ABU DHABI NATIONAL OIL COMPANY
HEALTH SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT MANUAL OF CODES OF PRACTICE VOLUME 1 : HSE ADMINISTRATION
GUIDELINE ON HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS
HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March, 2006 Page 2 of 90
RECORD OF REVISION Revision No. Version 2 Date February 2006 Section / Page Variety of pages and definitions Reason Minor modifications to some definitions with a view to other Codes of Practice documents that are being finalised.
Copyright The copyright and all other rights of a like nature in this document are vested in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This document is issued as part of the Manual of HSE Codes of Practice (the “Manual”) and as guidance to ADNOC, ADNOC Group Companies and independent operators engaged in the Abu Dhabi oil & gas industries. Any of these parties may give copies of the entire Manual or selected parts thereof to their contractors implementing HSE standards in order to qualify for award of contracts or for the execution of awarded contracts. Such copies should carry a statement that they are reproduced by permission of ADNOC, and an explanatory note on the manner in which the Manual is to be used. Disclaimer No liability whatsoever in contract, tort or otherwise is accepted by ADNOC or any of its Group Companies, their respective shareholders, directors, officers and employees whether or not involved in the preparation of the Manual for any consequences whatsoever resulting directly or indirectly from reliance on or from the use of the Manual or for any error or omission therein even if such error or omission is caused by a failure to exercise reasonable care.
All administrative queries should be directed to the Manual of HSE Codes of Practice Administrator in:
Environment Health & Safety Division, Supreme Petroleum Council, Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, P.O. Box : 898, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Telephone : (9712) 6023782 Fax: (9712) 6668089 Internet site: www.adnoc.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
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TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE PURPOSE ................................................................................................................. 4 A ................................................................................................................................ 5 B .............................................................................................................................. 10 C .............................................................................................................................. 13 D .............................................................................................................................. 20 E .............................................................................................................................. 25 F .............................................................................................................................. 32 G.............................................................................................................................. 36 H .............................................................................................................................. 38 I................................................................................................................................ 44 J............................................................................................................................... 49 K .............................................................................................................................. 49 L .............................................................................................................................. 49 M.............................................................................................................................. 53 N .............................................................................................................................. 59 O.............................................................................................................................. 61 P .............................................................................................................................. 64 Q.............................................................................................................................. 69 R .............................................................................................................................. 69 S .............................................................................................................................. 76 T .............................................................................................................................. 82 U .............................................................................................................................. 86 V .............................................................................................................................. 87 W ............................................................................................................................. 88 X .............................................................................................................................. 90
Such discrepancies have temporary nature and will be rectified as a matter of priority during the regular reviews of this document. At any future time.
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Version 3 March. minor discrepancies may occur between the definitions in individual documents and the definitions listed in this document. 2006 Page 4
The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide a single reference document for all definitions and abbreviations as pertaining to ADNOC HSE management. as draft Codes of Practice documents are finalised or approved Codes of Practice revised.
A short visit to dentist. ISO 9000/14000. accidental release of toxic gas. Acclimatised Acclimatisation is a set of physiological adaptations. b) dies. Absence of employees working part-time is counted as full absence days. When work is stopped and resumed during the same or next working day/shift it does not count as absence. c) leaves the company (pension. in which: − Beginning of Absence is the first day of absence or day on which work is stopped during working time. injury. does not count as absence.. Absence Day Every calendar day of absence according to the definition of Total Sickness Absence.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. This includes death and/or injury caused by process mishaps e. Accidents involving Third Parties Any fatality. hospital etc. doctor. Accident See incident. dismissal). severance. EMAS. 2006 Page 5
ABLJ Adjustable Buoyancy Life Jacket. − End of Absence is when the employee: a) resumes work partly or completely. safety and/or environmental performance deemed acceptable for a given period or phase of activities. Within the ADNOC Group it has been agreed that the term accident is synonymous with incident. Absorption The process by which radiation imparts some or all of its energy to any material through which it passes. Accreditation Audits Audits to verify that ‘state of health’ warrants initial or continued accreditation. Absorbed dose See Dose. Accreditation Audits are conducted by person(s) appointed by the accreditation organisation (e.
.g. Full-heat acclimatisation requires up to 3 weeks of continued physical activity under heat stress conditions similar to those anticipated for the work. ISM Code).g. Acceptance criteria Expresses the level of health. permanent disabilities to third parties caused by any accident involving company/contractor assets or personnel in the process of conducting company business. They may be defined both in quantitative and qualitative terms.
AFFF Aqueous Film Forming Foam. the environment or property. Unit becquerel. It also provides recommended good practice in the field of occupational and environmental hygiene. 1 Bq = 1 transformation per second. the professional organisation that recommends Occupational Exposure Limits for a wide range of agents. ADESCO Abu Dhabi Emergency Support Committee Of Offshore Operators. the methods used to achieve the objectives. the business controls used to ensure achievement of the objectives and the person accountable for achievement of the objectives. Activity Specification Sheet The documentation of activity that outlines the hazard management objectives when undertaking the activity. Activity (Symbol A) Attribute of an amount of a radionuclide (also called Radioactivity or Strength). 1 Ci = 3. ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company. (Pre-SI unit curie. ADNOC (or Group Companies) Project Manager Individual appointed by ADNOC (or Group Companies) to manage and coordinate all parties involved in a construction project.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Active Failure A failure of equipment or procedure that has immediate consequences with potential for harm to people. ADC American Diving Contractors. generally to higher levels or concentrations of a health hazard. Describes the rate at which nuclear transformations occur in it. symbol Bq. Acute Health Effects Acute health effects are those which occur suddenly and in a short time (seconds to hours) following exposure. ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. See also "Latent Failure".
. symbol Ci. 2006 Page 6
ACDE Association of Commercial Diving Educators (US).7x1010 Bq). Activity General term referring to industrial operations on a site covered by IPPC. An acute exposure runs a comparatively short course.
freight. Unit becquerel. [α-radiation]) A particle consisting of two protons plus two neutrons. ALARP See "As Low As Reasonably Practicable". when ingested or inhaled. Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) The amount of activity of a radionuclide.e. 2006 Page 7
Affiliated Company or Affiliates Those Abu Dhabi based companies engaged in the petroleum or petroleum services business with direct line accountability to the Supreme Petroleum Council. fixed wing (jet. Emitted by a radionuclide. owned or operated on behalf of company and under company direct control of under company contract terms i. Alpha particle (Symbol α. symbol Bq. AGM Assistant General Manager. piston) or joint operations.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Agents Hazardous to Health See 'Health Hazard'. where the term ‘Group Companies’ is used this includes the Affiliated Companies. helicopter (turbine. the contract supervisor. turboprop. Analysis A form of measurement. AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association. For the purposes of this Manual. piston). MedEvac. Air Cleaning An indoor air quality control strategy to remove various airborne particulates and/or gases from the air. used to obtain quantitative information about the intensive properties (such as concentration of a specific pollutant) of a sample. or deficiency in the number of the red cells or of the haemoglobin. Aircraft Incident Incidents involving all types of aircraft. AIP Aeronautical Information Publication (UAE). which leads to an effective dose of 20 mSv/a. Anaemia Deficiency of blood as a whole. AGG ADNOC Group Guideline.
. This should include air transport for purposes of passenger.
AQUA Analytical Quality Assurance Scheme (UK . at which the time. difficulty and cost of further reduction measures becomes unreasonably disproportionate to the additional risk reduction obtained. Assessment Team A group of people selected to carry out Health Risk Assessments within an Assessment Unit. vessels. trouble. Area Authority A person designated as responsible for any task. objectively assessed. Assessment Unit A unit comprising a complete operational site. expertise (or persons). business unit. trouble. In more general context asset is also used in context of software e. responsible for co-ordinating the activities of the Assessment Team. work. As Low As Reasonably Practicable Means to reduce a risk to a level which is as low as reasonably practicable and involves balancing reduction in risk against the time.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
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ANSI American National Standards Institute. ARPA Automatic radar plotting apparatus.g. API American Petroleum Institute. job. This level represents the point. a self-contained segment of a large or complex site.
. pipes. skills. or operation in a specific area. department. or his representative. Assessment (or evaluation) The process of analysing and evaluating hazards. Assessment Team Leader The line manager.g. job. useful quality. or company responsible for the overall operation or management of any task. team. work. In context of HSE management asset normally means hardware e. difficulty and cost of achieving it. or operation. buildings. so defined as to assist in the management of OHRA within an organisation.HSE). AODC Association of Offshore Diving Contractors (Now IMCA). It is also the person. It involves both causal and consequence analysis and requires determination of likelihood and risk. or a group supporting a single business process. Asset A company possession having value which is used to generate revenue.
laws and regulations. chosen standards. . financial or any other business context. has the desired integrity and will continue to perform its function. Atom The smallest portion of an element that can combine chemically with other atoms. − provide.
. Group Company management may appoint a Principal Auditee.safeguard the company’s resources and promote their effective use. Auditor The organisation or person that performs audits. Audiometry The measurement of an individual's hearing acuity using an audiometer. and protect the integrity of. It is the combination of absorption and scattering processes and leads to a decrease in flux density of the beam when projected through matter. Audit (HSE) Independent. Auditee The party that is subjected to audits.) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Attenuation The process by which a beam of radiation is reduced in intensity when passing through some material. − allow for compliance with policies. be it HSE. that is a person who will accept the audit results on behalf of the Group Company. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials . Assurance All activities necessary to make sure that a HSE-critical equipment system (HSECES) is suitable. Refer to definition Audit. required records and information. systematic and documented process of objectively obtaining and evaluating verifiable evidence to determine that HSE controls: . Audits are an integral component of any assurance process.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Also called: Transmission. 2006 Page 9
Assumed Protection Values The mean attenuation minus standard deviation at each octave band found for a piece of hearing protective equipment (in dB).are (cost-)effective and efficient. Refer to definition Audit.are complete and consistent. Atomic Number (Symbol Z. .
Barriers may be physical. The combination of activities to achieve the Audit Plan. Audit Programme. training and experience to carry out duties under the authority of the Electrical Safety Rules. Aviation Incidents Incidents involving any work related air transport involving fixed wing and helicopter flying. Work related air transport includes flying to and from company business abroad.
Badge (Film -) A pack of photographic film which measures radiation exposure for personnel monitoring. The badge may contain two or three films of differing sensitivity and filters to shield parts of the film from certain types of radiation. Available techniques In the context of BAT. auditor training and the management of audit procedures. segregation. training. protective devices shields. Badge (Thermoluminescence -) A badge constructed from material which. inspection.e. internally or externally-led.
. Availability The likelihood that a HSECES will perform its function on demand or when called upon to do so. drills).HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. under economically and technically viable conditions. team compositions. − when the audits are to take place. taking into consideration the cost and advantages. Barrier A measure which reduces the probability of realising a hazards potential for harm and of reducing its consequence. Authorised Electrical Person An Authorised Electrical Person is an Appointed Person over 21 years of age and must have clearly demonstrated that he has sufficient electrical technical knowledge. 2006 Page 10
Audit Plan. (materials. etc) or non-physical (procedures. The time-based schedule to conduct audit activities. An Audit Plan typically covers a 3-5 year period and details: − what is to audited. those techniques developed on a scale which allows implementation in an industrial sector. releases light in proportion to the radiation absorbed when subsequently heated. − who will conduct the audits i. including the preparation of an audit plan. etc. having been irradiated.
nature of terrain/ landscape. the forerunner to IPPC. Behaviour Any observable act or failure to act.g. Bbl Barrel. 2006 Page 11
Basel Convention 1989 UN Basel Convention on the control of Transboundary movements of hazardous waste and their disposal. BATNEEC Best Available Techniques Not Entailing Excessive Cost. Baseline conditions A description of the environmental setting in which a project is to be developed e. including physical actions (e. generally to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment as a whole. climbing a ladder) and speech (giving instructions). 1 Bq = 2.
. location of populated areas. Former term used in Integrated Pollution Control (IPC). BAT Best Available Techniques . and where that is not practicable.7´10-11 Ci. Now superseded by BAT. agriculture. One becquerel equals one nuclear transformation per second. controls or operations as a whole which.the most effective and advanced stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicates the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing in principle the basis for emission limit values (ELVs) designed to prevent. BACT Best Available Control Technology – see BAT.g. air quality and noise etc. are identified as achieving exemplary results. when compared with similar issues in other parts of the ADNOC and its Group Companies. Best Practice Systems. Becquerel (Symbol Bq) The SI unit of activity. Provides the framework for the global system of control on international movements of hazardous waste.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. BEIR A sub-committee of the US National Academy of Sciences studying the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation. Baseline (Measurement) Survey Quantified personal exposure data obtained to compare against the relevant Occupational Exposure Limit(s). ecological resources. procedures. (both deliberate and accidental) that people can perform.
bacteria. The BPEO procedure establishes. [β-radiation]) An electron (β-) emitted by the nucleus of a radionuclide. allergy. Biological Contaminants Agents derived from or that are living organisms (e. hypersensitivity diseases. fungi.
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Version 3 March. air and water. viruses. the option that provides the most benefits or the least damage to the environment as a whole. * A metabolite of a substance is either a breakdown product or modified (more soluble) form suitable for excretion by the kidney into urine or by the liver into the intestine. 2006 Page 12
Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) BPEO is the outcome of a systematic and consultative decision-making process which emphasis the protection and conservation of the environment across land. respiratory disorders. toxicity or otherwise create a hazard to human health. Biological Exposure Index Exposure limit for hazardous substance or metabolite measured through biological monitoring. Biological Effect Monitoring Biological effect monitoring is the measurement of a reversible biochemical change caused by the absorption of the substance. at acceptable cost. Biological Agents Any micro-organism. and infectious diseases. urine or exhaled breath. Best Practice Bulletins A medium for disseminating examples of good HSE performance as found within the ADNOC the Group and also outside. usually blood. including any which have been genetically modified. which may cause any infection. irreversible pathological effect. in which case the beta particle is called a positron (β+). in the long term as well as short term. The electric charge may be positive. and mammal and bird antigens) that can be inhaled and can cause many types of health effects including allergic reactions. relative the concentration in the environment. the degree of change being below that associated with toxic injury and not associated with a known. for a given set of objectives.g. Beta particle (Symbol β.. cell-culture or human endoparasite. Bioaccumulate Term used to describe the process of concentration of a chemical substance in biological tissue. Biological Monitoring Biological monitoring involves the measurement of a hazardous substance or its metabolites* in body fluids.
BS British Standard. BSAC British Sub Aqua Club. Building Envelope Elements of the building. BREF Notes Guidance documents on BAT produced by the European Commission. that enclose the internal space. the controls associated with each threat and any factors that escalate likelihood. windows. 2006 Page 13
Biostatistics and Epidemiology Disciplines in the study of the distribution and determinants of disease and other health-related states in human populations. The left hand side of the diagram is constructed from the fault tree (causal) analysis and involves those threats associated with the hazard. When the vessel fails the remaining contents burn in an intense fireball. The centre of the bow tie is commonly referred to as the ‘top event’.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Bloodborne pathogen Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in other humans. and walls.
. including all external building materials. Branch Highest level of ICS resource organisation within a Section. BLEVE A boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion is typically the result of fire engulfing a pressure vessel containing volatile flammable liquid. BOHS British Occupational Hygiene Society.
CAAP Civil Aviation Advisory Publication (UAE). BOD Biological Oxygen Demand. The right hand side of the diagram is constructed from the hazard event tree (consequence) analysis and involves escalation factors and recovery preparedness measures. ‘Bow-tie’ Diagram A pictorial representation of how a hazard can be hypothetically released and further developed into a number of consequences. BPEO Best Practice Environmental Option.
give composition of discharge and total discharge rate (average and/or range). CEN Comite Europeen Standardisation). concentration(s) of pollutant(s) and pollutant discharge rate(s).HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
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Level II: Identify source(s) of discharge. give total discharge rate (average and/or range).
. that is classified by IARC as Category 1 or Category 2. Level III: Identify source(s) of discharge. freight container. Characterisation Level The following 3-level system of characterisation (information) must be used for all discharges: Level I: Identify source(s) of discharge and describe composition. railway tank wagon. CEFIC Conseil Europeen de L’Industrie Chimique (European Council of Chemical Manufacturers’ Federations). 2006 Page 14
Carcinogen A substance either known to cause cancer or classified as having a high probability of causing cancer. railway freight wagon. CEN Comite Europeen de Normalisation (European Union). Causal Analysis The process of determining potential combinations of circumstances leading to a top event. The ACGIH TLV committee classifies as ‘human carcinogen’ or ‘suspected human carcinogen’. or portable tank used for the carriage of goods. CCME American Society for Testing and Materials. Cataract A clouding of the lens of the eye which obstructs the passage of light. road tank vehicle. CFC Chloro Fluoro Carbons. Cargo Transport Unit (CTU) A road freight vehicle. CFR Code of Federal Regulations (USA). CEO Chief Executive Officer.
there being no provision for protective earthing or reliance upon installation conditions.
. irritants. Chronic Health Effects Chronic health effects are those which occur gradually over a long period of time following repeated and prolonged exposure to relatively low levels or concentrations of a hazardous agent. For example. Chromosomes Rod-shaped bodies found in the nucleus of every body cell. mists/aerosols. causes a deleterious effect (harm) on the health of the worker. They contain the genes. but in which additional safety precautions. with the exception of mining. Classification of Hazardous Areas In industry. are classified according to the probability of occurrence of explosive concentrations of gas or vapour. Chemical agent is a chemical substance that. emission or exposure. (Refer IEC 745-1). (Refer IEC 745-1). These classifications. Human beings possess 23 pairs. (Refer IEC 745-1). They may be present in the working environment as gases.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. sensitisers. are provided. Class III Tool A tool in which protection against electric shock relies on supply at safety extra low voltage (SELV) and in which voltages higher than those of SELV are not generated. liquids or solids. when exposed to. called zones. a short term exposure may result in a chronic health effect. In certain cases. 2006 Page 15
Chemical Agent Chemical is a substance with a distinct molecular composition that is produced by or used in a chemical process. dusts. are as follows: Zone 0 is a zone in which a flammable atmosphere is continuously present or for long periods. but which includes an additional safety precaution in such a way that means are provided for the connection of accessible conductive parts to the protective (earthing) conductor in the fixed wiring of the installation in such a way that accessible conductive parts cannot become live in the event of failure of the basic insulation. Class II Tool A tool in which protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only. such as double insulation or reinforced insulation. areas that are hazardous. Chronic release The continuous or ongoing release of a discharge. systemic poison. carcinogens. so far as flammable gases and vapours are concerned. fumes. vapours. or hereditary elements. Class I Tool An electric tool in which protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only.
work stress and training as these may relate to human-system design). 2006 Page 16
Zone 1 is a zone in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to occur in normal working. reasoning. Zone 2 is a zone in which a flammable atmosphere is unlikely to occur except under abnormal conditions and then only for a short time. that demonstrates that the site operator has taken all steps necessary to prevent major accidents and to reduce their consequences. as part of the HSEIA process. memory. Codes of Practice (CoP) High level ‘standard setting’ documents which. decision-making. ADNOC Group Companies must demonstrate that they meet the requirements of the HSE CoPs either by showing that they have the necessary systems and procedures in place and/or by preparing additional systems and procedures to address identified ‘gaps’. CMAS Confederation Mondiale de activities Subaquatique (World Underwater Federation). (Relevant topics include mental workload. which may present risks of infection. dental. such as perception. humancomputer interaction. COMAH Report The Control Of Major Accident Hazards Report is a report compiled by a major hazard site operator and submitted to ADNOC. as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system. pharmaceutical or similar sources. and motor response.
. Clinical Waste Waste arising from medical. COLREGs Convention On The International Regulations For Preventing Collision At Sea . the prime method of protection should be to exclude electrical apparatus from any hazardous area. The particular zone determines the types of protection required for electrical equipment in use in that zone although ideally. COD Chemical Oxygen Demand. human reliability. COMAH Control of Major Accident Hazards. An IMO convention. in effect. set out a series of principles that must be incorporated in Group Company systems and procedures. It is the responsibility of Group Companies to prepare their own detailed systems and procedures as part of their HSEMS. skilled performance. Cognitive Ergonomics Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
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such as kitchen or agricultural waste. training and experience. or perceived internally. and worldwide reputation. recreation or entertainment.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Company An organisation engaged. excluding municipal and industrial waste. national. Competent Person Someone with the specialist knowledge. judged. Commercial Waste Waste arising from premises used wholly or mainly for trade. Competent Electrical Person A Competent Electrical Person is an Appointed Person who has clearly demonstrated that he has sufficient knowledge. documenting that risks have been. and externally. Company Medical Adviser A nominated diving medical specialist appointed by a diving contractor to provide specialist advice. as principal or contractor. Will usually require the necessary blend of skills. actions. by all parties and the public. For bodies or establishments with more than one site. reduced to ‘acceptable’ or ‘as low as reasonably practicable’ (ALARP) as defined in the ADNOC Group Guidelines on HSE Risk Management. Competence The ability to perform a particular job in compliance with performance standards. training. directly or indirectly. business. biological process in which organic wastes. and performance are measured. sport. or will be. are converted into a stable granular material which can be applied to land to improve soil structure and enrich nutrient content.
. Competent Having adequate and sufficient training or experience (or a combination of both) to be capable of carrying out a task safely and efficiently. a single site may be defined as a company. Company Reputation How the company’s activities. in the exploration for and production of oil and/or gas. Composting An aerobic. Composition A qualitative description of the components of a discharge. experience and abilities to carry out defined work. training and experience to avoid danger from live electrical equipment and to carry out duties under the authority of the Electrical Safety Rules. 2006 Page 17
It is a facility or operation-specific demonstration of the HSE Management System in action. This applies to local.
or in actually being a source of danger to personnel. Consequence Analysis The study of the possible extent of harmful effects of potential incidents. not necessarily in all areas of activity. Consignor Alternative term for shipper. Consequences Adverse effects or harm which cause the quality of human health or the environment to be impaired. of the components of a discharge [when both of them are known. resulting from continuous efforts to improve. concentration and total discharge rate can be multiplied to give the pollutant discharge rate (or “loading”) of a pollutant]. Contamination (Radioactive -) Deposition of radioactive material in any place where it is not desired particularly where its presence may be harmful. 2006 Page 18
Compression Chamber (DDC) A pressure vessel for human occupancy which does not go under water. calculation of the size of the flammable region of a vapour cloud following a spill. Confined Space An enclosed or substantially enclosed volume where there is a reasonably foreseeable risk of serious injury to personnel entering the volume from hazardous substances or conditions within the volume or nearby.
.g. (See Section 3. CONCAWE The Oil Companies’ European Organisation for Environmental and Health Protection. foreign matter. Concentration A quantitative description. or other substances not intentionally added to food which may compromise food safety or suitability. calculation or measurement. The harm may be in vitiating an experiment or a procedure. e. Can sometimes contain hazardous wastes such as asbestos. Continual Improvement Year-on-year enhancement of overall HSE performance. Also called recompression chamber.1 for examples). Construction and Demolition Waste Waste arising from construction. based on estimation. Contamination The introduction or occurrence of any biological or chemical agent. repair. maintenance and demolition of buildings and structures. decompression chamber or deck chamber.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
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Control (of hazards) The extent and/or duration of a hazardous event to prevent escalation Control Measure A measure taken to reduce exposure to a Substance Hazardous to Health. Cosmic rays High energy ionising radiation from outer space. Corporate Crisis Plan (CCP) A plan maintained by ADNOC for addressing corporate crisis issues effecting the ADNOC Group. Contractor Any person or company employed under contract (irrespective of period of contract or employment). Complex composition at the surface of the earth.
. Control See 'Hierarchy of Health Control'. These can be "active failures" but are more often "latent failures".HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. COP Code(s) of Practice. COP BPN Codes of Practice Best Practice Note. Controlled Area A defined area in which exposure to HSE risks is under the supervision of an Authorised Person. The ranking of the risk reduction alternatives evaluated is usually shown graphically. 2006 Page 19
Contract A system of operating between two or more parties. Contributing Factors Additional failures which allow the situation established by the root cause to go unchecked leading either to an incident or to an incident with more severe consequences than otherwise. COP G/L Codes of Practice Guideline. Corporate Crisis Team (CCT) An ADNOC team responsible for managing crisis situations affecting the ADNOC Group. Cost Benefit Analysis The means used to assess the relative cost and benefit of a number of risk reduction alternatives.
the intensity of the electric pulses produced is proportional to the energy of the primary ionising particles. A team (at the Group Company level) responsible for providing support to an IMT responding to an emergency. Ionising radiation causes discharges. or chemical parameter must be controlled at a critical control point to minimize the risk that the identified food safety hazard may occur. Critical Limit The maximum or minimum value to which a physical. contact surfaces or the air. 2006 Page 20
Counter (Geiger-Müller -) A glass or metal envelope containing a gas at low pressure and two electrodes. Curie (Symbol Ci) The pre-SI unit of activity.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. One curie equals 3.C.A.7x1010 Bq. either by direct contact or by food handlers.7x1010 nuclear transformations per second.microbiological Transfer of pathogens from one food to another. Critical activities Activities that have been identified by the Hazards and Effects Management Process as vital to ensure asset integrity. and/or mitigate adverse HSE effects. Counter (Proportional -) A similar device as a Geiger-Müller counting tube. Critical Control Point A point or procedure in a specific food system where loss of control may result in an unacceptable health risk. CTD Cumulative Trauma Disorders. Cross-contamination .
D. Counter (Scintillation -) A device containing material that emits light flashes when exposed to ionising radiation. which are registered as electric pulses in a counter. The number of pulses is related to dose. The flashes are converted into electric pulses and counted. The number of pulses is related to the dose.
. Diving Medical Advisory Committee (part of IMCA). prevent incidents. Crisis Management Team (CMT). Crisis Management Plan (CMP) A plan maintained by each ADNOC Group Company detailing how they will respond to emergency response situations affecting their operations. biological. 1 Ci = 3.M.
g. On this scale the noise level is adjusted to reflect the sensitivity of the human ear to different frequencies.
. see 238U. Defences All controls. 2006 Page 21
Danger The risk of injury. attachments I and II of Section 7). dB(A) The decibel measured on the A weighted scale. The decrease in activity of radioactive substance. Dangerous Toxic Load The toxic load where there is a danger to the life of people. Decay (Radioactive -) The process of spontaneous transformation of a radionuclide. in place to manage a hazard. Daughter (product) Synonym for decay product. Decibel (dB) This is not an absolute unit of measurement. or loss.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. expressed on a logarithmic scale. barriers and recovery preparedness measures. It may be formed directly from a radionuclide or as the result of a series of successive decays through several radionuclides (e.or 232Th-decay series. Decay product A nuclide or radionuclide produced by decay. Detailed (Measurement) Survey Carried out if the degree and pattern of personal exposure cannot be reliably determined by a Baseline (Measurement) Survey. DDC Diving Decompression Chamber (see Compression Chamber) DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (colourless chemical used as an insecticide). Decay constant See disintegration constant. harm. It is a ratio between a measured quantity and an agreed reference level. DCI Decompression Illness. damage. Designer An organisation or individual who carries out any design work for a construction project.
Disintegration (Nuclear -) A spontaneous nuclear transformation (radioactivity) characterised by the emission of energy and/or mass from the nucleus. liquid. Discharge (emission. See also half-life. mg/second. and for which a threshold may occur (see threshold dose). Disintegration constant (Symbol λ) The fraction of the number of atoms of a radioactive nuclide which decays in unit time as defined by the equation N = N0e-λt where N0 is the initial number of atoms present and N is the number of atoms present after some time. Deterministic effect Deterministic effects are those for which the severity of the effect varies with the dose. A discharge into the atmosphere 2. waste) Any release of pollutant(s) into the environment. litre/second. or a combination thereof.
. Deviation Where a process or procedure does not work as intended. t. for example disposal.g. of radiation. (failing that) as “volume flow rate” in units of volume per unit time e. and sometimes the amount. Discharge rate Total discharge rate: The rate at which an entire discharge enters the environment.g. litre/second for effluents or kg/year for wastes. expressed (preferably) as the “mass flow rate” in units of mass per unit time.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
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Detector (Radiation -) Any device for converting radiant energy to a form more suitable for observation. to a level that does not compromise food safety or suitability. A discharge of liquid 3. dispersal or emplacement in any medium without the intention of retrieval. the process is characterised by a definite half-life. g/hour or kg/year or. Any discharges falls into one of three categories: 1. An instrument used to determine the presence. Any other type of discharge. effluent. be it of a gaseous. Disposal In relation to radioactive waste. of the number of microorganisms in the environment. by means of chemical agents and/or physical methods. expressed as mass or volume per unit time. Disinfection The reduction. for example in units of m3/hour for emissions. or solid nature. When numbers of nuclei are involved. Pollutant discharge rate: The rate at which an individual specified pollutant within a discharge enters the environment. m3/year.
Division ICS resource group responsible for operations within a specific geographic area. or any other environment in which he is subject to pressure greater than 100 millibars above atmospheric pressure and who in order to survive in such an environment breathes in air or other gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. Dose (Collective -) Term frequently used for collective effective dose. Diving Medical Specialist A doctor who is competent to manage the treatment of diving accidents. Unit gray. 1 Gy = 1 joule per kilogramme (J/kg).e. Dose (Absorbed -) (Symbol D) The quantity of energy imparted to matter by ionising radiation to unit mass of matter. normally the contractor company who employs the divers. 1 Gy = 1 joule per kilogramme (J/kg). then there must be a written agreement as to which of these companies is the Diving Contractor i. The compound that controls the structure and function of cells and is the material of inheritance. Such a doctor will have undergone specialized training and have demonstrated experience in this field. If there is more than one contractor company employing divers. Unit gray. DMAC Diving Medical Advisory Committee (part of IMCA). 2006 Page 23
Dive A dive takes place when a person enters the water. Symbol Gy. Dose A general form denoting the quantity of energy imparted by ionising radiation to unit mass of matter such as tissue. symbol Gy. it refers to absorbed dose.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Diver A person at work who dives (as defined above). Diving Contractor The company in charge of diving operations at a Group Company facility site/operation.
. the company in overall control of diving operations. DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. Diving Bell A pressure vessel for human occupancy which is used to transport divers under pressure either to or from the underwater work site. a chamber. For special purposes dose must be appropriately qualified. including where appropriate mixed gas and saturation diving accidents. If unqualified.
symbol Gy/s. Dose (Effective – equivalent) Term used for effective dose in ICRP-26 (1977. Dose (Cumulative -) The total dose resulting from repeated exposures to radiation. Symbol Gy. symbol Sv. Dose (Collective equivalent -) (Symbol ST ) The quantity obtained by multiplying the average equivalent dose of organ or tissue (T) by the number of persons (in a group or population) exposed to a given source of radiation. symbol man Sv. Frequently abbreviated to collective dose. redefined in ICRP-60 (1990). (HT = ΣR wRxDT. Unit sievert. Unit man sievert.
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Version 3 March. Dose rate (Symbol D) Absorbed dose delivered per unit of time.R is the organ dose due to radiation R). 1987). symbol Gy. Unit gray. Dose (Effective -) (Symbol E) The sum of the weighted equivalent doses in all organs and tissues of the body. where DT. 1987). Dose (Equivalent -) (Symbol H or HT) The quantity obtained by multiplying the absorbed or organ dose by a factor to allow for the different effectiveness of the various ionising radiations (see radiation weighting factor wR) in causing harm to tissue (T). redefined in ICRP-60 (1990). Dose (Organ -) (Symbol DT) The quantity of energy imparted in an organ or tissue (T) by ionising radiation to unit mass of that organ or tissue. Unit sievert. 2006 Page 24
Dose (Collective effective – equivalent) Term used for collective effective dose in ICRP-26 (1977. This procedure makes it possible to compare this number with a whole-body equivalent dose.R. Dose (Collective effective -) (Symbol S) The quantity obtained by multiplying the average effective dose by the number of persons (in a group or population) exposed to a given source of radiation. Unit gray. 1 Gy = 1 joule per kilogramme (J/kg). (E = ΣwTxHT). Dose (Threshold -) The minimum absorbed dose that will produce a detectable degree of any given deterministic effect. symbol Sv. symbol man Sv. Frequently abbreviated to collective dose. Unit man Sievert. Unit gray per second.
EA UK Environment Agency. Dynamic Positioning (DP) A system whereby external reference systems are used to maintain a vessel in a predetermined position. a pencil-size ionisation chamber with a self reading electrometer. Duty Of Care A policy which requires all persons who have responsibility for waste to ensure that it is managed properly and recovered or disposed of safely. used for personnel monitoring. For example. DSV A ship or other vessel (with sufficient space) whose primary role is the support of diving operations. including presence of rare or endangered flora and fauna. Normally relies on computer control and built in redundancy levels. 2006 Page 25
Dosemeter Instrument to detect and measure ionising radiation.
. Ecology Term used to describe the biological community structure in an area. Ecotoxicity Term used to describe the property of some chemical substances released to the environment of toxicity to several biological components of an ecosystem. Duty Holder The Duty Holder for an offshore installation is the Installation Operator (or Owner in the case of a floating installation).HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. DSE Display Screen Equipment. DPVOA Dynamic Position Vessel Owners Association (part of IMCA). Dosimetry (photographic -) Determination of cumulative radiation dose with photographic film and density measurement. DSM Diving Safety Memorandum. Ecosystem Term used to describe the physical and biological components that make up an area.
1/1. called positrons (symbol β+). also exist. Environment & Safety Division. Equal to the energy gained by an electron in passing through a potential difference of 1 volt. Emergency Response Centre (ERC) A room or series of rooms used by an IMT or CMT to facilitate the management of an emergency. vibration. during the period of 365 days prior to the date of acquiring the information for the Inventory. ultraviolet radiation. Emergency Response Plan Plan detailing the response to specific incident scenarios and explaining emergency arrangements. Element A substance with atoms all of the same atomic number.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Emergency Discharge An unplanned discharge classified by a Group Company as an emergency and also which has occurred. Electron volt (Symbol eV) Unit of energy employed in radiation physics. Examples are X-rays. for less than 10 hours on any single occasion and for a total of less than 10 hours on any single occasion and for a total of less than 100 hours during that 365 days. EMAS Environmental Management Accreditation System. Electromagnetic spectrum Radiation that can be considered as a wave of electric and magnetic energy travelling through a vacuum or a material. EIA Environmental Impact Assessment. γ-rays. See also beta particle. and unit negative electric charge. water or land. light. infrared radiation. Emission The direct or indirect release of substances.6x10-19 joule (J). Electron An elementary particle with low mass. or noise from an installation into air. concentration or level of an emission which must not be exceeded over a given time period. 2006 Page 26
EH&S Div. and radiofrequency radiation.836 that of the proton. The mass. heat. Positively charged electrons. 1 eV = 1. ELV Emission Limit Value.
. Employment also includes activities undertaken at the company’s request or for company business reasons. an ADNOC Group Company or a reportable contractor.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. short. humans and their interrelation. − allow for compliance with policies. . containment. or long term negative impact on the environment. whether adverse or beneficial. Environmental Audit Independent. Environment Surroundings in which an organisation operates including air. A significant environmental aspect is an environmental aspect that has or can have significant environmental impact. natural resources.safeguard the company’s resources and promote their effective use. exhaust ventilation. products and services (existing and planned). financial or any other business context. mechanical aids. including related activities not specifically covered by the assignment or request. Audits are an integral component of any assurance process. − provide. and protect the integrity of. products and services of the company upon the environment. Environmental Damage Any immediate. products or services that can interact with the environment. 2006 Page 27
Employee Any individual who carries out duties or actions specified by an employer for which the individual receives remuneration from the employer. Engineering Controls The control of exposure to a hazardous agent by the design of plant and equipment. be it HSE. Environmental Aspect Element of the organisation’s activities. Environmental Effect A direct or indirect impingement of the activities. outside of normal working hours. e. water. laws and regulations. Employment Employment means all work or activity performed in carrying out an assignment or request of ADNOC. Environmental Effects Evaluation A documented evaluation of the environmental significance of the effects of the company's activities. required records and information. chosen standards.are complete and consistent.
. fauna. systematic and documented process of objectively obtaining and evaluating verifiable evidence to determine that environmental controls: .are (cost-)effective and efficient.g. land. flora.
potable water supplies and infectious diseases. prevention and control of hazards arising from food hygiene and catering facilities. tender. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report. practices.e. which are to be incorporated into a project at different stages in its life cycle. The EIS must address each of the life cycle phases i. Environmental Management System The part of the overall management system that includes the organisation’s structure. It identifies significant environmental impacts and demonstrates how corrective (mitigation) measures are introduced in the design process . accommodation areas. procurement. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Systematic process of evaluating the environmental impacts of an activity or process on the environment. commissioning. including quality of life. The EIA report must address each of the life cycle phases i. Environmental Impact Any change to the environment. biological and social factors in the environment. assessment. An EIS is an integral part of an HSEIA report. operation. commissioning. procedures. abandonment and site restoration of a project. project conception. An EIA report is an integral part of an HSEIA report. Environmental Management Policy framework for ensuring that environmental impacts are minimised. design. project conception.to eliminate or minimise the impact. planning activities. construction. facilities and operations where there is potential for Level 1 significant environmental impacts to occur. responsibilities. wholly or partially resulting from the organisation’s activities.by using Best Available Techniques (BAT) . Environmental Health Management Environmental Health management involves the recognition. It is required for all projects. facilities and operations where there is potential for significant environmental impacts to occur.by using Best Available Techniques (BAT) . It identifies environmental impacts and demonstrate how corrective (mitigation) measures are introduced in the design process . combined within the HSEMS process. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Document prepared following an environmental impact assessment. processes
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Environmental Health Environmental health comprises those aspects of human health. chemical. products or services. whether unfavourable or beneficial.to eliminate or minimise the impact. construction.e. It is required for all projects. Environmental Management Plan Documented procedures to define the environmental controls. decommissioning. decommissioning. operation.
particularly cancers. and for communication of the results of this process to management. objectives and targets. Environmental Performance Measurable results of the environmental management system. may take several decades to appear. Some diseases. epidemiology must be based on accurate data on the occurrence of disease. which enable us to establish the relationship between work environment and the health. that arises from the environmental objectives and that needs to be set and met in order to achieve those objectives. Environmentally Persistent Substance Substances. relevant to the organisation. The quality of the statistical analysis. Environmental Management System Audit A systematic and documented verification process of objectively obtaining and assessing evidence to determine whether the organisation’s environmental management system conforms to the environmental management system audit criteria set by the organisation. based on its environmental policy. 2006 Page 29
and resources for developing. or parts of it. Epidemiology (Occupational) Epidemiological studies in industry. implementing. type of illnesses and ultimate causes of death of working people. reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy. To be effective. Environmental Risk A measure of the potential threats to the environment.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Epidemiology Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence of disease in human populations. which may cause degradation of the environment with the severity of that degradation. arising from the environmental policy. Environmental Policy Statement by the organisation of its intentions and principles in relation to its overall environmental performance that provides a framework for action and for the setting of its environmental objectives and targets. quantified where possible. which combines the probability that an event may occur. achieving. improves with (i) larger number of people and (ii) longer follow-up periods. and which is quantifiable where practicable. types of jobs and exposures. Also see Epidemiology (Occupational). that an organisation sets itself to achieve. Environmental Target Detailed performance requirement. also called 'POPs' (persistent organic chemical products) as defined in the Stockholm Convention Annexures.
. and therefore the information produced. related to the organisation’s control of its environmental aspects. Environmental Objective Overall environmental goal.
maintenance failure. e. principles. musculo-skeletal disorders. Where ergonomics has not been taken into account in the design of workstations and tasks. personnel may suffer. Escalation An increase in the consequences of a hazardous event. e. for example. psychology and design. The mental demands of work may cause psychological stresses. Escalation factors include: abnormal operating conditions. failure of barriers. Control can then be achieved by fitting the task to the individual. inhibitors. due to explosion or fire. introduction of ignition source. no barrier provided. separation (time and space). reduction in inventory.g. and the profession that applies theory. different fuel source) and non-physical or administrative (procedures. e. extreme weather and tidal conditions. 2006 Page 30
EQS Environmental Quality Standard. Physical stresses on the body may result in acute (short term) and chronic (long term) damage (musculoskeletal disorders) and lowering of performance (e. not possible or too expensive. ERWDA Environmental Research & Wildlife Development Agency (UAE). Ergonomics Ergonomic is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system. safety valves.g. lapses. training. Erythema Reddening of the skin caused by dilation of blood vessels. Escalation Control Measures put in place to block or mitigate the effects of escalation factors. Renamed Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi as per August 2005. Escalation Factors may concurrently affect the control and/or recovery of more than one hazard. maintenance mode.g. e. data and methods to design in order to optimise human well-being and overall system performance. control of energy release (lower speeds. discomfort. A requirement or objective which must be fulfilled as set out in UAE legislation and may be relevant in the determination of BAT.g.g. Ergonomics draws together the disciplines of occupational physiology.
Escape Breathing Apparatus
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Version 3 March. psychological stress. operating outside design envelope. human error. rule violations. Escalation Factor Conditions that lead to increased risk due to loss of controls or loss of recovery capabilities (mitigation or life saving). warnings. fatigue).g. environmental variations. e. drills). Types include guards or shields (coatings. Ergonomics seeks to recognise and evaluate these factors. shutdowns).
. They provide protection for a limited time only. Event Tree Analysis Event tree analysis evaluates the potential outcomes following a hypothetical top event. Exposure A measure of the ionisation produced in air by X. Event trees are used to determine alternative potential scenarios arising from a particular hazardous event. consequence of an event. Escape Set See "Escape Breathing Apparatus. examination of records and interviews with personnel. Excitation A process by which radiation imparts energy to an atom or molecule without causing ionisation. Evaluation See 'Assessment' Event An occurrence or situation represented as a node in event and fault trees (e. to obtain information expressed in quantitative terms but without the direct use of instrumentation. status of ESD system).g. The nodes correspond to the different stages in an escalating incident sequence. It may be used quantitatively to determine the probability or frequency of different consequences arising from the hazardous event. Event Tree A tree-like diagram consisting of nodes and connecting lines used to formulate potential escalation scenarios. e. EU European Union. and the two lines which lead out of the nodes correspond to the paths of success or failure in mitigation of the incident.g.or γ-radiation (see Röntgen).HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
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Breathing apparatus designed to be donned by personnel in and emergency and used whilst they make their way to a safe location. either objective or subjective. EV Expectation Value. gas leak. status of gas detection system. Examination The process by which an independent competent person satisfies himself that HSECES is in a suitable condition by inspection field-testing. Dissipated as heat in a tissue. With event trees one looks 'forward' in time to determine what could occur." Estimation A procedure.
. Exposure Profile Nature and degree of exposure to health hazards. sickness and other absences. FAO Food and Agricultural Organisation (of the United Nations). field production station. gas plant. Exposure hours may be estimated if necessary. * Exposure monitoring must be conducted by a suitably qualified competent person e. Medium.g.g. contractors or community or to impact on the environment.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Extra Low Voltage A voltage normally not exceeding 50 Vac or 120 Vdc ripple free. a well head). 2006 Page 32
Exposure Assessment The determination of the emissions.
FAC First Aid Case. Facility Any single piece of equipment or structure. pathways and rates of movements of a substance and its transformation or degradation in order to estimate the concentrations/doses to which human populations or environmental compartments are or may be exposed. High or Very High. or grouped (e. Exposure Monitoring Measurement. Exposure Limit (EL) The airborne concentration of chemical agents and levels of physical agents to which workers may be repeatedly exposed. using equipment suitable for taking measurements of the required accuracy. without adverse effect. or refinery). either standing alone (e. day after day. an Occupational Hygienist. Facility Response Plan (FRP) Plan detailing the response to specific incident scenarios and explaining emergency arrangements. Exposure Hours Exposure hours are the total number of hours of employment including overtime and training but excluding leave. Exposure Rating The chance of over-exposure to a health hazard evaluated as Very Low. a tank battery. Low. sampling and analysis of exposure to hazardous agents for exposure assessment or other occupational health management purpose.g. that has a potential to impact on safety and/or health of personnel. whether between conductors or to earth.
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Fatal Accident Rate (FAR) The number of fatal incidents per 100,000,000 (100 million) hours worked. Incidents involving a third party fatality are included, provided they directly result from company or contractor operations. FAR = Number of Fatalities x 100,000,000 Man Hours Worked Fatality A death resulting from an injury or illness, regardless of the time intervening between injury and death. Fatality Due To Injuries Any death arising from a work related injury, regardless of the time interval between when the injury occurred and death. Fatality due to Occupational Illness A death resulting from an occupational illness, regardless of the time interval between onset of the illness and death. Fault Tree Logic diagram describing all the potential causes and event chains that lead to a specific incident scenario termed the top-event. FEA Federal Environment Authority (UAE). Field Authority Designated authority responsible for the safety of operations in an offshore oil field as defined in the OPCO Standing Instructions for Marine Operations . Film Badge A pack of photographic film which measures radiation exposure for personnel monitoring. The badge may contain two or three films of differing sensitivity and filters to shield parts of the film from certain types of radiation. Fire Emergency Plan In this Code of Practice the Fire Emergency Plan is a document which details the actions to be taken in the event of a fire. Fire Risk Assessment (FRA) Qualitative technique for analysing fire potential and identifying fire prevention and fire control measures. First Aid Any one-time treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns, splinters, and so forth, which do not ordinarily require medical care by a physician. Such treatment and observation are considered First Aid even though provided by a physician or registered professional medical personnel. The following are considered to be first aid treatments:
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− application of antiseptics during the first visit to medical personnel, − treatment of first degree burns (characterized by reddening of the skin only), − application of bandages during any visit to medical personnel, − use of elastic bandages during the first visit to medical personnel, − removal of foreign bodies not embedded in the eye, if only irrigation is required, − removal of foreign bodies from a wound, if the procedure is uncomplicated (e.g. using tweezers), − use of non-prescription medications and administration of a single dose of prescription medication on the first visit for minor injury or discomfort, − soaking therapy during an initial visit to medical personnel, or removal of bandages by soaking, − application of hot or cold compresses during the first visit to medical personnel, − application of ointments to abrasions prevent them from cracking or drying, − application of heat therapy during the first visit to medical personnel, − use of whirlpool bath therapy during the first visit to medical personnel, − negative X-ray diagnosis, − observation of injury during a visit to medical personnel. First Aid Case (FAC) Injuries that are not sufficiently serious to be reported as medical treatment or more serious cases but nevertheless require minor first aid treatment, e.g. any one-time treatment, cleansing, application of bandages/band-aids, treatment of minor scratches, cuts, burns, splinters, etc. * * ADNOC does not recognise First Aid Cases in the context of illness and/or Occupation Health. Fluence The number of particles passing through a unit cross sectional area. (number of α-, β- or n-particles or γ-photons/cm2). Flux (fluence rate or flux density) The number of particles passing through a unit cross sectional area per unit of time. (number of α-, β- or n-particles or γ-photons/s·cm2). FMEA Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. Food-borne Illnesses Diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food.
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Food Contamination The introduction or occurrence of any biological or chemical agent, foreign matter, or other substances not intentionally added to food, which may compromise food safety or suitability. Food Establishment An operation that stores, prepares, packages, serves, vends, or otherwise provides food for human consumption, such as a restaurant, satellite or catered feeding locations when these locations are equipped with facilities that prepare, store or serve food. Food Handler Any person who directly handles packaged or unpackaged food, food equipment and utensils, or food contact surfaces. Food Hygiene All conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chain. Food Safety Assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use. FRA Fire Risk Assessment. Free Radical A grouping of atoms that normally exists in combination with other atoms, but can sometimes exist independently. Generally very reactive in a chemical sense. Freight Forwarder Any person or company involved in the movement of cargo who acts on behalf of somebody else. The freight forwarder may not be the owner of the goods, but may be involved in packing or carriage or act as a consolidator or agent. Frequency The number of occurrences of an event per unit time. Functional requirements The minimum criteria which must be satisfied to meet the stated health, safety and environmental objectives. Functionality What an HSECES does – its intended purpose e.g. a functional specification for a control or mitigation measure will describe how the HSECES will fulfil its role in limiting the event or protecting people.
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Gamma-photon (Symbol γ [γ-rays or γ-radiation]) A discrete quantity of electromagnetic energy (range of energy from 10 keV to 9 MeV), without mass or charge. Emitted by a radionuclide (see X-rays). Gap A Gap is a finding that an Expectation is not being met. Gap Analysis A process that identifies a Gap, i.e., those areas of the HSE Management system that can or need to be improved. This ‘Gap Analysis’ becomes part of the initial evaluation or subsequent assessment and/or audit reports and consequently part of the cycle of planning and implementation for continuous improvement. Gas Leak An escape of gas from containment. Any unplanned or accidental loss of gas containment. GCAA General Civil Aviation Authority (U.A.E). GCC Gulf Co-operation Council. Geiger tube See Counter (Geiger-Müller). Generic Approach & Generic Record Where several operational sites carry out similar activities involving potential exposure to similar health hazards, it may not be necessary to repeat Health Risk Assessments at each site independently. In this situation a 'Generic Approach' to HRAs may be used in which detailed HRAs are only carried out at representative operational site(s) selected to ensure all common activities are covered. The resultant 'Generic Record' is then read across to the other comparable sites. Genes The biological units of heredity. They are arranged along the length of the chromosomes. Genetic effect of radiation Inheritable change, produced by the absorption of ionising radiation. Genetically significant dose The dose that, if given to every member of a population prior to conception of children, would produce the same genetic or hereditary harm as the actual dose received by the various individuals. Unit sievert, symbol Sv (the unit of dose equivalent). GHG
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Green House Gas. GIS Geographical Information System. GHSEC (ADNOC) Group HSE Committee. GIS Geographic Information System. GM General Manager. Gonads An organ producing reproductive cells in humans and animals; Ovaries and testes. Governance (for HSE) To set and apply HSE standards and performance parameters, which should cover Laws & Regulations and include additional measures that go beyond the requirements of Laws & Regulations. Governance includes the provision of guidance on how to interpret and implement the standards and performance parameters. Gray The unit of absorbed or organ dose. One gray (symbol Gy) equals one joule per kilogramme. GRMD (ADNOC) Group Risk Management Division. Group ICS resource group with a specific function. Group Company Those companies with direct line accountability to an ADNOC Directorate. Group Companies may also include contractors, facilities and entities working for that Group Company. Guidelines (HSE) Documents that provide ideas on how certain HSE issues may be approached. Unless stated otherwise, the guidelines are not mandatory but it will be the responsibility of Group Companies to demonstrate that their chosen approach is at least as effective (in hazard/impact management and risk reduction terms) as the approach described in the relevant guideline. One exception to this precept is the ADNOC Group Guideline ‘ADNOC HSE Management System Guidelines’ for which the Group Companies must address (as mandatory) the ADNOC ‘Requirements’ and ‘Expectations’ when developing their own HSEMS.
Harm to People This includes injury or occupational illnesses as well as medically recognised adverse effects resulting from an exposure or circumstances.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. property or the environment or affect on the company reputation. or condition with potential to harm people. with most damaging frequencies in the range 5 and 20Hz. The process consists of hazard identification. (t½ = ln2/λ. where λ is the disintegration constant). HAVS Hand arm vibration syndrome is a complex syndrome. or criteria which have been developed as a basis for decision making. or physical property that may cause an unacceptable consumer health risk. It involves the ability to recognise the potential for actions or conditions that might result in harm to people. 2006 Page 38
Half-life (Radioactive-) (Symbol t½) The time taken for the activity of a radionuclide to lose half its value by decay. standards. Hazard Any substance. Hazard Awareness A state where a person is alert to what they are doing and to what is going on around them. Hazard (in food safety) A biological. physical effect. (Health) Hazard Rating This is a measure of the severity of potential health effects based on the hazardous properties of the agent. Hazard Assessment The process whereby the results of an analysis of a hazard are considered against either judgement. Hazard Analysis The systematic process of developing an understanding of hazards. decreased grip strength. and reduced sensitivity to touch and temperature) and pain and stiffness in the joints of the upper limbs including the shoulders. neurological and muscular damage (causing numbness and tingling in the hands and fingers. HAVS is characterised by vascular spasm (vibration white finger). Each radionuclide has a unique half-life. damage to property or the environment. HAZAN Hazard Analysis (review/study). chemical.
. caused by chronic exposure to vibration in the upper limbs in the frequency range 2-1000Hz. assessment and risk determination.
fire. To manage a hazard completely requires that all four steps must be in place and recorded. Reactive.g.) or waste may be defined as hazardous on the basis of 'Listing' (i. etc.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. − Managing the risk at an ALARP risk level. The centre point in a Hazard 'Bow-Tie'. Hazardous Event The 'release' of a hazard. 2006 Page 39
Hazardous Area Plant area with a hazardous area classification (Zone 0. The undesired event at the end of the fault tree and at the beginning of an event tree.g. in US EPA. & Recovery Act (RCRA). which may be achieved reducing the probability of a hazardous event occurring or mitigating its potential consequences. Flammable. Toxic. are being properly controlled (and that recovery preparedness measures are in place in the event control is ever lost).
Hazards and Effects Management Process
The structured hazard analysis methodology involving hazard Identification. − Evaluating the risk potential of the hazardous event occurring (risk analysis).
incident which occurs when a hazard is realised (e. loss of buoyancy).
Hazards and Effects Register A hazard management communication document that demonstrates that hazards have been identified. 1 or 2) where ignition sources are subject to close control. Ignitable. Also see Special Waste. and are periodically reviewed with a view to changing parameters and conditions. Mutagenic. Conservation. Hazardous Waste Wastes may be defined as hazardous on the basis of waste characteristics (e. Corrosive. HAZID Hazard Identification – a study in the context of hazards and effects management. − Reviewing the hazards and risks on a periodic basis. assessed. release of gas. or other valid classification system). Assessment. Control (which includes recovery in case control is ever lost) and Review which includes comparison with screening and performance criteria. are any components of the waste stream listed as hazardous.e. ADNOC has adopted the system as defined in the US EPA Resource. Hazard Management The systematic process of: − Identifying potential hazardous events and their potential consequences (hazard analysis).
Health Risk Assessment Programme See Occupational Health Risk Assessment Programme. but encompasses wider lifestyle and fitness issues. Health Promotion The active promotion of health of personnel within the organization. Health Risk Health risk is the combination of likelihood that harm to health may occur (which is related to probability of exposure) multiplied by the severity of health effects. ergonomic or psychological in nature. propane) or low temperature (e. 2006 Page 40
HAZOP Hazard and Operability – a study in the context of hazards and effects management.
. These agents may be biological. Health Controls See 'Hierarchy of controls'. These terms are interchangeable. departure and surface movement of helicopters. physical. in order to improve the health. Health surveillance is largely overlapping with medical surveillance – see definition below.g. safety and environment into a common assessment methodology. Health Control Measure A measure taken to reduce exposure to a Substance Hazardous to Health. Heavy Gas A gas with a density greater than air due to either high molecular weight (e. Heliport An aerodrome or a defined area on a structure intended to be used wholly or in part for the arrival.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. chemical. Health promotion does not restrict itself to occupational issues. Health Surveillance Measures for monitoring the health of the workforce if risk to health cannot reasonably be excluded. Health Hazard This is an agent with potential to cause harm to health. Health Risk Assessment (HRA) See Occupational Health Risk Assessment (OHRA).g. methane boil off from a liquefied natural gas spill). efficiency and well-being of the workforce. Health Safety & Environmental Impact Assessment (HSEIA) Process that combines the three elements of health. ‘Health hazards' are also known as 'agents hazardous to health' and 'hazardous agents'.
Hours Worked The total number of hours worked. 2006 Page 41
Hierarchy of Health Control Measures The means of controlling exposure to health hazards. an instrument driven system that takes the place of a traditional mechanical relief device. Hot Tap A method for making a connection into a pipeline. HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HS Health Surveillance. (See also Critical Instrument System). including paid overtime but excluding leave. vessel or tank whilst the equipment is live. listed in preferential order as follows: Elimination Substitution (alternatives) Engineering (plant and equipment) Procedural Personal protective equipment High Occupational Health Risk A risk that is determined to be HIGH in accordance with the risk rating of ADNOC ‘COP Guideline on Health Risk Assessment‘ (ADNOC--COPV3-08). (See live plant).HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. sickness and other absences.
. Hostile Environment An environment in which a safe forced landing cannot be accomplished because the surface is unsuitable or the aircraft occupants cannot be adequately protected from the elements or search and rescue response/capability is not provided consistent with anticipated exposure or there is unacceptable endangering of persons or property on the ground. HLO Helicopter Landing Officer. Hours worked must be recorded separately for company and contractor personnel. High Voltage A voltage exceeding 1000 Vac or 1500 Vdc. HIPS High Integrity Protection System. HRA Health Risk Assessment.
chemicals. HSE Critical Of particular importance to preventing. procedures. Note: The definition of serious harm includes the critical. − significant HSE information relevant to best practice. HSE Alerts Communication (usually documented) with timely information on: − changes in relevant HSE legislation or regulations. HSE Case Similar to a COMAH Report. which is the enforcement and standards setting agency in the United Kingdom. It can apply to equipment. HSE ‘Best Practice’ documents Documents that provide detailed suggestions on how issues may be approached/managed. HSE-Critical activities Activities that are important in preventing events with potential to cause serious harm to people. HSE Critical Equipment and Systems (HSECES) Parts of an installation and such of its structures. HSECES HSE Critical Equipment and Systems.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. activities and tasks (and the competencies required for these tasks). severe or catastrophic consequences (as defined in ADNOC Risk Management Guideline). or a purpose of which is to prevent or limit the effect of a major accident or any accident with severe or catastrophic consequences (as defined in ADNOC Group Guideline on HSE Risk Management *). severe and catastrophic categories shown in the risk potential matrix in the ADNOC Risk Management Guidelines. practices or procedures. plant equipment and systems (including computer programmes) or any part thereof. (The) HSE As in ‘Health and Safety Executive’. the failure of which could cause or contribute substantially to. records. * Note: When comparing the definitions of ‘HSECES’ and ‘HSE Critical’ please note that the former excludes the category ‘Critical’ as defined
. management systems. materials. controlling or mitigating the risks from Major Accident Hazards or occupational hazards with the potential for critical. These documents are not mandatory. Safety and Environment. 2006 Page 42
HSE Health. the environment or property or which can reduce the impact of such an event. − bans on potentially hazardous equipment.
Safety and Environmental Management System. decommissioning. modification. HSE Strategic Objectives The broad goals. which makes reference to the systems and procedures for implementing the health. Systematic process of identifying HSE impacts of existing. HSE Management Documentation The documentation describing the overall Health. inspection. giving rise to its strategic and detailed objectives. It must address the HSE impacts in each of the life cycle phases i. HSEIA Report A living document that considers the full lifecycle of project. This is excluded specifically to provide focus on HSECES that are important in managing Major Accident Potential. HSEIA Report A living document that considers the full lifecycle of project. It must address the HSE impacts in each of the life cycle phases
. commissioning.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. HSEIA Health. operation. commissioning. Goals which the organisation wishes to achieve over the long-term provides a basis for judging progress and achievements. repair. HSE Policy A public statement of the intentions and principles of action of the company regarding its health. safety and environmental management plan. construction. In ADNOC terminology this means objectives. and which should be quantified wherever practicable. new or substantially altered projects. Strategies provide the framework for plans to achieve the objectives used as a screen for possible plans. facilities and operations. 2006 Page 43
in ADNOC Risk Management Guideline. construction. arising from the HSE policy. HSE Critical Integrity Task or Activity Activities such as design.e. tender. HSE Culture Refers to the collective HSE values and attitudes of the people in the organisation. Safety and Environmental Impact Assessment. operation. HSE Management Those aspects of the overall management function (including planning) that develop. testing or examination associated with assuring the integrity of a HSECES. installation. safety and environmental effects. that a company sets itself to achieve. and establishing mitigation requirements. implement and maintain the HSE policy. design. abandonment and site restoration of a project. project conception. facilities and operations.
Safety. safety and environmental management. convention. systematic and documented process of objectively obtaining and evaluating verifiable evidence to determine: − Whether the HSEMS and its results conform to the audit criteria − Whether the system is implemented effectively. as defined in the ADNOC Group Guideline ‘ADNOC HSEMS Guidelines’ that Group Companies must address when developing and operating their own HSEMS. tender. − Whether the system is suitable to achieve the health. Hydraulic Test Pressure or leak test utilising a liquid as the test medium.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. project conception. HTV Hand transmitted vibration affecting users of tools vibrating with frequency in the range of 20-1000Hz.e. decommissioning. procedures. IAMSAR International Convention On Maritime Search And Rescue . Environmental Management System being the company structure. HSEMS Expectations The issues. responsibilities. typically underwater. design. the HSE Policy of a Group Company is endorsed by its General Manager. abandonment and site restoration of a project. An IMO
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency. HSEMS Health. safety and environmental effects and which gives rise to detailed strategic objectives. Hyperbaric Environment Where the pressure is higher than atmospheric i. as defined in the ADNOC Group Guideline ‘ADNOC HSEMS Guidelines’ that Group Companies must address when developing and operating their own HSEMS. HSE Policy A statement of the intentions and principles of actions regarding health. construction. practices. 2006 Page 44
i. HSEMS Audit An independent. safety and environmental policy and objectives. commissioning. HSEMS Requirements The issues. operation.e. The ADNOC HSE Policy is endorsed (signed) by the CEO. processes and resources for implementing health.
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IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation. IARC's mission is to “coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer.
. IEA International Ergonomics Association. IESNA Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. ICP Incident Command Post. the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. ICRP-26 has been reprinted with additions in 1987. ICS Incident Command System. 1. Besides several radiological protection concepts have been redefined. ICRP-26 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP publication 26 . 1991).Annals of the ICRP. 21.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Risk factors have been reviewed in ICRP-60 leading to new dose limits. IATA International Air Transport Association. ICRP-60 1990 Recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP publication 60 . and to develop scientific strategies for cancer control”. Vol.Annals of the ICRP. IMDG Code The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code that covers all aspects of the transport of dangerous goods by ship. IMCA International Marine Contractors Association. This is part of the World Health Organisation (WHO). Vol. 1977). IEC International Electrotechnical Commission. ILO International Labour Organisation. IMO International Maritime Organization.
Incineration The controlled combustion of waste to reduce its volume or toxicity. produced by an independent party. clean up and rehabilitate. the sum of contributions from all hazards exposed to
. that confirms correctness and full coverage of the HSEIA Report. Incident Base Location where primary logistics functions for incident response are coordinated and administered. recover. the environment. Incident Command System (ICS) A system for managing emergencies. Incident Action Plan A plan containing general incident control objectives and details what activities are to be carried out to contain. company reputation or third parties. Individual Risk The combined fatal risk to a ‘named individual’ which includes such factors as: − Total Risk. Indicator organisms Bacterial micro-organisms whose detection in food or water indicates the presence of harmful pathogens. Independent Competent Person Person employed by an organisation independent of the equipment operator who can demonstrate the necessary training and experience to carry out defined activities associated with HSECES. injury. illness and/or damage (loss) to assets. Incident Command Post Location from which emergency response operations are directed. Incident Camp Locations from which resources may be relocated to better support incident operations.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. 2006 Page 46
Incident An event or chain of events which has caused or could have caused fatality. Incident Management Team (IMT) A team responsible for managing the response to an emergency incident at their facility or workplace. Independent Verification Report (IVR) The report. The independent competent person may be a team of several individuals where this is required to ensure an appropriate level of competency or to complete verification tasks in a reasonable period of time. It is developed during the incident using principles laid down in the Emergency Plan.
process trips and similar systems. 2006 Page 47
− Occupancy. Initiating Factor See 'Threat'. does not undergo any significant physical. Industrial Waste Any waste arising from an industrial premises. testing and release of an organism. chemical or biological transformation. Inert Waste Waste which. Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Internationally agreed rules governing the conduct of flight without visual reference and to ensure separation from ground obstacles and other aircraft. Intention Term applied in environmental risk assessment to include the manufacture and use of a substance. wastes. the probability that exposure to the hazard will result in fatality IR (Individual Risk) = ∑ Frequency x Occupancy x Vulnerability. any combination of intentions.g. the creation. an operation or process. Interested Party Individual or group concerned with or affected by the environmental performance of the organisation. the construction or demolition of some artifact or scheme. including the taking into account of inputs.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. interlocks. Inherent Safety Design philosophy that utilises the laws of physics and chemistry to prevent and control incidents rather than alarms. Persons that are independent from or are part of the operations organisation (e. when deposited into a waste disposal site. Installation (Facility) That part of an industrial operation falling within the scope of PPC requirements. Injury Physical harm or damage to a person resulting from traumatic contact between the body of the person and an outside agency. by products and emissions. the proportion of time exposed to work hazards − Vulnerability. Ion
. or from exposure to environmental factors. Inspection (HSE) Physical on-site verification that work is performed and equipment is maintained in accordance with existing HSE standards and procedures. senior supervisors and managers) can conduct HSE Inspections.
by the chemical symbol preceded by the mass number in superscript. Ionising radiation Radiation that produces ionisation in matter. ISO International Standards Organisation. IPF Instrumented Protective Functions. and therefore in the mass number.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. or sometimes by the chemical symbol preceded by the mass number in superscript and the
. 2006 Page 48
Electrical charged atom or grouping of atoms. gamma-rays. Irradiation Exposure to radiation. beta particles.and n-radiation respectively. often denoted by α-. Isotopes are denoted by the chemical symbol followed by the mass number. e. The production of ions. Almost identical chemical properties exist between isotopes of a particular element. under the PPC Regulations. Ionisation The process by which a neutral atom or molecule acquires or loses an electrical charge. ISO9000 International standard and accreditation scheme for quality management.g. IPPC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. 3H.g. γ-. ISM Code International Safety Management Code. Examples are alpha particles. Term used to describe the regulatory regime applying to certain types of industrial process. IR Ionising radiation . IRIC Initial Response Incident Commander. H-3.general term applied to both electromagnetic waves and/or particulate radiation capable of producing ions by interaction with matter. ISO14000 International standard management and accreditation scheme for environmental
Isotopes Nuclides with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. which requires establishment of a safety management system by the ship owner or any person who has assumed responsibility for the ship. X. β-. e. X-rays and neutrons.
Landfill Area of land. typically a void from previous mining or quarrying .or specifically engineered. 31 H. Kpa Kilo pascal. Job Type Code A code allocated to individual Job Types to assist in the compilation of a work history of employee exposure. In areas where there is no available void. The term isotope should not be used as a synonym for nuclide. Joule (Symbol J) The unit for work and energy. organisation or other management system that does not immediately lead to an incident. LDAR
. Latent Failure A failure of equipment.
Job Safety Analysis (JSA) The term for "Task Risk Assessment" used by International Association Of Oil and Gas Producers [OGP. but either makes an incident more likely or makes the potential consequences more severe.
K Degrees Kelvin. KPI Key Performance Indicator. 2006 Page 49
atomic number in subscript. Landspreading The spreading of certain types of land for soil conditioning purposes. procedures.g. Job Type Jobs with a similar exposure profile. Guidelines On Permit To Work (PTW) Systems].HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. See also "Active Failure". This technique is not used in the UAE but is included for completeness. the process is referred to as landraising and waste is deposited on the land surface. in which waste is deposited. JSA See ‘Job Safety Analysis’.
Km Kilometer. equal to one newton expended along a distance of one metre (1 J = 1 N x 1 m).
2006 Page 50
Leak Detection and Repair. facility or operations i. conception. decommissioning. probability analysis. This takes no account of the effect of any hearing protection used. Regulations or Decrees. portable lifting equipment. commissioning. Law The Legislation.e. Regulations and Decrees as issued by the UAE and/or Abu Dhabi Government Authorities. Also referred to as
Live Plant Plant that has not been depressurised. operation. LEP. Lifting Equipment All equipment used for lifting operations by an employee or contractor including.d The "daily personal noise exposure" of an employee. It is expressed in dB(A) and is ascertained using a formula (see Noise Section for details). other mechanical handling equipment. Often used by divers for lifting purposes. drained and purged of all hazardous material. Decrees and any Guidelines or Codes of Practice adopted by ADNOC on its own or because of these Laws. design. Likelihood Analysis The process of estimating the likelihood of an event.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. fixed lifting equipment. construction. Life Cycle Assessment An appraisal of the most effective way waste can be managed. lifts and equipment used for carrying personnel.
. Leukaemia A usually fatal disease characterised by overproduction of white blood cells. It also refers to any international standards or treaties to which the UAE. taking into account the life cycle process. Lift Bag A bag which is filled with air or gas to provide up-lift to an underwater object. abandonment and site restoration. Regulations. Legal Requirement Legal refers to UAE and/or Abu Dhabi Laws. or under which they have agreed in principle to operate. but not limited to. tender. Abu Dhabi Emirate or ADNOC is a signatory. the principles of BPEO. the waste hierarchy and the proximity principle. Lifecycle The full lifespan of a project.
Lost Time Injuries (LTI) Any absence from work related Fatalities. Restricted Work Cases and Medical Treatment Cases are not included in LTIs. crack or rupture. deterioration or downtime of an activity for which the company is paying money or losing income due to an incident or consequence of an incident. toxic or hazardous material to the environment that is not via the design safety relief or disposal systems. productivity.000.000 Exposure Hours Lost Time Injury Severity (LTIS) A measurement of the seriousness of injuries and is the number of lost workdays (estimated where necessary) per million exposure hours worked during the period. − Any leak (no matter how small) that originates from a hole. This includes: − Hydrocarbons in the form of a gas or natural gas liquids. Partial Total Disabilities and Lost Workday Cases. Permanent Partial Disabilities and Lost Workday Cases. LTIF = Total LTIs x 1. − Materials that are hazardous to people or the environment such as acids or amines.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Loss of Containment (LOC) Any unplanned release of hydrocarbon. − Toxic materials such as Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S). Loss of Containment excludes venting. Permanent Total Disabilities. purging. Lock-on time The time at which a diving bell under pressure is reconnected to the compression chamber (s) on deck. 2006 Page 51
Lock-off time The time at which a diving bell under pressure is disconnected from the compression chamber(s) on deck. Permanent Total Disabilities. quality. Lost Time Injury Frequency (LTIF) The number of Lost Time Injuries (LTIs) per 1. draining of hydrocarbons Loss of Process Loss of production. Total Lost Time injuries is the sum of Fatalities. seen or felt with pressure” and which requires immediate action to stop it.000.000 Exposure Hours
.000 (million) hours worked. S = Lost Workdays x 1. flaring.000. − Any flange or gland leak that can be “heard.
formed at the inner wall of tubings during gas or oil production. public holidays or subsequent days after ceasing employment. Low Voltage A voltage normally exceeding Extra Low Voltage but not exceeding 1000 Vac or 1500 Vdc between conductors. Low Specific Activity scale (LSA) Scale. The criteria "24 hours" include rest days. * * In cases where employment is terminated after an Injury/illness occurred (other than fatality or Permanent Total Disability). LSA (scale) Low Specific Activity scale (see NORM). Lost Time Injury Free Milestones Each occurrence that an entire Group Companies has worked one million man-hours without a Lost Time Incident. weekend days. or 600 Vac or 900 Vdc between conductors and earth. depending on the number of people injured as a result of that incident. * * A Lost Workday Case is not the same as a Lost Time Injury (LTI) LTI) as it does not include fatalities. LTIF Lost Time Injury Frequency. In cases of death or permanent total disability no lost workdays are recorded. or an estimate of workdays that would be lost after termination. LST Life Support Technician (in diving operations). Also. which renders the injured person temporarily unable to perform any regular job or restricted work within 24 hours of the moment that that the occupational injury was received or illness determined. Large companies with multiple substantial business units may record milestones per business unit. containing radionuclides. scheduled holidays. LRTAP Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. LTI Lost Time Injury.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Lost Workdays The total number of workdays lost through occurrence of occupational injuries/illnesses. 2006 Page 52
Lost Workday Case (LWDC) Any work related injury or illness. LTIS
. a single accident can give rise to several lost workday cases. this would include any previously scheduled workdays lost that were planned prior to termination.
− service vessel colliding with or otherwise affecting offshore installations − other external hazards affecting offshore and onshore sites e. The purpose of this definition of ‘Major Accident’ is to identify ‘Major Hazard Sites’ for the purposes of this Code of Practice. LWC Lost Workday Case. Similarly. one or more fatalities resulting from a fall from a scaffolding platform (again regrettable and tragic) would not be defined as a ‘Major Accident’. assets. but are not limited to: − loss of containment of flammable and/or toxic fluids leading to fire. road/marine product tankers The definition of ‘Major Accident’ specifically excludes ‘Occupational Accidents’ which have bounded.
M3 Cubic Meter. explosion and/or toxic injury − events resulting in structural failure which could lead to further progressive collapse − loss of stability of mobile offshore installation − well blowouts − ships colliding with offshore installations or onshore jetties used for bulk loading explosive. Major Accident Major accident means an ‘Uncontrolled Occurrence’ in the operation of a site which leads to severe or catastrophic consequences to people.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. This means that one or more pedestrian fatalities resulting from a road accident on a site (however regrettable and tragic) would not be defined as a ‘Major Accident’. Policy or Procedure) The term ‘Maintain’ as used in this document should be understood to mean ‘establish and maintain’ if the policy or procedure which is to be maintained does not yet exist.g. albeit possibly severe or catastrophic consequences. helicopters and aircraft.
. 2006 Page 53
Lost Time Injury Severity. flammable or toxic substances.g. the environment and/or company reputation (as defined in the ADNOC Group HSE Risk Management Guidelines). Note: Examples of ‘Major Accidents’ would include. The consequences may be immediate or delayed and may occur outside as well as inside the site. accommodation/work barges alongside fixed installations. There will also be a high potential for escalation. ‘Major Hazard Site Operators’ will be required to prepare a COMAH Report and submit it to ADNOC. Maintain (e.
Manual of Permitted Operations (MOPO) Defines the limit of safe operation permitted for a particular asset if control and/or mitigation measures are reduced and/or removed with the objective of maintaining a tolerable level of risk. substances and materials on a site. Considers combinations of hazards and hazardous events. Manifest (aviation) A document signed by a member of the crew which lists the passengers.
. These levels denote that the value is the maximum exposure concentration to which personnel are allowed in the workplace. MARPOL Marine Pollution. and the location of the site. drilling rig or any other facility handling or storing hazardous materials that has ‘Major Accident Potential’ at any time in the course of routine and/or nonroutine operations. are such that a ‘Major Accident Hazard’ is present and there is therefore the possibility of a ‘Major Accident’. 2006 Page 54
Major Accident Hazard A hazard that has the potential to result in a ‘Major Accident’.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Mass number (Symbol A) The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. baggage and freight carried on an aircraft. terminal. These limits are listed in HSE Guidance Note EH40. offshore installation. Major Accident Potential Where the conditions. Major Hazard Site Operator The Group Company responsible for operating the ‘Major Hazard Site’. Major Hazard Site Any process plant. Man sievert (Symbol man Sv) See dose (collective effective -) or dose (collective equivalent -). Marine Incidents Incidents involving marine vessels designed to transport people and goods over water. The onus is placed on the employer to reduce exposure below this limit as far as reasonably achievable. storage facility. These limits recognise that health-based OELs may not be technically or economically achievable. pipeline. * Note: This definition is for general reference only – ADNOC does not use MELs but only TLV data as provided by ACGIH. Maximum Exposure Limit (MEL) * MELs are UK exposure limits provided for substances that are particularly hazardous or difficult to control.
which do not ordinarily require medical care) even though provided by a physician or other registered professional medical personnel. The procedures used should be of acceptably high sensitivity. burns. They may not possess knowledge of the treatment of diving accidents. Medical Surveillance The assessment of an employee's health using medical or biological procedures (biological effect monitoring) to identify any significant abnormalities attributed to exposure to hazardous agents. Medical Examiner of Divers A doctor who is trained and competent to perform the annual assessment of fitness to dive for divers. easy to perform. at as early stage as possible. Medic A medically qualified person designated to respond to and take action with regard to any medical matters and incidents in any capacity. MDHS Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (UK-HSE). such as pipe diameter. a physician or could be considered as being in the province of a physician. Medical Emergency Situations or conditions having a high probability of disabling or immediately life-threatening consequences requiring first aid or other immediate medical intervention. or under the specific order of. Measurement An objective procedure. preferably non-invasive and acceptable to employees. The criteria for interpreting the data should be known and the procedures should be safe. cuts. temperature or concentration of a specific pollutant. using appropriate instrumentation. 2006 Page 55
MDC Message Distribution Centre. total discharge rate. The following examples are generally considered to be medical treatment cases:
. to obtain quantitative information about a piece of equipment or a discharge or a process stream.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Medical Treatment Case Any work-related injury or illness that involves neither lost workdays nor restricted workdays but which requires treatment by. Medical treatment does not include first aid treatment (one-time treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches. Surveillance should only be undertaken if the possible detected changes are reversible or measures are available to prevent their further development. and so forth. specificity and predictive value in detecting abnormalities related to the nature and degree of exposure. splinters.
etc. A MTC requires treatment by a medical professional (which includes medics and nurses) e. size or location. stitching of cuts. even if medication is supplied by a professional doctor. − positive X-ray diagnosis (broken bones. 2006 Page 56
− treatment of infection. or the application of butterfly dressings or steristrips in lieu of sutures. stomach upset. fractures. the case is at minimum a medical treatment case regardless of what type of treatment was provided. − use of hot or cold soaking therapy during a second or subsequent visit to medical personnel. − admission to a hospital or equivalent medical facility for treatment. Medical Treatment Cases (MTC) for Occupational Illness Any treatment by a medical professional (which includes medics and nurses) of illnesses related to work. etc. Medical Treatment Cases (MTC) for Treatment of Injury Any work related injuries that are not severe enough to be reported as fatalities or lost work day cases or restricted work day cases. − application of antiseptics during a second or subsequent visit to medical personnel. − application of heat therapy during a second or subsequent visit to medical personnel. − removal of foreign bodies from a wound. Administration of tetanus shots or booster shots is not considered medical treatment.
. − use of whirlpool bath therapy during a second or subsequent visit to medical personnel. but are more severe than requiring simple first aid treatment. − treatment of second or third degree burns. is not a MTC. If a worker loses consciousness as the result of a work-related exposure or injury. − use of prescription medications (except a single dose of prescription medication on the first visit for minor injury or discomfort).g.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. − removal of foreign bodies embedded in the eye. − application of hot or cold compresses during a second or subsequent visit to medical personnel. − cutting away dead skin (surgical debridement). application of special bandages. − application of sutures. Diagnostic procedures such as X-rays or laboratory analysis are not considered medical treatment unless they lead to further treatment. skin/flesh). if the procedure is complicated due to depth of embedment.). removal of foreign bodies (from eyes. Usually a treatment of headache. persistent cough.
drain systems) and • 'operational' systems intended for emergency management (contingency plans. and/or quantity of their toxins/metabolites. or any other wastes whether contagious chemical or radioactive produced by medical activities. 2006 Page 57
Medical Waste Any wastes made in whole or part of human tissue.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March.
. fire. treatment. medical care. or number of micro-organisms including parasites. Minimisation See reduction. nursing. per unit(s) of mass. bandages. and smoke alarms. Molecule Smallest portion of a substance that can exist by itself and retain the properties of the substance. secretions. dental. syringes. tests. Message Distribution Centre The Message Distribution Centre has the responsibility of transferring information between the ICP and the field. needles or other medical sharp objects. MODU Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit. drills). Microbiological Criteria Microbiological criteria for food define the acceptability of a product or a food lot. protective coatings. The limitation of undesirable effects of a particular event MMMF Man-made Mineral Fibre(s). based on the absence or presence. shutdowns. veterinary or pharmaceutical or processed activities or others. Mitigation Measures taken to reduce the consequences of a potential hazardous event. MEL Maximum Exposure Limit. deluge) • 'passive' systems intended to guarantee the primary functions (fire and blast walls. animal tissue. research works or study materials or sampling or storage of the same. training. blood or other body liquids. volume. area or lot. Mitigation measures include: • 'active' systems intended to detect and abate incidents (gas. drugs or other pharmaceutical products.
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Monitoring Measurement of the properties of a material (such as a discharge) or [usually] the sampling of a material together with immediate or subsequent analysis or other form of measurement. his breath. MSD (ADNOC) Medical Services Division. or excretions. MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet. Monitoring Activities All activities related to the prevention or mitigation of hazardous events Mooring-Loading Master The person designated by the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Petroleum Ports Authority to execute the instructions issued to him. loading and other maritime manoeuvres. MSV Multi-support Vessel. room. building. by that authority. Information sheet provided by the supplier of chemical product which details HSE hazards. Monitoring (Personal -) Monitoring any part of an individual. mooring. usually carried out for the purpose of acquiring information of environmental significance. MSC Manpower Services Commission (UK). Process monitoring may be continuous or intermittent [results of process monitoring may sometimes be useful in calculating or estimating information on discharges]. Process monitoring: Monitoring of process streams or materials. Monitoring (radiation) Periodic or continuous determination of the amount of ionising radiation or radioactive contamination present. Monitoring (Area -) Monitoring of the radiation level or contamination of a particular area.
Monitoring programme: A planned set of discharge monitoring activities. for the proper direction of a ship’s movement and for assisting it with piloting.
. or any part of his clothing. Discharge monitoring: Monitoring of a discharge.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. or equipment. usually carried out for the purposes of a safe and efficient operation of a process operation.
NAUI National Association of Underwater Instructors. Mutations in body cells may lead to effects in the individual.
NAMAS National Measurement Accreditation Service (UK). n-radiation])
. 87Rb (4. Terrestrial sources of natural radiation are the very long-lived radionuclides that have existed within the earth since its formation.
Neutron (Symbol n. The situation was avoided or reduced by the circumstances at the time or under slightly different circumstances would have been more serious. 238U (4.41´1010 a).HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. the environment. Natural Radioactivity The high-energy radiation that enters the earth's atmosphere from outer space (cosmic rays) is a source of natural radiation. where 238U and 232Th head series of 14 and 11 significant radionuclides respectively.47x109 a) and 232Th (1. Mutual Aid A co-operative arrangement between two or more parties to assist each other with manpower or equipment in an emergency situation. company reputation or third parties. NEFR Noise Exposure Frequency Rate. Mutation A chemical change in the DNA in the nucleus of a cell. MTOW Maximum Take Off Weight. Most important of these radionuclides are 40K (half-life = 1. injury. NEA Nuclear Energy Agency (of the OECD). illness and / or damage (loss) to assets.28x109 a).7x1010 a). Near Miss An event or chain of events that could have resulted in fatality. NDT Non-destructive Testing. 2006 Page 59
MTC Medical Treatment Case. Mutations in sperm or egg cells or their precursors may lead to inherited effects in children. Mutagen Chemical agent that causes cell mutation.
. NORM Acronym for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. n-Radiation may induce nuclear reaction and hence may lead to activation of materials. Newton (Symbol N) The unit of force. NIR Non-Ionising Radiation. See LSA. NFPA National Fire Prevention Association (U. the process is characterised by a definite half-life. NRV Non-Return Valve. which were non-radioactive before irradiation. Noxious Substance Substance which is harmful to living organisms and biological systems – in a wider context than toxic substances. buildings and offices.S. the standard setting organisation for fire safety in design and operation of industrial facilities. If emitted by radionuclides or special devices denoted by n-radiation. containing most of the mass.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. When numbers of nuclei are involved. but not visitors.). Normally Present People normally present at a workplace are those whose normal place of work is that workplace. It includes ADNOC Group Company employees and contractors. The main radionuclides encountered in gas/oil production and ore processing are radioactive daughters from the 238U. NPD Norwegian Petroleum Department. which when applied to a mass of one kilogramme will give it an acceleration of one metre per second per second (1 N = 1 kg x 1 m/s2). 2006 Page 60
An elementary particle with unit automatic mass approximately and no electric charge. Nuclear Disintegration A spontaneous nuclear transformation (radioactivity) characterised by the emission of energy and/or mass from the nucleus. NIOSH The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is the federal agency in the US responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related disease and injury.and 232Th-decay series. occupying little of volume. and bearing positive electric charge. Nucleus (atomic -) The core of an atom.
Occupational Accident An occupational accident arises from an ‘Occupational Hazard’. Nuclide A species of atom characterised by the number of protons and neutrons and. protection against impairment of health may be a guiding factor for some. electrocution etc.
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Nucleus (cell -) The controlling centre of the basic unit of tissue. Occupational Health Adviser A person who. Unlike a ‘Major Accident Hazard’. falls. nuisance or other forms of stress may form the basis for others. Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) * The airborne concentration of chemical agents and levels of physical agents to which workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effect.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. narcosis. these are the UK’s healthbased OELs. i. and when possible. by the energy state of the nucleus. assists line management with the development and implementation of the occupational health programme. Contains the important material DNA. from experimental human and animal studies. Occupational Exposure Standard (OES) OES is the OEL classification in the UK for substances that have their limits classified primarily on the basis of health effect. an Occupational Hazard does not have the potential for the loss of control and escalation that could lead to further major consequences. crushing. whereas reasonable freedom from irritation.
OAQPS Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (USA). Occupational health advisers may include occupational health physicians. It may result in personal injury(s). procedures. from a combination of the three. Note: ADNOC recognizes the latest ACGIH TLV data as its OEL. on the basis of his expertise. Occupational Hazards are identified and either eliminated. Occupational Hazard A hazard with the potential for causing ‘Occupational Accidents’ through slips. in some cases. methods and techniques. These limits are listed in HSE Guidance Note EH40. The basis on which the values are established may vary from agent to agent. illness(s) and/or fatality(s). Occupational Health (OH) Occupational Health is a multidisciplinary field concerned with preventing people from becoming ill because of their work. OELs are based on the best available information from industrial experience. drowning. controlled or mitigated by the use of best practice HSE management systems.
safety advisers. which is mainly caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with the employment. ingestion or direct contact.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. toxicologists. the OH Management System is integrated with Group Company HSEMS. These agents may be biological. Occupational Health Risk Assessment The systematic identification of health hazards in the workplace and subsequent evaluation of health risks. This includes the organizational structure. reviewing and maintaining the organization’s OH policy. implementing. processes and resources for developing. procedures.
. An injury results from a single event and cases resulting from anything other than a single event are considered Occupational Illness. achieving. Hazards are normally classified according to the severity of their adverse health effects. health inspectors and ergonomists. ergonomic or psychological in nature. childbirth are excluded. planning activities. Occupational Health Management This is a discipline concerning the organized use of corporate resources to prevent or minimize the adverse health impact of work on personnel and contractors. Occupational Hygiene The application of scientific. 2006 Page 62
medical advisers and occupational health nurses. absorption. In ADNOC Group. in which absences for pregnancy. occupational hygienists. Occupational Health Hazard This is an agent with potential to cause harm to health. Occupational Health Management System Part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of the OH risks associated with the business of the organization. Occupational Illness Any work-related abnormal condition or disorder. Whether a case involves a work-related injury or an Occupational Illness is determined by the nature of the original event or exposure that caused the case. chemical. other than an injury. This process takes existing control measures into account and identifies and recommends further preventive or control actions where appropriate. not by the resulting condition of the affected employee. technological and managerial principles to prevent or reduce the risks to health that arise from work activities. It includes acute and chronic illness or diseases that may be caused by inhalation. practices. Occupational Health Risk Assessment Programme The systematic implementation of Health Risk Assessment within an organisation. physical. Occupational Illness absence Total workforce absence on the grounds of incapacity to work due to occupational illness. responsibilities.
4KHz and 8KHz. OH Occupational Health. This assessment covers changes in health risk reasonably attributable to a project.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. are considered to be injuries. sprain. the need for further measures to control exposure is identified. These midpoints are sequentially placed at 63Hz. Where appropriate. etc. Work-related events. programme or policy and undertaken for a specific purpose. that aggravate a pre-existing condition are deemed to be injuries. OHRA Report The Occupational Health Risk Assessment Report demonstrates that the occupational health risks have been assessed and all the necessary steps to mitigate these risks have been or will be taken. OHRA Occupational Health Risk Assessment – the identification of health hazards in the workplace and subsequent evaluation of risk to health. 1KHz. OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OEL See Occupational Exposure Limit. OES Occupational Exposure Standard. 125Hz. Occupational Injury Any cut. Octave Bands A defined frequency range around each standard frequency midpoint. OHSAS Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Series. or from one-time exposures to chemicals. 2KHz. 250Hz. fracture. 500 Hz. 2006 Page 63
Occupational illness absence is expressed as a percentage of total workdays available.
. OGP International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (formerly named E&P Forum). taking account of existing control measures. OHRM Occupational Health Risk Management. Injuries are caused by essentially instantaneous events. which results from a work incident or from an exposure involving a single event (or a number of linked events close together in time) in the work environment. amputation. Note that conditions resulting from animal or insect bite. including overexertion.
Operator Person who has control over the operation of an installation. policies.
PADI Professional Association of Diving Instructors. Organisational Ergonomics Organisational ergonomics is concerned with the optimisation of sociotechnical systems. OSRC (ADNOC) Oil Spill Response Centre.
. enterprise. Other transport accidents may occur within and outside company premises. authority or institution. and processes. upon disintegration. Parent A radionuclide which. This is the enforcement and one of the standards setting agencies in the United States. OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration. PAT Proficiency Analytical Testing (NIOSH). whether incorporated or not. moped. In the context of ADNOC Group. Organisation Company. firm. organisation means Group Operating Companies and independent producers. Order of magnitude Quantity given to the nearest power of ten. corporation. as a later member of a radioactive series. that has its own functions and administration. Can refer to an individual or organization. yields a specified nuclide either directly. including their organisational structures.g. or part or combination thereof. PAHO Pan American Health Organisation. pedal cyclist or pedestrian as used for transport to/from work or at the work location. A factor of ten. public or private. Other Transport incidents Incidents involving other means of transport over land e. 2006 Page 64
Oil Spill Contingency Plan Part of the Emergency Response Plan that deals with oil spill incidents. Operational Hazard An occupational hazard arising from specific operations carried out at Group Company sites.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
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which permanently incapacitates an employee from doing any work and results in termination of employment or medical severance.g.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Reference is made to the Federal Law of 1980 on Regulating Labour Relations. Performance Indicator A 'vital sign' indicator showing the extent of successful performance against set criteria over time.g. 2006 Page 65
Payload Aircraft carrying capacity in terms of weight for passengers and payload. Permanent Total Disability Any work-related injury or illness. but (upon recovery) is still able to do his normal work or any other work that permits for the partial disability. * * Reference is made to the Federal Law of 1980 on Regulating Labour Relations. or permanent loss of use. carried out by qualified personnel using appropriate safety precautions and that activities with potentially hazardous interactions do not take place at the same time. which may include company wide 'Standards' and general applicable Group Guidance documents (e. etc.
. Periodic Exposure Measurement See Routine Exposure Monitoring. This will decrease with any increase in fuel. A Performance Criterion is bound to be at least as stringent as or more stringent than the respective Screening Criterion. Permanent Partial Disability (PPD) Any work related injury or illness which results in the complete loss. activity or system element. regardless of any pre-existing disability of the injured member of impaired body function. e. Performance Standard A statement which can be expressed in qualitative or quantitative terms. Performance Criterion A standard of performance of an operation. Permit-To-Work System The system that allows central control and ongoing monitoring of higher risk activities on a site and in particular to ensure that activities are authorised. item of equipment or computer programme and which is used as the basis for verification throughout the life cycle of the installation. limb. Codes of Practice/Guidelines). of the performance required of a system. which provides a detailed description of such injuries. it is classified as a PPD if he has lost a finger. * * A PPD is not related to the ability of the injured person to do is normal work. arm. toe. which provides a detailed description of such injuries. of any part(s) of the body or any permanent impairment of function or parts of body.
materials handling. ionising and non-ionising radiation. (Relevant topics include working postures. PLL Potential Loss of Life. noise and vibration.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. extreme temperatures. Photon A quantum of electromagnetic radiation. safety and health). humidity. physiological and biomechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity. P&ID Process & Instrumentation Diagram. Photographic film Film with emulsion sensitive to ionising radiation. 2006 Page 66
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) The collective term describing clothing and equipment used to protect the individual against agents hazardous to health.
. Physical Effects Modelling The estimation of the magnitude of a potential 'top event' using mathematical models and correlations. PHSER Project Health. workplace layout. fire-heat flux and temperature versus time. Pilot Person qualified/designated to take charge of ships entering or leaving port. The degree of blackening is related to dose. work related musculoskeletal disorders. explosion overpressures and structural response. such as: dispersion. Physical Ergonomics Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomical. Physical Agents For example. Also responsible for ensuring the pre-tender Health and Safety Plan and Health and Safety File is prepared. repetitive movements. The models and correlations are typically design tools. organisation or individual appointed by the ADNOC (or Group Companies) to manage and coordinate the health and safety aspects of a construction project design. Place of Safety Place remote from the actual and foreseeable harmful effects of any major accident where first aid can be administered. anthropometric. Planning Supervisor A company. Safety and Environmental Reviews.
process changes. Practice Accepted methods or means of accomplishing stated tasks. efficient use of resources and material substitution. Pollutant A substance. under the PPC Regulations. Prevention of Pollution Use of processes. or concentration in. Positron See beta-particle. concentration. PTD Permanent Total Disability. cause offence to any human senses. PPD Permanent Partial Disability. Any device or appliance designed to be worn or held by an individual for protection against one or more health and safety hazards. Pollution Any emission as a result of human activity which may be harmful to human health or the quality of the environment. the environment as a result of industrial activity is subject to regulations and/or guidelines. escalation factor or a hazard. PPA Petroleum Ports Authority. Prevention Completely eliminating a threat. PPE Personal Protective Equipment. material or energy whose discharges to. reduce or control pollution. practices. pollutant discharge rate or a combination of these. total discharge rate. which may include recycling.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. result in damage to material property. POP Persistent Organic Pollutant. which may be expressed in terms of composition. or impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment. control mechanisms. PPC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. 2006 Page 67
Pneumatic Test Pressure or leak test utilising a gas as the test medium. materials or products that avoid. Term used to describe the regulatory regime applying to certain types of industrial process.
Process Discharge A discharge from a process operation. Programme A Programme is a management tool for meeting an established objective. Process A logical sequence of inter-related activities. which takes place. (See also Secondary Containment). housekeeping. For ADNOC Group Companies. treated or untreated. Probability The mathematical chance that a given event will occur. A Programme is less comprehensive than a System and is typically composed of two steps: ‘plan’ and ‘implement’. Proton An elementary particle with unit atomic mass approximately and unit positive electric charge. Producer Responsibility Principle that the producer and others involved in the sale of goods must take responsibility for the goods at the end of their life. A Programme usually addresses issues that have either limited scope or limited time frame. Procedural Controls These include: supervision. 2006 Page 68
Primary Containment Equipment that contains hazardous material such as flammable liquid or LPG and prevents it reaching the environment. work methods. on a regular basis and is caused by operating that process. construction. Procedure A documented series of steps to be carried out in a logical order for a defined operation or in a given situation. Property Damage A result of accidental damage or loss to property. disposal of hazardous waste will generally be to the RIWMF (current) and BeAAT Facility (future). personal hygiene. Public
. consultancy work that relates to an ADNOC (or Group Companies) construction project. information. instruction and training. diluted or undiluted. either intermittently or continuously. Proximity Principle The principle that waste must generally be disposed of as near to the place of production as possible. Principal Contractor The main contractor appointed by ADNOC (or Group Companies) to carry out design.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
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Rad The pre-SI unit of absorbed dose. etc) to prevent the potential incidents from happening. with the benefit of hindsight. QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment. equal to 0. the ADNOC Group Companies or contractors (including sub-contractors) working for ADNOC and/or Group Companies. Incident investigations usually show that these ‘historical’ incidents were.
RAC Radiation Advisory Committee. PTW Permit-To-Work
Qualified Person A health care professional who is qualified to carry out certain medical checks for the purpose of health surveillance or fitness for employment. Quality factor (Symbol Q) Term used for radiation weighting factor in ICRP-26 (1977.1. Quantitative Risk Assessment A structured approach to assessing the potential for incidents and expressing this potential numerically. Note: These values should not be interpreted as unavoidable and acceptable losses. Public Risk Identical to Individual Risk but relates to the public rather than the ‘named individual’ who is usually employed by ADNOC.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Besides the numerical values of the various types of radiation have been reviewed (Table F. 2006 Page 69
Anybody not directly employed by ADNOC. the ADNOC Group Companies or contractors (including sub-contractors) working for ADNOC and/or Group Companies. supervision. 1987). Qualified Person Person appropriately qualified to carry out certain medical checks for health surveillance purposes. Appendix F). QRA is a tool which helps to translate this hindsight into foresight (planning) in order to assist management in deciding the best approach and show ways and means (eg improved engineering.
. redefined in ICRP-60 (1990). It should always be recognised that the calculated fatality (or loss) figures are based on experience. statistical failure and incident rates representing an average historical quality of management. QRA is not to be used to justify or encourage risk taking. In QRA statistical values are derived for potential loss of life and damage to resources and environment. quite preventable.01 J/kg (see Gray). procedures.
γ and x-rays).e. for instance. visible (light). The energy propagated through space or through a material medium as waves. energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or of elastic waves. and γ-ray (see Photon). has been deviated in direction. There may also be background radiation due to the presence of radioactive substances in other parts of the building.
Radioactive waste Any waste containing radionuclides (i. See also ALI. infrared. Radiation (Scattered -) Radiation which during its passage through a substance. Radiation (External -) Radiation from a source outside the human body (e.on a common scale for all types of ionising radiation . Frequently categorised according to activity content and other criteria as low
. X-ray. or of sound and elastic waves. It may also have been modified by a decrease in energy. Radiation (Internal -) Radiation from a source within the body (as a result of potassium 40 or deposition of radionuclides in body tissues).the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose. for example. ultraviolet. when unqualified.and n-radiation.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Background radiation due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity is always present. as hertzian.g. etc. The term radiation or radiant energy. See also Appendix C. Radioactive Possessing the property of radioactivity. Radiation (Primary -) The useful beam of X-ray equipment. Radiation (Ionising -) See ionising radiation. Such radiation commonly is classified. By extension. β. or rays of mixed or unknown type. corpuscular emissions. as cosmic radiation. Radiation (Background -) Radiation arising from radioactive material other than the one directly under consideration. a nuclide that is radioactive). the emission and propagation of electromagnetic waves. usually refers to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation weighting factor (Symbol wR) The radiation weighting factor is the factor by which absorbed doses are multiplied to obtain (for radiation protection purposes) a quantity that expresses . according to frequency. in the building material itself. 2006 Page 70
Radiation (generic) The emission and propagation of energy through space or through a material medium in the form of waves. such as α-.
or Ba-containing deposits leading to LSA scale. Disposal of radioactive waste is subject to national and international legislation.and 232Th-decay series. Radionuclide An unstable nuclide that emits ionising radiation. Recycling The reprocessing of waste into the same or a different product. operational and organisational measures that limit the chain of consequences arising from the first hazardous event (or 'top event'). The chemistry of Ra is similar to that of Calcium (Ca). Reduction Process of reducing the quantity of waste produced through the review of operational practices and optimal use of raw materials. Recovery Preparedness Measures (sometimes 'Recovery Measures') All technical. paper. Recreational Diving Diving carried out by a person(s) for recreational purposes while not at work.and 232Th-decay series.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. RCF Refractory Ceramic Fibre. These can 1) reduce the likelihood that the first hazardous event or 'top event' will develop into further consequences and 2) provide life saving capabilities should the 'top event' develop further. The Radon from the 232Th-decay series is also named Thoron. Radiological protection The science and practice of limiting the harm to human beings from radiation. plastics etc. May appear as NORM nuclide in natural gas. Regulation (for HSE)
. Radium (Symbol Ra) Decay product from the 238U. Sr. Radioactivity The property of certain nuclides of spontaneously emitting particles or electromagnetic radiation. intermediate level and high level waste. Therefore it may co-precipitate with Ca-. 2006 Page 71
level (see LSA scale). Typical recyclable wastes include glass. Radon (Symbol Rn) Gaseous nuclide from the 238U. Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba). Radiography Photography with the use of ionising radiation.
but excludes workers hired by independently • operated commercial and retail sites • (e. equal to 0. mail and courier personnel. associates and agents) task is directly supervised by an ADNOC Group Company task is directly related and exclusive to the ADNOC Group Company. • carrier hauling your product to your customer Non-Reportable contractor worksite not exclusive to a ADNOC Group Company subcontractors used for “parts” work when the work relationship between the ADNOC Group Company and contractor ends (e. the following table provides the criteria for classification. The verification process may involve external parties which are independent of the process of standard setting and are also independent of the organisation(s) which have to apply the standards. For example. fabrication shop.g. a ‘regulator’ sets the standards and verifies that these are applied. e.g. trucker who does work for ADNOC Group Company during only one leg of a trip) contractor in full control of work activities
. Rem The pre-SI unit of dose equivalent. Off Site For offsite contractors.g. These worksites include company-owned and directly managed properties and transport vehicles dedicated to fulltime company service. Reportable Contractor On Site All non-employees contracted to perform services for an ADNOC member on an ADNOC member's work-site are considered reportable contractors. Also refer to definition for Self-regulation.g. The regulator also enforces correction in case that standards are not being met and/or complied with. casual visitors and workers hired by independently operated commercial and retail sites are not considered reportable contractors. the verification that these are applied and the enforcement of corrective action where shortfalls and gaps are observed. other incidental delivery personnel (such as vending machine and fast food delivery workers). 2006 Page 72
The process of being controlled by HSE Laws & Regulations. even if they are involved in an incident on a company worksite. This enforcement is sometimes achieved by penalties or other punitive measures. e.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March.” As consequence.01 J/kg (see Sievert).
Reportable • worksite is dedicated to an ADNOC • Group Company work.
there have been no explicit restrictions placed on the worker by a medical professional. sickness and other absences. the contractor work exposure hours must be relatively accurate. in order to determine realistic injury frequencies for contractors.
. The emphasis is on the employee’s inability to perform normal job duties over a normal work shift. This allows implementing preventive measures to reduce the risk of aggravating an otherwise minor injury. The ‘Responsible Person’ has duties such as the non-invasive examination of employees for the detection of adverse reactions to hazardous substances/agents used in the workplace. permanent total disabilities. Contractor exposure hours may be estimated if necessary but. Restricted Workdays The number of restricted workdays is the total number of calendar days counting from the day of starting restricted work until the person returns to his/her regular job. Reportable Injury Total reportable injuries are the sum of fatalities. A case is not considered to be Restricted Work if the following three conditions are met: 1. is physically or mentally unable to perform all or any part of his or her normal assignment during all or any part of the normal workday or shift. because of the job-related injury or illness. “Normally assigned work” means any tasks that the employee performs or is expected to perform as part of their job. Less than normal assigned work functions include: − Performing all duties or normally assigned work functions but at less than full-time schedule − Performing limited duties during normally assigned full-time schedule Restricted work activity occurs when the employee. Restricted Work A work-related injury or illness which results in an individual being unable to perform all normally assigned work functions during any scheduled work shift. or being assigned to another job on a temporary or permanent basis after the day of the injury or illness. there is no medical treatment required 2. 2006 Page 73
Reportable Contractor Exposure Hours The total number of hours of work performed by the contractor including overtime and training but excluding leave.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. the worker is fully capable of doing all tasks that had been scheduled to be performed during the period 3. Responsible Person This is usually the person with responsibility for Occupational Health within individual Group Companies. lost time cases. and cases involving restriction of work or motion. medical treatment or loss of consciousness.
provided that the person can return to work (any work assigned) within 24 hours after the moment on which the occupational injury was received. − part-time work at the regular job. Re-use The reuse of a material without reprocessing. − an assignment to a temporary job. Risk Risk is the product of the measure of the likelihood of occurrence of an undesired event and the potential adverse consequences which this event may have upon: . Restricted Workday Cases (RWDC) Any work-related injury or illness. soil. Restrictive Conductive Location A location comprised mainly of metallic or conductive surrounding parts. A Restricted Workday Case occurs when the injured person is temporarily assigned to do other. other than a fatality or lost workday case. HSE review is conducted at multiple organisation levels in varying level of detail. animals. and where the possibility of preventing this contact is limited. no restricted workdays are to be reported and the illness/injury is to be reported as a permanent partial disability. RICE Regular Interlaboratory Counting Exchange (UK-HSE).g.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. * * A Restricted Workday Case is not a Lost Workday Case. 2006 Page 74
Note: After an ill/injured person is permanently transferred to another job as a result of an occupational illness/injury.
Where no meaningful restricted work is being performed.Environment – water. the incident is recorded as a lost workday case (LWDC). air. Review (HSE) Periodic review of HSE performance and effectiveness of HSEMS by means of documented performance data. − continuation full-time in the regular job but not performing all the usual duties of the job. Inside a steel storage tank or vessel is considered to be a Restrictive Conductive Location. within which it is likely that a person will come into contact through a substantial portion of his body with the conductive surrounding parts.People – injury or harm to physical or psychological health . which results in a person being unfit for full performance of the regular job within 24 hours after the moment on which the occupational injury was received or illness determined. plants and social
.Assets (or Revenue) – damage to property (assets) or loss of production . less strenuous work e.
Risk Matrix The matrix portraying risk as the product of probability and consequence. Risk Management The process of implementing decisions about accepting or altering risks. The product of the two is the risk classification. Four consequence categories are included: impact on people. used as the basis for qualitative risk determination. usually in a quantitative or semiquantitative manner. Considerations for the assessment of probability are shown on the horizontal axis. Usually refers to fatal malignant diseases and serious genetic damage. Considerations for the assessment of consequence are shown on the vertical axis. Risk Evaluation The determination of the significance of the estimated risks. Expressed in Sv-1. taking into account the probability of occurrence. Risk Factor In connection with ionising radiation.
Risk = Frequency x Consequences. 2006 Page 75
Reputation – employees and third parties. Risk Estimation The outcome or consequence of an Intention. assets. the probability of cancer and leukaemia or hereditary damage per unit dose equivalent. The Risk Matrix may be used to assist to determine this rating. Risk Classification A rating used to derive an appreciation of the relative risk from a hazard. This includes the liabilities arising from injuries and property damage to third parties including the cross liabilities that may arise between the interdependent ADNOC Group Companies. Note the difference between Risk Assessment and Task Risk Assessment in this Guidance. environment
. Risk Assessment The process of determination of risk.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Both the relative probability and the potential consequence are categorised by 5 point scales. Risk Analysis An imprecise term which infers the quantified calculation of probabilities and risks without taking any judgements about their relevance. Risk (in food safety) A function of the probability of an adverse health effect and the severity of that effect. consequential to a hazard(s) in food. It is an evaluation of the likelihood of undesired events and the likelihood of harm or damage being caused together with the value judgements made concerning the significance of the results.
Root Cause The initiating event that begins the chain of events that leads to an incident usually an active failure. Risk Perception The overall view held by an individual or group about a particular risk. A completed Case will provide
.58x10-4 coulomb per kilogramme (C/kg) of air. Plotting the intersection of the two considerations on the matrix provides an estimate of the risk. Safety (HSE) Case A demonstration of how the Company HSE objectives are being met in a methodical and auditable reference document. ROPME Regional Organisation for Protection of Marine Environment. ROPME Regional Organisation for Protection of Marine Environment. It is equal to 2. ROV/RCV Remotely operated vehicle/Remotely Control Vehicle. Röntgen (Symbol R) The pre-SI unit of exposure. Routine Exposure Monitoring Exposure measurements carried out on a regular basis to a specified protocol to check if exposure conditions have changed. of one electrostatic unit of charge per cm2 (NTP) of air. 2006 Page 76
and reputation.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. due to secondary electrons. RWDC Restricted Workday Cases. RPE Respiratory protective equipment (including breathing apparatus).
Safe A condition in which all hazards inherent in an operation have either been eliminated or are controlled such that their associated risks are both below a tolerable threshold and are reduced to a level which is as low as reasonably practicable. RPA Radiation Protection Advisor. RSI Repetitive Strain Injury. One röntgen is the dose given by a radiation field that produces ionisation.
or 3. a value which should not be exceeded to prevent effects.g. Sampling Collection of samples of a material (such as a discharge or process stream) for immediate or subsequent analysis or other form of measurement. Sampling may be continuous or intermittent. SD Surface Decompresion Sealed substance (or source) A radioactive substance sealed in an impervious container which has sufficient mechanical strength to prevent contact with and dispersion of the radioactive substance under the conditions of use and wear for which it was designed. A Screening Criterion can be established based for example on legal requirements or scientifically derived limits.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. every hardware modification will be subject to a plant change procedure). a principle or Code of Practice reflecting a generally accepted quality standard to perform an activity (e. Safe System Of Work All the safety precautions (as defined and analysed by a Risk Assessment) that must be used to carry out a specified task safely. and manual or automated. Safety Management System An outline of the safety goals for a site and a description of how the site is managed to reach those goals. or 2. Scenario An idealised description of a potential incident. Screening Criterion 1. Scientific and Archaeological Diving Diving carried out for the pursuance of scientific or archaeological activities.
. Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) An Extra-Low Voltage system which is electrically separated from earth and from other systems in such a way that a single fault cannot give rise to the risk of electric shock. 2006 Page 77
a reference document to all information relevant to the safety and health of the operations personnel. In ADNOC Group the SMS is incorporated within Group Company HSEMS. environment and resources on an installation. or other considerations such as acceptability of risk (probability of occurrence times severity of consequence). SAR Search and rescue. a value against which the risk tolerability of the identified hazard or effect can be judged.
and represents average days away. to determine how well its programs and procedures satisfy legal requirements and conform to the Expectations of the HSEMS. Self-rescue Set See "Escape Breathing Apparatus". and where necessary estimated as going to result. Self-assessment The process whereby an evaluation is performed by a unit or facility. * A serious Incident is not the same as a Major Accident. 2006 Page 78
Secondary Containment Equipment or structures that prevent the spread of hazardous material such as flammable liquid or LPG in the event of spillage / leakage from primary containment.e. each of which transforms by radioactive disintegration into the next until a stable nuclide results. as directed by line management. and the final stable member is called the "end product". Self-regulation (for HSE) Being ‘Self-Regulatory’ means that ADNOC must comply with all relevant Abu Dhabi and UAE Federal Laws and that the monitoring of legal compliance will be carried out internally and ADNOC will not be subject to direct external regulatory scrutiny. Self-sufficiency The principle of dealing with waste in the area/region/ country where the waste arises. Note: Severity is sometimes calculated as a numerical performance measure i. The first member is called the "parent". of the total lost workdays resulting. Series (Radioactive -) A succession of nuclides. Sensitiser A chemical or biologically derived substance that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical. This performance measure is not recognised by ADNOC. from occupational illnesses which occurred during the reporting period divided by the total of lost workday cases plus permanent partial disabilities. the intermediate members are called "daughters". Serious Incident A generic category which includes all incidents with actual or potential consequences of catastrophic.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Shield
Severity The degree to which an agent hazardous to health can cause harm. severe and critical nature.
or to describe risks to ‘unnamed’ individuals. Sickbay A room for the treatment of the sick or injured.a measure of the required reliability of instrument driven safety systems. which could include the public and is usually described by F-N Curves (Frequency vs. Shortfall An area for improvement.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. SMS Safety Management System.). The sievert has the dimension of joule per kilogramme. Societal Risk may also be calculated
. Sievert (Symbol Sv) The unit of (effective) dose equivalent. SI Abbreviation of "Système International d'Unités".
Societal Risk (SR) Societal risk is generally used to describe multiple injury accidents/fatalities. 2006 Page 79
A body of material used to prevent or reduce the passage of particles or radiation. recommended for general use. Measurable. Site Manager The ADNOC (or Group Company) appointed Manager at a particular work site. The dose equivalent in sievert is numerically equal to the absorbed dose in grays multiplied by the quality factor (see Gray and radiation weighting factor). The criteria are defined in ADNOC document ‘Code of Practice on Environmental Impact Assessment’. The shipper instigates the movement and instructs the haulier to transport the goods. Significant Environmental Impact Adverse environmental impact that exceeds pre-defined criteria. 1000 etc. Achievable. who consigns dangerous goods for transport. 10. Realistic and Time-based. with different criteria for both. The shipper is a person or company acting either alone or on behalf of somebody else. Shipper Sometimes referred to as "consignor". ADNOC distinguishes between planned and accidental significant impacts. SMART Specific. the International System of Units. Deaths listed in increasing order of magnitude. SIL Safety Integrity Level . 100.
They often provide input to other types of consequence models. reclamation/ regeneration. Also covers recovering by distillation any waste oil or solvent.an IMO convention. Standard is an allinclusive term denoting specifications. irrespective of the quantity recovered. solvent . Special Waste Any waste defined as hazardous waste under the US EPA system. which is given by the expression: SR = ∑ Frequency of hazard occurring X Proportion of time person(s) are exposed X Number of people exposed X Vulnerability SOLAS Safety Of Life At Sea . SPC Supreme Petroleum Council. recovery of components from catalysts and oil re-refining or other reuses of oil. in a facility with a capacity exceeding 10 tonnes per day.
. Specified Waste Management Activity Within the context of Pollution Prevention & Control. cleaning or regenerating ion exchange resins. the disposal of waste oils. philosophies and handbooks. 2006 Page 80
as a single value known as “Expectation Value” (EV) or “Potential Loss of Life” (PLL).HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. other than by incineration or landfill.
Standard A prescribed set of rules. Source Term Consequence models that define the rate and conditions at which hazardous material reaches the environment. in a facility with a capacity exceeding 10 tonnes per day or the disposal of non-hazardous waste in a facility with a capacity exceeding 50 tonnes per day. Specific activity Total activity of a given nuclide per unit mass of the specific material. procedures. the disposal of hazardous waste other than by incineration or landfill. Span-Of-Control The number of people for whom a single manager is responsible without compromising safety or efficiency. conditions or requirements. guidelines. recommended practices. Spill (environmental) A spill is any loss of containment that reaches the environment. means the disposal of waste to landfill. Stakeholder To be defined.
Substandard Practice An action. because of its intrinsic chemical properties. Limits established by the ACGIH that represent the maximum concentrations workers can be exposed to for 15-minute periods without suffering adverse effects with certain excursion limits. it has the potential to result in a ‘Major Accident’. 2006 Page 81
Standby Diver A diver other than the working diver(s) who is dressed and with equipment immediately available to provide assistance to the working diver(s) in an emergency. Statement of fitness An affirmation by the asset holder that (HSE) conditions are satisfactory to continue operation. or is in breach of legislation. without a threshold. STEL Short Term Exposure Limit. or attitude that could or has resulted in harm. An IMO convention.). or damage to people. policies. Substance Any chemical element and its compounds and any biological entity or microorganism. liquid. procedures. or recognised standards and practices.
.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Certification and Watchkeeping For Seafarers . property. or reputation. pressure and inventory. A substance is a ‘Major Accident Hazard’ if. is regarded as a function of dose. Stochastic effect Stochastic effects are those for which the probability of an effect occurring. temperature. loss. rather than its severity. behaviour. vapour. STWC International Convention On Standards Of Training. Subcontractor Any person or company employed under contract by an ADNOC (or Group Companies) contractor to carry out work for ADNOC (or Group Companies) (irrespective of period of contract or employment. environment. Substances Which Constitute a Major Accident Hazard A substance constitutes a hazard by virtue of its intrinsic chemical properties or of its temperature and pressure or some combination of these. gas or infectious agent used or produced in the workplace which may cause a harmful effect to the human body (except by physical means alone) either in the short or long term. except radioactive substances or genetically modified organisms. Substance Hazardous to Health Any solid.
or reputation. procedures. machinery. and fixtures that are substandard in their present working or static condition or operational outside their intended use. loss. measure/evaluate and adjust. or recognised standards and practices. SPC Supreme Petroleum Council Survivability Conditions necessary for a HSECES to remain functional during an incident until it has performed its function. Suitability Property of a HSECES that it is of a design and specification such that it is capable of fulfilling its intended function. or is in breach of legislation. environment. oil spill. Substantial Change A change in an operation which may have significant negative effects on human beings or the environment. rescue. 2006 Page 82
Substandard Condition Any object or condition that could or has resulted in harm. plant. System A management tool for meeting an established objective made up of four steps: plan. or damage to people. chemical spill). or together with other tasks. materials. Sustainable development Development which can meet the needs of the present. may be used to achieve a goal. applicable to the organisation or parts thereof. Task Force
Tactical Response Team A team of individuals trained in a specific type of emergency response (fire fighting. quantified where practicable. Sustainable Waste Management Using material resources efficiently to reduce the quantity of waste produced. property. equipment.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Target (environmental) Detailed performance requirement. implement. that arises from the environmental objectives and that needs to be set and met in order to achieve those objectives Task A set pattern of operations which alone. SWL Safe Working Load. policies. without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It also includes tools.
radiation (ultraviolet). which would not occur without (or are increased by) some technological activity not expressly designed to produce radiation. the parent nuclide of a radioactive decay series. Thorium (Symbol Th) A naturally occurring radioactive element (average abundance in the earth's crust in the order of 10 ppm). electrical (high voltage). Threat classes include damage caused by: thermal (high temperature). biological (bacteria). training. Thoron See Radon. chemical (corrosion). Threat A possible cause that will potentially release a hazard and produce an incident. step by step. safety valves. control of energy release (lower speeds. TENR Acronym for Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation. Threat barrier All measures taken to reduce the probability of release of a hazard. separation (time and space). and analysing this information to develop control systems. reduction in inventory. climatic condition (poor visibility). Teratogen Chemical agent which causes damage to genetic material. kinetic (fatigue). uncertainty (unknowns) or human factors (competence). Measures put in place to block the effect of a threat. inhibitors. drills). recording and assessment of the risks involved in any particular operation so that appropriate controls can be introduced. It is often referred to as ‘ringing
. Task Risk Assessment A process of formal identification. Team Lowest level ICS resource Group. warnings. shutdowns).HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March.
Tinnitus This is the medical term for the perception of sound in one or both ears or in the head when no external sound is present. TENR is the exposure due to truly natural sources of radiation. Types include guards or shields (coatings. 2006 Page 83
ICS Resource Group assembled for a specific mission. Task Risk Analysis Task Analysis is the process of assessing what a worker does and why. It consists of almost 100% 232Th. different fuel source) and administrative (procedures.
TOC Total Organic Compounds. even if the 8-hour TWA is within the TLVTWA. day after day. ACGIH defines three categories of TLVs as follows (* see note): a) Threshold Limit Value .Time-Weighted Average (TLV-TWA): the timeweighted average concentration for a conventional 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek. Threshold Limit Value –Ceiling (TLV-C): the concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure.
. evidence of compensatory mechanisms that are part of its normal function. 2) chronic or irreversible tissue damage. roaring. to which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed. These values are assigned based upon evidence of the level (i. It represents the relative contribution of that organ or tissue to the total detriment due to these effects resulting from uniform irradiation of the body. the threshold) at which an adverse health effect may occur in the vast majority of the population.e. whistling.
Note: The above are abbreviated versions of the ACGIH definitions. just the ability to hear sounds generated by the auditory (hearing ) system. impair self-rescue or materially reduce work efficiency. 2006 Page 84
in the ears’ although some people hear hissing. and provide that the daily TLV-TWA is not exceeded. Tinnitus can be intermittent or constant with single or multiple tones and its perceived volume can range from subtle to shattering. TLV – Treshold Limit Value ACGIH term for OEL.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. A STEL is a 15-minute TWA exposure which should not be exceeded at any time during a workday. It is not a disease. without adverse effects. Tissue weighting factor (Symbol wT) The factor by which the equivalent dose in an organ or tissue is weighted. or 3) narcosis of sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury. Threshold Limit Value – Short-Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL): the concentration to which it is believed that workers can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without suffering from: 1) irritation. TLVs are not restricted to chemical agents. ADNOC has adopted ACGIH TLVs. chirping or clicking.
thus the formula for total sickness absence is: Total number of absence days (calendar days) of employees x 100% Total number of available working days (calendar days) Toxicology The study of the adverse effects of chemicals (poisons) on living organisms and biological systems. TRA Task Risk Assessment.000.
. The centre point in a 'Bow-Tie' Diagram. Total sickness absence is expressed as a percentage of total workdays available. whether or not they resulted in deaths. The 'release' of a hazard. Top Event Specific incident scenario described by a fault tree. in which absences for pregnancy. Toxic Substance Substance which is poisonous to living organisms and biological systems. TRIR does not include First Aid Cases.000 Total Working Hours Total Reportable Injury Rate (TRIR) The number of reportable injuries (Fatalities + Permanent Total Disabilities + Partial Total Disabilities + Lost Workday Cases + Restricted Work Cases + Medical Treatment Cases) per 1.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. permanent total disabilities. Total Reportable Illness Frequency The total reportable illness frequency is the number of total reportable illnesses per million working hours worked during the reporting period. Thus Total Reportable Illness Frequency = Total Reportable Illnesses x 1. Total Sickness absence Total workforce absence on the grounds of incapacity to work due to sickness for any reason. TOR Terms of Reference Total Reportable Illnesses Total reportable illnesses are the sum of all occupational illnesses. May be expressed qualitatively or represented quantitatively on the Risk Matrix by shaded areas. The undesired event at the end of the fault tree and at the beginning of an event tree. or restricted work cases. 2006 Page 85
Expresses the level of risk deemed tolerable for a given period or phase of activities.000 hours worked.000. lost workday cases. permanent partial disabilities. childbirth are excluded.
Uncontrolled Occurrence An event that escalates. Transport Operator Any person or company providing means of transport. UK-HSE United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive. Transmission See Attenuation. UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law Of the Sea. UK-HSE Heath and Safety Executive (UK). Unclassified Area Plant area that does not have a hazardous area classification (See Classification of Hazardous Area). 2006 Page 86
Tracer (Isotopic -) The isotope or non-natural mixture of isotopes of an element which may be incorporated into a sample to permit observation of the course of that element. sometimes T) The hydrogen isotope with one proton and two neutrons in the nucleus. or physical process.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. TRIR Total Reportable Injury Rate. TSA Training Services Agency (UK). for the carriage of goods. Training Training encompasses the steps necessary to ensure that employees and contractors have the job competencies (knowledge. health and safety responsibilities. or has the potential to escalate.
UAE United Arab Emirates. through a chemical. alone or in combination. biological.
. including road vehicles and ships. so that it is beyond the normal span of operations over which control can be exercised. TWA Time Weighted Average. skills and values) necessary to fulfil their environmental. 3H or H-3. Tritium (Symbol 31H.
Production/Maintenance Operations Department. Only 238U is of interest from a dosimetric point of view. Natural Uranium consists of 99. or other hazardous substances. UTM Universal Traverse Mercator. UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation Unified Command ICS principle to provide efficient emergency response involving multiple organisations Unit A part or group in a complex organisation with a specific purpose/function e. USCG United States Coastguard USN United States Navy.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Unsafe Act Something a person does that can cause an accident or injury.
.g. if it continues. Business Unit.
VDU (VDT) Visual Display Unit or Visual Display Terminal . 238U is the parent nuclide of a radioactive decay series.any alphanumeric (containing both letters and numbers) or graphic display screen. 0. which. Drilling Department. process oil. lubricants. USCG United States Coastguard.276% 238U. 2006 Page 87
Uncontrolled Release An incident involving an accidental release of hydrocarbons. mineral oil etc. can lead to an incident. Used Oil Term used to include spent engine oil.7196% 235U and 0. Unsafe Condition A situation. USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency. regardless of the display process involved.0057% 234U. toxic substances. Uranium (Symbol U) A naturally occurring radioactive element (average abundance in the earth's crust in the order of 3 ppm).
trucks. buses. and in specified flight visibility in order not to have to comply with the Instrument Flight Rules.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Waste Inventory Document identifying all sources of waste generated by a facility.
Walk-Through Survey A walk-through survey is designed to provide an overview of health hazards and associated potential exposures involving a particular working population. Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Rules requiring aircraft to remain at specified distances from cloud. acidic. e. reusing. cars. Incidents involving a mobile crane would only be vehicle incidents if the crane were being moved between locations. Waste Wide ranging term taken to include any scrap material.g. Waste Profile Sheet The document that describes the chemical characteristic of the waste (e. Explosive and radioactive wastes are included. effluent or unwanted surplus substance or article which requires to be disposed of. Waste Arisings The quantity of waste generated in an area over a given period of time. 2006 Page 88
Vehicle Incidents Incidents involving motorised vehicles designed for transporting people and goods over land. WASP Workplace Analysis Scheme for Proficiency (UK-HSE). the response required in case of spillage and the first aid measures in case of exposure. In essence. Verification Scheme Formal procedure for carrying out verification. Verification The process by which an independent competent person confirms that all necessary activities to assure the integrity of HSECES have been undertaken.
.g. and the amounts for each of the waste sources. and recycling wastes as preferred options over disposal. see and be seen. Pedestrians struck by a vehicle are classified as vehicle incidents. Waste Hierarchy Principle of managing waste which recognises the benefits of reducing. alkaline). Emissions are excluded. VOC Volatile Organic Compound.
WBGT Wet Bulb Globe Temperature. which arises from a single event (or a number of events close together in time) in the course of employment. employee identification number and a list of Job Type Codes and dates. 2006 Page 89
Waste Treatment Physical. which terminate at the wet bell. Also called an open bottom bell. WBV Whole Body Vibration. Workplace A location owned by an ADNOC Group Company or a location where plant is operated by. A supply of spare gas will be carried on the wet bell. Wet Bell A basket with a closed top section which is capable of containing a dry gaseous atmosphere to provide a refuge for the divers. Work Injury A work injury is an injury or illness.
. an ADNOC Group Company. Worker Anybody who is directly employed by ADNOC. or on behalf of. sickness and other absences. regardless of severity. it consists of name. Working Hours Working hours represent the total number of hours of employment including overtime and training but excluding leave. A main supply umbilical will come from the surface to the wet bell with the divers having their own separate umbilical. reduce its volume or for recycling. It is not a pressure vessel. Work History of Employee Exposure A record of an employee's exposure profile during his/her working career with the company. At its simplest.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. Work Equipment Any item of equipment. For this to occur. chemical or biological processing of waste in order to make it harmless. the ADNOC Group Companies or contractors (including sub-contractors) working for ADNOC and/or Group Companies. all critical defences in place must have failed. Worst Case Consequence The worst possible HSE consequences in terms of harm resulting from a hazardous event. tool or machine used at or around the work place. WHO World Health Organization.
. 2006 Page 90
Worst Case Measurement Quantified personal exposure measurement of events involving potentially high exposure. Workstation Means an assembly comprising: i. and for this reason the more general description of ‘upper limb disorders’ is used in the ADNOC Manual of HSE Codes of Practice. telephone. or ‘occupational overuse syndrome (OOS)’. There are a number of common terms. which are also in use to describe the same conditions. as occurs in an X-ray machine. work surface or other item peripheral to the display screen equipment.HSE MANAGEMENT CODES OF PRACTICE Volume 1: HSE ADMINISTRATION COP G/L: HSE DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Document No: ADNOC-COPV1-05
Version 3 March. modem. any optional accessories to the display screen equipment. display screen equipment (whether provided with software determining the interface between the equipment and its operator or user. Written Scheme of Examination Detailed listing of activities to be carried out by an independent competent person during the verification process for certain HSECES. the immediate work environment around the display screen equipment. These common terms can be misleading with regard to the many factors. They are usually produced by bombarding a metallic target with fast electrons in a high vacuum. work desk. which can contribute to the onset of the conditions. Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders The phrase ‘Work-related Upper Limb Disorders’ is a general label which is used to refer to a range of medical conditions which can be caused or made worse by work. The symptoms of Work-related Upper Limb Disorders may include pain. printer. ‘cumulative trauma disorder (CTD)’. reduction in the ability using the affected part of the limb. any disk drive. changes in the appearance of the limb. for example ‘repetitive strain injury (RSI)’. restriction in the range or speed of movement. and iv. work chair. In some countries X-rays are called "Röntgen"-rays.
X-rays A discrete quantity of electromagnetic energy. WRULD Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders. a keyboard or any other input device). Energy contained much higher than than that of visible light. iii. ii. without mass or charge. document holder. and weakness of strength and sensation of limb.