scattering efficiency for a layered sphere. 1951

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Aden - Kerker. scattering efficiency for a layered sphere. 1951

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Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242 (1951); doi: 10.1063/1.1699834

View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1699834

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JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS VOLUME 22. NUMBER 10 OCTOBER. 1951

Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two Concentric Spheres*

ARTHUR L. ADEN

Geophysics Research Division, Air Force Cambridge Research Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts

AND

MILTON KERKERt

Clarkson College oj Technology, Potsdam, New York

(Received February 16, 1951)

A solution is given for the problem of the scattering of plane electromagnetic waves from a sphere with

a concentric spherical shell. The solution is general, and under appropriate conditions is reduced to the

well-known solution for scattering from a single sphere.

INTRODUCTION

T

HE theory of scattering of plane electromagnetic

waves from an isotropic sphere has been worked

out by Mie

l

and is concisely presented by Stratton.

2

This paper will present the solution for scattering from a

sphere with a concentric spherical shell. The application

of this solution to certain problems in radar meteorology

will be considered in a subsequent communication.

FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM

Figure 1 shows the orientation of the incident plane

wave and the scattering configuration with respect to a

rectangular coordinate system with its origin at the

center of the sphere. The inner sphere, the shell, and the

surrounding medium are called regions 1, 2, and 3,

respectively. The inner and outer radii of the spherical

shell are a and b. Each region is assumed to have a dif-

ferent complex propagation constant, complex dielectric

factor, complex characteristic velocity, and perme-

ability. These quantities are indicated by K, V, and

J.!" respectively, with subscripts 1, 2, or 3, depending on

the region. The incident plane wave is propagated in

the positive Z direction, and its electric vector is linearly

L

Ei

Sj

a j POINTS OUT

FROM PAPER

SPHERICAL SHELL

Y-AXIS POINTS

OUT FROM PAPER

z

FIG. 1. Plane wave incident upon a sphere with a concentric

spherical shell.

* This solution was worked out independently by each of the

present authors.

t Part-time research assistant, MacDonald Physics Laboratory,

McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

1 G. Mie, Ann. Physik 25, 377 (1908).

2]. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book

Company, Inc., New York, 1941), pp. 563-573.

polarized in the x direction. Time dependence of the

form e

iwt

is assumed j but it will not be written explicitly,

since it does not enter directly into the analysis.

With the conditions stated above, the expressions

for the incident plane wave have the same formt as

that given by Stratton.

2

It is seen that

., 2n+ 1 (1) (1)

Ei= Eo L (- j)n (rnOln+ jn

e1n

) ,

n=l n(n+1)

(1)

(

EO) '" 2n+1 (1) (1)

Bi= - - L (-j)n (mel

n

- jn01n),

Va n=l n(n+1)

(2)

where Eo is the amplitude, Va= is the complex

characteristic velocity of region 3, and

(1) 1 (1) cos

rno = -zn (KaR)Pn1(COsO) <t>i2

.1n sinO sin

(1)

(1) dPn1(coSO) sin

-Zn (KaR) <t>ia, (3)

dO cos

n(n+ 1) (1) sin

---Z'n (KsR)Pnl(COSO) <t>it

KaR cos

1 (1) dPnl(cosO) sin

+-[KaRzn (KaR)]' cpi

2

KaR dO cos

1 (1) cos

[KaRzn (KaR)J'Pnl(CoSO) cpi

a

(4)

KaR sinO sin

The primes at the square brackets indicate differenti-

ation with respect to the argument KaR. Here it, i

2

"

and is represent unit vectors in the directions R, 0, and

<t> of a spherical coordinate system with its origin at the

center of the sphere j Pn

1

(cosO) is the associated Legendre

polynomial of the first kind, first order, and nth degree j.

(1)

Zn (KR) is the spherical bessel function of the first

t Note that Stratton assumes c

iwt

time dependence. Therefore,.

in comparing equations written here with those of Stratton, replace:

j by -i.

1242

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SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1243

kind, which is related to the ordinary bessel function of

the first kind and half-integer order as follows:

(1)

Zn (KR) = (5)

The induced secondary field must now be constructed

in three parts, one applying in each of the three regions

defined previously. These parts are written as expan-

sions similar to those for the incident wave, but with

unknown amplitude coefficients. The parts applying

outside the shell and inside the sphere will be called the

scattered and transmitted fields, in accordance with the

terminology used for the single-sphere problem. They

will be indicated by using subscripts sand t. The formal

expansions for these fields are identical to those for the

single-sphere problem, although the amplitude coef-

ficients have different values here. Thus, one can write

ao 2n+ 1 (3) (3)

E.=Eo L: (- j)n (an'mOln+ jb

n

'o

e1n

), (6)

n=l n(n+l)

(

EO) ao 2n+ 1 (3) (3)

B.= - - L: (- j)n (bn'mel

n

- jan'OOln),

V3 11=1 n(n+ 1)

(7)

valid when R>b, and

(8)

valid when R < a. The functions

(3) (3)

and

are obtained by replacing

(1) (3)

Zn (KaR) by Zn (KaR)

in Eqs. (3) and (4):

(3) (2)

Zn (KR) = (1I'/2KR)tH

n

+!(KR)

is the spherical hankel function of the second kind.

These functions are necessary in the solution for the

scattered field, since this solution must be regular at

infinity and must satisfy the radiation condition. Bessel

functions of the first kind only are used in Eqs. (8) and

(9), since the solution must be finite at the origin. In

addition, K3 is replaced by Kl in Eqs. (8) and (9).

In the restricted region of the spherical shell, it is

necessary to use bessel functions of both the first and

second kinds. Here the solution may be written

ao 2n+ 1 (1) (3)

E = Eo L: (- j)n (an"rnOln+an"mOln

n=1 n(n+l) ,

(1) (3)

-jan"nOln- jan"nO

ln

), (11)

(9) with the understanding that K2R is the argument of

the vector functions.

SOLUTION FOR THE SCATTERING AMPLITUDE COEFFICIENTS

Equations (6) through (11) represent a formal solution for the induced secondary field. All that is needed to

complete the formal solution is the evaluation of the eight amplitude coefficients. This is done by applying the

boundary conditions at the two surfaces of dielectric discontinuity.

The boundary conditions at R= a are

and at R=b are

(1/ J.'l)ilxBt = (1/ J.'2)i1XB'8,

i

1

XE,,= i1X (Ei+E.) ,

(1/ J.'2)itxB.,= (1/ J.la)iIX (B

i

+ B,).

These lead to two sets of simultaneous equations involving four unknowns each, as follows:

(I)

[Kabzn (Kab)]'

K3b

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

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1244 A. L. ADEN AND M. KERKER

(19)

(20)

(21)

(22)

These two sets of simultaneous equations may be solved for the eight amplitude coefficients. However, since the

main interest of this paper is in the scattered field, only the solution for a,,' and b

n

' will be given explicitly here.

In writing down the solution for the scattering amplitude coefficients, it is convenient to introduce certain

simplifications in some of the terms of the above equations. Thus, it will be recognized immediately that (K/ JI.) = wY,

where w is the angular frequency, and Y = ( ~ / JI.)t is the complex characteristic admittance of the region under

consideration. With this substitution, w drops out of the equations. In addition, it is convenient to let II=K3b,

a=K

3

a, N

l

=K

l

/K

3

, N2=K2/K3 and to introduce the new functions

(1) (1)

1']n (X)=[XZn (X)]'/X,

(24)

(3) (3) I

1']n (X)=[Xz" (X)] IX.

(25)

With these substitutions, one can write

(1) (1) (3)

0 -1']n (Nla) 1']" (N2a) 7Jn (N2a)

(1) (11 (3)

0 - YIZn (Nla)

Y

2

z

n

(N2a) Y

2

Z

n

(N2a)

(1)

7Jn (II) 0

(1)

7Jn (N211)

(3)

7Jn (N211)

(1) (1) (3)

Y

3

Z

n

(II) 0 Y

2

Z

n

(N211) Y

2

Z

n

(N211)

b

n

8

(26)

(1) (1) (3)

0 -7Jn (Nla) 7Jn (N2a) 7Jn (N2a)

(1) (1) (3)

0 - Y 1z" (N1a) Y2Z" (N2a) YZZ

n

(N

2

a)

(3)

-7Jn (II) 0

(1)

7Jn (N211)

(3)

7Jn (N211)

(3)

- YaZn (II) 0

(1)

Y

2

Z

n

(N211)

(3)

Y

2

Z

n

(N211)

(1)

0 -Zn (Nla)

(1)

Zn (N2a)

(3)

Z" (N2a)

(1) (1) (3)

0 - Y

I

7Jn (Nla) Y21']n (N2a) Y

2

1']n (N2a)

(1)

Zn (p) 0

(1)

Zn (Nzp)

(3)

Z" (N211)

(1) (1) (3)

Y3!]" (II) 0 Y

2

!]n (N

2

P) Y

2

!]" (N211)

a,,'

(27)

(1)

0 -Z" (Nla)

(1)

Zn (N2a)

(3)

Z" (N2a)

(1) (1) (3)

0 - Y

I

!]" (Nla) Y

2

1']n (N

2

a) Y

2

!]n (N

2

a)

(3)

-Z" (II) 0

(1)

Zn (N211)

(3)

Z" (N2P)

(3)

- Y3!]n (II) 0

(1)

Y2!]" (N2P)

(3)

Y

2

!]n (NzII)

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SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

1245

These equations may be expanded in the form

b,,'=

(28)

(1) (1)

Z" (V)A3+ Y3l'/" (V)A4

(29)

where

(1) (1) (3) (1) (3)

A

1

= Y

2

2l'/n (N

1

a)[Zn (N

2

V)Zn (N

2

a)-zn (N

2

a)zn (N

2

v)]

(1) (1) (3) (3) (1)

+Y

1

Y

2

Z

n

(N

1

a)[l'/n (N

2

a)Zn (N2V)-l'/n (N2a)Zn (N2v)], (30)

. (1) (1) (3) (3) (1)

A

2

= Y

2

l'/" (N

1

a)[Zn (N2a}1}n (N2V)-Zn (N2a}1}n (N2V)]

(1) (1) (3) (1) (3)

+Y

1

z

n

(N

1

a)[l'/n (N

2

vhn (N2a)-l'/" (N2ahn (N2v)], (31)

. (1) (1) (3) (1) (3)

A3= Yb .. (N

1

a)[l'/n (N2v}1}n (N2a)-l'/n (N

2

ahn (N2V)]

(1) (1) (3) (3) (1)

+ Y

1

Y

2

l'/n (N

1

a)[Zn (N

2

ahn (N

2

v)-z .. (N

2

a)1} .. (N2v)], (32)

(1) (1) (3) (3) (1)

A4= Y2Z" (N

1

a)[1'/n (N2a)Zn (N2V)-l'/n (N2a)zn (N2V)]

(1) (1) (3) (1) (3)

+Y

1

l'/n (N

1

a)[Zn (N

2

v)zn (N

2

a)-Zn (N

2

a)Zn (N2v)J. (33)

The above solution may be checked by letting a=v. In this case, Eqs. (28) and (29) become

---------------------------,

(34)

(1) (3) (3) (1)

Y

3

l'/n (N1a)zn (a)- Yll'/n (a)Zn OV1a)

(35)

which are identical with the Stratton-Mie solution for the scattering from a single sphere.

It should be noted that the l'/-functions used here are closely related to the logarithmic derivative functions used

by Adena to simplify the computations in the case of scattering from a single sphere. These latter functions may

also be used in the formulation of the present problem. However, such a procedure is more artificial here and does

not yield the computational advantages that are manifest in the single-sphere problem.

THE FAR ZONE FIELD AND THE SCATTERING

PARAMETERS

Since the present problem was formulated in such a

way that the equations for the scattered field are

formally the same as the equations in the single-sphere

problem, it is possible to utilize directly the further

equations from that problem. Thus, the far zone scat-

tered field in spherical component form is

(36)

3 A. L. Aden, "Electromagnetic scattering from metal and water

spheres," Technical Report No. 106, Cruft Laboratory, Harvard

University, (1950); condensed version, J. App!. Phys. 22, 601

(1951).

00 2n+l (Pn

1

(COSO) dPn1(COSO)]

X Lan' +b,,' ,

n-1 n(n+ 1) sinO dO

(37)

(38)

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1246 C. W. HORTON AND C. M. McKINNEY, JR.

the total scattering cross section is

(39)

and the backscattering cross section is

(40)

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Dr. Kerker's work on this problem was made pos-

sible through support extended McGill University by

the Geophysics Research Division of the Air Force

Cambridge Research Center, under Contract No.

AF-19(122)-217. Dr. Kerker also wishes to thank Mr.

Z. A. Melzak and Dr. P. R. Wallace of McGill Uni-

versity for their assistance during the course of the in-

vestigation.

JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS VOLUME 22, NUMBER 10 OCTOBER, 1951

An Experimental Investigation of the Dielectric Rod Antenna of Circular Cross Section

Excited in the Dominant Mode*

C. W. HORTON AND C. M. McKINNEY, JR.t

Defense Research Laboratory, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas

(Received March 12, 1951)

The radiation pattern and the gain were measured for four series of dielectric antennas of circular cross

section. These antennas were excited by a TEll mode in a circular metallic wave guide at a frequency of

9275 mcps. Only one parameter was changed in each series of rods so that the effect of this parameter on the

pattern and gain could be studied. Measurements of gain are presented for two further series of rods in

which the length is varied. The measurements showed that a polystyrene rod of length 6Xo and constant

cross section has maximum gain and best pattern for a diameter of approximately 2Xo. On the other hand

when the taper of a Lucite rod was varied while the length and the maximum diameter were held constant

at 6Xo and 0.87Xo, respectively, the gain and the pattern behavior improved as the minimum diameter was

decreased to zero. It is shown that losses in the dielectric produce a significant decrease in the gain.

I. INTRODUCTION

N

UMEROUS workersl-7 have investigated the di-

electric rod antenna both experimentally and

theoretically. The present paper is a report of an ex-

tensive experimental investigation of four series of di-

electric radiators of circular cross section in which the

range of physical dimensions was larger than usual.

In addition the radiation characteristics are correlated

with measurements of the fields on the surface of the

radiators. The data are arranged so as to be of value

both for design work and for guidance and verification

of theoretical work.

II. PARAMETERS STUDIED AND CHARACTERISTICS

MEASURED

All of the measurements were made at a frequency of

9275 mcps or a free space wavelength, Ao, of 3.20 cm.

* The work described in this paper was done at the Defense

Research Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the Bureau of

Ordnance, Navy Department, Contract NOrd-9195.

t Now at Texas Technological ColIege, Lubbock, Texas.

1 Peter MalIach, "Dielectric directional antennas for dm and

cm waves," Air Materiel Command Report, F-TS-2223-RE,

February, 1948. Translated by P. L. Harbury of Harvard Uni-

versity, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

2 G. Mueller and W. Tyrrell, BelI System Tech. J. 26, 837 (1947).

3 D. F. Halliday and D. G. Kiely, J. lnst. Elec. Engrs. (London)

64, 610 (1947).

4 G. Wilkes, Proc. lnst. Radio Engrs. 36, 206 (1948).

6 R. B. Watson and C. W. Horton, J. App!. Phys.19, 661 (1948).

6 R. B. Watson and C. W. Horton, J. App!. Phys.19, 836 (1948).

7 Horton, Karal, and McKinney, J. App!. Phys. 21, 1279

(1950).

One end of the dielectric rod radiators, which were

constructed of Lucite or polystyrene, fitted snugly into

the open end of a hollow metal wave guide excited in

the TEll mode. This TEll wave excited a hybrid mode

(neither TM nor TE) in the dielectric rods which will

be called the HEll mode. The rods extended into the

metal guide for approximately four wavelengths and

the end of each rod was tapered gradually to a point

in order to achieve a suitable impedance match.

Three sets of rods were made so that each set showed

the effect of one parameter at a time. Series A was made

of polystyrene and showed the effect of changing the

diameter of an untapered rod. Each rod was connected

to the metallic guide through a short metal-covered

transition. Series Band C were made of Lucite and

showed the effect of changing the taper and the length,

respectively. A D series consisted of a single polystyrene

rod made in the shape recommended by Mueller and

Tyrrel1.

2

The characteristics which were measured were the

radiation patterns (E- and H-planes), the absolute

gain, and the electric field distribution on the surface

of the radiating rods. A klystron type of transmitter

and a superheterodyne receiver were used to measure

patterns and the results were recorded continuously.

The gain was measured by the reciprocity method.

s

8 C. G. Montgomery, Technique of Microwave Measurements

(McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1947), Vol. 11,

Radiation Laboratory Series.

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