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org/wiki/Tetrahedron

Tetrahedron

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Not to be confused with tetrahedroid. For the academic journal, see Tetrahedron (journal). Regular Tetrahedron

(Click here for rotating model) Type Platonic solid F = 4, E = 6 V = 4 (χ = 2) 4{3} {3,3} and s{2,2} 3|23 |222

Elements

Faces by sides Schläfli symbol

Wythoff symbol

Coxeter–Dynkin

Symmetry Rotation group References

Td, A3, [3,3], (*332) T, [3,3]+, (332) U01, C15, W1 Regular convex deltahedron 70.528779° = arccos(1/3)

Properties

Dihedral angle

3.3.3 (Vertex figure)

Self-dual (dual polyhedron)

[1] For any tetrahedron there exists a sphere (the circumsphere) such that the tetrahedron's vertices lie on the sphere's surface.4 Games o 11. Like all convex polyhedra.1 Isometries of regular tetrahedra o 9.2 Intersecting tetrahedra 9 Isometries o 9. It has two nets. a tetrahedron can be folded from a single sheet of paper. which is a polyhedron with a flat polygon base and triangular faces connecting the base to a common point.1 Heron-type formula for the volume of a tetrahedron 5 Distance between the edges 6 Properties of a general tetrahedron 7 More vector formulas in a general tetrahedron 8 Geometric relations o 8. It has six edges and four vertices. a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a Net polyhedron composed of four triangular faces.In geometry. The tetrahedron is one kind of pyramid.2 Chemistry o 11.6 Contemporary art o 11. three of which meet at each vertex.2 Isometries of irregular tetrahedra 10 A law of sines for tetrahedra and the space of all shapes of tetrahedra 11 Applications o 11.1 Numerical analysis o 11. so a tetrahedron is also known as a "triangular pyramid".5 Color space o 11.1 Related polyhedra o 8. The tetrahedron is the only convex polyhedron that has four faces. Contents [hide] 1 Special cases 2 Formulas for a regular tetrahedron 3 Orthogonal projections 4 Volume o 4.[1] The tetrahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a Euclidean simplex. In the case of a tetrahedron the base is a triangle (any of the four faces can be considered the base).3 Electricity and electronics o 11.7 Popular Culture .

is a tetrahedron where all four faces are congruent triangles. [edit] Formulas for a regular tetrahedron The following Cartesian coordinates define the four vertices of a tetrahedron with edge-length 2. 11. and is one of the Platonic solids. An isodynamic tetrahedron is one in which the cevians that join the vertices to the incenters of the opposite faces are concurrent. An isosceles tetrahedron. it is called a semi-orthocentric tetrahedron. centered at the origin: (±1. If all three pairs of opposite edges of a tetrahedron are perpendicular. In a trirectangular tetrahedron the three face angles at one vertex are right angles. ±1.9 Structural Engineering 12 See also 13 References 14 External links o o [edit] Special cases A regular tetrahedron is one in which all four faces are equilateral triangles. also called a disphenoid. When only one pair of opposite edges are perpendicular. 0. and an isogonic tetrahedron has concurrent cevians that join the vertices to the points of contact of the opposite faces with the inscribed sphere of the tetrahedron. 1/√2) For a regular tetrahedron of edge length a: Base plane area Surface area[2] Height[3] Volume[2] . then it is called an orthocentric tetrahedron. -1/√2) (0.8 Geology 11.

55129 steradians) Radius of circumsphere[2] Radius of insphere that is tangent to faces[2] Radius of midsphere that is tangent to edges[2] Radius of exspheres Distance to exsphere center from a vertex Note that with respect to the base plane the slope of a face ( ) is twice that of an edge ( ). 54.7356°) Angle between two faces[2] (approx. [edit] Orthogonal projections . one of which is twice as long as the other (see proof). This follows from the fact that the medians of a triangle intersect at its centroid. the distance from C to a vertex of the base is twice that from C to the midpoint of an edge of the base.4712°) Solid angle at a vertex subtended by a face (approx.Angle between an edge and a face (approx. if C is the centroid of the base. 109. 0.5288°) Angle between the segments joining the center and the vertices. corresponding to the fact that the horizontal distance covered from the base to the apex along an edge is twice that along the median of a face. 70. and this point divides each of them in two segments.[4] also known as the "tetrahedral angle" (approx. In other words.

one centered on a vertex. b3). and d = (d1. we . c = (c1. a3). and c represent three edges that meet at one vertex. This applies for each of the four choices of the base. c − d)|. and one centered on an edge. or any other combination of pairs of vertices that form a simply connected graph. b. c2. b2. d2. d3). yielding If the origin of the coordinate system is chosen to coincide with vertex d. the volume is (1/6)·|det(a − b. or equivalently on a face. so the distances from the apexes to the opposite faces are inversely proportional to the areas of these faces. The first corresponds to the A2 Coxeter plane. then d = 0. For a tetrahedron with vertices a = (a1. Comparing this formula with that used to compute the volume of a parallelepiped.The regular tetrahedron has two special orthogonal projections. and a · (b × c) is a scalar triple product. b − c. Orthogonal projection Centered by Edge Face/vertex Image Projective symmetry [3] [4] [edit] Volume The volume of a tetrahedron is given by the pyramid volume formula: where A0 is the area of the base and h the height from the base to the apex. This can be rewritten using a dot product and a cross product. so where a. c3). a2. b = (b1.

as a three dimensional analogue of the 1st century Heron's formula for the area of a triangle. γ are the plane angles occurring in vertex d. Given the distances between the vertices of a tetrahedron the volume can be computed using the Cayley–Menger determinant: where the subscripts represent the vertices {a. The triple scalar can be represented by the following determinants: or column vector etc. is essentially due to the painter Piero della Francesca in the 15th century. b. which gives where α. The angle β. The angle α.. c.[5] . while γ. d} and is the pairwise distance between them—i. is the angle between the two edges connecting the vertex d to the vertices b and c. This formula. β.conclude that the volume of a tetrahedron is equal to 1/6 of the volume of any parallelepiped that shares three converging edges with it. is defined by the position of the vertices a and b. the length of the edge connecting the two vertices. where is expressed as a row or Hence where etc.e. sometimes called Tartaglia's formula. A negative value of the determinant means that a tetrahedron cannot be constructed with the given distances. does so for the vertices a and c.

otherwise. It has respective centers such as incenter. circumcenter. V. there is generally no orthocenter in the sense of intersecting altitudes.[edit] Heron-type formula for the volume of a tetrahedron If U. u opposite to U and so on). Let d be the distance between the skew lines formed by opposite edges a and b − c as calculated here. W. excenters. the distance between the edges equals that between one of the endpoints and the opposite edge. including an insphere. u. However. they define the distance between the edges. The circumsphere of the medial . circumsphere. If the closest pair of points between these two lines are points in the edges. medial tetrahedron. Spieker center and points such as a centroid. then[6] where [edit] Distance between the edges Any two opposite edges of a tetrahedron lie on two skew lines. w are lengths of edges of the tetrahedron (first three form a triangle. Then another volume formula is given by [edit] Properties of a general tetrahedron The tetrahedron has many properties analogous to those of a triangle. and exspheres. v.

Hence there are four medians and three bimedians in a tetrahedron. but does not generally pass through the base points of the altitudes of the reference tetrahedron. an orthogonal line through T to a chosen face is coplanar with two other orthogonal lines to the same face. The nine-point circle of the general triangle has an analogue in the circumsphere of a tetrahedron's medial tetrahedron.[7] Gaspard Monge found a center that exists in every tetrahedron. An orthogonal line dropped from the Monge point to any face meets that face at the midpoint of the line segment between that face's orthocenter and the foot of the altitude dropped from the opposite vertex. These seven line segments are all concurrent at a point called the centroid of the tetrahedron. 1/3 of the way from the Monge point toward each of the four vertices. There is a relation among the angles made by the faces of a general tetrahedron given by [10] . then the Monge point and the orthocenter coincide to give the class of orthocentric tetrahedron. Furthermore. If the tetrahedron's altitudes do intersect.tetrahedron is analogous to the triangle's nine-point circle.[9] The center T of the twelve-point sphere also lies on the Euler line. now known as the Monge point: the point where the six midplanes of a tetrahedron intersect. the twelve-point center lies at the midpoint of the corresponding Euler point and the orthocenter for that face. This orthogonal line through the twelve-point center lies midway between the Euler point orthogonal line and the centroidal orthogonal line. It is the twelve-point sphere and besides the centroids of the four faces of the reference tetrahedron. A midplane is defined as a plane that is orthogonal to an edge joining any two vertices that also contains the centroid of an opposite edge formed by joining the other two vertices. it passes through four substitute Euler points. Finally it passes through the four base points of orthogonal lines dropped from each Euler point to the face not containing the vertex that generated the Euler point.[8] The centroid of a tetrahedron is the midpoint between its Monge point and circumcenter. Unlike its triangular counterpart. The second is an orthogonal line passing through the centroid of the chosen face. this center lies 1/3 of the way from the Monge point M towards the circumcenter. These points define the Euler line of the tetrahedron that is analogous to the Euler line of a triangle. The radius of the twelve-point sphere is 1/3 of the circumradius of the reference tetrahedron. The first is an orthogonal line passing through the corresponding Euler point to the chosen face. Also. A line segment joining a vertex of a tetrahedron with the centroid of the opposite face is called a median and a line segment joining the midpoints of two opposite edges is called a bimedian of the tetrahedron. for any face.

then the radius of the insphere is given by[citation needed]: and the radius of the circumsphere is given by: which gives the radius of the twelve-point sphere: where: In the formulas throughout this section. and C with respect to O. B. b and c represent the positions of the vertices A. similarly b2 and c2. The vector positions of various centers are as follows: The centroid The incenter The circumcenter . [edit] More vector formulas in a general tetrahedron If OABC forms a general tetrahedron with a vertex O as the origin and vectors a. the scalar a2 represents the inner vector product a·a.where is the angle between the faces i and j.

+1). A regular tetrahedron can be embedded inside a cube in two ways such that each vertex is a vertex of the cube. −1. . and each edge is a diagonal of one of the cube's faces. A tetrahedron is a triangular pyramid. +1). +1. all the vertices of a regular tetrahedron are equidistant from each other (they are the only possible arrangement of four equidistant points in 3-dimensional space). For one such embedding. and the regular tetrahedron is self-dual. Unlike the case of the other Platonic solids. Also: and: [edit] Geometric relations A tetrahedron is a 3-simplex. the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are (+1.The Monge point The Euler line relationships are: where T is twelve-point center. (−1.

The stella octangula. giving a rhombohedron that can tile space. −1. Inscribing tetrahedra inside the regular compound of five cubes gives two more regular compounds. one of which is regular. The complete list remains an open problem. from a regular tetrahedron. of which copies can tile space. reverse all the signs. The volume of this tetrahedron is 1/3 the volume of the cube. one can tile space using only tetrahedra in many different ways.e. However. In fact. two regular tetrahedra can be combined with an octahedron. This yields a tetrahedron with edge-length . several irregular tetrahedra are known. Combining both tetrahedra gives a regular polyhedral compound called the compound of two tetrahedra or stella octangula. (+1. −1). For example. for instance the disphenoid tetrahedral honeycomb. although this result seems likely enough that Aristotle claimed it was possible.(−1. centered at the origin. [11] If one relaxes the requirement that the tetrahedra be all the same shape. a regular octahedron is the result of cutting off. demonstrating that the regular tetrahedron is the 3-demicube. The above embedding divides the cube into five tetrahedra. −1). These two tetrahedra's vertices combined are the vertices of a cube. rectifying the tetrahedron). and correspondingly. However. 5 is the minimum number of tetrahedra required to compose a cube. +1. four regular tetrahedra of half the linear size (i. one can divide an octahedron into four . containing five and ten tetrahedra. Regular tetrahedra cannot tessellate space by themselves. The interior of the stella octangula is an octahedron. For the other tetrahedron (which is dual to the first).

) The tetrahedron is unique among the uniform polyhedra in possessing no parallel faces.3} s{3.n}.3} Uniform duals This polyhedron is topologically related as a part of sequence of regular polyhedra with Schläfli symbols {3.3} t2{3.3} t0. [edit] Related polyhedra Tetrahedron Square pyramid Pentagonal pyramid Hexagonal pyramid A truncation process applied to the tetrahedron produces a series of uniform polyhedra.identical tetrahedra and combine them again with two regular ones. (As a side-note: these two kinds of tetrahedron have the same volume.3} t0.3} t1.2{3.1{3. The process completes as a birectification. and producing the selfdual tetrahedron once again. reducing the original faces down to points.2{3. Truncating edges down to points produces the octahedron as a rectified tetrahedron.1.3} t1{3. . continuing into the hyperbolic plane. Family of uniform tetrahedral polyhedra {3.2{3.3} t0.

5} {3. There are both lefthanded and right-handed forms. Joining the twenty vertices would form a regular dodecahedron.{3.7} {3. .8} {3. This compound of five tetrahedra has been known for hundreds of years.9} Compounds: Two tetrahedra in a cube Compound of five tetrahedra Compound of ten tetrahedra [edit] Intersecting tetrahedra An interesting polyhedron can be constructed from five intersecting tetrahedra. It comes up regularly in the world of origami. which are mirror images of each other.4} {3.3} {3.6} {3.

and not to each other. equivalently. 2 per axis. or correspondingly. isomorphic to alternating group A4 (the identity and 11 proper rotations) with the following conjugacy classes (in parentheses are given the permutations of the vertices. etc. 2 per axis. perpendicular to the opposite plane. They can be categorized as follows: T. together 6. together 8 ((1 2 3). The regular tetrahedron has 24 isometries. showing one of the two tetrahedra in the cube). The tetrahedron is the only Platonic solid that is not mapped to itself by point inversion. i. The symmetries of a regular tetrahedron correspond to half of those of a cube: those that map the tetrahedra to themselves.[edit] Isometries [edit] Isometries of regular tetrahedra The proper rotations and reflections in the symmetry group of the regular tetrahedron The vertices of a cube can be grouped into two groups of four.. forming the symmetry group Td. k) reflections in a plane perpendicular to an edge: 6 reflections in a plane combined with 90° rotation about an axis perpendicular to the plane: 3 axes. and the unit quaternion representation): o identity (identity. (1 ± i ± j ± k) / 2) o rotation by an angle of 180° such that an edge maps to the opposite edge: 3 ((1 2)(3 4). etc. by an angle of ±120°: 4 axes. each forming a regular tetrahedron (see above.. 1) o rotation about an axis through a vertex. isomorphic to S4. they are 90° rotations combined with inversion (x is mapped to −x): the rotations correspond to those of the cube about face-to-face axes [edit] Isometries of irregular tetrahedra . and also animation. the faces. j.

3).4) that are perpendicular but different lengths. (12). (14)(23) and improper 90° rotations (1234) and (1432) forming the symmetry group D2d. reflections (12) and (34).2) and (3. (14)(23). The only two isometries are 1 and the reflection (34).4) and otherwise no edges equal. present as the point group D2.4). This gives two opposite edges (1. corresponding to the 6 isometries of the base. (1. giving the group C2 isomorphic to Z2. Two pairs of isomorphic scalene triangles.3) but otherwise no edges equal. and then the 4 isometries are 1. Four congruent isosceles (non-equilateral) triangles gives 8 isometries. No edges equal. As permutations of the vertices. isomorphic to S3.3). Two unequal isosceles triangles with a common base.3). The only two isometries are 1 and the rotation (12)(34). (132).4) are of different length to the other 4 then the 8 isometries are the identity 1. This has two pairs of equal edges (1. isomorphic to V4. A tetrahedron with this symmetry is called disphenoid. (2. giving the group Cs isomorphic to Z2. these 6 isometries are the identity 1. (13)(24). This is the Klein four-group V4 Z22. (2. (13) and (23). The isometries are 1 and the 180° rotations (12)(34). with 7 cases possible. In each case a 3-dimensional point group is formed. and the symmetry group is the trivial group.The isometries of an irregular tetrahedron depend on the geometry of the tetrahedron. (13)(24).4) and (2. Two pairs of isomorphic isosceles (non-equilateral) triangles. (123). This has two pairs of equal edges (1.4) and (1. forming the symmetry group C3v. The symmetry group is C2v. If edges (1. Four congruent scalene triangles gives 4 isometries. reflections (12) and (34) and the 180° rotation (12)(34). (2. so that the only isometry is the identity. [edit] A law of sines for tetrahedra and the space of all shapes of tetrahedra .2) and (3. and 180° rotations (12)(34). An equilateral triangle base and isosceles (and non-equilateral) triangle sides gives 6 isometries.

and then common factors are cancelled from both sides. One reason to be interested in this "independence" relation is this: It is widely known that three angles are the angles of some triangle if and only if their sum is 180° (π radians). A. and the number of degrees of freedom is thereby reduced from 12 to 8. C. but only from 8 down to 5. Putting any of the four vertices in the role of O yields four such identities. Thus the space of all shapes of tetrahedra is 5-dimensional. The four relations given by this sine law further reduce the number of degrees of freedom. What condition on 12 angles is necessary and sufficient for them to be the 12 angles of some tetrahedron? Clearly the sum of the angles of any side of the tetrahedron must be 180°. not from 8 down to 4. since the fourth constraint is not independent of the first three. but in a sense at most three of them are independent: If the "clockwise" sides of three of them are multiplied and the product is inferred to be equal to the product of the "counterclockwise" sides of the same three identities. Since there are four such triangles. there are four such constraints on sums of angles.A corollary of the usual law of sines is that in a tetrahedron with vertices O. B. the result is the fourth identity. we have One may view the two sides of this identity as corresponding to clockwise and counterclockwise orientations of the surface.[12] [edit] Applications The ammonium+ ion is tetrahedral 4-sided die [edit] Numerical analysis .

one of the leading journals in organic chemistry is called Tetrahedron. complicated three-dimensional shapes are commonly broken down into. H2O. the tetrahedral shape of the four chemical bonds in silicon is a strong influence on how crystals of silicon form and what shapes they assume. electromagnetic fields. Quaternary phase diagrams in chemistry are represented graphically as tetrahedra. [edit] Games Main article: Game Especially in roleplaying. because the lone pairs repel more than the single O-H bonds. aerodynamics. such as the Pyraminx and Pyramorphix. Its tetrahedral symmetry is not perfect.[13][14] Since silicon is the most common semiconductor used in solid-state electronics. naval architecture and engineering. civil engineering. Some Rubik's Cube-like puzzles are tetrahedral. four hydrogen atoms surround a central carbon or nitrogen atom with tetrahedral symmetry. or approximately 109. and related fields. this solid is known as a 4-sided die. then the resistance measured between any two vertices is half that of one resistor.In numerical analysis. [edit] Chemistry Main article: Tetrahedral molecular geometry The tetrahedron shape is seen in nature in covalent bonds of molecules. or approximated by. All sp3-hybridized atoms are surrounded by atoms lying in each corner of a tetrahedron. The central angle between any two vertices of a perfect tetrahedron is . [edit] Electricity and electronics Main articles: Electricity and Electronics If six equal resistors are soldered together to form a tetrahedron. and silicon has a valence of four.47°. However. with the number rolled appearing around the bottom or on the top vertex. also has a tetrahedral structure. For this reason. quaternary phase diagrams in communication engineering are represented graphically on a two-dimensional plane. . For instance in a methane molecule (CH4) or an ammonium ion (NH4+). See also tetrahedral molecular geometry. These methods have wide applications in practical applications in computational fluid dynamics. a polygonal mesh of irregular tetrahedra in the process of setting up the equations for finite element analysis especially in the numerical solution of partial differential equations. with two hydrogen atoms and two lone pairs of electrons around the central oxygen atoms. one of the more common polyhedral dice. chemical engineering. however. Water.

Kubrick scrapped the idea of using the tetrahedron as a visitor who saw footage of it did not recognize what it was and he did not want anything in the movie regular people did not understand.[16] It is used as album artwork.[19][20] [edit] Structural Engineering A tetrahedron having stiff edges is inherently rigid. Where many other ships passing through the area have mysteriously disappeared. It was shown at the light art biennale Austria 2010. [edit] Color space Main article: Color space Tetrahedra are used in color space conversion algorithms specifically for cases in which the luminance axis diagonally segments the color space (e. [edit] Geology Main article: Geology The tetrahedral hypothesis. the Planet Express crew pass through an area in space known as the Bermuda Tetrahedron. RGB. originally published by William Lowthian Green to explain the formation of the Earth.g. [edit] Popular Culture Stanley Kubrick originally intended the monolith in 2001: A Space Odyssey to be a tetrahedron. surrounded by black flames on The End of All Things to Come by Mudvayne. according to Marvin Minsky. CMY).The net of a tetrahedron also makes the famous Triforce from Nintendo's The Legend of Zelda franchise. Episode 15 of Futurama. aptly named Möbius Dick.[18] was popular through the early 20th century.[17] In Season 6. For this reason it is often used to stiffen frame structures such as spaceframes. a cognitive scientist and expert on artificial intelligence who advised Kubrick on the Hal 9000 computer and other aspects of the movie. [edit] See also .[15] [edit] Contemporary art Main article: Contemporary art The Austrian artist Martina Schettina created a tetrahedron using fluorescent lamps. including that of the first Planet Express crew.

3. no. http://web. Weiß.th/ICAA2002/page s/Somluck_Outudee..hr/ccacaa/CCA-PDF/cca2002/v75n2/CCA_75_2002_633_649_KLEIN.net ^ "Simplex Volumes and the Cayley-Menger Determinant". "Radial and Pruned Tetrahedral Interpolation Techniques" (PDF). "What has the Volume of a Tetrahedron to do with Computer Programming Languages?". 53-54 ^ Outudee. MathPages. JSTOR 3647851. "Resistance-Distance Sum Rules" (PDF).geometrie.at/havlicek/pub/hoehen. Harold Scott MacDonald.org/web/20090227143222/http://www. http://newton. ^ Záležák. ^ Leung. pp. matrices and geometry".com/techreports/98/HPL-98-95. Bulletin AMQ. ^ Audet.tuwien. American Mathematical Monthly 110 (8): 679–693.1002/chem. Marjorie. 7.srce. . "Vectors. 5 (1981). Douglas J. 1994. and Suen. Retrieved 2006-09-15. "Tetrahedron". 54. doi:10. Stephen. (April 1998).pdf. 1948. "Is There a "Most Chiral Tetrahedron"?".hp.hpl. William M.com ^ Kahan. HP Technical Report HPL-98-95: 1–32. 4.archive.mai11. ^ Senechal. http://www.ac. Gunter (2003). Mathematics magazine. Jürgen. Methuen and Co.. Fowler. Somluck. Chemistry: A European Journal 10 (24): 6575–6580. ^ a b Weisstein. (2002). Hong Kong University Press. Boerdijk–Coxeter helix Caltrop Demihypercube Disphenoid – a tetrahedron with mirror symmetry Hill tetrahedron Orthocentric tetrahedron Simplex Tetra Pak Tetrahedral kite Tetrahedral number Tetrahedron packing Triangular dipyramid – constructed by joining two tetrahedra along one face Trirectangular tetrahedron [edit] References 1.2307/3647851. http://jagor. "Tetrahedron" from MathWorld. Daniel (May 2011). 12. Dept of Mathematics. Suk-nam. 2001 ^ "Angle Between 2 Legs of a Tetrahedron".ca/amq/bulletins/mai11/Chronique_note_math. ^ Lightart-Biennale Austria 2010 8. pp. André. Tomáš (18 October 2007). (2004).ulaval. ^ a b c d e f Coxeter. Kam-tim. Chulalongkorn University. 6. 15. 13.. 10.pdf. 227-243 ^ Rassat. Croatica Chemica Acta 75 (2): 633–649. 14. Eric W. retrieved 25 Jan 2011 ^ Vondran. New.math. 9.pdf.chula. 16.pdf. "Resistance of a regular tetrahedron" (PDF). 11.ac.mat.pdf. Mathematische Basteleien. pp. Maze5. Regular Polytopes. doi:10. 2. Bangkok. 16-17 ^ Havlicek. The Various Kinds of Centres of Simplices.200400869 ^ Klein. http://www. "Which tetrahedra fill space?". Hans. "Déterminants sphérique et hyperbolique de Cayley-Menger". Table I(i) ^ Köller. "Altitudes of a tetrahedron and traceless quadratic forms". 5. Gary L. Patrick W.sc.

Web of Stories. Tetrahedron Core Network Application of a tetrahedral structure to create resilient partial-mesh data network Explicit exact formulas for the inertia tensor of an arbitrary tetrahedron in terms of its vertex coordinates The inertia tensor of a tetrahedron [show] v t e Polyhedra .17. ^ Hitchcock. Part I. "Monge point" from MathWorld. "Euler points" from MathWorld. http://books. London: E. Stanford. 32.com/books?id=_Ty8AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA1. volcanic action and physiography. Charles Henry (January 1900). Non-regular Tetrahedron that also includes a description of a "rotating ring of tetrahedra". Weisstein.com/play/53140?o=R. http://books. OCLC 3571917. Vestiges of the Molten Globe. Eric W. Principles of physical geology. Eric W.com/books?id=XUJRAAAAMAAJ.google. 1–10. http://www.. 18. [edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tetrahedron Weisstein. "Tetrahedron" from MathWorld. ^ Green.. as exhibited in the figure of the earth.tet The Uniform Polyhedra Editable printable net of a tetrahedron with interactive 3D view Tetrahedron: Interactive Polyhedron Model Piero della Francesca's formula for tetrahedron volume at MathPages Free paper models of a tetrahedron and many other polyhedra An Amazing..google. Arthur (1965). Eric W. Weisstein. also known as a kaleidocycle. Space Filling. Retrieved 20 February 2012. Richard Klitzing.webofstories. 20. p.google. ^ Holmes. The American Geologist (Geological Publishing Company) XXV: pp. ^ "Marvin Minsky: Stanley Kubrick Scraps the Tetrahedron". Nelson.com/books?id=9DkDAAAAQAAJ. William Lowthian (1875). http://books. 3D convex uniform polyhedra . "William Lowthian Green and his Theory of the Evolution of the Earth's Features". 19. x3o3o .

[show] v t e Polyhedron navigator [hide] v t e Fundamental convex regular and uniform polytopes in dimensions 2–10 Family An BCn Dn E6 / E7 / E8 / F4 / G2 Hn .

Regular polygon Uniform polyhedron Triangle Tetrahedron Square Octahedron • Cube 16-cell • Tesseract 5-orthoplex • 5-cube 6-orthoplex • 6-cube 7-orthoplex • 7-cube 8-orthoplex • 8-cube 9-orthoplex • 9-cube Demicube Hexagon Pentagon Dodecahedron • Icosahedron Uniform polychoron Uniform 5-polytope 5-cell 5-simplex Demitesseract 5-demicube 24-cell 120-cell • 600-cell Uniform 6-polytope 6-simplex 6-demicube 122 • 221 132 • 231 • 321 142 • 241 • 421 Uniform 7-polytope 7-simplex 8-simplex 7-demicube 8-demicube Uniform 8-polytope Uniform 9-polytope 9-simplex 9-demicube Uniform 10-polytope Uniform n-polytope 10-simplex n-simplex 10-orthoplex • 10-demicube 10-cube n-orthoplex • n-cube n-demicube 1k2 • 2k1 • k21 n-pentagonal polytope Topics: Polytope families • Regular polytope • List of regular polytopes .

A regular tetrahedron is one in which all four faces are equilateral triangles, and is one of the Platonic solids.

A regular tetrahedron is one in which all four faces are equilateral triangles, and is one of the Platonic solids.

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