Osadebe, C.C., Obrike, S. E. and Sulymon, N.A., 2011.

Evaluation of Imo Clay-Shale Deposit (Paleocene) from ISSN 2088-3218 Okada, Edo State, Southwestern Nigeria, as Drilling Mud Clay. Volume 1, Number 4: 311-316, November, 2011 © T2011 Department of Environmental Engineering Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya & Indonesian Society of Sanitary and Environmental Engineers, Jakarta Open Access http://www.trisanita.org/jates
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EVALUATION OF IMO CLAY-SHALE DEPOSIT (PALEOCENE) FROM OKADA, EDO STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA, AS DRILLING MUD CLAY
OSADEBE, C.C.1, OBRIKE, S. E.2* and SULYMON, N.A.1
1Nigerian 2Department

Building and Road Research Institute, P.M.B. 1055, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. of Geology and Mining, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: Phone: +2348064306565; E-mail: zobrike@yahoo.com Received: 16st July 2011; Revised: 24th August 2011; Accepted: 9th September 2011

Abstract: The dependence on the importation of drilling mud has much impact on the drilling operation in the country. Extensive field and laboratory investigation of Okada clay-shale revealed that the clay –shale deposit can be a good alternative to imported drilling mud when properly processed. X-ray diffraction studies carried out on the disturbed soil samples collected from the field showed the presence of vermiculite, montmorillonite and glauconite peaks, occurring as a mixed layer with traces of chlorite. District peaks of kaolinite, illite and quartz are also very visible. Chemical tests also showed that the SiO2 range from 55.75% to 55.84%, Al2O2 from 20.5% to 20.7%. The ratio of silica to alumina in both Okada shale and drilling mud are high, which is an indication of low quantity of free quartz. The average loss on ignition values for the Okada shale and drilling mud are 16.8 and 9.8 respectively. These values are high and indicate high water of crystallinity. The low content of K2O is an indication of the low amount of illite present. The mineralogical and chemical composition of both the Okada clay-shale and the imported drilling mud are such that Okada clay-shale can serve as a good alternative. However, the Okada clay-shale may require beneficiation, blending and refining processes to reduce its loss on ignition and SiO2 values.
Keywords: Mineralogy, chemistry, clay-shale, drilling mud, evaluation

INTRODUCTION Clays have over the years; serve as a very useful source of raw material for a wide range of industrial applications such as in the ceramics, pharmaceutical, agricultural and construction industries. They have also been severally employed as drilling mud in drilling operation. As drilling fluid, they serve the dual function of increasing the viscosity of the drilling mud and sealing of the 311
Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (4): 311-316.

so that the fluid being circulated are not lost to permeable formation being drilled [13]. Rainfall within the area are usually characterized by high surface runoff due to its generally low infiltration rates and high canopy trees [14]. With a vast number of clay deposits nation-wide. . The mean annual rainfall values range from 1500mm to 1830mm [2]. Table1: Paleocene Stratigraphic sequence in Southern Nigeria (after [10]) Age Western Nigeria Eastern Nigeria Eocene Ameki Formation Ameki Formation Ilaro Formation Lateral equivalent Oshosun Formation Nanka Sand Paleocene Akinbo Formation Ewekoro Formation Abeokuta Formation Imo Formation Maestrichtian Nsukka Formation Twenty (20) disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from the soil horizons of the soil profile using hand auger and U-4 tubes in accordance with BS 1377 [4]. MATERIALS AND METHODS General description The study area is located in Okada town.60 45/ N and longitudes 50 20/ .Osadebe. N. The samples were collected in polythene sample bags to prevent the loss of moisture. The Imo Formation outcrops at Okada as Okada shale. It lies conformably on the Maaestrichtian Abeokuta and Nsukka Formation [12]. dark grey to bluish grey with occasional admixture of clay ironstone and thin sandstone beds. is gradually pushing towards reduction on import dependence and the encouragement of locally sourced raw materials. E. Edo State. It falls within the geographical coordinates of latitude 6o 40/ . southwestern Nigeria.A. Obrike. Evaluation of Imo Clay-Shale Deposit (Paleocene) from Okada. Southwestern Nigeria. The Formation is typically dark. Okada clay-shale is therefore part of Imo Formation (Table 1). 312 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation.. S. [1] and [7]. The area is within the rain forest region of Nigeria with rainy season occurring from April to October.1).. 1 (4): 311-316. The Imo Formation is essentially thick clayey shale. 2011. vermiculite to montmorillonite [6]. about 28km from Benin City. fine textured. the compositional evaluation of these deposits as potential substitute for imported drilling mud clays will have immense positive influence on the economy. Edo State. that vary in composition from kaolin. The Imo shale range from Paleocene to lower Eocene in age [12]. very thinly laminated fissile and contains abundant pyrite crystals but poorly fossiliferous [11].C. bore hole wall. Geologic setting The clay-shale in Okada is part of Imo shale outcrop that is an arcuate belt from Western Nigeria to the East. and Sulymon. as Drilling Mud Clay.50 25/ E (Fig. Prevailing economic realities in developing countries with respect to increasing debt burden and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The soil samples were subjected to mineralogical and chemical analyses. Bulk of the materials used for drilling operations in Nigeria are imported and huge amount of foreign exchange can be saved if some of these materials can be sourced locally. C. The Imo Formation in the eastern part is a lateral equivalent of the Akinbo Formation in Western Nigeria [8].

2011. illite. The diffractogram of the Okada clay-shale show that it consists mainly of vermiculite. PW 1800. The chemical analysis of the clay samples and drilling mud clay samples was conducted using the Perkin Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS ) for the determination of major Oxides ( SiO2. S. The moderately sharp and prominent peaks exhibited are indicative of the degree of crystallinity. Co. Southwestern Nigeria. E. Cu.C. Mo ). illite and quartz are also very visible. kaolinite.. Na2O ) and trace elements ( Ni. N. vermiculite and quartz. occurring as a mixed layer with traces of chlorite. The prominent basal reflection of the mixed layered minerals.ray diffraction method with the aid of Phillip machine. Pb. C. and Sulymon. The diffractogram of the drilling mud show that it is composed of mainly montmorillonite. illite and quartz as indicated by their strong and sharp peaks are indicative of moderate to well crystalline mineral component. The mineralogical analysis was carried out using the X. CaO. Distinct peaks of kaolinite. MgO. as Drilling Mud Clay. K2O. Edo State. Al2O3. montmorilonite and glauconite peaks.A. Cr. 313 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. Fig. . 1 (4): 311-316. 1 Geological map Okada and adjoining areas.. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The diffractograms of the mineralogical analysis of the Okada clay-shale and drilling mud samples are presented in Fig 2 and 3. The soil samples were prepared using the cavity mount technique. Evaluation of Imo Clay-Shale Deposit (Paleocene) from Okada. Obrike.Osadebe. The diffractometer chart of the soil samples from the X-ray diffractometer run were compared with well established standards and interpreted with reference to Brindley[3] and Brown [5] and Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards [9] table of X-ray powder diffraction patterns.

Southwestern Nigeria. 3 Diffractogram of drilling mud sample. Obrike.Osadebe. 2 Typical diffractogram of the Okada shale sample Fig. Evaluation of Imo Clay-Shale Deposit (Paleocene) from Okada. N.C.A. C. 1 (4): 311-316. as Drilling Mud Clay. Fig.76% while the silica content of the drilling mud ranges from 57. and Sulymon. S. 2011. E. The summary result of the chemical analysis of the Okada clay-shale and drilling mud are presented in Table 2. ..60% to 314 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. Edo State.84% with an average value of 55. The SiO2 values for Okada clay-shale range from 55..75% to 55.

28-0. CaO.32 0.0 9.22 0.2 7.98 K2 O 0.shale in Okada and drilling mud OKADA CLAY-SHALE DRILLING MUD Parameters (% Ox.18-0.8-10.3 0.84%). Al2O3 (20.C.0-20. These values are high and indicate high water of crystallinty.0.0 0.50-17.75-0.0 1.5 Copper 10. Evaluation of Imo Clay-Shale Deposit (Paleocene) from Okada.Osadebe. The alumina content of drilling mud range from 27. The average loss on ignition values for the Okada clay-shale and drilling mud are 16.3-57.Mean values Range Mean values ide) SiO2 55.70 0.04 0. Na2O.92 1.0 Molybdenum 0.58-20. The average loss on ignition values for the Okada clay-shale and drilling mud are 16. as Drilling Mud Clay.012 0. and 0.2 15. E.2-1.5% to 20.90 27.70%) in the Okada clayshale classifies it as hydrated alumino silicates.1-21.70 0.02 0.04-0.20.75% – 55.28 0.0 4.16-0.0-16.20 Lead 5.02 1.06 MnO 0.6%. N.8-32. The predominance of SiO2 (55.25.8 tion) HEAVY METALS Mean values Range Mean values (mgL-1) Nickel 20.80 TiO2 1.8 respectively.77 55.20 Na2O 2. The ratio of silica to alumina in both Okada shale and drilling mud are high.30. Edo State. The alumina values of Okada clay-shale range from 20.02 respectively. .0-8.06 9. Table 2: Average chemical composition of clay.18-0.8 and 9. 57.24 0. 0. These values are high and indicate high water of crystallinity Very low mean values of ferric oxide were recorded for both the Okada shale and drilling mud.2-5. and MnO for the Okada clay-shale are 0.0 0.80 16.01-0.2 0.8 16.70% with an average value of 20.26 MgO 0.98 and 0.08 0.71-55.20. C.0 Cobalt 1.8-1. Obrike.15 0.32 0.5 0. an indication of the low amount of illite present.84 1.6-10.0 9.2 1.9 315 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation. suggesting the absence of iron bearing minerals. These values are low and have negligible effect on the shrinkage properties of the clays.0 Range 13.96-1.01-0. S. and Sulymon.20 P2O5 0.68-0.96-2. 0.24-1.28 0.84 57.22 0.2 0.94-2.20. Na2O and MnO for the analyzed sample of drilling mud is 0.50 Fe2O3 0.18-0.60 Al2O3 20.0 Range 57. The MgO and CaO content are generally low in contrast to values for calcareous Ewekoro and Gombe shale [6].9% with an average of 57.0 19.8 and 9.4 18 Chromium 30.6 8.0 13. CaO.28-0.A.05 1. which is an indication of low quantity of free quartz.5% . 1 (4): 311-316.25 CaO 0.3-27.6 20.0 29..8 respectively.02 0.0-16. the average composition of MgO.3 0.06 LOI (Loss in igni16.70 27.72 0. The relatively high values of Na2O for both Okada clay-shale and drilling mud is most probably due to the significant proportion of montmorillonite and the low content of K2O. 2.06 respectively. However.30% to 27. 1.0 15.7%.60%.23-0. 2011. The average values of MgO. Southwestern Nigeria.0 1..

No. glauconite and montmorillonite occurring as a mixed layer. 8. In Kogbe. Fayose.W and G. 14. Min.23-48. Consequently.A. Impact Publishers Nigeria Limited.Berry). British Standard Institute.(Ed. Geographical Regions of Nigeria. chlorite. 813p 10. Udoh. Rech. and A. Vol.S. Min. Southwestern Nigeria.. . Min. Geol. and Sulymon. Selected powder difractttion data for minerals. Whiteman (Eds) African Geology. R. Ibadan. 1980. blending and refining processes to reduce its loss on ignition and SiO2 values. Method of Testing Soil Civil Engineering Purposes. No.J. 7.G. Enormous savings on foreign exchange on importation of drilling mud will be saved and more job opportunities will be created with this new finding. G. 1924 5. Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS). 133p 13. G. the Okada clay-shale may require beneficiation. C. Mineralogical Geochemical and Economic Appraisal of some clay and shale deposits in South western and North Eastern Nigeria. CONCLUSION The Imo clay-shale from Okada contains appreciable amount of vermiculite.K. Order-disorder in clay mineral structures. Stratigraphy of strata exposed in the Ewekoro Quarry Western. W. In Brindley G.385 9.A. E. It is essentially smectite dominated. 18. S.Edition. 12.A. and Imeokparia.Geol. The clay-shale is characterized by high loss on ignition which is an indication of high water of crystallinity. Vol.W.. (ed). 1979. Composition and Properties of Oil Well Drilling Fluids. Pub. Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards.G. 1980.5. 1969. Heinemann 316 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation.. S. E. 1986.F.J. Private investors should be encouraged in the exploration and exploitation of the Okada clayshale.A. F.F. Rainfall distribution in Nigeria.S 1377) 1990. Geology of Nigeria 11. Nigeria. Emofurieta. Soc. (B. E. 1970. with quartz as the main subsidiary non-clay mineral.. Brown (eds) Crystal Structure in clay minerals and their X-ray identification. Philadelphia. Obrike..O. The X-ray identification and crystal structure of clay minerals.... Stratigraphic Paleontology of Afowo 1 well.. In Dessauvagie. 1965.. Brown. F. Adegoke. Bull.A. Micropaleontological investigation of Ewekoro area.O. Nigeria. Fayose. T.A. O. Micropal. as Drilling Mud Clay. No1. The result reveals that the Okada clayshale and the drilling mud have close chemical composition. Pp. 1972. C. Journal. W. third edition. Rogers. J. 150 pp 6. However. London. R.. L. Kogbe. Reyment. 151-159.3.Osadebe. N. Mineral Society. Brindley.C. Evaluation of Imo Clay-Shale Deposit (Paleocene) from Okada. Ogbe. 2.. 1980.. Jour. London 4.O. 1980. British Standard. The Cretaceous and Paleogene Sediments of Southern Nigeria.Eocene Stratigraphy of Southern Nigeria. 30(2). C. Min. E.W Nigeria.Aspect of the Geology of Nigeria. Ibadan Univ. Ibadan Univ. the Okada clay-shale can serve as a good source of raw material for drilling. L. pp 369. S. Bur.G..O. Geol. Ogundimu. Akintola. Press. Nigeria.A and Azeez. 1970. Press.. 1994. Mern. 2011.W. 1989. References 1. Nigeria 3. 1 (4): 311-316. 69. Edo State. Ibadan.