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The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin

  • V. 59, No. 5 (May

1975), P. 856-871. 9 Figs., 2 Tables

Stratigraphic Analysis of Kadi and Kalol Formations, Cambay Basin, India'

  • L. L. BHANDARI> and L. R. CHOWDHARY^

Bombay 400021, India, and Dehra Dun 248195, India

Abdract The Kadi and Kalol Formations of early to middle Eocene age are thick clastic wedges in the northern part of the Cambay basin, India. Southward these formations inter- longue with and grade into the marine Cambay Shale. The Kadi Formation has been divided into the Mandhali and Mehsana Members. The formation is restricted areally to the northern part of the Ahmedabod-AAehsana block and was deposited in fluvial, lagoonal, and deltaic environments. Un- like the Kadi, the Kalol Formation is present in a large area from Mehsana in the north to the Dodhar River in the south. The Kalol Formation has been divided into four members. The upper three (Sertha, Kansari, and Wave!) were depos- ited in an extensive area and the lowermost Chhatral Mem- ber is restricted areally. Along the basin axis, shalk>w-marine, intertidol, fluvial, and paludal to eolian en- vironments were estoblbhed during the deposition of the Sertha and Wavel AAembers. These environments shifted in response to oscillations of the basin floor.

Delta building during deposition of the Kadi Formation was influenced by a steep pdleoslope, which became gentle during Kalol deposition. The gentle slope created conditions favorable for the formation of extensive coastal plains. Ver- tical lithologic variations were, however, controlled by epeir- ogenic movements in the source area and mild oscillations of the depositional floor.

The gentle poleoslope which existed during deposition of the Kalol created large areas of favorable source-reservoir fades, although the reservoir sands generally are dirty be- cause of the presence of trap basalts in the provenance area. Sand fades with belter petrophysical properties are present only in a narrow zone paralleling the sirandline. Winnowed sands were localized on some of the positive features such as the Kalol, Sanand, Novragam, and Dholka hi(^s. Variations in the physicochemical properties of the oil in Kalol Formation are controlled both by evolutionary and secondary alteration processes. The presence of waxy oils trapped beneath coal seams suggests that the cools exer- cised some control in localizing such pools.

INTRODUCTION

1966; Mathur et al., 1968; Raju, 1968) described the stratigraphy, tectonic framework, and depo- sitional features of the basin. Bhandari and Mat- hur (1968), Chandra and Chowdhary (1969), and Rao (1969) described the lithostratigraphy of the basin fill. Raju et al. (1971) discussed the geologic framework of Cambay basin in relation to die Deccan trap basalts, which constitute the floor of the Tertiary sediments. Not much has been pub- lished on the lithostratigraphy (Chandra and Chowdhary, 1969) and depositional environments of the Kadi and Kalol Formations (Bhandari and Mathur, 1968). In this study, formal stratigraphic terminology as defined by die previous workers is used; where not defined, formal stratigraphic un- its are proposed.

These formations do not crop out. In the ab- sence of diagnostic fauna in the subsurface, the lithologic data and electric logs of a few selected wells in the basin are the main bases for study. The depositional environments were established by using the lithologic associations, textural prop- erties of sediments, facies changes along the basin axis, and the basin paleoslope. The variation in crude-oil properties and the influence of thick coal seams in the localization of the oil and gas p>ools also are discussed.

STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK AND STRATIGRAPHIC SUMMARY

The Cambay basin (Fig. 1) in Gujarat State (Western Region) is between lat. 21° and 24''N and long. 71°30'-73°3O'E. The basin is bounded on the west by the Saurashtra Peninsula, which is

The Kadi and Kalol Formations are thick wedges of lower to middle Eocene terrigenous strata which form a significant part of the sedi- mentary fill of the Cambay Tertiary basin, west- em India (Fig. 1). These formations are a complex sequence of continental to paralic de- posits, and are essentially arenaceous (with thick coal seams) in the norUiem part of the basin; southward the equivalent facies generally are ar- gillaceous. These clastic wedges are the objectives of oil exploration. The purpose of this paper is to describe their stratigraphy and to reconstruct the depositional environments. Some factors that control oil occurrence also are discussed.

Earlier workers (Sastri et ai, 1964; Zubov et al.

O Copyright

1975. The American Association of Petroleum

Geologists. All rights reserved.

•Manuscript received, April 16, 1974; accepted, August 13,

1974.

ZBombay Off-Shore Project, Oil and Natural Gas Commis- sion, 10th Floor, "Nirmal," Nariman Point.

^Institute of Petroleum Exploration, Oil and Natural Gas Commission. This paper is published with the kind permission of S. N. Talukdar, Director of Geology, Oil and Natural Gas Commis- sion, Dehra Dun. It is, to a large extent, based on studies carried out in the Basin Studies Group of the Institute of Petroleum Exploration under the guidance and supervision of V. V. Sastri, Additional Director. The valuable suggestions and criticisms of- fered by S. N. Talukdar and V. V. Sastri are gratefully acknowl- edged. Views expressed in this paper are those of the writers and not necessarily of the organization in which they are working.

856

Kadi and Kalol Formations, Cambay Basin, India

TO |0

14

857

«

I

PRLCAIIIIIUN

 

1^

A

AA

A

 

A

A

A

A

FIG. 1—Location map of Cambay basin. /, Ahmedabad-Mehsana block; //, Tarapore block; ///, Broach block; IV. Narbada block.

  • 858 L. L. Bhandari and L. R. Chowdhary

covered almost completely by Deccan trap ba- salts except in the northeast, where Mesozoic rocks crop out. The basin extends toward the north and may be connected with the shallower Banner and Kutch basins (Mathur et ai, 1968). On the northeast, the basin is bounded by the Precambrian Aravalli-Delhi outcrops, just west of which is a thin fringe of Mesozoic outcrops. The Aravalli Series (Precambrian) with Deccan trap outliers delimit the basin on the east. On the southeast, the basin is limited by the Deccan trap basalts. It extends southward in the Gulf of Cam-

bay to an unknown distance under the shelf. On land, the basin has a total area of more than 50,

  • 000 sq km.

The Cambay basin is composite and is charac- terized by a two-stage structure (Kalinin, 1%5). The earliest development took place sometime during the Jurassic, when the area was a gentle shelf bounded on the east by the Indian shield. On this shelf, the Tertiary basin came into exis- tence during Late Cretaceous time as a result of crustal tension following basaltic lava extrusion.

The Cambay Tertiary basin is an intracratonic graben bounded on both sides by basin-margin faults. The graben is divisible into four blocks. From north to south they are the Ahmedabad- Mehsana, Tarapore, Broach, and Narbada blocks (Mathur et ai, 1968). The basin has a nearly north-south morphotectonic trend in the two northern blocks and an east-northeast-west- southwest trend in the southern part of the Nar- bada block. No prominent structural trends are discernible in the Broach block.

The basin is covered almost completely by the alluvium of the Sabarmati, Mahisagar, Narbada, and Tapti Rivers. A few Tertiary outcrops are present on the western and eastern margins, al- though an almost complete Tertiary sequence is present in the subsurface. The following general- ized description of the stratigraphy is based on Chandra and Chowdhary (1969).

The Deccan Trap Group (Fig. 2), composed of several almost horizontal lava flows, forms the basement of the Cambay Tertiary basin. The de- positional floor of the basin is characterized by narrow, linear horsts and grabens. It is overlain unconformably by the Olpad Formation, consist- ing of conglomerate, sand, sandstone, silt, silt- stone, and clay derived exclusively from the Deccan trap basalts. The thickness of the forma- tion ranges from less than 20 m to more than 1,560 m. It is overlain unconformably by a pyritic and organic-rich black shale (Cambay "Black" Shale) of late Paleocene to early Eocene age (Ta- ble 1). The Cambay Shale, with an intervening nonmarine clastic wedge (Kadi Formation),

ranges in thickness from 500 m to more than 1,500 m. The Kadi Formation (about 300 m thick) is present only in the Ahmedabad-Mehsa- na block. The Cambay Shale is overlain conformably by the Kalol Formation, 200-300 m thick, composed of intercalations of sandstone, shale, and coal. The Kalol Formation (?middle Eocene) is over- lain conformably by a 200-500-m-thick gray-shale succession (Tarapur Shale) of middle Eocene to Oligocene age. The Tarapur Shale is present in the south in an arenaceous facies (Anklesvar For- mation). The Kalol Formation is absent in the south and the Cambay Shale is overlain directly

by the Anklesvar Formation. Between the Mahi- sagar and Dadhar Rivers, the Anklesvar Forma- tion conformably overlies the Kalol Formation. The Neogene succession of the basin has been divided into seven distinct units of sandstone and shale (Fig. 2). The Gujarat alluvium of Holocene age forms a cover for tiiese sediments in the Cam- bay basin.

 

Table

1—Llthologlc

subdlvlelon

of

studied

 

Interval

In Cambay basin.

India.

ForoutIon

 

M€rt)er

Age

Tarapur

Shale

Oligocene

co

 

Middle

Eocene

 

Havel

Kansari

(?)Hlddle

Eocene

Sertha

Chhatrtl

"Upper

tongue"

of

Cambay "Black"

Shale

 

Mchaana

Kadi

Lower

tongue

of

Caaibay "Black"

Shale

 

Early

Eocene

 

Handhali

Canbay

"Black"

Shale

Early

Eocene

Kadi and Kaloi Formations, Cambay Basin, India

859

 

LITHOLOGICAL

DESCRIPTION

A6E

Ytllow

and

gray

sandy

clays

 

RECENT

Ytllow

and gray

clays , coarsa

sands, graval

and

Kankar

PLEISTOCENE

Chocolotd -

brown

and

r«d-brown

cla y

stona,

sandy

eloyntan*

and sandatana

PLIOCENE

Wlilta and gray ealooraoHS

and mleacaoas

sandstona, gray sbaly sandstona and sands.

9"S

cloy

and

olayMana

witk accassional

•ondston*

n d

eontlamarata.

 
 

MIOCENE

 

Farmglnoas

sandstona,

conglomaratas , and

gray

clays

Varlagotad and nottlod ataysfono and sandstona, oarbonaaooas sldorltlo sbalas and sandstonos

 

•rtan-gray and dark^gray shalas, sandy sbalas, and argillacaous sandstonos So»tb of Obodhar l>i»ar sandstonas, dart-(r«y to groon-traysbalos and Moelostlo iinastonas

0LI8 0CEWE

•js»'^-«"'-*' T

Sandstonos, oalcaroous

sllty

shalos

and siltstono,

i^B^^ n

.^

=

"

—t

sldorlUt

AAandd coot

olaystonos, dark gray sbalas,ooaly sbalas

eaalsa

 

Dork, gray

to

black shalo

 

Sands, sondslonoo, oorbonaooous sbaloo, dark-gray sbolos and ooals.

 

Dark-gray

to black

fissllo

sbalas,

 

pyrltic

and rich in conblnod

organic

nottor

Voloanio conglomoratos, sondolonos, sUto, osby elaystonos and clays of Hgkt.gray to roddlob.brown and flaming.rod color. Tbo matrix 1s olayoy and eblorltlc. Locally cortonota onrlohad zonos aro prosonl.

PAL EOCENE

Basalt,

ondosito, trocbyto, plcrlto,

sjonlts^otc

LATE

 

CRETACEOUS

 

l^~ l CLAY/SHALE

3C0AL

ll_l^JC0N«L0«KI«ATE/8RAVEL

UnconforMoblo

Coofornablo

m

m

Nondapooinsn/

 

oontoot

contact

'-"-'-"

Erosion

FIG. 2—Generalized stratigraphy of Cambay basin (modified after Chandra and Chowdhary, 1%9).

  • 860 L. L. Bhandari and L. R. Chowdhary

STRATIGRAPHY

The Kadi and Kalol Formations are clastic

stone and gray shale. Abrupt facies changes char-

acterize the member, and it becomes sandy to-

ward the south and southwest. The two members

wedges in the northern part of the Cambay basin

and are separated by a tongue of the marine

Cambay Shale. The Kadi Formation is restricted

areally in the Ahmedabad-Mehsana block, but

merge in the South Kadi area with the pinchout

of the "Lower tongue" of the Cambay Shale.

Kalol Formation

the Kalol Formation is widely distributed and is

The Kalol Formation is present in the basin

present in Ahmedabad-Mehsana, Tarapure, and

from north of Mehsana to the Dadhar River on

Broach blocks (up to the Dadhar River). The

electric-log correlations of the Kadi and Kalol

Formations and their stratigraphic subdivisions

are given in Figure 3 and Table I, respectively.

Kadi Formation

The Kadi Formation (Fig. 4)—composed of

fine- to medium-grained sandstone and siltstone

of gray and gray-brown color with thin layers of

dark-gray shale, sideritic shale, and carbonaceous

shale—is a nonmarine tongue within the Cambay

Shale. Thick coal seams are present in the forma-

tion in the North Kalol—Sobhasan-Mehsana

area. The formation grades into shale between the

Mandhali Town and Kalol field and south of

South Kadi; the unit pinches out on the West

Mehsana horst (Fig. 5). The northern and eastern

limits of the formation are not known. The for-

the south. It is composed of alternations of

brownish-black coal, gray to brown sandstone

and siltstone, and gray to dark-gray shale (Fig. 6).

All gradations, from siltstone to shale and from

coal to carbonaceous shale, are present. The

shales commonly are sideritic and pyritic. The

formation can be identified easily across a large

area because of its characteristic electric-log

properties and uniform lithology. The lower con-

tact of the formation approximately corresponds

to a seismic reflector. The structural configura-

tion, based on well control and seismic data, is

given in Figure 7. The thickness and extent of the

formation, together with the transgressive and re-

gressive limits of the various subunits, are shown

in Figure 8. In the south, the formation grades

into shale, whereas it pinches out both east and

west on the margins of the basin, as well as on the

mation is not present in outcrops. It is rich in

palynofossils. Some of the index genera present

are Mauritidites, Spinozocolpites, Proxapertites,

West Mehsana horst. Its northern extent is not

known. The formation is not present in outcrops.

It is rich in palynofossils and contains, in addi-

tion to dinoflagellates and acritarchs, the follow-

pollis, Proteacidites,

Disuleites, Psilodiporites, Margocolporites, Zoncos-

tites, Marginipollis,

lugopollis, Polycolpites,

Pseudonothofagidites. No foraminiferal or other

animal remains except a few freshwater ostracods

have been recorded in the formation.

and ing important genera: Dicolpopollis, Proxaperites,

Mauritidites, Aricipites, Medlicottipites, Thomsoni-

Florshetzia,

Pelliceroipollis,

Zonocostites, and Hippocrataceaedites. It also con-

The Kadi Formation is divided into two units

in North Kalol-Sobhasan by the northward ex-

tension of the "Lower tongue" of the Cambay

Shale (Fig. 5). These two units were designated as

the MandhaU and Mehsana Formations (Bhan-

dari and Mathur, 1968), but are proposed herein

to be redesignated as Mandhali and Mehsana

Members, because of their similarity of distribu-

tion, environment of deposition, and the absence

of the intervening "Lower tongue" in South Kadi.

Both members of the Kadi Formation are coex-

tains Chiloguembelina martini and some freshwa-

ter ostracods, suggesting a middle Eocene age.

The Kalol Formation has been divided into

four units by Chandra and Chowdhary (1969). It

is proposed herein to designate these units as the

Chhatral, Sertha, Kansari, and Wavel Members

(Fig. 6). The individual members of the formation

are not recognizable in the northern part of the

basin because of the pinchout of the Kansari

Shale Member which separates the Wavel and

Sertha Members. In

the ftorth, the Chhatral

tensive, except north of the Kalol field (Fig. 3),

where the Mehsana Member is absent.

The Mandhali Member (Fig. 4) is composed of

thick brownish-black coal seams alternating with

gray shale in North Kalol; on the north and west,

die member is an alternate sequence of thick,

gray-brown sandstone, interbedded with sand-

stone-bearing thin coal beds; on the south, it is

replaced by thick sandstone beds. The Mehsana

Member is composed of thick brownish-black

coal seams separated by comparatively thin sand-

Member also merges with the overlying Sertha

Member. The Chhatral Member is recognized

only in the Ahmedabad-Mehsana block and

grades into shale in the Sanand field and in the

southern part of the Kalol field. Unlike the Chha-

tral, the nonmarine Sertha and Wavel Members

extend from north of Mehsana to the Dadhar

River in the south. Both members are coexten-

sive.

The Chhatral Member is composed of alterna-

tions of

siltstone and coal, with

thin layers of

(invtm)

MeHSANA-2

SOBHASAN-I

KALOL- 41

KALOL- 43

KALOb-e

COO

400

S0&

TOO J

AHMEQABADH

VASO-I

*.mM-t

 

lAMOMW

--^MMACH

 

/ *

 

^••M« r

I. tHULi

E

__J

m.ra'nmt

FIG. 3—Electric-log correlation in Cambay basin.

KATHANA-S

JAMBUSAR-I

DAOHAR-I

ELECTRIC -

LOS

COHRELATION

 

CAABAY

BASM

HarkMtit

Sc4«

•rtitrary

VarIM

MaK

l:3,»tS

Data*

taf

af

Kalal

PariMtiaa

o

a.

o

3

O.

o

I

o

Q 3

«r

>< o

?

3

a.

  • 862 L. L. Bhandari and L. R. Chowdhary

1500-

o

l600-i_,.

Shal«,dark-gr«y to bloeh

tandstoM - stMic alttrnatlMi •aadttMiti vay, mtdlMai- to eoartt-araintd , Malt, grtmlifi-flray »o .«- Q ««rk-fr«y, silly.

  • 1800- ,- -

 

Thiok M«l MMM Vllh

 

^

^

thHi Isycri of MnditoM M4 tlidt. NMatonti llRt-graiMd with HflHlttv cMlk«n«l. MMI« , MrtOMOMua and «flt»

 

Thloli M« l Ma«a aitii

•MOIOM Md MnK .

S«M«t«R«, riM * flraliiM «a« eldvty. Male MrbMiMaoui and allty.

K ALOL

41

UPPER

TONGUE

MEHSANA

MEMBER

.^m

MANOHALI

MEMBER

LOWER

TONGUE

MANDHALI

MEMBER

CAMB/tl'

SHALE

FIG. 4—Type section of Kadi Formation and its subunits (depths in meters below K.B.).

dark-gray shale on the north (Fig. 3). In the

northern part of the Kalol field a lO-m-thick,

fine-grained quartzose sandstone (which forms an

important oil pool) is present in the lower part of

this member.

The Sertha Member is composed of alterna-

tions of dark-brown and black, thick coal seams,

carbonaceous shale with all gradations to coal,

thin layers of gray and gray-brown siltstone, sid-

eritic ^lale, and dark-gray shale. It changes Utho-

logically from thick sandstone in the north

(Mehsana area) to coal and siltstone in the Kalol

area and to abrupt alternations of carbonaceous

silty shale and siltstone in the south. The Sertha

Member is overlain by dark-gray to gray shale of

the Kansari Member, which is a widespread

marker bed in the basin.

The uppermost Wavel Member is composed of

thick layers of medium- to coarse-grained sand-

stone, dark-gray shale, and thin streaks of coal

and hard carbonaceous sandstone. Like the Ser-

tha, the Wavel Member has extensive fades vari-

ations from thick sandstone in the north to

sandstone, thin coal, and gray shale alternations

in the Kalol field, and to alternations of silty

shale and dark-gray shale with some siltstone lay-

ers in the south.

Stnitigra|riiic Relatkm

The Kadi and Kalol Formations are separated

by the "Upper tongue" of the Cambay Shale. In

the west, the two formations merge with the

pinchout of the shale tongue of the Cambay Shale

(Fig. 9A). Similarly, they are a single unit on the

margins of the West Mehsana horst (Fig. 9B) and

between the North Kadi and South Kadi fields

(Fig. 9C). The Kalol Formation overlaps the

Kadi on the western margin of the basin and on

Kadi and Kalol Formations, Cambay Basin, India

72

30

S

0

S

lOKm

863

KAU>L

•• ^>^---'->

DCPOSITIONAL LIMIT

OF

KAOI

fORMATION

SHALE-OUT

LINE

Of KAOI

= ^

MAIN DMCCTIONOF CLASTIC

ENTRY

DISPERSAL

KMMTION

—XOO—TMCNNCSS IN M.

TKAHSSMSSIVe LHWT DUMUN

DCP08IT10N

OF'LOWE R

SHALE

TONME'C F

CAMM T

'atACK *

Fic. 5—Isopach map and paleoshorelines for Kadi Fonnation.

the West Mehsana horst. Their stratigraphic rela-

tions on the eastern margin and in the extreme

north (north of Mehsana) are not known.

The gradual overlap of the Kadi by the Kalol

Formation resulted from environmental changes

and basin-floor tectonics. After the deposition of

the Cambay Shale, the West Mehsana horst

formed a surface of relief in the middle of the

basin floor, probably as a result of faulting. As a

result of upUft, the basinal area just south of the

West Mehsana horst attained a relatively steep

paleoslope, and the master river flowing along the

basin axis was divided into two channels and be-

gan to flow south of its previous debouchure. The

MandhaU Member of the Kadi Formation was

deposited in the low areas encircling the West

Mehsana horst. With the passage of time, the area

of nonmarine sedimentation increased and the

Mehsana Member was deposited onlapping the

MandhaU. It was onlapped in turn by the Kalol

Formation.

Eaviroameiit of Deposition

The Kadi and Kalol Formations were depos-

ited in a nonmarine environment. The terrigenous

clastic deposits were derived from an igneous and

metamorphic source in the north, the uplift or

subsequent peneplanatiop of which controlled

the grain size of the clastic material carried into

the basin. The paucity of clastic supply during

  • 864 L. L. Bhandari and L. R. Chowdhory

TARAPUR

Swdatoni, •lltstoKtt cwkoKMtow,-

SHALE

•h4l«, «I|4 tht* 4ark-«r«][ aliol*!. S«4itMa , fina-to iii«4l«iii- flrclrtt^t iidncale«r»«ua t»4 eldycy. Shall,, maaiHiii-t« dark-gray aai allty.

Ska la,

u 4lmi -fray

to aark-

•rai.

CAMBAY

Caala, aarfeaaaaaaaa akala, afeala, alltataaa aaa aisarltta alarataM. Caal, kHaailRoaa wHk aSlataaa alraaka . slltataaa,kra«a-tr«]i,

SHALE

Sk«a, H>aakiai-fr«y r» dark- sray, aarbaMaaaaa.

 

KALOL

1

FIG. 6—Type section of Kalol Fonnation and its subunits (depths in meters below K.B.).

peneplanation of the source area and the epeiro- genic upUft of the depositional floor formed marsh plains and lagoons in which coal-forming vegetation flourished. The deposition of the Kadi Formation began in the northern part of the Ahmedabad-Mehsana block as a result of an epeirogenic uplift of the source. It is thickest along the Mehsana-Sobhasen line and in the Kadi area (Fig. S). Coal predomi- nates in the formation in the Mehsana-MandhaU area. In the west in the Detroj-South. Kadi area, coal seams are absent and sandstone predomi- nates. The sand supply was thus asymmetric with greater amounts of sand entering from the north- west (Kadi-E>etroj). The two channels of sand en- try were separated by a tectonic uplift (West Mehsana horst). Where sand input was limited, freshwater flood basins and lagoonal marshes were formed in which coal-forming vegetation flourished. These basins and marshes acted as traps for terrigenous clastic sediment.

During the deposition of the Kadi Formation, a relatively steep paleoslope favored the forma- tion of a delta. Deltaic deposition during this pe- riod is suggested by lithologic associations and the arcuate shape of the delta lobe (Fig. S). The arcuate depositional Umit also may have been controlled by the synsedimentary uplift of the fault-controlled Sanand and Kalol structures. Lo- calized depressions in the delta plain became the site of coal swamps, those near the then existing shoreUne were brought below sea level because of more rapid subsidence in certain locaUties. The approximate position of the strandline of both units of the Kadi Formation has been delineated by the study of coal isoUths. Paralleling the strand, depositional-strike barrier bars were de- posited (Bhandari and Mathur, 1968).

The Kalol Formation was deposited in alter- nate regressive and transgressive marine environ- ments, the former leading to the deposition of coarse clastic material, coal seams, and carbona

Kadi and Kalol Formations,

Cambay Basin, India

865

LEGEND

\J

MILLB * WILL I DIPTN CONTOUM M FAULTS

MTI M

MMOITIONA L

LIM T

OP

KALOL

PO«llATtON

FIG. 7—Structure on base of Sertha Member of Kalol Formation.

  • 866 L. L. Bhandari and L. R. Chowdhary

FIG. 8—Isopach map and paleoshorelines of Kalol Formation: (1) transgressive limit during deposition of "Upper tongue" of Cambay Shale; (2) strandline during deposition of Chhatral Member; (3) maximum regression of sea during deposition of Sertha and Wavel Members; (4) maximum extent of sea during deposition of Sertha Member; (5) maximum extent of sea during deposition of Wavel Member; (6) depositional limit of KaloI Formation.

to o

100

0

 

BAAO

S.KAO I

KALO L

<«-WESr

MEHSANA-^

•-MEHSANA-.-

BALO L

 

N.KAD I

 

>

KALOL FORMATION

 

V

KADI

raOMATMH

 

KALOL

FOOHATIOII

UPP M

TOHOUE

HIHtANA MtMOER

 

LOWER

TONIUE

MANDHALI

MUIN R

 

O

t- l

OKB .

 

I.

CAHIAT "RLACK''*MALE

 

N.

KALO L

STR-3 A

S .

KAD I

SANANO

UNCOMraRMARLE CONTACT

CONPORHAILE

CONTACT

PRORARLE

TIME

LINER

DATUM

TOP OP KALOL

FORMATION

FIG. 9—Stratigraphic relations of Kadi and Kalol Formations (see Fig. 8 for location of section): A, across basin; B, eastern, and C, southern periphery of West Mehsana horst.

I

I

I

I

f

3

00

  • 868 L. L. Bhandari and L. R. Chowdhary

ceous shales, and the latter to the deposition of

dark-gray marine shale. During deposition of

each unit of the formation, an environmental pat-

tern of southward gradation from eolian-paludal-

intertidal to shallow marine was established.

The Chhatral Member, coextensive with the

Kadi, is present in the northern part of the Ahme-

dabad-Mehsana block. Like the Kadi, its restrict-

ed areal extent is indicative of a steep paleoslope

during deposition. The paleoslope of the basin

became gentle during deposition of the Sertha

and Wavel Members. This resulted in the forma-

tion of extensive coastal plains with flood basins,

swamps, marsh plains, and lagoons.

In the Sertha Member, the Uthology changes

from sandstone in the north (Mehsana area) to

coal-siltstone in the south in the Kalol area, and

to shaly siltstone-shale rhythmites farther south

(Fig. 3). South of Nawagam-Dholka, coals are ab-

sent or present only as lenticular pockets. In the

Wavel Member sandy facies (with thin coal lay-

ers) predominates in the Mehsana and Kalol ar-

eas. The sandy facies grades southward into silty

shale-shaley rhythmites with thin interlayers of

siltstone. The lithologic changes of both members

indicate an environmental pattern grading south-

ward from eolian-paludal-intertidal to shallow

marine. Because of the gentle paleoslope, mild

positive or negative movements in the deposition-

al floor rhythmically shifted the shoreline togeth-

er with the environmental regimes across a wide

area. As a result of the fluctuating shoreline, re-

current gradation from dark-gray shale to sand-

stone and siltstone through sideritic mudstone,

carbonaceous shale, and coals took place, indicat-

ing rhythmic sedimentation (Raju, 1968). During

emergent stages (as a consequence of regression),

the broad plain was occupied by swamps where,

under suitable conditions, mainly plant debris, a

mixture of organic and detrital material, clay, and

silt were deposited. Seaward, the paludal deposits

(sideritic shale and coal) form an interfingering

succession with strandline sandstone and marine

shale (Bhandari and Mathur, 1968). In the succes-

sion the transgressive phase is determined by the

presence of pyritic shale and the regressive phase

by an association of coal, carbonaceous shale,

and siltstone beds. On electric logs, the shale is

represented by low resistivities and the siltstone

by high resistivities and negative deflections of

the self potential. The inferred transgressive and

regressive limits of the shoreline, based on litho-

logic associations and electric-log properties, are

given in Figure 8.

The coarse clastic sediments of the Wavel

Member suggest uplift of the provenance area

during its deposition. On the other hand, the for-

mation of thick coal seams in the Sertha Member

probably was controlled by the epeirogenic uplift

of the depositional floor, resulting in regression

and the establishment of the coal-forming vegeta-

tion.

The lateral-facies sequence from marine shale

to paralic coal and siltstone and to continental

sandstone during the deposition of Kadi and Ka-

lol Formations records the coeval existence of

these major environments. The vertical succes-

sion of facies records the seaward advance of de-

positional environments during regression and

landward advance during transgression. The

maps (Figs. 5, 8) of the landward pinchout of the

marine-shale tongues show that each successively

younger pinchout is south of its immediate prede-

cessor. Conversely, the seaward shale-out of each

successively younger continental to paralic wedge

extends farther southward. These relations show

that basin filling and regression were dominant

during deposition of the Kadi and Kalol Forma-

tions and that the transgressions were only short

interruptions of this major trend.

The environmental regime of sedimentation

prevalent during the deposition of Kadi and Ka-

lol Formations and the influence of provenance,

paleoslope, and rate of clastic supply on the sedi-

ments deposited are summarized in Table 2.

FACTORS THAT CONTROL OIL OCCURRENCE

The Kadi and Kalol Formations contain about

25 percent of the oil and 90 percent of the gas

reserves of the Cambay basin. The first discovery

of oil in the basin was made in the Kalol Forma-

tion of the Cambay (Lunej) field. Subsequently,

production from this formation has been ob-

tained from several structures, such as Kalol, Sa-

nand, Wavel, Nawagam, Ahmedabad, Bakrol,

Dholka, and Suraj (North Kadi). The Kadi For-

mation also contains oil at Sobhasan. The accu-

mulations in these formations generally are in

combination traps. However, discovery of these

fields was mainly the result of structural mapping.

Some factors which control the accumulation of

hydrocarbons in these sedimentary units are now

discussed.

Depositioiial Environment

In the Kadi Formation, only one discovery has

been made. Therefore it is not possible to say

which factor will be of importance in locating fu-

ture oil pools in this unit.

In the Chhatral Member of the Kalol Forma-

tion, the oil accumulation is in a strandline sand-

stone (Bhandari and Mathur, 1968); however, no

further discovery in the continuation of this

strandline has been made.

Kadi and Kalol Formations, Cambay Basin, India

869

Table 2—Control of various factors on deposition of Kadi and Kalol Fortoatlons.

 

Kadi Formation

Kalol Formation

Environment

Fluvial, lagoonal, and deltaic envirotunent

Environment grading from eollan and fluvial to paludal to Intertldal to shallow marine along the basin axis

Paleoslope of

Relatively gentle paleoslope; deposited In a

the depOBltlon-

Relatively ateep paleoalope;

wide area; gentle gradient of the shelf favored

al floor

deposition restricted to

Provenance and

small area; steep paleo- alope favored delta building

formation of extensive coastal plains with swamps, narah plains and lagoons

decrltuB dis-

Source area composed of hetero-

Source area composed of heterogeneous rock types;

perBal

geneous rock types; undergoing uplift and supplying relatively coarse elastics; detritus entry and dispersal in the basin nalnly from west of Mehsana horst because of presence of flood-basin narahes and lagoons In the east

peneplaned and subsequently rejuvenated during deposition of Sertha and Wavel Members, respect- ively; formation of coala in Sertha Member alao favored by epelrogenlc uplift of deposltlonal floor and consequent establishment of coal-forming vegetation; terrigenous material extensively dla- trlbuted

Race of clastic

Clastic supply

kept pace with sub-

Clastic supply poor to moderate; ahoreline fluctu-

•upply

sidence; shoreline stable or mildly fluctuating

ating widely as a result of slight uplift and/or subsidence of the deposltlonal floor

The accumulation (and production) of hydro-

carbons in the Wavel and Sertha Members is gov-

erned mainly by the spatial location of the

structures with respect to a wide facies zone par-

allel with the paleoshoreline. The reservoir sands

are usually dirty, having low porosity and perme-

ability because of the presence of trap basalts in

the source area. A sandstone facies with relatively

better petrophysical properties is present only in a

narrow zone paralleling the strandline. In the Ser-

tha Member, production of oil usually is obtained

only where sandstone and coal facies are togeth-

er. In the south, where the sediments were depos-

ited in an intertidal-flat environment, and in the

north where the sediments were deposited in an

eolian environment, no commercial oil accumula-

tions are present. Similarly, in the Wavel Member

the production of oil is obtained in the far north-

em part of the basin where thin coal beds are

associated with the reservoir rocks. In both mem-

bers productivity improves northward, as does

also die ratio of producing to nonproducing wells

(within the oil-bearing area). In structures where

oil has been obtained in both these members, the

presence or absence of favorable reservoir facies

is the main factor in localizing oil accumulations,

and it is not uncommon to have dry wells within

the oil-bearing area, or an oil well outside the last

closed contour on a structure. In fact, these de-

posits do not have any regular oil-water contact.

SyiKluonous Highs

The nuclei of most of the structures were

formed during Paleocene time as a result of fault-

block tectonics (Mathur et al, 1968) or even earli-

er during the formation of the depositional gra-

ben. The growth of the structures continued with

repetitive fault movements, and the winnowed

sands were deposited on some of the positive fea-

tures such as Kalol, Sanand, Nawagam, and

Dholka. After

the cessation of fault activity,

drape structures were formed by differential com-

paction. Chandra et al. (1968) considered these

positive features to be the main factor in localiz-

ing the permeability zones on the structures and

in localizing the oil pools.

AssoaATioN OF COAL AND OIL

In the Cambay basin, the association of oil

with coal seams is significant. The reservoir sand-

stones of the Sertha Member, which are associat-

ed with thick coal seams, contain waxy crude oil,

whereas the Wavel Member, which has no thick

and persistent coal seams, contains mainly gas

with a narrow oil ring. Where the coal seams of

the Sertha Member are absent, the accumulations

of oil generally are small and the produced gas-oil

ratio is high. The physicochemical property of the

crude oil of the Kalol Formation also changes

considerably from north to south along the basin

axis. In the Nawagam and Kalol fields, the oil is

waxy with a high pour point. The property of the

oil changes northward and, in the vicinity of the

West Mehsana horst, the oil which accumulated

on the edge of the Kalol Formation is heavy, very

viscous, and asphaltic.

Waxy oils are derived commonly from brack-

ish-water marine deposits or sediments deposited

in a lacustrine environment. In some places waxy

oils may have originated from waxes present in

  • 870 L. L. Bhandari and L. R. Chowdhary

coals (Hubbard, 1950), or from vascular plants (Hedberg, 1967). In the Cambay basin, the Cam- bay Shale, which was deposited in a brackish-wa- ter environment, generally is considered to be the source of the oil (Chandra, 1967). The waxy oil derived from the Cambay Shale migrated upward (or laterally where there is a facies change) and was trapped beneath the coal seams. The hydro- carbon gases and lighter oils, which bypassed the coal seams, accumulated in the shallow reser- voirs. Methane, with very small amounts of hy- drocarbons, may have been derived from lignitic and humic source material. Most of the oil in the Kalol Formation is accumulated in the reservoir sandstones of continental to paralic facies. Hence, no relation between the oil types and sedi- mentary facies such as that suggested by Born- hauser (1950) is evident. The asphaJtic oil accumulated on the edge of the Kalol Formation around the West Mehsana horst could be imma- ture oil of early origin, although it is not unlikely that the deterioration in the crude oil properties is a result of secondary alteration processes. Mov- ing meteoric waters remove the light hydrocar- bons and increase the specific gravity of oil. Bacteria, probably anaerobic, preferentially con- sume the normal paraffins. They also may oxidize other constituents, so they decrease the paraffin- icity and increase the asphalt content (Bailey el al, 1973; P. A. Dickey, personal commun.).

CONCLUSIONS

1. The areally restricted Kadi Formation has two coal-sandstone members and was deposited in fluvial, lagoonal, and deltaic environments. The Kalol Formation, on the other hand, is a widespread unit containing four members, the lower one of which is present only in the north. The upper three members are extensive and were deposited in alternate transgressive and regressive marine environments. The coal-sandstone units of these sequences were deposited in a paludal environment which graded northward to conti- nental and southward to shallow marine.

2. The nonmarine Kadi and Kalol Formations of early to middle Eocene age intertongue with, and grade southward into, marine Cambay Shale. The sediments of these formations form a coal- bearing clastic sequence, the deposition, extent, and distribution of which were controlled by the paleoslope of the basin. During deposition of the Kadi Formation and Chhatral Member of the Kalol Formation, the paleoslope was steep and these coal-sandstone units were deposited in a restricted area. The steep paleoslope during this period did not allow extensive coastal plains to form. Instead, the sediments were deposited in a

deltaic-lagoonal environment. The paleoslope be- came gentle with time, and the coal-sandstone units of the Sertha and Wavel Members were de- posited in extensive coastal plains. The gentle pa- leoslope during the deposition of Kalol Formation created large areas of favorable source-reservoir facies, although the development of good reservoir facies was restricted to near the strandline, and to some positive features where winnowed sandstones were deposited.

3. The waxy oils in the Cambay basin probably were derived from the Cambay Shale. These oils were trapped beneath the coal seams during mi- gration, and hydrocarbon gases with hghter oils, which bypassed the coal seams, accumulated in the shallow reservoirs. The asphaltic oil that accu- mulated on the pinchout edge of the Kalol For- mation around the West Mehsana horst could be immature oil of early origin or is a result of alter- ation by moving meteoric waters and bacteria.

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2d Indian Petroleum Conf., Baroda, unpub. Bomhauser, M., 1950, Oil and gas accumulations con- trolled by sedimentary facies in Eocene Wilcox to Cockfield Formations, Louisiana Gulf Coast: AAPG Bull., V. 34, no. 9, p. 1887-1896. Chandra, K., 1967, Application of geochemistry for the identification of source rocks of petroleum in sedi- mentary basins of India: 1st Indian Petroleum Conf., Duliajan, unpub. Chandra, P. K., and L. R. Chowdhary, 1969, Stratigra- phy of the Cambay basin: India Oil Natural Gas Comm. Bull., v. 6, p. 37-50. P. C. Misra, and S. C. Roychoudhuri, 1968, Synchronous sands in Cambay basin: 2d Indian Pe- troleum Conf., Baroda, unpub. Hedberg, H., 1967, Geologic controls of petroleum gen- esis: 7th World Petroleum Cong., Mexico City, Proc,

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