J.,

A. H., etc.

Peet,

T. E,,

and Cerny'.

LAST-MINUTE pp. 2 and 20, n. 9a

NOTES

Reference Antiquities N. -E. int. and (F. Rock at of al., others Anfray, Tombs

may be made to Service Aduwa in of Tigr6 red like

the

discovery rock-cut in

by the

Ethiopian at Yehav

seventeen province, pottery Egyptian

tombs were Egyptian

which of

foundo shape

bulbous shaped

vessels

hes-vases in Ethiopia: discovered 19619,

'Archaeological excavated Illustrated esp. figs. at Yeha,

Discoveries and

a Castle

Matara'.

London 15 and 16).

News,,

25 March

502-504, 66, On the Words Oriental Hebrew

N. 7 Hebrew in the 0`1-2,1 Old see T. O. Lambdinp Journal 149. (on of the 'Egyptian the American of the Loan

Testamenttv 73 (1953)9

Sociej formp

basis is

an Egyptian

prototype

h'u'bn6y

proposed).

236.

p. 75, To im the

n. 58a references there, Xgyptent, Instituts add: J. Janssen, des Kairo 16 'Uber Hundenamen

pharaonischen

Mitteilungen Abteilung

deutschen (1958)

archgologischen

Festschrift L1= sich auf die

Junkerj., Farbe der Fall

178

( 11 tEbenholzl was bei sein wird". 'der ). 9

(41)

kann (21) 41. 58333)

beziehen, gewesen

Schwarzet 181, No.

sicherlich Janssen adds

(Annual

Egyptological of the

Bibliography dog's date,

1958p

No.

another of Lederer. of dogd

example Middle Cf. nainest,

name Hbn(y), formerly in

on a relief, the to collection Janssen's

probably of list P. 175 I have P,

Kingdom H. G.

Fischer,

tA SUDPlement 152.

JEA 47

(1961)9

not

been

able

to

see give

the

following details

paper

by the

Wittmack specimen ebenum: Holzproben

which from L.

may well Abusir

further he identified

about

which

as Diospyros altaegyptischen der 1910. Gesellschaft

Wittmack, aus Abusir'.

'Untersuchung Sitzungsberichte zu Berlin,

naturforschender

Freunde

PL.

1.

ill
ol

10-

lit, 4 Z,

Z:: : =, --

1/

-//

Wo-

--

=:

)k c

T-1 1PL.

III II

E 0

U
1

7: 1

Q) -Z a)

JM

Pi.

III.

-i

41

"I PL. iv.

.7

cv

4-

r7
1"

4(

:'

(r'-'c' c >

/3aC\
;)

0)

Pl.

V.

U&

I'

//

.7

r-

---)-"*,.

A,

-iI

N
"L_

\__

1-

iL
Manufacture ot' ) , -, ! :, ri(Itlill -Djau ()f y(e ) I I()%%, L11211.

Pl.

vi.

//

f 77'. , /V. Al A

nnn nrin

big

I
"__'%

\\\\L
\\T

I
II0 II

I:

1Th\.
I

Ii

LLl
j -.
Is

Ts

t, Iv (-x Kenamun at

ed Thebes.

Pi.

Vii.

bw

t,

Dalbergia Tree Okollo, in

melanoxylon the 'Nest deciduous Nile

(- uill. , statev

et

Perr.

Province,

Uganda.

Pl.

Vill.

Dalbergia melano. )ylonG. & P.


FlowerinR 3. Flower branchIct in (j 2. Fruiting panicle nat. size). 8.1.4. Staininal sheath, section, vertical ,, fruit (nat. size). S. Immature (j nat. size). x to.

PI. Ix.

1)j'(jsPy,nu, I loclist.ex A. Rich -()s spiliformIS


a. I-'Io%% branch. cring b. Frultink, branch. Both natural size.

we

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