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1

5.1.1

DIFFERENTIATION UNDER THE INTEGRAL SIGN

According to the fundamental theorem of calculus if f is a smooth function and the integral of f is

x

f ( x' ) dx'

(5.1)

cons tan t

dI = f ( x) . dx Similarly if

cons tan t

(5.2)

I ( x) = then

f ( x' ) dx'

x

(5.3)

dI = f (x) dx

(5.4)

Suppose the function f depends on two variables and the integral is a denite integral.

b

I (t) =

! !

f ( x', t ) dx'

(5.5)

b

(5.6)

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5.1

9/12/11

The order of the operations of integration and differentiation can be exchanged and so it is permissible to bring the derivative under the integral sign. We are interested in applications to compressible ow and so from here on we will interpret the variable t as time. Now suppose that both the kernel of the integral and the limits of integration depend on time. I ( t , a ( t ), b ( t ) ) =

b(t )

f ( x', t ) dx'

(5.7)

a(t )

This situation is shown schematically below with movement of the boundaries indicated. f ( x, t )

f ( x, t 0 )

x a(t ) b(t )

Figure 5.1 Integration with a moving boundary. The function f ( x, t ) is shown at one instant in time. Using the chain rule the substantial derivative of (5.7) is DI "I "I da "I db + ----- + ---------- = Dt " t " a dt " b dt

(5.8)

Now make use of the results in (5.2), (5.4) and (5.6). Equation (5.8) becomes, DI ------ = Dt

b(t )

(5.9)

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5.2

bjc

The various terms in (5.9) can be interpreted as follows. The rst term is the time rate of change of I due to the integrated time rate of change of f ( x, t ) within the domain [ a, b ] . The second and third terms are the contributions to the time rate of change of I due to the movement of the boundaries enclosing more or less f at a given instant in time. The relation (5.9) is called Leibniz rule for the differentiation of integrals after Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) who, along with Isaac Newton, is credited with independently inventing differential and integral calculus.

5.1.2 EXTENSION TO THREE DIMENSIONS

Let F ( x 1, x 2, x 3, t ) be some eld variable dened as a function of space and time and V ( t ) be a time-dependent control volume that encloses some nite region in space at each instant of time. The time dependent surface of the control volume is A ( t ) .

x2

UA

F ( x 1, x 2, x 3, t )

n(t) dA

UA V (t) A(t) UA x1

x3

UA

(surface velocity)

Figure 5.2 Control volume denition. Leibniz rule extended to three dimensions describes the time rate of change of the amount of F contained inside V .

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5.3

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D ----Dt

V (t)

F dV =

V (t)

A(t )

! FU

A ndA

(5.10)

Note that when (5.9) is generalized to three dimensions the boundary term in (5.9) becomes a surface integral. Equation (5.10) can be expressed in words as follows.

Rate of ( Rate of change due to ) ( ) % % % ( Rate of change ) % movement of the % % change of the % % % % ' & ' = & due to changes ' + & % % % surface A enclosing % % total amount of F % # of F within V $ % % % % inside V # more or less F within V $ # $

(5.11)

The Leibniz relationship (5.10) is fundamental to the development of the transport theory of continuous media. The velocity vector U A is that of the control volume surface itself. If the medium is a moving uid the surface velocity U A is specied independently of the uid velocity U . Consider a uid with velocity vector U which is a function of space and time.

x2 UA n(t) heat transfer Q

U(x1,x2,x3,t) UA V (t)

dA UA x1

x3

G body force

UA

Figure 5.3 Control volume dened in a ow eld subject to surface stresses, body forces and heat conduction.

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5.4

bjc

Conservation of mass

Now let the velocity of each surface element of the control volume be the same as the velocity of the ow, U = U A . In effect, we assume that the surface is attached to the uid and therefore the control volume always contains the same set of uid elements. This is called a Lagrangian control volume. In this case Leibnitz rule becomes D ----Dt

V (t)

F dV =

V (t)

A(t )

! F U ndA

(5.12)

Use the Gauss theorem to convert the surface integral to a volume integral. The result is the Reynolds transport theorem. D ----Dt

V (t)

F dV =

V (t)

(5.13)

Let F = 0 where 0 is the density of the uid. The Reynolds transport theorem gives D ----Dt

V (t)

0 dV =

V (t)

(5.14)

The left-hand-side is the rate of change of the total mass inside the control volume. If there are no sources of mass within the control volume, the left-hand-side must be zero. Since the choice of control volume is arbitrary, the kernel of the righthand-side must therefore be zero at every point in the ow. Thus the continuity equation in the absence of mass sources is

(5.15)

This equation, expressed in coordinate independent vector notation, is the same one that we derived in Chapter 1 using an innitesimal, cubic, Eulerian control volume. Expand (5.15)

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5.5

9/12/11

Conservation of momentum

In terms of the substantial derivative the continuity equation is D0 ------- + 0+ U = 0 Dt If the medium is incompressible then 0 = constant and + U = 0 .

(5.16)

(5.17)

In this case the generic variable in Leibniz rule is the vector momentum per unit volume, F = 0 U . Momentum is convected about by the motion of the uid itself and spatial variations of pressure and viscous stresses act as sources of momentum. Restricting ourselves to the motion of a continuous, viscous uid (liquid or gas), the stress in a uid is composed of two parts; a locally isotropic part proportional to the scalar pressure eld and a non-isotropic part due to viscous friction. The stress tensor is

* ij = P 1 ij + 2 ij

(5.18)

where P is the thermodynamic pressure, 1 ij is the Kronecker unit tensor dened in Chapter 3, 1 0 0 . 1 ij = 1 ; 0 1 0 = 4 , 1 ij = 0 ; 0 0 1 i = j i3 j

(5.19)

I =

and 2 ij is the viscous stress tensor. The net force acting on the control volume is the integral of the stress tensor, * ij , over the surface plus the integral of any body force vectors per unit mass, G (gravitational acceleration, electromagnetic acceleration, etc.), over the volume.

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5.6

bjc

Conservation of momentum

The isotropy of the pressure implies that it acts normal to any surface element in the uid regardless of how it is oriented. The viscous part of the stress can take on many different forms. In Aeronautics and Astronautics we deal almost exclusively with Newtonian uids discussed in Chapter 1 such as air or water where the viscous stress is linearly proportional to the rate-of-strain tensor of the ow. The general form of the stress-rate-of-strain constitutive relation in Cartesian coordinates for a compressible Newtonian uid is 2 2 ij = 2 S ij . -- v/ 1 ij S kk ,3 where, 1 . " U i " U j/ S ij = -- 4 -------- + ---------5 . 2, "x j " xi (5.21) (5.20)

Recall that S kk = + U . The stress components in cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates are given in Appendix 2. Interestingly, there are actually two viscosity coefcients that are required to account for all possible stress elds that depend linearly on the rate-of-strain tensor. The so-called shear viscosity arises from momentum exchange due to molecular motion. A simple model of is described in Appendix I. The bulk viscosity v is a little more mysterious. It contributes only to the viscous normal force and seems to arise from the exchange of momentum that can occur between colliding molecules and the internal degrees of freedom of the molecular system. Some typical values of the bulk viscosity are shown in Figure 5.4.

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5.7

9/12/11

Conservation of momentum

Figure 5.4 Physical properties of some common uids at one atmosphere and 298.15K. For monatomic gases that lack such internal degrees of freedom, v = 0 . For some polyatomic gases such as CO2 the bulk viscosity is much larger than the shear viscosity. Recall the discussion of elementary ow patterns from Chapter 4. Any uid ow can be decomposed into a rotational part and a straining part. According to the Newtonian model (5.20) only the straining part contributes to the viscous stress. Although is called the shear viscosity it is clear from the diagonal terms in (5.20) that there are viscous normal force components proportional to . However they make no net contribution to the mean normal stress dened as

* mean = ( 1 3 ) * ii = P + v S kk .

(5.22)

This is not to say that viscous normal stresses are unimportant. They play a key role in many compressible ow phenomena we will study later especially shock waves.

9/12/11

5.8

bjc

Conservation of energy

A common assumption called Stokes hypothesis is to assume that the bulk viscosity v is equal to zero. Then only the so-called shear viscosity appears in the constitutive relation for the stress. While this assumption is strictly valid only for monatomic gases, it is applied very widely and works quite well, mainly because + U tends to be relatively small in most situations outside of shock waves and high Mach number ow. The rate of change of the total momentum inside the control volume is, D ----Dt

V (t)

! 0 U dV = ! ( PI + 2 ) n dA + ! 0 G dV

A(t ) V (t)

(5.23)

Use the Reynolds transport theorem to replace the left-hand-side of (5.23) and the Gauss theorem to convert the surface integral to a volume integral.

V (t)

(5.24)

Since the equality must hold over an arbitrary control volume, the kernel must be zero at every point in the ow and we have the differential equation for conservation of momentum.

(5.25)

This is the same momentum equation we derived in Chapter 1 except for the inclusion of the body force term.

The energy per unit mass of a moving uid element is e + k where e is the internal energy per unit mass of the medium and

2 2 1 1 2 k = -- U i U i = -- ( U 1 + U 2 + U 3 ) 2 2 (5.26)

is the kinetic energy per unit mass. In this case we use F = 0 ( e + k ) in the Leibniz rule.

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5.9

9/12/11

Conservation of energy

The stress tensor acting over the surface does work on the control volume as do the body force vectors. In addition, there may be conductive heat ux, Q , through the surface. There could also be sources of heat within the ow due to chemical reactions, radiative heating, etc. For a general uid the internal energy per unit mass is a function of temperature and pressure e = f ( T , P ) . The rate of change of the energy inside the control volume in Figure 5.3 is

D ----Dt

V (t)

0 ( e + k ) dV =

A(t )

( ( PI + 2 ) U Q ) n d A +

V (t)

( 0 G U ) dV .

(5.27)

V (t)

(5.28)

Since the equality holds over an arbitrary volume, the kernel must be zero and we have the differential equation for conservation of energy.

The sum of enthalpy and kinetic energy 1 P h t = e + -- + k = h + -- U i U i 2 0

(5.29)

(5.30)

is called the stagnation or total enthalpy and plays a key role in the transport of energy in compressible ow systems. Take care to keep in mind that the ow energy is purely the sum of internal and kinetic energy, e + k . Some typical gas transport properties at 300K and one atmosphere are shown in Figure 5.4. According to Ficks law, the heat ux vector in a linear heat conducting medium is: Qi = 6 ( " T " xi ) where 6 is the thermal conductivity. The rightmost column in Figure 5.4 is the Prandtl number

(5.31)

9/12/11

5.10

bjc

C p Pr = ---------6

(5.32)

The Prandtl number can be thought of as comparing the rate at which momentum is transported by viscous diffusion to the rate at which temperature diffuses through conductivity. For most gases the Prandtl number is around 0.7 . This number is close to one due to the fact that heat and momentum transport are accomplished by the same basic mechanism of molecular collision with lots of space between molecules. Liquids are often characterized by large values of the Prandtl number and the underlying mechanisms of heat and momentum transport in a condensed uid are much more complex.

MOTION

(5.33)

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5.11

9/12/11

" "0 ----- + ------- ( 0 U i ) = 0 " t " xi "0 U i " ------------ + ------- ( 0 U i U j + P 1 ij 2 ij ) 0 G i = 0 "x j "t " P "0 ( e + k ) ----------------------- + ------- . 0 U i . e + -- + k/ 2 ij U j + Q i/ 0 G i U i = 0 , " xi , "t 0

The equations of motion in cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates are given in Appendix 2.

(5.34)

In deriving the differential form of the conservation equations (5.33) we used a general Lagrangian control volume where the surface velocity is equal to the local uid velocity and the surface always encloses the same set of uid elements. In Chapter 1 we derived the same equations on a rectangular Eulerian control volume. It is important to recognize that these partial differential equations are valid at every point and at every instant in the ow of a compressible continuum and are completely independent of the particular control volume approach (Eulerian or Lagrangian) used to derive them. With the equations of motion in hand we will now reverse the process and work out the integral form of these equations on control volumes that are adapted to solving useful problems. In this endeavor, it is useful to consider other kinds of control volumes where the control surface may be stationary or where part of the control surface is stationary and part is moving but not necessarily attached to the uid. Recall the general form of the Leibniz rule. D ----Dt

V (t)

F dV =

V (t)

A(t )

! FU

A ndA .

(5.35)

9/12/11

5.12

bjc

5.6.1

The simplest case to consider is the Eulerian control volume used in Chapter 1 where U A = 0 . This is a stationary volume xed in space through which the uid moves. In this case the Leibniz rule reduces to d ---- F dV = dt

V

(5.36)

Note that, since the Eulerian volume is xed in space and not time dependent, the lower case form of the derivative d dt is used in (5.36). See for comparison (5.6) and (5.9). Let F = 0 in Equation (5.36) d ---- 0 dV = dt

V

(5.37)

V

(5.38)

Now use the Gauss theorem to convert the volume integral on the right-hand-side of (5.38) to a surface integral. The integral form of the mass conservation equation valid on a nite Eulerian control volume of arbitrary shape is d ---- 0 dV + 0 U n d A = 0 dt

V

!

A

(5.39)

The integral equations for conservation of momentum and energy are derived in a similar way using (5.25), (5.29), and (5.36). The result is

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5.13

9/12/11

d ---- ! 0 dV + ! 0 U n d A = 0 dt

V A

d ---- ! 0 U dV + ! ( 0 U U + PI 2 ) n d A ! 0 G dV = 0 dt

V A V

(5.40)

d P ---- ! 0 ( e + k ) dV + ! . 0 U . e + -- + k/ 2 U + Q/ n d A ! ( 0 G U ) dV = 0 , , dt 0

V A V

5.6.2

More general control volumes where part of the surface may be at rest and other parts may be attached to the uid are of great interest especially in the analysis of propulsion systems. Now use the general form of the Liebniz rule with F = 0 . D ----Dt

V (t)

0 dV =

V (t)

A(t )

! 0U

A ndA

(5.41)

Use (5.15) to replace "0 " t in (5.41) and use the Gauss theorem to convert the volume integral to a surface integral. The result is the integral form of mass conservation on an arbitrary moving control volume. D ----Dt

V (t)

! 0 dV = ! 0 U n dA + ! 0 U

A(t ) A(t )

A ndA

(5.42)

The integral equations for conservation of momentum and energy on a general, moving, nite control volume are derived in a similar way using (5.25), (5.29), and (5.35). Finally, the most general integrated form of the conservation equations is

9/12/11

5.14

bjc

D ----Dt

V (t)

0 dV +

A(t )

0 ( U U A ) n dA = 0

D ----Dt

V (t)

0 U dV +

A(t )

( 0 U ( U U A ) + PI 2 ) n d A

V (t)

0 G dV = 0

(5.43)

D ----Dt

V (t)

0 ( e + k ) dV +

A(t )

( 0 ( e + k ) ( U U A ) + PI U 2 U + Q ) n d A

V (t)

( 0 G U ) dV = 0

Remember, U A is the velocity of the control volume surface and can be selected at the convenience of the user.

5.7.1 EXAMPLE 1 - SOLID BODY AT REST IN A STEADY FLOW.

A2 Flow x2 x1 x3 A1 A3

This is a simply connected Eulerian control volume where the segment A 2 surrounding (and attached to) the body is connected by a cut to the surrounding boundary A 1 . All uxes on the cut A 3 cancel and therefore make no contribution to the integrated conservation laws. There is no mass injection through the surface of the body thus

bjc

5.15

9/12/11

A1

! ( 0U ) ndA = 0

(5.44)

Momentum uxes integrated on A 1 are directly related to the lift and drag forces exerted on the body. The integrated momentum equation gives

A1

! ( 0 U U + PI 2 ) n dA + ! ( PI 2 ) n dA = 0

A2 A2

(5.45)

Drag =

! ( PI 2 ) n dA

x1

Lift =

A2

! ( PI 2 ) n dA

x2

(5.46)

where the integrals are the drag and lift by the ow on the body. The integral momentum balance in the streamwise direction is

A1

! ( 0 U U + PI 2 ) n dA

x1

+ Drag = 0 .

(5.47)

A1

! ( 0 U U + PI 2 ) n dA

x2

+ Lift = 0 .

(5.48)

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5.16

bjc

5.7.2

Aw A1 A2

1 Qw

Heat addition to the compressible ow shown above occurs through heat transfer through the channel wall, Q . There is no net mass addition to the control volume.

A1

! ( 0U ) ndA + ! ( 0U ) ndA = 0

A2

(5.49)

The ow is steady with no body forces. In this case, the energy balance is,

! ( 0 U ( e + k ) + PU 2 U + Q ) n dA

A

= 0.

(5.50)

The contribution of the viscous stresses to the energy balance is zero along the wall because of the no-slip condition, U

Aw

velocity gradients are not large, the term 2 U is very small on the upstream and downstream faces, A 1 , A 2 . In this approximation, The energy balance becomes, P 0 U . e + -- + k/ n d A , 0

!

A

= Q ndA .

A

(5.51)

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5.17

9/12/11

The effects of heat transfer through the wall and conduction through the upstream and downstream faces, A 1 and A 2 are accounted for by the change in the ux of stagnation enthalpy. Heat transfer through the upstream and downstream faces is usually small and so most of the conductive heat transfer into the ow is through the wall. Q ndA 7

A

Aw

! Q ndA = 1Q

t

(5.52)

A2

! 0h U ndA + ! 0h U ndA

t A1

= 1Q .

(5.53)

A2

!0 U h

2

2 t2 d A

A1

!0 U h

1

1 t1 d A

= 1Q .

(5.54)

The heat added to the ow is directly and simply related to the change of the integrated ow rate of stagnation enthalpy along the channel.

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5.18

bjc

5.7.3

Af Flow

Ae Ae

This is the prototype example for propellers, compressors and turbines. In contrast to a steady ow, a stationary ow is one where time periodic motions such as the rotation of the fan illustrated above do occur, but the properties of the ow averaged over one fan rotation period or one blade passage period are constant. This will be the case if the fan rotation speed is held constant. Here we make use of a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian control volume. The Lagrangian part is attached to and moves with the fan blade surfaces and fan axle. Remember the uid is viscous and subject to a no slip condition at the solid surface. The Eulerian surface elements are the upstream and downstream faces of the control volume as well as the cylindrical surrounding surface aligned with the axis of the fan. We will assume that the fan is adiabatic, Q = 0 and there is no mass injection through the fan surface. The integrated mass uxes are zero.

Ae

! ( 0U ) ndA = 0

(5.55)

Momentum uxes integrated on A e are equal to the surface forces exerted by the ow on the fan.

Ae

! ( 0 U U + PI 2 ) n dA + ! ( 0 U ( U U

Af

5.19

A ) + PI 2 ) n d A = 0

(5.56)

bjc

9/12/11

or

Ae

! ( 0 U U + PI 2 ) n dA + F = 0

F =

(5.57)

Af

! ( PI 2 ) n dA

Af

(5.58)

Note that the ow and fan velocity on A f are the same due to the no-slip condition (U U A) = 0.

(5.59)

For stationary ow, the integrated energy uxes on A e are equal to the work/sec done by the ow on the fan.

Ae

! ( 0 U ( e + k ) + PU 2 U ) n dA + ! ( PU 2 U ) n dA = 0

Af

(5.60)

Work =

Af

! ( PU 2 U ) n dA = 1 W

(5.61)

If the ow is adiabatic, and viscous normal stresses are neglected on A e and A f the energy equation becomes,

Ae

P 0 . e + -- + k/ U n d A + 1 W = 0 , 0

(5.62)

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5.20

bjc

5.7.4

Aw A1

Af

A2

1 Qw

A2

!0 U h

2

2 t2 d A

A1

!0 U h

1

1 t1 d A

= 1Q 1W .

(5.63)

The effects of heat addition and work done are both accounted for by changes in the stagnation enthalpy of the ow. In general, changes due to thermal exchange are irreversible whereas changes due to the work done can be very nearly reversible except for entropy changes due to viscous friction.

5.8.1 STAGNATION ENTHALPY OF A FLUID ELEMENT

It is instructive to develop an equation for the stagnation enthalpy change of a uid element in a general unsteady ow. Using the energy equation

P "0 ( e + k ) ------------------------ + + . 0 U . e + -- + k/ 2 U + Q/ 0 G U = 0 , , "t 0 (5.64)

bjc

5.21

9/12/11

D0 ------- = 0+ U Dt and the identity D P 1 DP P D 0 - - ----- . -- / = -- ------- ----- ------- 0 Dt 0 2 Dt Dt , 0one can show that Dh t "P 0 -------- = + ( 2 U Q ) + 0 G U + ------ . Dt "t

(5.65)

(5.66)

(5.67)

Equation (5.67) shows that changes in the stagnation enthalpy of a uid element may be due to heat conduction as well as the work done by body forces and work by viscous forces. In addition, nonsteady changes in the pressure can also change ht . In most aerodynamic problems body forces are negligible. Exceptions can occur at low speeds where density changes due to thermal gradients lead to gravity driven ows. The work done by viscous forces is usually small (the work is zero at a wall where U = 0 ) and energy transport by heat conduction, Q , is often small. In this case the stagnation enthalpy of a uid element is preserved if the ow is steady, Dh t Dt = 0 . The last term in (5.67) can be quite large in many nonsteady processes. For example, large temperature changes can occur in unsteady vortex formation in the wake of a bluff body in high speed ow due to this term. If the ow is steady, inviscid and non-heat-conducting then (5.67) reduces to U + ( ht + 8 ) = 0 .

(5.68)

9/12/11

5.22

bjc

5.8.2

In Chapter 2 we looked at the blowdown of gas from an adiabatic pressure vessel through a small nozzle. The situation is shown below. Pi >> Pa Pa Ta

Pi

Ti

P(t)

T(t)

Pa

Tf

initial state

blowdown

final state

Figure 5.5 A adiabatic pressure vessel exhausting to the surroundings. The stagnation enthalpy of the ow inside the pressure vessel is governed by (5.67). If we drop the body force term and assume the divergence term involving heat transfer and viscous work are small then (5.67) simplies to Dh t "P 0 -------- = ------ . Dt "t

(5.69)

If we further assume that the vessel is very large and the hole is very small then the contribution of the ow velocity to the stagnation enthalpy can be neglected since most of the gas is almost at rest. Under these conditions the temperature and pressure can be regarded as approximately uniform over the interior of the vessel. With these assumptions (5.69) simplies to dh dP 0 ----- = -----dt dt

(5.70)

Equation (5.70) is the Gibbs equation for an isentropic process. If the gas is calorically perfect the nal temperature is given by Tf ------ = 4 ----- 5 Pi Ti ,

bjc

91 ----------P a/ 9 .

(5.71)

5.23

9/12/11

This is the result we were led to in Chapter 2 when we assumed the process in the vessel was isentropic. The difference is that by beginning with (5.67) the assumptions needed to reach (5.71) are claried. This example nicely illustrates the role of the unsteady pressure term in (5.67).

5.8.3 STAGNATION ENTHALPY AND TEMPERATURE IN STEADY FLOW

The gure below shows the path of a uid element in steady ow stagnating at the leading edge of an airfoil. P1 T1 h1 U1 M1 P2 T2 h2 U2=0 M2=0

Figure 5.6 Schematic of a stagnation process in steady ow The dashed lines outline a small streamtube surrounding the stagnation streamline. Lets interpret this problem in two ways, rst as an extension of section 5.7 example 2 and then in the context of equation (5.67). The result in example 2 applies to the ow in the streamtube.

A2

!0 U h

2

2 t2 d A

A1

!0 U h

1

1 t1 d A

= 1Q

(5.72)

If we assume the airfoil is adiabatic and that there is no net heat loss or gain through the stream tube then

A2

!0 U h

2

2 t2 d A

A1

!0 U h

1

1 t1 d A

(5.73)

Since the mass ow at any point in the stream tube is the same then one can conclude that the enthalpy per unit mass is also the same at any point along the stream tube (at least in an average sense across the tube which we can make arbitrarily narrow).

9/12/11

5.24

bjc

According to (5.67) the stagnation enthalpy of the uid element can also change due to viscous work which we neglected in example 3. However as the element decelerates on its approach to the airfoil leading edge where viscous forces might be expected to play a role, the velocity becomes small and goes to zero at the stagnation point so one can argue that the viscous work terms are also small. An exception where this assumption needs to be re-examined is at very low Reynolds number where the viscous region can extend a considerable distance from the airfoil. By either argument we can conclude that to a good approximation in a steady ow P1 1 2 1 2 h t1 = e 1 + ----- + k 1 = h 1 + -- U 1 = h 2 + -- U 2 = h 2 2 2 01

(5.74)

With viscous work neglected, the stagnation enthalpy is conserved along an adiabatic path. When a uid element is brought to rest adiabatically the enthalpy at the rest state is the stagnation enthalpy at the initial state. The stagnation temperature is dened by the enthalpy relation. ht h =

Tt

1 C p dT = -- U i U i 2 T

(5.75)

The stagnation temperature is the temperature reached by an element of gas brought to rest adiabatically. For a calorically perfect ideal gas with constant specic heat in the range of temperatures between T and T t (5.75) can be written 1 C p T t = C p T + -- U i U i . 2

(5.76)

In Figure 5.6 we would expect T 2 = T t1 to the extent that the heat capacity is constant. Divide through by C p T and introduce the speed of sound a Equation (5.76) becomes, Tt 91 2 ---- = 1 + . -----------/ M , 2 T

2

= 9RT .

(5.77)

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5.8.4 FRAMES OF REFERENCE

In Chapter 1 we discussed how the momentum and kinetic energy of a uid element change when the frame of reference is transformed from xed to moving coordinates. Clearly since the stagnation temperature (5.76) depends on the kinetic energy then it too depends on the frame of reference. The stagnation temperatures in xed and moving coordinates are 1 C p T t = C p T + -- U i U i 2 1 C p T t' = C p T + -- U i'U i' 2 The transformation of the kinetic energy is 1 1 1 1 1 -- U i'U i' = -- U i U i + -- X ( X 2U ) + -- Y ( Y 2V ) + -- Z ( Z 2W ) 2 2 2 2 2

(5.79)

(5.78)

where ( X , Y , Z ) are the velocity components of the moving origin of coordinates. The thermodynamic variables density, temperature and pressure do not change and so the transformation of the stagnation temperature is 1 1 1 C p T t' = C p T t + -- X ( X 2U ) + -- Y ( Y 2V ) + -- Z ( Z 2W ) 2 2 2

5.8.5 STAGNATION PRESSURE (5.80)

The stagnation pressure is dened using the Gibbs equation for an ideal gas. dT dP ds = C p ------ R -----T P

(5.81)

Note that while C p and C v depend on temperature, the gas constant C p C v is independent of temperature as long as there are no chemical reactions that might change the molecular weight of the gas. Integrate (5.81) along an isentropic path ds = 0 from state 1 to state 2.

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dP R ------ = P P1

P2

T2

dT C p ( T ) -----T T1

(5.82)

(5.83)

If an element of owing gas at pressure P and temperature T is brought to rest adiabatically and isentropically to a temperature T t the stagnation pressure P t is dened by Pt . 1 Tt dT / ---- = Exp 4 -C p ( T ) ------5 TP ,R T

(5.84)

If the heat capacities are constant (5.84) reduces to the isentropic relation Tt Pt ---- = . ---- / ,TP

9 ----------91 9 ----------2/ 9 1

91 = . 1 + . -----------/ M , , 2 -

(5.85)

If the stagnation path in Figure 5.6 is isentropic as well as adiabatic and the gas is calorically perfect then one would expect

91 P 2 = P t1 = P 1 . 1 + . -----------/ M 1 , , 2 -

9 ----------2/ 9 1

(5.86)

The stagnation state is just that, a thermodynamic state, and changes in the stagnation state of a material are described by the Gibbs equation. Dh t 1 DP t Ds - T t ------ = -------- ---- --------Dt Dt 0 t Dt

(5.87)

where for an ideal gas P t = 0 t RT t . Note that there is no distinction between the entropy and stagnation entropy. They are one and the same and the identity

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1 Dh 1 DP 1 Dh t 1 DP t - - ---- -------- ---------- --------- = --- ------ ------ ------- T Dt 0 T Dt T t Dt 0 t T t Dt is occasionally useful.

(5.88)

Lets return to Figure 5.6 for a moment and ask what pressure and temperature would one measure at the stagnation point of the airfoil in a real experiment. In practice it is impossible to make the airfoil truly adiabatic and so some heat loss would be expected through conduction. In addition, as the gas approaches the airfoil, gradients in temperature arise that tend to conduct heat away from the stagnation point. In addition, gradients in temperature and velocity near the stagnation point tend to produce an increase in entropy. As a result, the measured temperature and pressure both tend to be lower than predicted. The difference may vary by anywhere from a fraction of a percent to several percent depending on the Reynolds number and Mach number of the ow.

5.8.6 TRANSFORMING THE STAGNATION PRESSURE BETWEEN FIXED AND MOVING FRAMES

The stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature in the xed and moving frames are Tt Pt ---- = . ---- / ,TP

9 ----------91

(5.89)

,T-

Divide out the static pressure and temperature in (5.89). P t' ----- = 4 ----- 5 Pt , Tt9 ----------. T t'/ 9 1

(5.90)

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Problems

. X ( X 2U ) + Y ( Y 2V ) + Z ( Z 2W ) P t' = P t 4 1 + ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 2C p T , t

9 ----------/9 1

(5.91)

5.9 PROBLEMS

Problem 1 - Work out the time derivative of the following integral. I (t) =

Sin ( t ) t

2

e dx

xt

(5.92)

Obtain dI dt in two ways: (1) by directly integrating, then differentiating the result and (2) by applying Leibniz rule (5.9) then carrying out the integration. Problem 2 - In Chapter 2 Problem 2 we worked out a hypothetical incompressible steady ow with the velocity components ( U , V ) = ( cos x cos y, sin x sin y ) .

(5.93)

This 2-D ow clearly satises the continuity equation (conservation of mass), could it possibly satisfy conservation of momentum for an inviscid uid? To nd out work out the substantial derivatives of the velocity components and equate the results to the partial derivatives of the pressure that appear in the momentum equation. The differential of the pressure is "P "P dP = ------ dx + ------ dy . "x "y

(5.94)

Show by the cross derivative test whether a pressure eld exists that could enable (5.93) to satisfy momentum conservation. If such a pressure eld exists work it out. Problem 3 - Consider steady ow in one dimension where U = ( U ( x ), 0, 0 ) and all velocity gradients are zero except "U A 11 = ------"x

(5.95)

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Problems

Work out the components of the Newtonian viscous stress tensor 2 ij . Note the role of the bulk viscosity. Problem 4 - A cold gas thruster on a spacecraft uses Helium (atomic weight 4) at a chamber temperature of 300K and a chamber pressure of one atmosphere. The gas exhausts adiabatically through a large area ratio nozzle to the vacuum of space. Estimate the maximum speed of the exhaust gas. Problem 5 - Work out equation (5.67). Problem 6 - Steady ow through the empty test section of a wind tunnel with parallel walls and a rectangular cross-section is shown below. Use a control volume balance to relate the integrated velocity and pressure proles at stations 1 and 2 to an integral of the wall shear stress.

State any assumptions used. Problem 7 - Use a control volume balance to show that the drag of a circular cylinder at low Mach number can be related to an integral of the velocity and stress prole in the wake downstream of the cylinder. Be sure to use the continuity equation to help account for the x-momentum convected out of the control volume through the upper and lower surfaces. State any assumptions used.

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Problems

Problem 8 - Use a control volume balance to evaluate the lift of a three dimensional wing in an innite steady stream. Assume the Mach number is low enough so that there are no shock waves formed.

U0

Lift

1) Select an appropriate control volume. 2) Write down the integral form of the mass conservation equation. 3) Write down the integral form of the momentum conservation equation. 4) Evaluate the various terms on the control volume boundary so as to express the lift of the wing in terms of an integral over the downstream wake. 5) Why did I stipulate that there are no shock waves? Briey state any other assumptions that went in to your solution. Problem 9 - Suppose a model 3-D wing is contained in a nite sized wind tunnel test section with horizontal and vertical walls as shown below.

U0

Lift

Drag

What would a test engineer have to measure to determine lift and drag in the absence of sensors on the model or a mechanical balance for directly measuring forces? Consider a control volume that coincides with the wind tunnel walls.

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