This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

®

Geostatistics Workbook

E005 Rev. B

© 2002, 2001, 1994, and 1978 by MINTEC, inc. All rights reserved. No part of this document shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written permission from MINTEC, inc. All terms mentioned in this document that are known to be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies have been appropriately identified. MineSight® is a registered trademark of MINTEC, inc. acQuire® is a registered trademark of Metech Pty Ltd

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc.

Table of Contents

**MineSight for Modelers Geostatistics Table of Contents
**

Using This MineSight Workbook......... ..............................................................Intro-1 MineSight Overview............................................................................................Over-1 Geostatistics Overheads.........................................................................................1 Classical Statistics.................................................................................................1-1 Variograms..............................................................................................................2-1 Point Validation/Cross Validation for Variogram Evaluation..............................3-1 Declustering............................................................................................................4-1 Model Interpolation (Inverse Distance Weighting and Ordinary Kriging)..........5-1 Debugging Interpolation Runs.............................................................................. 6-1 Point Validation/Cross Validation of Estimation Methods and/or Search Parameters...............................................................................................................7-1 Model Statistics/Geologic Reserves......................................................................8-1 Model Calculations..................................................................................................9-1 Quantifying Uncertainty........................................................................................10-1 Change of Support.................................................................................................11-1 Outlier Restricted Kriging......................................................................................12-1 Indicator Kriging to Define Geologic Boundary Above a Cutoff........................13-1 Muliple Indicator Kriging.......................................................................................14-1 Other Non-Kriging Interpolation Methods...........................................................15-1

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Page TOC-1

Page TOC-2 Part #: E005 Rev. B .Table of Contents Proprietary Information of Mintec. inc.

but once you feel comfortable with the system. we would like to thank you for taking the opportunity to enrich your understanding of MineSight through taking this training course offered by Mintec Technical Support. the large number of programs becomes an asset because of the flexibility it affords.move the mouse while holding down the left mouse button Highlight . Please start out by reviewing this material on workbook conventions prior to proceeding with the training course documentation. B Page Intro-1 . MineSight provides a large number of programs with wide ranges of options within each program.drag the mouse pointer across data. Please review this section carefully to benefit fully from the training material and this training course.Proprietary Information of Mintec. This workbook does not cover all the capabilites of MineSight. for using MineSight with a project. Following this is an outline of the process using the menu system. inc.press and release the right mouse button Drag . Leading off each workbook section are the learning objectives covered by the subject matter within the topic section. This may seem overwhelming at times. and terms and conventions used in the Mintec workbooks. Notes: Introduction to the Course To begin. or series of steps. What You Need to Know This section explains for the student the mouse actions. and finally an example is presented of the results of the process. This workbook is designed to present concepts clearly and then give the user practice through exercises to perform the stated tasks and achieve the required results. notify your instructor before moving on to the next section in the workbook. causing the image to reverse in color Point . Using this Mintec Workbook Using this Mintec Workbook The objective of this workbook is to provide hands on training and experience with the MineSight Operations package.position the mouse pointer on the indicated item Terms and Conventions Part #: E005 Rev.click the left mouse button twice in rapid succession Right-click . All sections of this workbook contain a basic step. Using the Mouse The following terms are used to describe actions you perform with the mouse: Click -press and release the left mouse button Double-click . but concentrates on typical mine geologists duties using a given set of data. keyboard functions. If you are unable to achieve these key tasks or understand the concepts.

are printed in Arial font. for example Print. please contact the Mintec Documentation Specialist at (520) 795-3891 or via e-mail at market@mintec. italics. bold.are printed in bold with the initial letter capitalized. with a vertical bar. for example. SRV). embedded within arrow brackets and keys are separated with a + when used in combination. GSM. in Times New Roman font.Using this Mintec Workbook Proprietary Information of Mintec.are printed in Arial font. inc. in bullet format. Questions or Comments? Note: if you have any questions or comments regarding this training documentation. or polyline you need to edit. is clicked on to determine which Notes: the project coordinate units (metric or imperial) the project type (3-D. on a button. BHS. the Query icon.are printed in Times New Roman font. Parameters . move the mouse over the menu item and click the mouse. as an example.highlight a menu list item. as an example File I Open means access the File menu and choose Open. indicates an item you click on to produce a hard copy of a file. lower case. Button/Icon . The following terms and conventions are used in the Mintec workbooks: Actions or keyboard input instructions . Select . to apply bold face to type is indicated by <ctrl+shift+b>. . B . Menu Commands .com. Page Intro-2 Part #: E005 Rev.

blastholes. the horizontal components of a deposit are divided into blocks that are usually related to a production unit. Composites can be either generated in MineSight or generated outside the system and imported. After the data has been stored in the system. underground samples. the deposit is also divided horizontally into benches. such as porphyry copper or other non-layered deposits. Digitized Data Operations Digitized data is utilized in the evaluation of a project in many ways. updated. Assay data can then be passed on to the next logical section of MineSight which is compositing. It can be used to define geologic information in section or plan. A 3-D block model (3DBM) is generally used to model base metal deposits. Value and consistency checks can be performed on the data before it is loaded into MineSight. etc. The data and operations on the data can be broken down into the following logical groups. Ways to run MineSight programs. lithology and geology codes. The capabilities of each MineSight module. Composite data can be listed. geostatistically and statistically analyzed. inc. whereas in a Part#: E005 Rev B Notes: Page Over-1 . Drillhole Data Operations A variety of drillhole data can be stored in MineSight. quality parameters for coal. deposits can be represented by a computer model of one of two types. and down-the-hole survey data. and reserves estimation and reporting. MineSight Overview MineSight Overview Learning Objectives When you have completed this section. mine modeling. Modeling Operations Within MineSight. plotted in plan or section and viewed in 3-D. Compositing Operations Composites are calculated by benches (for most base metal mines) or mineral seams (for coal mines) to show the commodity of interest on a mining basis. it can be listed. updated. Composite data is passed on to the next phase of MineSight. MineSight has been designed to take raw data from a standard source (drillholes. Any digitized data can be triangulated and viewed as a 3-D surface in MineSight.) and extend the information to the point where a production schedule is derived. B. such as coal or oil sands. you will know: A. C. collar information (coordinates and hole orientation). A gridded seam model (GSM) is used for layered deposits. The basic structure and organization of MineSight. ore body modeling. What Is MineSight? MineSight is a comprehensive software package for the mining industry containing tools used for resource evaluation and analysis. mine planning and design. In both models. Digitized data is used or derived in virtually every phase of a project from drillhole data through production scheduling. including assays. to define structural information. geostatistically and statistically analyzed. to define topography contours.Proprietary Information of Mintec. plotted in plan or section and viewed in 3-D. mine designs and other information that is important to evaluate the ore body. In a 3DBM.

inc. Usually one grade or equivalent grade item is used as the economic material. For a GSM. including mill production by ore type. and viewed in 3-D. and are used in the calculation of production schedules. a variety of items may be stored. Grade data is usually entered through interpolation techniques. summarized statistically. pushbacks. mill head grades and waste Preparation of end-of-production period maps Calculation and storage of yearly mining schedules for economic analysis Evaluation of alternate production rates and required mining capacity Page Over-2 Part#: E005 Rev. net value of the product. and can be viewed in 3-D. Original topography is used as the starting surface for the design. seam bottom. Many other items may also be present. Economic Pit Limits & Pit Optimization This set of routines works on whole blocks from the 3-D block model. Once the model is constructed. Pit Design The Pit Design routines are used to geometrically design pits that include ramps.MineSight Overview Proprietary Information of Mintec. mine capacity. such as quality parameters. partings. Other items. The basic input parameters for each production period include mill capacity. The model is a necessary prerequisite in any pit design or pit evaluation process. The designs can be plotted in plan or section. a block in a 3DBM will contain grade items. Solids can also be created in the MineSight 3-D graphical interface for use in coding the model directly. Production Scheduling This group of programs is used to compute schedules for long-range planning based upon pushback designs (or phases). can be clipped against topography if desired. can also be stored. Pit designs can be displayed in plan or section. For each block in the model. Typically. and pit wall slope. B . and reserves computed by the mine planning programs. Functions provided by the scheduling programs include: Notes: Calculation and reporting of production for each period. viewed in 3-D. The user enters costs. GSM the vertical dimensions are a function of the seam and interburden thicknesses. or they can be entered directly as block codes. and reserves can be calculated for the grade item that was used for the design. plotted in plan or section. and variable wall slopes to more accurately portray a realistic open pit geometry. Manually designed pits can also be entered into the system and evaluated. geological codes. and new surfaces are generated which reflect the economic designs. and a topography percent. it can be updated. cutoff grades. contoured in plan or section. and uses either the floating cone or Lerchs-Grossmann technique to find economic pit limits for different sets of economic assumptions. Geologic and topographic data can be digitized and converted into codes for the model. such as Kriging or inverse distance weighting. the seam top elevation and seam thickness are required. Simple production scheduling can also be run on these reserves. etc. A variety of methods can be used to enter data into the model. Reserves for these pit designs are evaluated on a partial block basis. and cutoff grades.

inc. and reserves. displays. design a pit.Proprietary Information of Mintec. calculate composites. There are many other MineSight programs which can be used for geology. These tasks load the drillhole assays. MineSight Overview Notes: Basic Flow of MineSight The following diagram shows the flow of tasks for a standard mine evaluation project. Each procedure allows you to have a great amount of control over your data and the modeling process. intuitive functions for CAD design. develop a mine model. You decide on the values for all the options available in each procedure. Input screens will guide you through the entire operation. and prepare long-range schedules for financial analysis. or you can use the run files directly. the menus can be modified according to your needs. Ways to Run MineSight Programs MineSight consists of a large group of procedures and programs designed to handle the tasks of mineral deposit evaluation and mine planning. You can easily modify your choices to rerun the program. geostatistics. Just select the procedure you need from the menu. The MineSight 3-D graphical interface provides a Windows-style environment with a large number of easy-to-use. data presentation. statistics. When you enter these values into a procedure to create a run file. area and volume calculations and modeling. you have a record of exactly how each program was run. If you need more flexibility in certain parts of the operations. The menu system builds run files behind the scenes and runs the programs for you. Part#: E005 Rev B Page Over-3 . To allow for easier use. the MineSight Compass menu system has been developed.

inc. Flow of Tasks for a Standard Mine Evaluation Project PCF Initialize Update List Drillhole Assays Enter Scan Load Edit List Dump Rotate Add Geology Statistics Variograms Plot Collars Plot Sections Special Calculations 3-D Viewing and Interpretation Load Edit List Dump Add Geology Add Topography Statistics Variograms Variogram Validation Plot Sections Plot Plans Special Calculations Sort 3-D Viewing and Interpretation Initialize Interpolate Add Geology Add topography List Edit Statistics Reserves Special Calculations Plot Sections Plot Plans Contour Plots Sort 3-D Viewing & Solids Construction Creat Pit Optimization Model Run Pit Optimization Pit Optimization Reserves Pit Optimization Plots Run Pit Design Pit Design Reserves Pit Design Plots Reserves 3-D Views Composites Digitized Data Digitize Load Edit List Dump Plot 3-D Viewing Mine Model Pit Designs Planning & Scheduling Long Range Short Range Page Over-4 Part# E005 Rev B .MINESIGHT OVERVIEW Proprietary Information of Mintec.

000 blocks containing one item (the number of blocks allowed drops as the number of items per block rises) Unlimited benches and sections 30 items per block Notes: Part#: E005 Rev B Page Over-5 .285 assay intervals per file 8. MineSight Overview MineSight Capacities Drillholes No limit to the number of drillholes. only limited by the total number of assays in the system 99 survey intervals per drillhole 524. 1000 rows and 200 seams 99 items per block Multiple model files allowed (usually one is all that is required) Digitized Point Data 4. 1000 rows and 400 benches Gridded seam model limit of 1000 columns.189 composites per drillhole 99 items per composite interval Multiple composite files allowed (usually one is all that is required) Geologic Model 3-D block model limit of 1000 columns.either plan or section 20.Proprietary Information of Mintec.000 features (digitized line segments) per plane 100.189 assay intervals per drillhole 99 items per interval Multiple drillhole files allowed (usually one is all that is required) Composites 524.285 assay intervals per file 8.000 planes per file .000.000 points per plane 99 features with the same code per plane and a unique sequence number Multiple files allowed Pit Optimization (Floating cone/Lerchs-Grossman programs) 600 row by 600 column equivalent (rows * columns < 360000) Multiple files are allowed Reserves 20 material classes 20 cutoff grades for each material class 10 metal grades Multiple reserves files allowed Slice Files for Interactive Planning and Scheduling 2. inc.

021 blastholes per shot with expanded limit File 12 99 items per blasthole Multiple blasthole files allowed (usually one is all that is required) Notes: Page Over-6 Part#: E005 Rev.194.189 blastholes per shot with standard File 12 4. inc.MineSight Overview Proprietary Information of Mintec. B .285 blastholes per file with standard File 12 8.301 blastholes per file with expanded limit File 12 1. Blastholes 524.

Topics • Basic Statistics • Data Analysis and Display • Analysis of Spatial Continuity (variogram) Basic Statistics Definitions • • • • • • • Statistics Geostatistics Universe Sampling Unit Support Population Random Variable Statistics • The body of principles and methods for dealing with numerical data • Encompasses all operations from collection and analysis of the data to the interpretation of the results • 1 .Introduction to Geostatistics Objective: To make you familiar with the basic concepts of statistics. and the geostatistical tools available to solve problems in geology and mining of an ore deposit Classical Statistics • Sample values are realizations of a random variable • Samples are considered independent • Relative positions of the samples are ignored • Does not make use of the spatial correlation of samples Geostatistics • Sample values are realizations of random functions • Samples are considered spatially correlated • Value of a sample is a function of its position in the mineralization of the deposit • Relative position of the samples is taken under consideration.

the outcome of a coin toss. drillhole core samples will not have the same support as blasthole samples) Population • Like universe. geostatistics will refer only to the statistical methods and tools used in ore reserve analysis Universe The source of all possible data (for example. a grab sample etc. an ore deposit can be defined as the universe. population refers to the total category under consideration • It is possible to have different populations within the same universe (for example. sampling unit and support must be specified) Random Variable A variable whose values are randomly generated according to a probabilistic mechanism (for example.Geostatistics Throughout this workbook. or the grade of a core sample in a diamond drill hole) • 2 . one must specify the sampling unit when making statements about a universe) Support • Characteristics of the sampling unit • Refers to the size. shape and orientation of the sample (for example.. channel sample. sometimes a universe may not have well defined boundaries) Sampling Unit Part of the universe on which a measurement is made (can be a core sample. population of drillhole grades versus population of blasthole grades.

∫f(x)dx = 1 F requency Distribution Cumulative Density Function (cdf) Proportion of the population below a certain value: F(x) = P(X≤x) 1.f(x) ≥ 0 2.6 0.4 0. Max Quartiles Percentiles • 3 . 11. 7. 1. Σf(xi) = 1 • Continuous: 1.3 0. F(x) is non decreasing 3. f(xi) ≥ 0 for xi∈R (R is the domain) 2.4 0. 7. 2.6 0.9 0.2 0.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 CDF 1 0.2 0.7 0.3 0. 5 PDF 1 0.7 0. 3.8 0. 0≤F(x) ≤ 1 for all x 2.F requency Distribution Probability Density Function (pdf) • Discrete: 1. F(-∞)=0 and F(∞)=1 Example Assume the following population of measurements: 1.5 0.9 0. 1.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Descriptive Measures • • • • • • Measures of location: Mean Median Mode Min.8 0.5 0. 3.

1. 1.Mean m = 1/n Σxi i=1.. 3.. 11.. 5 m =? Mean m= (1+ 7+ 1+ 3+ 2+ 3+ 11+ 1+ 7+ 5)/10= = 41/10= = 4. 7. 7.33 Median M = x(n+1)/2 if n is odd M = [x n/2+x(n/2)+1]/2 if n is even Midpoint of the data values if they are sorted in increasing order • 4 . 3.1 Mean What is the mean if we remove highest value? Mean m= (1+ 7+ 1+ 3+ 2+ 3+ 1+ 7+ 5)/9= = 30/9= = 3.. 2.n Arithmetic average of the data values Mean What is the mean of the example population: 1.

1. 1. 3.11 Mode = 1 Quartiles Split data in quarters Q1 = 1st quartile Q3 = 3rd quartile In example: Q1=? Q3=? • 5 . 7. 1. 5.11 M=3 Other • • • • • • • Mode Minimum Maximum Quartiles Deciles Percentiles Quantiles Mode The value that occurs most frequently In our example: Mode=? Mode 1. 3. 5. 7. 1. 2. 3. 2.Median What is the median of example population? M=? Median Sort data in increasing order: 1. 7 . 7 . 3.

1) Max Median on the CDF Descriptive Measures Measures of spread: • Variance • Standard Deviation • Interquartile Range • 6 . 1.11 Q1= 1 Q3= 6 Deciles. 3. 3. 5. Percentiles. 2. 7 . 1. 7 . 5. 3. 3. 7.Quantiles 1. 2.Quartiles 1.11 D1= 1 D3= 1 D9= 7 Mode on the PDF Mean on the PDF Mode (also min) Mean(=4. 7. 1. 1.

2.41+ 1.43+ 5.43+1.1)2+ (3-4.33)2+ (1-3.33)2+ (7-3.469) = = 48/8 = =6 Standard Deviation s = √s2 • Has the same units as the variable • Never negative Standard Deviation Example: S2= 11.21 • Sensitive to outlier high values • Never negative Variance Remove high value: 1.43+ 5.33)2 = = 1/8 (5.469+ 13. 3. 3.789+ 13.61+ 4.1)2+ (7-4.1)2+ (1-4.21+ 1. 7 .81+ 8. 2..61+ 9.41+ 47.33)2+ (5-3.1 S2= 1/9 {(1-4. 1.1)2+ (7-4.348 S2 = 6 S =2.33)2+ (7-3. 7 M=3.21 S = 3. 1. 5.Variance S2 = 1/(n-1) Σ(xi-m)2 i=1..1)2+ (1-4.1)2+ (5-4.33)2+ (3-3.1)2+ (3-4.769+ 0.1)2 } = = 1/9 (9..1)2+ (2-4. 1. 7.445 Interquartile Range IQR = Q3 .9/9 = = 11. 1.41+ 8. 3. 7.11 M=4.33)2+ (1-3.33)2+ (3-3.n Variance Example: 1.33 S2= 1/8 {(1-3.33)2+ (2-3..61) = = 100.109+ 0. 5.109+ 2. 3.61+ 9.Q1 Not used in mining very often • 7 .21+ 0.1)2+ (11-4.

7 M=3.33+ 0. 7.39+328.3)3+ (2-3.79-8.3)3+ (5-3.0.2.3)3 } = = 1/10 (-12.3)3+ (1-3.11 M=4. 3.44/9 = = 7.3)3+ (3-3.65+ 50.2. dev.3)3+ (7-3.17.1)3+ (7-4.03+ 4. 3.91+ 50.39+ 24.17.1)3+ (3-4.73+ 24.1)3+ (1-4.79-29.72 Skewness Remove high value: 1. 1. 7. 7 .82-1.1)3+ (2-4.12. 3.51) = = 277. dev.79-29.12.03.3 Sk= 1/10 {(1-3.1)3+ (11-4. 5.65) = = 67.49 Positive Skewness Peakedness • • • • Peakedness = [1/n Σ(xi-m)4] / s4 Fourth moment about the mean divided by the fourth power of the std. 1.1)3+ (3-4.3)3+ (7-3. • Positive .1)3+ (1-4.1)3+ (5-4.33 1.17. 2.1)3+ (7-4.1)3 } = = 1/10 (-29. 5. Describes the degree to which the curve tends to be pointed or peaked Higher values when the curve is peaked Usefulness is limited • 8 .3)3+ (3-3.0.2/10 = = 27. 1.tail to the left Skewness Example: 1. 2.Descriptive Measures Measures of shape: • Skewness • Peakedness (kurtosis) • Coefficient of Variation Skewness Skewness = [1/n Σ(xi-m)3] / s3 • Third moment about the mean divided by the cube of the std.3)3+ (1-3. 1.tail to the right • Negative . 3.1 Sk= 1/10 {(1-4.

• 95% of the values are within two std. • Extensive tables have been prepared to simplify calculation • Most statistics books include tables for the std.445/3.743 Normal Distribution f(x) = 1 / (s √2π) exp [-1/2 ((x-m)/s)2] • symmetric. dev.Coefficient of Variation CV = s/m • No units • Can be used to compare relative dispersion of values among different distributions • CV > 1 indicates high variability Coefficient of Variation In our example: CV = 3. normal distribution • mean = 0 and s = 1 • standardize any variable using: z = (x-m) / s Normal Distribution Tables • The cumulative distribution function F(x) is not easily computed for the normal distribution.817 Remove high value: CV = 2. bell-shaped • 68% of the values are within one std.1 =0. Normal Distribution curve Std.33=0. normal distribution • 9 .348/4. dev.

• 10 . as follows: P(x > 0.5) = 1 .Example of cdf (normal) Find the proportion of sample values above 0. The value of F(1) = 0. y.3.5). β> 0 where u= (ln x -α ) 2 / 2β 2 α= mean of logarithms β= variance of logarithms ≤ 0.q1 q2 ) / (q1 + q2 + 2M) Bivariate Distribution • Joint distribution of outcomes from two random variables X and Y: F(x.m) / s = (0.5 . P(x > 0.3) / 0.5 cutoff in a normal population that has m =0. z = (x0 . and s = 0.β 2 /2 • β 2 = log [1 + (σ2 /µ 2)] Lognormal Distribution Curve Three-Parameter LN Distribution Logarithm of a random variable plus a constant.0. to unit normal. ln (x+c) is normally distributed Constant c can be estimated by: c = (M2 . x0 . and Y≤y} • In practice.5 Conversion Formulas Conversion formulas between the normal and lognormal distributions: Lognormal to normal: • µ = exp (α+β 2 /2) • σ2 = µ2 [exp(β 2) .1] Normal to lognormal: • α = logµ .8413 = 0. transform the cutoff.2 = 1 • Next. find the value of F(z) for z = 1. it is estimated by the proportion of pairs of data values jointly below the respective threshold values x. 16% of the samples in the population are > 0.5) = 1 .5 cutoff.F(1) = 1 -0.8413 from Table • Calculate the proportion of sample values above 0.16 • Therefore.2 Solution: • First.P(x Lognormal Distribution Logarithm of a random variable has a normal distribution f(x) = 1 / (x β√2 π) e -u for x > 0.y) = Prob {X≤x.

+ .500 +***** .. 9 ...130 . + 80 ....999 2. +...261 .Statistical analysis • To organize...700 +* .. + 28 ..400 +**** . + .200 + . understand.999 3.531 .611 ..976 1.. 3 .093 .900 +**** ..998 2..700 +***** ..354 . + 84 . FREQ LIMIT 0 20 40 60 80 100 ------------+.... + 86 .400 +** .. + 34 . 0 .200 +** .. .893 1.859 1. + 925 1.751 1. 1 1. 0 . +.600 +**** .+ ... + 70 . 0 ..500 + .966 1.. ..300 + .600 +* ..000 3.... + 48 .... .100 + . -----------+ ..200 +** .700 + .. 1 .. + 29 .800 +**** .900 + .440 ...100 +** ..991 2.182 .999 2....... UPPER FREQ.958 1. 4 . 16 .. + 31 . and/or describe data • To check for errors • To condense information • To uniformly exchange information E rror Checking • • • • Avoid zero for defining missing values Check for typographical errors Sort data..500 +* ..800 + . 3 ... + 43 .100 +*****.979 2...941 1..600 + ....700 + .. + 86 ....000 0 20 • 11 . + 74 .....000 +*** ..800 + ..600 + ..920 1. 6 .828 1.+ . + 73 ..686 .+ 25 .+ . 3 . 8 .999 3.300 +** ..798 1....000 + .500 + .999 3.400 + . +. 1 .. examine extreme values Plot sections and plan maps for coordinate errors • Locate extreme values on map. 0 . + 60 .990 2.986 2.300 +*** ...+ 19 .. Isolated? Trend? Data Analysis and Display Tools • Frequency Distributions Data Analysis and Display Tools • • • • • • • • Correlation Correlation Coefficient Linear Regression Data Location Maps Contour Maps Symbol Maps Moving Window Statistics Proportional Effect • • • • • Histograms Cumulative Frequency Tables Probability plots Scatter Plots Q-Q plots Histograms • Visual picture of data and how they are distributed • Bimodal distributions show up easily • Outlier high grades • Variability Histogram in text file # CUM.995 2.

2134 .00 71.6118 2.5682 1. data value = .800 1.00 840.200 1.2266 .4012 1.00 1240.00 35.00 2.00 310.0174 .3614 2.400 3.200 .55 5.92 8.6550 3. Deviation = .46 .7165 1.0174 Min.1917 1.8365 1.0025 1.6858 .0174 .2006 .46 .6550 3.25 . data value = 3.1697 2.8667 3. = Coeff.V.6550 3.600 1.000 1.6550 3.00 205.600 SAMPLES ABOVE 2399.200 2.8782 .08 .600 .400 1.08 .000 3. Histograms with skewed data Cumulative Frequency Tables CUTOFF CU . .76 12.69 35.800 2.V.00 2.00 72. of variation = Standard deviation / mean 2399 Intervals used out of 2412 Probability Plots • Shows if distribution is normal or lognormal • Presence of multiple populations • Proportion of outlier high grades Probability Plot • 12 .600 2.08 MEAN ABOVE .2106 .1966 .00 PERCENT ABOVE 100.00 522.000 2.6550 C.08 .00 133.00 1.00 1717.00 11.0174 .2663 .200 3.450 C.4809 .3889 .9206 2.0000 Max.1947 .800 3.3229 .57 51.00 2.00 2.01 21.6550 3.0174 .Histogram Plot Histograms with skewed data • Data values may not give a single informative histogram • One histogram may show the entire spread of data.08 .00 21.400 .2002 .0174 .00 6.08 . but another one may be required to show details of small values.400 2.000 .54 3.00 2.5129 .00 2.6133 .88 .7000 Std.

Scatter Plots

• Simply an x-y graph of the data • It shows how well two variables are related • Unusual data pairs show up • For skewed distributions, two scatter plots may be required to show both details near origin and overall relationship.

Scatter Plot

L inear Regression

• y = ax + b a = slope, b = constant of the line • a = r (σy/σx) • b = my - amx

L inear Regression

Different ranges of data may be described adequately by different regressions Cu<5, Mo<0.5 y= 6.526x +0.127

L inear Regression

Q-Q Plots

• Quantile-Quantile plots • Straight line indicates the two distributions have the same shape • 45-degree line indicates that mean and variance are the same.

Cu<0.5, Mo<0.05 y= 8.363x +0.049

•

13

Q-Q plot

Covariance

Covxy= 1/n Σ(xi-mx)(yi-my) i=1,...,n Where mx = mean of x values and my = mean of y values

**High Positive Covariance
**

x-mx<0 x-mx>0 y-my>0

my

Covariance Near Zero

y-my<0 mx

Large Negative Covariance

Covariance

It is affected by the magnitude of the data Values: Multiply x and y values by C, then covariance increases be C2.

•

14

Covariance

C = 2097.5

Correlation

Three scenarios between two variables: • Positively correlated • Negatively correlated • Uncorrelated

C=20.975

Correlation Coefficient

r = Covxy / σxσy • r = 1, straight line, positive slope • r = -1, straight line, negative slope • r = 0, no correlation • May be affected by a few outliers • It removes the dependence on the magnitude of the data values.

Correlation Coefficient

ρ = 0.99

Correlation Coefficient

Correlation Coefficient

ρ = -0.03

ρ = -0.97

•

15

Correlation Coefficient It measures linear dependence ρ = -0.08 Data Location Map Contour Maps Symbol Maps • Each grid location is represented by a symbol that denotes the class to which the value belongs • Designed for the line printer • Usually not to scale Moving Window Statistics • Divide area into several local areas of same size • Calculate statistics for each smaller area • Useful to investigate anomalies in mean and variance Proportional Effect • • • • Mean and variability are both constant Mean is constant. variability is constant Both mean and variability change • 16 . variability changes Mean changes.

Proportional Effect Plot • 17 .

Spatial continuity H.Y) X • 18 . Spatial continuity Moment of inertia For a scatter plot that is roughly symmetric about the line x=y.Z(xi+h)]2 • Semi-variogram will be referred as variogram for convenience (X. γ = moment of inertia about x=y = average squared distance from x=y =1/n Σ [1/√2 (xi-yi)2] =1/2n Σ (xi-yi)2 Moment of inertia Variogram • Measures spatial correlation between samples Y (X-Y)/√2 X-Y γ(h) = 1 / 2n Σ [Z(xi) . the moment of inertia about this line can serve as a useful index of the strength of the relationship.scatter plots Plot the value at each sample location versus the value at a nearby location Spatial continuity A series of h-scatter plots for several separation distances can show how the spatial continuity decays with increasing distance. You can further summarize spatial continuity by calculating some index of the strength of the relationship seen in each h-scatter plot.

10 and ..19)2 + (.1073E+00 + X .9300E-01 + ..2361E+00 + . x4 and x5 . for h=30.18)2 + (.7869E-01 + .09)2 ] = 0.2218E+00 + X X .10 4.2601E+00 6 250 .14-.125 [(-.+ .100 9734 79.09 Therefore.19 and . we get γ(30) = 1/(2*3) [(x1-x3)2 + (x2-x4) 2 + (x3-x5)2 ] = 1/6 [(..0081 + .7286E+00 .4 -.14-.2508E+00 7 300 . we get γ(15)=1/(2*4)[(x1-x2)2+(x2-x3)2+(x3-x4)2+(x4-x5)2 ] = 1/8 [ (.6 -.250 45989 225.2434E+00 9 400 .9 .10 3.28-. x2 and x4 .2490E+00 4 150 .0001 ) = 0.2757E-02 .3577E-01 + .1 -.500 32113 473.1932E+00 + .1789E+00 + . or . x1 and x2 .09)2 + (.6915E+00 FROM TO PAIRS DISTANCE DRIFT V(H) 1 0 .05)2 + (.200 32117 175. or .7488E+00 .Variogram • Function of distance • Vector • Depends on distance and direction Variogram parameters • Range • Sill • Nugget Effect Sample variogram output TYPE: NORMAL TRANSFORMATION: NONE VARIABLE: CU MEAN .7113E+00 .7 -.19-.2505E+00 8 350 .1030E+00 2 50 .2790E+00 + .400 46522 373.28 and .1505E-01 .2270E+00 .50 2666 30.00448 Computation 2 For the second step (h=30).10-.125 ( .16667 ( . or .300 47351 275.09 Therefore.2560E+00 5 200 .7419E+00 .19)2 + (..16667 ( ..00748 • 19 .19 3.5008E-01 + .8 -.2536E-01 . or .09)2] = 0. or .4401E-01 .4 .01)2 ] = 0.09)2 + (..28)2 + (.2075E+00 + . x1 and x3 .2560E-01 .0025 + .14 and .3154E-01 .2448E+00 10 450 .28-. there are 3 pairs: 1.7981E+00 .7270E+00 .125 ( ..8056E+00 .10)2 + (.1216E+00 + . or . x2 and x3 .0359 ) γ(15) = 0. there are 4 pairs: 1.2 -. x3 and x5 .150 23036 126..6439E-01 + .1502E+00 + . or .7417E+00 .10)2 ] = 0.2186E+00 3 100 .7 -.7154E-02 + .16667 [(-.0324 + .14)2 + (.28 2.10)2 + (.1359E+00 + .14 and .-+ 250.19 and .0449 ) γ(30) = 0.8209E-03 ..0100 ) = 0..2306E-01 .450 40313 424.2647E+00 + X .0081 + .19 2.4489E-01 .19-.28 and .2589E-01 ..0196 + .7652E+00 .2146E-01 + .1645E+00 + .. for h=15.2504E+00 + XX XXXX .350 51794 324. x3 and x4 .5 -. 500 Data for computation Computation 1 For the first step (h=15)..

Computation 3 For the third step (h=45). 75-125... Windows and Band Widths Fitting a Theoretical Model • Draw the variance as the sill (c + c0 ) • Project the first few points to the y-axis. there is only one pair: x1 and x5 . • Lag = 50.5 ( . tolerance = 25 0-75. or . • Using the estimates of range. the variogram calculation stops at h=60.14-. for h=45. strict tolerance = 25 0-25.0361 ) = 0.14 and . Class Size Three possible options: • Lag distance = 50 0-50.x5 ) 2 = ½ (. This is an estimate of the nugget (c0 ). • Lag = 50.14-.0025 ) γ(60) = 0.09)2 = 0.00942 Computation 4 For the fourth step (h=60). or . we get γ(45) = 1/(2*2) [(x1-x4 )2 + (x2-x5)2] = 1/4 [(. modify the parameters and repeat Step Four to obtain a better fit. 51-100. calculate a few points and see if the curve fits the sample variogram. • Project the same line until it intercepts the sill. 25-75.19)2 ] = 0. x1 and x4 .25 ( .09 Therefore.10 2. 75-125 etc.09.0016 + . This distance is two thirds of the range for spherical model. respectively..0377 ) γ(45) = 0. x2 and x5 .10)2 + (.25 ( . 125-175 etc. sill. The values for this pair are .14 and .04)2 + (. • If necessary. nugget and the equation of the mathematical model under consideration. we get γ(60) = 1/(2*1) (x1 . for h=60. there are 2 pairs: 1.5 (.00125 If we take another step (h=75). Therefore.28 and . Variogram models • • • • • Spherical Linear Exponential Gaussian Hole-Effect • 20 .25 [(. 101-151 etc. we see that there are no more pairs.28-.05)2 = 0. Therefore.09)2 ] = 0.

different ranges • Zonal same nugget and range.Variogram Models Variogram Models Sample Variogram Plot Types of Anisotropy • Geometric same sill and nugget. different sills Anisotropy Modeling Anisotropy • Geometric • 21 .

fit onedimensional models to the sample variograms in all directions • Make a rose diagram of ranges and find the direction of the longest range • If diagram looks like a circle. Rose diagram 45o 0o 90o Variogram Contours 135o Length of axes correspond to variogram ranges Nested Structures Variogram types • • • • • • • Normal Relative Logarithmic Covariance Function Correlograms Indicator Variograms Cross Variograms • 22 . there is anisotropy. If diagram looks like an ellipse. no anisotropy.Modeling Anisotropy • Zonal Modeling Geometrical Anisotropy: a recipe • Calculate variograms in different directions • Keeping nugget and sill the same. Use ellipse pattern in search parameters.

. Ranges stay the same 2. otherwise where: x is location. • m+h is the mean of all the data values whose locations are +h away from some other data location. Logarithmic Variogram • Variogram using the logarithms of the data instead of the raw data y = ln x or y = ln (x + c) for 3-parameter lognormal • Reduces or eliminates the impact of extreme data values on the variogram structure T ransformation from Logs To transform log parameters back to normal values: 1.c Covariance Function Variograms C(h) = 1/N Σ [vi vj . σ+h ) σ-h is the standard deviation of all the data values whose locations are -h away from some other data location: σ 2-h = 1/N Σ (vi2 .1] c0 = sill .1] 4.Relative Variogram γR (h) = γ(h) / [m(h) + c]2 c is a constant parameter used in the case of a three.. z(x) is the value at location x. if z(x) < zc i(x. Use the sill of the logarithmic variogram as the estimate of β2 3. • Pairwise Relative Variogram: γPR (h) = 1/(2n) Σ[(vi -vj ) 2 /((vi +vj )/2)2 ] vi and vj are the values of a pair of samples at locations i and j. zc is a specified cutoff value. Estimate the logarithmic mean (α) and variance (β2). m+h ] • v1 .m-h .parameter lognormal distribution.zc) ={ 0.m 2+h ) Indicator Variogram 1. (µ) and the variance ( σ2 ) of the normal data: µ = exp (α + β2 /2) σ 2 = µ2 [exp (β2 ) . Compute c (sill-nugget) and c0 (nugget) of the normal variogram: c = µ 2 [exp (clog ) .vn are the data values • m-h is the mean of all the data values whose locations are -h away from some other data location. respectively... Calculate the mean. γ(h) = C(0) .C(h) Correlograms ρ(h) = C(h) / ( σ-h . • 23 .m2-h ) σ+h is the standard deviation of all the data values whose locations are +h away from some other data location: σ2+h = 1/N Σ (vj 2 . Set the sill of the normal variogram = the variance ( σ2 ) 5.

kriging variance = Weighted square error = • 24 .0000 3.9400 2.5043 0.3890 0.7037 0. • Other names: Point validation.0532 KRIGING 0.0641 2.7000 1.0815 DIFF -0.6991 0.0010 Maximum = Skewness = Peakedness= Ave. while leaving the data point out.Cross Variograms γCR (h) = 1/2nΣ [u(xi)-u(xi+h)]2 * [v(xi)-v(xi+h)]2 Cross Validation • Predicts a known data point using an interpolation plan • Only the surrounding data points are used to estimate this point.0214 0.0200 2.3559 7. Minimum = = = 0.2869 -0.0045 0.1000 0. jack-knifing • Used to describe cross-continuity between two variables • Necessary for co-kriging and probability kriging Cross Validation • The least amount of average estimation error • Either the variance of the errors or the weighted square error (or variance) is closest to the average kriging variance. • The weighted square error (WSE) is given by the following equation: WSE = Σ [(1/σi 2) (ei)2 ] / Σ (1/σi2) Cross Validation Report Variable : CU ACTUAL Mean Std.3870 0. Dev.2100 1.5634 -0.

T he Necessity of Modeling • Suppose we have the data set below • It provides virtually no information about the entire profile Deterministic Models Depend on: • Context of data • Outside information (not contained in data) Probabilistic Models • The variables of interest in earth science data are typically the end result of vast number of processes whose complex interactions cannot be described quantitatively. There are 6 equally probable values of this random variable: 1.6 Functions of Random Variables Since the outcomes of a R. • Probabilistic random function models recognize this uncertainty and provide tools for estimating values at unknown locations once some assumptions about the statistical characteristics of the phenomenon are made.5. Example: if D is the variable defined as the result of throwing a die. •Data are not generated by a random process.4. 25 . we can define another random variable by performing mathematical operations on the outcome of a random variable.3. rather. available sample data are viewed as the result of a random process. Probabilistic Models • In a probabilistic model. are numerical values. 2D can be the variable defined as the result of throwing the die and doubling the result. their complexity appears as random behavior Random Variables • A random variable is a variable whose values are randomly generated according to some probabilistic mechanism.V. • The result of throwing a die is a random variable.2.

Expected value • Expected value of a random variable is its mean or average outcome. σ2 = E (x-µ)2 = -∞ ∫∞ (x-µ)2 f(x) dx • Std. is σ 26 . Different set of data will produce different statistics. µ = E(x) • E(x) refers to expectation: E(x) = -∞ ∫∞ x f(x) dx where f(x) is the probability density function of the random variable x. Example: Min. As the number of outcomes increases. Parameters of a Random Variable The parameters can not be calculated by observing the outcomes of a random variable. Two random variables may have the same mean and variance but their distributions may be different. Variance of a Random Variable • The variance of a random variable is the expected squared difference from the mean of the random variable. Max etc… The complete distribution can not be determined from the knowledge of only a few parameters. From a sequence of observed outcomes all we can calculate is sample statistics based on that set of data.Parameters of a Random Variable Parameters of a Random Variable The set of outcomes and their corresponding probabilities is sometimes referred to as the “probability distribution” of a random variable. we assume that the parameters of our random variable are the same as the sample statistics. These probability distributions have parameters that can be summarized. Parameters of a Random Variable The two most commonly parameters used in probabilistic approaches to estimation are the mean or expected value of the random variable and its variance. the sample statistics becomes more similar to their model parameters. dev. In practice.

[E(x1)] [E(x2)] Independence • Random variables are considered independent if the joint probability density function satisfies: p(x1 ..E(x2)]} = E(x1 x2) .V.xn) = p(x1) p(x2) . + E(xn) • If C is a constant. Expected value and Variance (same definition as before) 27 ..Expected value Example: Define R... then E(Cx) = C E(x) • If x1 ....y) Weighted Linear Combinations of Random Variables Estimate is an outcome of a random variable that is created by a weighted linear combination of other random variables.47 Joint Random Variables Random variables may also be generated in pairs according to some probabilistic mechanism. the outcome of one of the variables may influence the outcome of the other. x2 . x2 .+xn ) = E(x1) + E(x2) + . . ...... L=outcome of throwing two dice and taking the larger of the two values. xn are independent.. then Var(Cx) = C2 Var(x) • If x1 .. xn have finite expectation.E(x2)] [x2 .. then Var(x1 +x2 . then E(x1 +x2 ... What is the expected value of L? E(L)=1/36 (1)+3/36 (2)+5/36 (3) +7/36(4)+9/36 (5)+11/36 (6) = = 4..x2) = E {[x1 .x2 .e. probability of two event happening is the product of each event’s probability Expectation and variance Properties: • C is a constant. Covariance The dependence between two random variables is described by covariance • Cov(x1 .. p(xn) i..+Var(xn) • Var(x+y) = Var(x) + Var(y) + 2 Cov(x..+xn) = Var(x1)+Var(x2)+.

is a set of random variables that have some spatial locations and whose dependence on each other is specified by some probabilistic mechanism..n The questions: • What are the weights.Z * )2 = small • Robust Question: • How to calculate the weights so that they satisfy the required properties? 28 .Z * ) = 0 where Z * is the estimate and Z is the true value of the random variable • Error variance (spread of errors) is small Var (Z .. Parameters of R F • The set of realizations of a random function and their corresponding probabilities are often referred as the “probability distribution” • Like the histograms of sample values..F.Random Functions R. these probability distributions have parameters that summarize them Random Functions Parameters commonly used to summarize the behavior of the random function: Expected value Variance Covariance Correlogram Variogram Reality vs Model Reality: • sample values • summary statistics Model: • possible outcomes with corresponding probabilities of occurrence • parameters It is important to recognize the distinction between a model and the reality L inear Estimators • all estimation methods involve weighted linear combinations: estimate = z* = Σ wi z(xi) i = 1. z(xi) ? Desirable Properties Desirable properties of an estimator: • Average error = 0 (unbiased) E (Z .Z * ) = E (Z . wi ? • What are the values..

Z(x)]2 = 2γ(h) = finite and independent of x (variogram function) •We assume no drift . • Var[Z(x)]= σ2 . the covariance exists and depends only on the separation distance h. •If condition of no drift in a deposit cannot be satisfied. Second Order Stationarity E[Z(x)] = m. independent of the support point x. the intrinsic hypothesis of order zero is invoked.Random Process Assumptions • Strong stationarity • Second order stationarity • Intrinsic hypothesis Stationarity The independence of univariate and bivatiate probability laws from the location x is referred as stationarity. m = finite and independent of x E[Z(x+h). •The stationarity of covariance implies the stationarity of the variance as well as the variogram. the intrinsic hypothesis of order one is invoked. • In performing local estimation using ordinary kriging. •Under this assumption. and the existence and the stationarity of the variogram only. and depend only on the separation distance h.m2 = C(h) = finite and independent of x •For each pair of random variables Z(x+h) and Z(x). 29 . Z(x)] . m = finite and independent of x No gradual increase or decrease in grade for some specified direction (no drift). Universal kriging may be employed under the first order hypothesis. the following properties must be satisfied: • E[Z(x)] = m. m = finite and independent of x E[Z(x+h).C(h) Intrinsic Hypothesis The intrinsic hypothesis of order zero: E[Z(x)] = m. σ2 = finite and independent of x Constant parameter value of the underlying density functions. the relationship between the variogram and the covariogram is: γ(h) = C(0) . (They may depend on separation distance h) Strong Stationarity In order for a random function Z(x) to meet the strong stationarity requirement. •The covariance does not depend on the particular location x within the deposit.C(h) = Var[Z(x)] . Intrinsic Hypothesis Intrinsic hypothesis of order one: E[Z(x+h)-Z(x)]=m(h)=finite and independent of x E[Z(x+h)-Z(x)]2=2γ(h) = finite and independent of x • The difference in the mean must be finite.

En suring Unbiasednes s Estimated value: Z* = Σλi Z(xi) Estimated error: R* = Z*-Zo = ΣλiZ(xi) . make E{R*} = 0 E{R*} = E{Σλi Z(xi) . p is an arbitrary exponent. z(xi) refers to sample grade. Advantages: • Easy to understand and calculate manually • Fast Disadvantages: • Not unique solution • Only three samples receive weights • Extrapolation? • 3d? • No anisotropy • No error control Inverse Distance • Each sample weight is inversely proportional to the distance between the sample and the point being estimated: z* = [Σ (1/dip) z(xi ) ] / Σ (1/ dip) i = 1.n where z* is the estimate of the grade of a block or a point. E{R*} =ΣλiE{Z} .E{Zo} Using the strong stationarity requirement: E{Z(xi)} = E{Zo} = E{Z} Therefore. Σ wi = 1 Two limitations: • The average error is not guaranteed to be zero. only the expected value • The result is valid only if the linear combination belongs to the same statistical population E stimation methods Traditional: • Polygonal • Triangulation • Inverse distance Geostatistical: • Kriging Polygonal Assigns all weight to nearest sample..Zo Average error: r = 1/n Σ R* Set expected value of average error to zero: E{r} = E{1/n ΣR*} = 1/n ΣE{R*} = 0 To guarantee that E{r} = 0... and n is the number of samples 30 .E{Z} = 0 => (Σλi -1) E{Z} = 0 => Σλi -1 = 0 => Σλi =1 En suring Unbiasednes s • Sum of weights.Zo} = ΣλiE{Z(xi)} . Advantages: • Easy to understand • Easy to calculate manually • Fast • Declustered global histogram Disadvantages: • Discontinuous local estimates • Edge effect • No anisotropy • No error estimation T riangulation Weight at each triangle is proportional to the area of the opposite sub triangle..

U.Inverse Distance If p tends to zero =>local mean sample If p tends to ∞ => nearest neighbor method (polygonal) Traditionally. p = 2 Inverse Distance Advantages: • Easy to understand • Easy to implement • Flexible in adapting weights to different estimation problems • Can be customized Disadvantages: • Susceptible to data clustering • p? • No anisotropy • No error control Ordinary kriging Definition: Ordinary kriging is an estimator designed primarily for the estimation of block grades as a linear combination of available data in or near the block. w3. such that estimate is unbiased and has minimum variance. Linear because its estimates are weighted linear combinations of available data Unbiased since the sum of the weights adds up to 1 Best because it aims at minimizing the variance of errors...wn) • r = average error = 0 (unbiased) • Σ wi = 1 31 . z(xi) refers to sample grade.. w2. wi is the corresponding weight assigned to z(xi).n where z* is the estimate of the grade of a block or a point.…. Kriging Estimator Desirable Properties: • Minimize σ2 = F (w1. Kriging Estimator • z* = Σwi z(xi ) i = 1. for best linear unbiased estimator. and n is the number of samples. Ordinary kriging B..L.E.

Result: Ci.o • Σ λi = 1 • Use Lagrange method (Isaaks and Srivastava. • Vector D consists of the covariance values Ci0 between the random variables Vi at the sample locations and the random variable V0 at the location where an estimate is needed.o where σ2z is the sample variance Ci.j ) . pg 284-285).o • Error increases as variance of data increases • Error variance increases as data become more redundant • Error variance decreases as data are closer to the location of estimation Ordinary Kriging • Minimize error σ2R= σ2z + Σ Σ(λi λj Ci. Kriging System (block) 32 .j is the covariance between samples Ci.j) + µ Σ λi = 1 Kriging System (point) Previous equation in matrix form: Point Kriging (cont.) • Matrix C consists of the covariance values Cij between the random variables Vi and Vj at the sample locations.2 Σ λi C i.2 Σ λi C i.F.E rror variance Using R.o is the covariance between samples and location of estimation.o = Σ(λi Ci. parameters: σ2R= σ2z + Σ Σ(λi λj Ci. F.j ) . • Vector λ consists of the kriging weights and the Lagrange multiplier. you can express the error variance as a function of R.j ) .2 Σ λi C i. model. See Isaaks and Srivastava pg 281-284 E rror variance σ2R= σ2z + Σ Σ(λi λj Ci.

• The mean grade of the deposit is unknown.[Σ(λi CiA) + µ] Data independent Block Discretization To be considered: • Range of influence of the variogram used in kriging. • Horizontal and vertical anisotropy ratios. In block kriging. • Covariance values CiA no longer a point-to-point covariance like Ci0 . Kriging Variance σ2ok = CAA .Block Kriging (cont. 33 . y and z directions to approximate CiA .) • In point kriging. the A is discretized using a number of points in x. it consists of block-to-point covariances. • Size of the blocks with respect to this range. the covariance matrix D consists of point-to-point covariances. Advantages of kriging • Takes into account spatial continuity characteristics • Built-in declustering capability • Exact estimator • Calculates the kriging variance for each block • Robust Disadvantages of kriging • • • • computer required prior variography required more time consuming smoothing effect Assumptions • No drift is present in the data (Stationarity hypothesis) • Both variance and covariance exist and are finite. but the average covariance between a particular sample and all of the points within A: CiA = 1/A Σ Cij In practice.

use an ellipsoidal search • Orientation of this ellipse is important • If no anisotropy.E ffect of scale E ffect of shape Nugget Effect E ffect of range E ffect of Anisotropy Search Strategy • Define a search neighborhood within which a specified number of samples is used • If anisotropy. search ellipse becomes a circle and the question of orientation is no longer relevant 34 .

Declustering Clustering in high grade area: Naïve mean= (0+1+3+1+7+6+5+6+2+4+0+1)/ 12 = 3 Declustered mean= [(0+1+3+1+2+4+0+1) + (7+6+5+6)/4] /9 = =2 Declustering Clustering in mean grade area: Naïve mean= (7+1+3+1+0+6+5+1+2+4+0+6)/ 12 = 3 Declustered mean= [(7+1+3+1+2+4+0+6) + (0+6+5+1)/4] /9 = =3 35 .) Octant or Quadrant Search Importance of kriging plan An easily overlooked assumption in every estimate is the fact the sample values used in the weighted linear combination are somehow relevant.Search Strategy • Include at least a ring of drill holes with enough samples around the blocks to be estimated • Don’t extend the grades of the peripheral holes to the undrilled areas too far • Increasing vertical search distance has more impact on number of samples available for a given block. Deciding which samples are relevant for the estimation of a particular point or a block may be more important than the choice of an estimation method. as the point being estimated. than increasing horizontal search distance (in vertically oriented drillholes) • Limit the number of samples used from each individual drillhole Search strategy (cont. and that they belong to the same group or population.

. you may need to decluster.Declustering Clustering in low grade area: Naïve mean= (7+1+6+1+0+3+4+1+2+5+0+6)/ 12 = 3 Declustered mean= [(7+1+6+1+2+5+0+6) + (0+3+4+1)/4] /9 = =3. 36 .33 Declustering • Data with no correlation. vi ) / Σwi i=1. and vi are the sample values. wi are the declustering weights assigned to each sample... The denominator acts as a factor to standardize the weights so that they add up to 1. Declustering • Cell declustering • Polygonal Cell Declustering Each datum is weighted by the inverse of the number of data in the cell Polygonal Declustered Global Mean • DGM = Σ(wi ..n where n is the number of samples. do no need declustering (pure nugget effect model) • If variogram model has a long range and low nugget.

• Temporarily discard the sample value at a particular location and then estimate the value at that location using the remaining values.[Σ(λi CiA) + µ] Advantages Does not depend on data It can be calculated before sample data are available (from previous/know variography) Disadvantages Does not depend on data If proportional effect exists. we are going to use. Cross validation • It may suggest improvements • It compares. does not determine parameters • Reveals weaknesses/shortcomings Cross validation Check: • Histogram of errors • Scatter plots of actual versus estimate Cross validation Remember: • All conclusions are based on observations of errors at locations were we do not need estimates. after all. previous assumptions are not true 37 . • We remove values that. Quantifying Uncertainty One approach: • Assume that the distribution of errors is Normal • Assume that the ordinary kriging estimate provides the mean of the normal distribution • Build 95 percent confidence intervals by taking ±2 standard deviations either of the OK estimate Quantifying Uncertainty Kriging Variance σ2ok = CAA .Cross Validation • To check how well the estimation procedure can be expected to perform.

Z0 is the block estimate. and zi are the data values.Quantifying Uncertainty Quantifying Uncertainty Other approach Incorporate the grade in the error variance calculation: Relative Variance = Kriging Variance /Square of Kriged Grade Same Kriging Variance!!! Quantifying Uncertainty Combined Variance = sqrt (local variance * kriging variance) where local variance of the weighted average (σ2w ) is: σ2w = Σw2i * (Z0. n (n>1) where n is the number of data used. wi are the weights corresponding to each datum.zi )2 i = 1. Quantifying Uncertainty Relative Variability Index(RVI) = SQRT(Combined Variance) / Kriged Grade Change of Support N=4 M = 8.825 38 .825 Change of Support N = 16 M = 8.

variance of block grades (or the SMU grades) over that of point grades is non-conditional to surrounding data used for estimation.Change of Support >10 N = 2 = 50% M = 11.6 Change of Support • The mean above 0. Krige’s Relation (cont’d) Total σ2 = between block σ2 + within block σ2 σ2p = calculated directly from the composite or blasthole data σ2 p∈b = calculated by integrating the variogram over the block b σ2b = calculated using the Krige’s relation: σ2b = σ2p .σ2 p∈b 39 .0 cutoff does not change with a change in support • The variance of block distribution decreases with larger support • The shape of the distribution tends to become symmetrical as the support increases • Recovered quantities depend on block size Affine Correction Assumptions: • The distribution of block or SMU grades has same shape as the distribution of point or composite samples.e. Krige’s Relation σ2p = σ2b + σ2 p∈b σ2p = Dispersion variance of composites in the deposit (sill) σ2b = Dispersion variance of blocks in the deposit σ2 p∈b = Dispersion variance of points in blocks This is the spatial complement to the partitioning of variances which simply says that the variance of point values is equal to the variance of block values plus the variance of points within blocks. i.15 Change of Support >10 N = 5 = 31% M =18. • The ratio of the variances..

σold . the new mean may require rescaling: znew = (mold/mnew) zold 40 . σnew . K = √K2 ≤ 1 Affine Correction (cont.C.CV) b = Function of (σnew.smu) ] / γ(D.D) = 1 .CV). Transform: znew = azbold a = Function of (m. the shape of distribution changes with changes in variance.) Use affine correction if: (σ2p -σ2b) /σ2 p ≤ 30% Affine correction of Variance Indirect Lognormal method Assumption: all distributions are lognormal.[ γ(smu.σold.D) . see the notes CV: coefficient of variation = σold / mold Indirect Lognormal method Disadvantage: If the original distribution departs from log normality.j) Calculation of A.D) ] ≤ 1 Affine correction factor.γ(smu. K2 = σ2b / σ2p ≤ 1 (from the variogram averaging): K2 = [ γ(D.Krige’s Relation (cont’d) How to calculate σ2 p∈b ? Integrating the variogram over a block provides variance of points within the block σ2 p∈b = γblock = 1/n2 Σ Σ γ(hi.smu) / γ(D.

.m) / σp = (zsmu . of S. • Compare GT curves of block estimates to GT of adjusted BH model estimates. 1x1) • Average simulated grades to obtain simulated block grades Change of Support (applications) Design a search strategy: • Decluster composites/variogram • Define SMU units • Apply change of support from composites to SMU • Calculate the SMU GT curves. for Ore Grade/Tonnage Estimation Equivalent Cutoff Calculation (zp .Change of Support (other) Hermite Polynomials: • Declustered composites are transformed into a Gaussian distribution • Volume-variance correction is done on the Gaussian distribution • Then this distribution is back transformed using inverse Hermite Polynomials Change of Support (other) Conditional Simulation: • Simulate a realization of the composite (or blasthole) grades on a very closely spaced grid (for example. C. • “Guess at a search scenario • Krige blocks => create GT curves • Compare GT curves of block estimates to GT curves of SMUs • Adjust search scenario etc. GT: grade tonnage curves Change of Support (applications) Reconciliation between BH model and Exploration model: • Calculate GT curves of exploration model • Apply change of support from BH model to Exploration model • Calculate the adjusted BH model GT curves.m) / σsmu zp = the equivalent cutoff grade to be applied to the point (or composite) distribution m = mean of composite and SMU distribution σp = square root of composite dispersion variance zsmu = the cutoff grade applied to the SMU m = mean of composite and SMU distribution σsmu = square root of SMU dispersion variance 41 .

1. 42 .23 (0.055) + 0. and the specified cutoff grade zsmu = 0. the equivalent cutoff grade becomes greater than the cutoff.0574 Therefore. the equivalent cutoff grade becomes less than the cutoff • if the specified cutoff grade is greater than the mean.0445 (1 . Numeric Example Let the mean of composites = 0.Equivalent Cutoff Calculation zp = ( σp / σsmu ) zsmu + m [1 .055 If the ratio σp / σsmu = 1. the equivalent cutoff grade to be applied to the composite distribution is 0.0445. Equivalent Cutoff • if the specified cutoff grade is less than the Change of Support (applications) Other: • Almost required in MIK mean. what is the equivalent cutoff grade? zp=1.( σp / σsmu )] The ratio σp / σsmu is basically the inverse of the affine correction factor K. This ratio is ≥1.23) =0.0574.23.

........ •Modify Kriging matrix.......... [Cov{bjbj}] [0] [1] [Cov{dibj}] ...... [8i] [Cov{x0di}] ....... • Cross-variogram analysis between drill and blasthole data.. [Cov{dibj}] [1] [0] [Cov{didi}] ......... • Cokriging..... Cokriging ...... [Cov{didi}] = drillhole data (dhs) covariance matrix... or any other method to assign the probability of a block to have grade above the outlier cutoff. •Example: extensive data from blastholes as the secondary variable ..... • Variogram analysis of blasthole data...... ....location dependent expected value of Z(x)............ or simply use IDS . Cokriging-steps for Drill and Blasthole data • Regularize blasthole data into a specified block size..corresponding simple kriging weights assigned to Z(xi ) •n . i=1.....refers to sample grade •λi ........ •Z*sk ............n Cokriging •Suitable when the primary variable has not been sampled sufficiently. • Selection of search and interpolation parameters............... or a discreet sub-division of such blocks.. [ 0 ] [ 1 ] 0 0 .. ....... Pair each drillhole value with all blasthole values. j=1............. •Precision of the estimation may be improved by considering the spatial correlations between the primary variable and a better-sampled variable......m [Cov{dibj}] = cross-covariance matrix for dhs and bhs [Cov{x0di}] = drillhole data to block covariances [Cov{x0bj}] = blasthole data to block covariances [8i] = Weights for drillhole data [*j] = Weights for blasthole data µd and µb = Lagrange multipliers Universal Kriging Outlier Restricted Kriging •Determine the outlier cutoff grade •Assign indicators to the composites based on the cutoff grade 0 if the grade is below the cutoff 1 otherwise •Use OK with indicator variogram.............number of samples •m = E{Z(x)} . [ 1 ] [ 0 ] 0 0 .. [*j] [Cov{x0bj}] x ......................estimate of the grade of a block or a point •Z(xi ) ............. 1 µd ...... 0 µb .......... A new data base of average blasthole block values is thus established. ..Simple Kriging Z*sk = Σλi [Z(xi ) .... • Variogram analysis of drillhole data.m] + m i = 1........ ...................... Block size could be the same as the size of the model blocks to be valued.Widely spaced exploration data as the primary variable....... = ..... .............. 43 .......n [Cov{bjbj}] = blasthole data (bhs) covariance matrix...........

otherwise where: x is location.zc ) = 0. Indicator kriging obtains a cumulative probability distribution at a given location in a similar manner. Indicator Kriging The basis of indicator kriging is the indicator function: At each point x in the deposit.ORK matrix Nearest Neighbor Kriging Utilize nearest samples (assign more weight) Non-Linear kriging methods kriging •Probability kriging •Lognormal kriging •Multi-Gaussian kriging •Lognormal short-cut •Disjunctive kriging Parametric (assumptions about distributions) or non-parametric (distribution-free) • Indicator Why Non-Linear • To overcome problems encountered with outliers • To provide “better” estimates than those provided by linear methods • To take advantage of the properties on nonnormal distributions of data and thereby provide more optimal estimates • To provide answers to non-linear problems • To provide estimates of distributions on a scale different from that of the data (the “change of support” problem) Indicator Kriging Suppose that equal weighting of N given samples is used to estimate the probability that the grade of ore at a specified location is below a cutoff grade. if z(x) < zc i(x. 44 . z(x) is the value at location x. consider the following indicator function of zc defined as: 1. zc is a specified cutoff value. The proportion of N samples that are below this cutoff grade can be taken as the probability that grade estimated is below this cutoff grade. except that it assigns different weights to surrounding samples using the ordinary Kriging technique to minimize the estimation variance.

Use indicator kriging and calculate the probability of the missing assays to be 1 or 0. 0 for homozygote Indicator Kriging (applications) Some drill holes have encountered a particular horizon. some penetrated the horizon but the core or the log is missing: Use I(x) = 1 for drill hole assays above the horizon and I(x) = 0 for assays below the horizon. we use a series of cutoffs. • Krige (local estimates) unsampled locations using only data belonging to that population • Final estimate can be a weighted (by probabilities) average of the local estimates. consider the following indicator function of zc defined as: 1. • Then calculate the probability of an unsampled location to be clay or sand. zc is a specified cutoff value. Proceed then as though you are dealing with two spatially mixed populations. clay and sand. 0 for sand. Multiple Indicator Kriging THE INDICATOR FUNCTION: At each point x in the deposit. otherwise where: x is location. some were not drilled deep enough. Indicator Kriging (applications) Extreme values: Separate population to 1 and 0 based on outlier cutoff. • Separate populations: I(x) = 1 for clay. z(x) is the value at location x.zc ) = 0. 45 .Indicator Kriging Examples: Separate continuous variables into categories: I(x) = 1 if k(x) ≤ 30. Multiple Indicator Kriging Same as indicator kriging but instead of one cutoff. Indicator Kriging (applications) Some data may represent a spatial mixture of two or more statistical populations (for example. 0 if k(x) >30 Characterize categorical variables and differentiate types: I(x) = 1 for heterozygote. if z(x) < zc i(x.

.zc ) dx ∈ [0.n or ϕ(A. N is the number of samples in search volume D.zj) -ϕ*(A. ϕ(A.zc) = 1/n Σ i(xj .zc) function ϕ(A.zc) / t*(A. We use a random function model for i(xj .zc) = Σ1/2 (zj + zj-1) [ϕ*(A. (unknown since i(x. Mean ore grade at cutoff zc : m*(A.zc) =Σ λj i(xj .1] Proportion of Values z(x)≤ zc within area A Local Recovery Functions Tonnage point recovery factor in A: t*(A...zc) ϕ(A.zc) proportion of grades z(x) below cutoff zc within panel A.. and usually N >> n.u) A discrete approximation of this integral is given by q*(A.zc) xj ∈ D j=1.. Ordinary kriging is used to estimate ϕ(A.zj-1) ] j=2. j are the weights assigned to the samples. 46 .zc) Quantity of metal recovery factor in A: q*(A..zc) = 1 .zc) known at only a finite number of points).. which will be designated by I(xj .zc)...zc) from the indicator data i(xj .zc ) = 1/A∫A i(x..zc) = q*(A.zc) E stimation of φ(A.ϕ(A.zc) j=1.n Local Recovery Functions This approximation sums the product of median cutoff grade and median (A. The mean ore grade at cutoff zc gives the mean block grade above the specified cutoff value.zc).Indicator Function at point x T he ϕ(A.zc)..zc) = ∫zc u d ϕ(A.zc) proportion for each cutoff grade increment.. Σλj = 1.N where n is the number of samples in the panel A.

Change of Support Function ϕ*(A.zc ) ]2 Median Indicator Variogram Indicator variogram where cutoff corresponds to median of data γm(h.I(x. More information becomes available through the indicator cross variograms and subsequent cokriging. therefore. • It provides an unbiased estimate of the recovered tonnage at any cutoff of interest. • It can handle highly variable data. • Estimators for various cutoff values may not show the expected order relations. Selective mining unit (SMU) volume is much larger than sample volume.zm ) = 1/2n Σ [ I(xj+m+h). • It is non-parametric.zm ) ]2 j=1.Indicator Variography γI(h. no assumption is required concerning distribution of grades.….e. 47 . These form the basis of the Probability Kriging technique. • It takes into account influence of neighboring data and continuity of mineralization.n Order Relations Advantages of MIK • It estimates the local recoverable reserves within each panel or block. one must perform a volume-variance correction to the initial grade-tonnage curve of each block..zm ) . • Correlation between indicator functions of various cutoff values are not utilized.zc) and grade-tonnage relationship for each block is based on distribution point samples (composites). Disadvantages of MIK • It may be necessary to compute and fit a variogram for each cutoff. • Mine planning and pit design using MIK results can be more complicated than conventional methods.I(xj. i.zc ) = 1/2 E [ I(x+h).zc ) .

zadj) where zadj=adjusted cutoff grade = K(z .Affine Correction Equation for affine correction of any panel or block is given by ϕ*v (A. digitized the outlines • Transition zone between the grade populations is best modeled using a probabilistic model.ma)+ma Use affine correction if: (σ2p -σ2b) /σ2 p ≤ 30% Grade Zoning • Grade zoning is usually applied to control the extrapolation of grades into statistically different populations • Often grade zones or mineralization envelopes correspond to different geologic units Grade Zoning (cont’d) Determine how the grade populations are separated spatially • Is there a reasonably sharp discontinuity between the grades of the different populations? • Or is there a larger transition zone between the grades of the different populations? Grade Zoning (cont’d) Discontinuity between grade populations: Grade Zoning (cont’d) Transition zone between grade populations: Grade Zoning (cont’d) • Discontinuity between the grade populations is best modeled using a deterministic model.. i. i. indicator kriging 48 .z) = ϕ* (A.e..e.

then there is likely a transition zone between the different populations: Grade Zone Bias Check • Often mineralization envelopes lead to biased ore reserve models. To check: • Interpolate using the nearest neighbor (polygonal) method) • Use the search parameters corresponding to the model of spatial continuity • Disregard all grade zoning • Compare at 0. the tons and grade of the polygonal model to those of the mineralization envelope model. then there is probably a discontinuity between the different populations : Grade Zoning (cont’d) • If the average difference in grade Dzi vs distance from the contact is small for small distances but increases with increasing distance.0 cutoff grade.z(-i) Grade Zoning (cont’d) • If the average difference in grade Dzi vs distance from the contact is more or less constant. 49 .Grade Zoning (cont’d) Characterizing the contact between different spatial populations: • Calculate the difference between the average grades within each population as a function of distance from the contact: Dzi = zi .

inc. Notes: Page -50 Part #:E005 Rev. B .Geostatistics Overheads Proprietary Information of Mintec.

e. B Page 1-1 . If you are calculating statistics on the composites. you calculated the composites. It is for this reason that geostatistics was developed. Classical Statistics Classical Statistics Prior to this section you loaded the drillhole data to MineSight. drillhole assays and bulk samples.g. Different geologic zones may have different statistical populations. inc..Proprietary Information of Mintec. Notes: Learning Outcome In this section you will learn: How to calculate general statistics How to produce a histogram How to produce probability plots How to produce scatter plots How to calculate insitu statistics How to calculate proportional effect Classical Statistics The most commom statistical operations available within MineSight are: Mean and standard deviation Histograms Cumulative frequency plots Correlations Cumulative probability plots Use classical statistics to: Analyze data to determine descriptive parameters Make inferences about an entire population based on samples Some difficulties involved with the application of classical statistics to mineral projects are: Mineral deposit data is generally not independent. In this section you can compute classical statistics on the assays and composites. This is not required for later work. Mixing zones may produce incorrect statistics. Part #: E005 Rev. Different types of samples have different volumes and should be kept separate for analysis.

Well report 40 frequency intervals in this example. Notes: Although samples may be equal in size. Results and Histogram Plot The results of the statistical analysis are presented in the report file (rpt401. Page 1-2 Part #: E005 Rev. Fill out the panels as described. Drilling tends to be closer spaced in higher grade areas so the statistics may be indicating a higher proportion of ore than actually exists.3D Coordinate Limits for Data Selection This panel provides the option of limiting the area of data selection. and an optional selection item for limiting the data to be analyzed. and the Operation Calculation. they may not have an equal volume of influence. Panel 4 .Assay Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the basic statistical analysis parameters. inc. Panel 5 . B . Panel 2 . Weight the statistics by -AI. and use cu as the run and report file extensions. enter a title such as Assay statistics weighted by length. Panel 1 .dat . General Statistics On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. <select the Group Statistics. A frequency interval of .1 will be used and all values below 0 will be ignored.(the assay length)>. from the procedure list.Assay Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the items to be analyzed.Classical Statistics Proprietary Information of Mintec.Histogram Plot Attributes This panel provides options for setting up your histogram display and plot. an optional weighting item and associated multiplier. either through project coordinates or through the use of a boundary file. <Enter Cu as the base assay for cutoffs and also report the MO values.Statistics (assays)>.cu) in tabular form and as a symbolic histogram. Panel 3 . There are also titling options for the resulting histogram plot.Optional Data Selection for Assay Statistics This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. select procedure p40101.

B Page 1-3 . Classical Statistics Notes: Part #: E005 Rev. inc.Proprietary Information of Mintec.

Page 1-4 Part #: E005 Rev.Classical Statistics Proprietary Information of Mintec. which is controlled with the MPLOT panel. The MPLOT panel can also be used to create deferred plot files from the histogram. There is also information provided regarding the number of intervals excluded based on the selection criteria input through the procedure panels: Notes: Finally. B . inc. this can be plotted using the M122MF program. a plottable histogram is also generated.

and the Operation Calculation. Since the first item for analysis was ROCK. B Page 1-5 . Compare histograms and statistics. The report file tabulates the bench by bench mean and standard deviation for CU.3-D Composite Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the basic statistical analysis parameters. Exercise 1 Use procedure p40201. Exercise 3 Repeat the exercise for those composites that have ROCK = 1 and 2 only. inc.dat . Part #: E005 Rev. the histogram is by rock type. items for analysis. Hint: this can be done with a change to Panel 3. Use item length as the weighting item. either through project coordinates or through the use of a boundary file. Panel 5 . <select the Group Statistics. Enter CU as the second item. Keep item length as a weighting item. Exercise 2 Generate composite statistics for those composites that have ALTR = 1 and 2 only. enter ROCK as the first item. Also <check the box Dont report the first items?. Panel 4 .Histogram Plot Attributes This panel provides options for setting up your histogram display and plot. There are also titling options for the resulting histogram plot. Panel 3 . Exercise 4 1. enter a title such as 15-m bench composites by rock type. Use the same parameters as in the assays.Statistics (comps)>.Proprietary Information of Mintec. and optional weighting and selection items. there are only two frequency intervals in the histogram.rck) in tabular form and as a symbolic histogram. Panel 1 . Panel 2 . thus. Use rck as the filename extension for both the run and report files>. which will be used for statistical analysis. Fill out the panels as described. This item will be used to determine the cutoffs. A frequency interval of 1 will be used because the CU statistics will be reported at cutoffs of ROCK item. Using File 9.3D Coordinate Limits for Data Selection This panel provides the option of limiting the area of data selection.3-D Composite Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the file type.Optional Data Selection for Assay Statistics This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. select procedure p40201.dat to generate composite statistics. Generate lognormal composite data statistics for those composites that have ROCK = Classical Statistics Notes: Statistics within Geology Types From the MineSight Compass Menu tab. Results and Histogram Plot The results of the statistical analysis are presented in the report file (rpt402. from the procedure list.

Classical Statistics Proprietary Information of Mintec. Exercise Generate composite Cu statistics within ALTR codes. B . inc. Probability Plots On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. Notes: There is also information provided regarding the number of intervals excluded based on the selection criteria input through the procedure panels: The MPLOT panel will come up. and the Page 1-6 Part #: E005 Rev. <Click the Exit button to exit without displaying the plot preview>. allowing you the option of plotting the resulting histogram. <select the Group Statistics.

dat . or generate a deferred plot file for later use. Panel 5 Optional Plot Parameters This panel provides options for setting up your probability plot features. then close the preview with the X and Exit the MPLOT panel>. There are also options for a selection item and/or boundary file for further data limiting. Panel 2 Parameters for Probability Plot <Enter Cu for the item to be plotted. Operation Plot. from the procedure list. Results and Probability Plot The MPLOT panel will appear. Generate the first plot with lognormal transformation. Specify cu as the filename extension for both the run and report files>. select procedure p41201. Classical Statistics Notes: Part #: E005 Rev. Fill out the panels as described. with a minimum value of 0. Panel 4 Optional Plot Files This panel provides inputs for the overlay of existing plot files. B Page 1-7 . <Preview the plot. Panel 1 Select File or Drillholes to Use <Select File 11 Assays to do the cumulative probability plot. Leave this panel blank. and leave the First and last survey ref# windows blank to use all assays>. inc. Panel 3 Optional Data Selection This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. plot directly to the plotter. There are also titling options for the resulting probability plot.Probability Plot (Assays or Composites)>.Proprietary Information of Mintec.01 and a maximum value of 10. enter a title such as CU probability plot . <Select ROCK item values 1 and 2 for plotting by using the RANGE command>. giving you the option to preview.rock types 1 and 2. You can try out different parameters until you get a display you like.

Classical Statistics Proprietary Information of Mintec. B . Exercise 2 Repeat the exercises using the composites. Hint: Output only the cumulative probability curve for composites and overlay it on the full assay probability plot. Page 1-8 Part #: E005 Rev. Hint: this can be done with a change to Panel 3. Notes: Exercise 1 Generate probability plots for those assays that have ALTR = 1 and 2 only. inc. Exercise 3 Overlay the composite probability plot on the assay probability plot and compare.

In-situ Statistics (Composites)>.dat . select procedure p40301.In-Situ Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the basic statistical analysis parameters. Accept the defaults for the other parameters. In situ Data Statistics On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. Panel 1 . Classical Statistics Notes: Exercise 4 Generate probability plots without using log transformation. and leave the First and last survey ref# windows blank to use all assays>. Panel 2 .Proprietary Information of Mintec.Optional Data Selection for Statistical Analysis This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the Part #: E005 Rev. and the Operation Calculation. but specify cu as the filename extensions for both the run and report files>. <select the Group Statistics. Fill out the panels as described. Panel 3 .In-Situ Data Statistical Analysis <Enter 9 for the file selection. B Page 1-9 . <Enter Cu for the composite grade to analyze. from the procedure list. inc.

or generate a deferred plot file for later use. You can also specify an optional boundary file in this panel. giving you the opportunity to preview the contour data plot. Notes: Results and Contour Data Plot The results of the in-situ statistical analysis are presented in the report file (rpt403. Page 1-10 Part #: E005 Rev. analysis based on item values. the MPLOT panel will come up. <Use the RANGE command to specify ROCK Types 1 and 2 only>. send it to the plotter. Panel 4 .Parameters for in-Situ Statistical Analysis <Specify the parameters of the 3-D grid for the statistical analysis of Cu.cu) in tabular form. When you close the report file. inc.Classical Statistics Proprietary Information of Mintec. Also specify plot parameters for the selected slice to be plotted>. B .

select procedure p41101.Correlations (Assays or Composites)>. and the Operation Calculation. from the procedure list. specify cu as the filename Part #: E005 Rev. Correlation and Scatter Plots <On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.dat .Proprietary Information of Mintec. inc. Fill out the panels as described.Scatter Graph and Q-Q Plot This panel provides inputs for the file type. B Page 1-11 . Panel 1 .Bivariate Analysis . We will use File 11 assays and all the drillhole assay intervals. interval selection and other options. select the Group Statistics. Classical Statistics Notes: Exercise Generate In-situ statistics for assays in elevation range 2500 to 3000.

leave this panel blank.Optional Data Selection This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. and MO for the x-axis of the plot. Panel 2 .Bivariate Analysis . extension for both the run and report files. and specify a symbol type of 3 and pen number of 4.Q-Q (Quantile-Quantile) Plot Options This scatter plot exercise does not use the Q-Q options. Use the RANGE command to specify ROCK Types 1 and 2 only.Scatter Graph and Q-Q Plot This panel provides input for the items to be analyzed. and 0. Panel 4 . Results and Scatter Plot The report file shows a summary of correlation statistics for CU and MO grades. Specify zero as the minimum for both items. Panel 3 . Specify a dashed linetype for both the best fit and 45 degree reference lines>. <enter CU for the y-axis. Notes: There are also symbol plots for the scatter plot and histograms for each of the specified analysis items. Page 1-12 Part #: E005 Rev.Optional Plot Parameters This panel provides input for the basic plot parameters.Bivariate Analysis . inc.Classical Statistics Proprietary Information of Mintec. Panel 5 .5 as the maximum for MO>. Leave the titling options blank for this exercise. You can also specify an optional boundary file and/or selection item in this panel. five as the maximum for CU. <enter a title such as copper vs moly values. B .

the MPLOT panel will come up.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Classical Statistics Notes: When you close the Part #: E005 Rev. B report file. giving you the Page 1-13 . inc.

dat .Optional Data Selection for Statistical Analysis Page 1-14 Part #: E005 Rev. <Enter Cu for the composite grade to analyze. but specify cu as the filename extensions for both the run and report files>. Panel 3 . Notes: Plot Proportional Effect On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. Accept the defaults for the other parameters. select procedure p40301. Panel 1 . opportunity to preview the scatter plot. Fill out the panels as described.In-Situ Statistics (Composites)>.Classical Statistics Proprietary Information of Mintec. inc. send it to the plotter.In-Situ Data Statistical Analysis <Enter 9 for the file selection. B . <select the Group Statistics. from the procedure list. and the Operation Calculation. and leave the First and last survey ref# windows blank to use all assays>. Panel 2 . or generate a deferred plot file for later use.In-Situ Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the basic statistical analysis parameters.

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc. This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. You can also specify an optional boundary file in this panel. Use the RANGE command to specify ROCK Types 1 and 2 only. Panel 4 - Parameters for in-Situ Statistical Analysis Specify the parameters of the 3-D grid for the statistical analysis of Cu. Also specify plot parameters for the selected slice to be plotted.

Classical Statistics

Notes:

Panel 5 - Generate Contours for Selected Level In this panel, <check the Contour Std Dev? box, use 0.1 as the minimum and 1.0 as the maximum, with a 0.1 contour increment. Specify three digits to the right of the decimal, pen number one, and a smoothing factor of zero. Accept the defaults for the rest of the panel>. Exit MPLOT Panel Plot the correlation between the std and mean. On the MineSight Compass Menu tab, <select Group Statistics, Operation Calculation; from the procedure list, select procedure p41102.dat.> Panel 1 <Enter dat403.cu as the ASCII input file. Use std (min 0, max 1) for the y axis and the mean (min 0, max 0.8) for the x axis. Check the apply limits to input data and free format switches. Use cu as the file extensions for the run and report file 7.> Panel 2 <Std (y-axis) is the 4th column and mean (x-axis) is the 5th column in input ASCII DATA, therefore, enter 4 and 5 respectively.> Panel 3 <Enter a title (Mean vs. Std). Use a dash line for both best-fit and 45 degree line.> Panel 4 Leave this panel blank. Results and Scatter Plot Preview plot:

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Page 1-15

Classical Statistics

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc.

Notes:

Page 1-16

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc.

Variograms

Variograms

Prior to this section you calculated the composites. In this section you can develop variograms of the composites. Following this, you can initialize the mine model and do Kriging.

Notes:

Learning Outcome

In this section you will learn:

How to make an h-scatterplot Types of variograms within MineSight Procedure for creating variograms

The Variogram

In geostatistics, geologic samples such as assays or thickness values are not independent samples. Samples in proximity to one another are usually correlated to some degree. As the distance between samples increases this degree of correlation declines until the samples are far enough apart where they can be considered to be independent of one another. The variogram is a graph that quantifies the spatial correlation between geologic samples. It is a plot with the average squared assay difference between all pairs of samples h distance apart plotted along the y-axis (h), and the distance h plotted along the x-axis. Logically you would expect this squared difference (h) to increase as the distance h between the sample pairs increases. Once you reach a distance where the sample pairs are independent, the average squared difference is not related to the distance h anymore and the curve levels off. This distance where the samples are no longer correlated is called the range of the variogram and the value of (h) where it levels off is called the sill. Theoretically the sill is equal to the variance of samples. The distance over which the samples are correlated can be and usually is different in different directions. This is called Anisotropy and simply states that mineralization may be more continuous in one direction than another. Therefore, variograms are computed in different directions. At DISTANCE h=0 (i.e., 2 samples at the same location) the sample values should be identical. In reality they usually are not. This is described in geostatistics as the Nugget effect. Its value should be small if correct sampling and assaying procedures are used. Variogram Models The variogram model is the equation of a curve that best fits the variogram generated with your data. Variogram models (singel or nested) available in MineSight are:

Spherical Exponential

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Page 2-1

and 3 as the pen type>. as well as some data selection parameters. Panel 2 . 0. and the Operation Plot. <Select Cu as the item. from the procedure list. Panel 3 .H-Scatter Plot This panel provides input for the file type and item to be analyzed. Select 0 and 15 as the minimum and maximum pair distances. <select the Group Statistics. <Enter a title such as Rock type 1 and specify 3 as the symbol type. using zero as the minimum grade and three as the maximum grade to be plotted. Specify a vertical direction of -90 and a windowing angle of 15 degrees. B . Leave the rest of this panel blank. Leave this panel blank. select procedure p31101. There is also an optional selection item available for further data limiting.cu) in tabular form.H-Scatter Plot Parameters This panel provides the input for a number of plot parameters such as the plot title.dat .05 as the symbol size. Results and H-Scatter Plot The results of the data pair statistical analysis are presented in the report file (rpt311. Panel 5 . There are also symbolic plots for H-Scatter and frequency distribution histograms. either by specifying coordinates or a boundary file.Variograms Proprietary Information of Mintec. inc. Notes: Linear H .H-Scatter Plot>. Specify cu as the filename extension for both the run and report files>.Scatter Plots On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. symbol type and size. <Specify a Horizontal direction of 0 and a windowing angle of 90 degrees. respectively>. Panel 4 . Page 2-2 Part #: E005 Rev.Optional Data Selection This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. Panel 1 . Fill out the panels as described. Select only ROCK item value 1 for plotting by using the RANGE command.Parameters to Determine Data Pairs This panel provides input for the data pair selection parameters.Coordinate Limits This panel allows you to limit the data further.

Variograms Notes: Part #: E005 Rev. inc. B Page 2-3 .Proprietary Information of Mintec.

Notes: When you close the report file.Variograms Proprietary Information of Mintec. giving you the opportunity to preview the H-Scatter data plot. B . the MPLOT panel will come up. Page 2-4 Part #: E005 Rev. or generate a deferred plot file for later use. send it to the plotter. inc.

respectively. Variograms Notes: Exercise Generate h-scatter plots for pairs 0-50m apart in different horizontal directions. from the procedure list. Appropriate values for the minimum and maximum are zero and five. Calculating Variograms and Modeling On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. inc.Experimental Variograms for 3-D Composites This panel provides input for file type selection. Leave the rest of the panel blank. B Page 2-5 . Specify a filename extension of 001 for the report and output files Panel 2 . and the Operation Calculation. select procedure p30302.Optional Variogram Parameters This panel provides input for optional parameters such as title and selection item.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Part #: E005 Rev. Panel 1 . analysis item and variogram type. <select the Group Statistics. Fill out the panels as described. Use File 9 and normal variogram type to compute the initial variograms for the item CU.dat Variograms of composite data>. Specify a title such as Horizontal Variograms Rock type 1.

Select only ROCK item value 1 by using the RANGE command.3D Coordinate Limits for Data Selection This panel allows you to limit the data further.0 with 45 degree increments and at a vertical angle 0.Optional Data Selection This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values.Variograms Proprietary Information of Mintec. It is plotted along the y-axis on the graph. Compute 4 normal variograms (4x1). The variogram value is under the column V(H). inc. either by specifying coordinates or a boundary file. Panel 5 . B .0. Panel 3 .Parameters for Multi-Directional Variograms This panel is used to enter the specific variogram parameters. Results and Variogram Plot In the report file (rpt303. Panel 4 . starting at horizontal angle 0. It is plotted along the x-axis on the graph. The distance h is under the column DISTANCE.5 degree horizontal windowing angle and 10 degree vertical angle.001). Notes: Page 2-6 Part #: E005 Rev. Use 10 intervals with 50m lag distance. Leave this panel blank. a summary appears for each variogram calculated. Use 22.

<Click on 3-D Global and then on Exit Panel>. Variograms Modeling Variograms On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. select procedure p30002.001. Panel 1 . <Select New Model from menu. from the procedure list.Variogram File Input This panel provides input for the MineSight variogram data file for modeling. dat303. Notes: Exercise 1 Interactively fit a spherical variogram model to the experimental variogram by following these steps: 1. <select the Group Statistics. B Page 2-7 . and the Operation Calculation.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Part #: E005 Rev. Fill out the panels as described.dat Variogram Modeling>. inc. Specify the file we just created. Results and Variogram Plot Program M300V1 will display on the screen a list of the 4 directional variograms plus the 2-D Global variogram and the 3-D Global variogram.

Variograms Proprietary Information of Mintec.1) and click. 4. Point to the desired value for Sill on the y-axis (e. 9. 3.) Click right to store the new Sill. and 135 degrees. (Note that only the Range is changing. Point to the desired value for range on the X-axis (e. Exercise 3 Try an exponential model and compare the fit (visually) with the spherical. B . Click right to display Model Parameter Values based on your selection>. 7. select Sill & Range Values which are defined by the second point that you specify. (Note that only the Sill Value is changing. Select Edit Model again. Click on Point 2 and move it around. Using the mouse. . Click on your Nugget Value (Point 1) and move it around with the mouse to a new location. Use extension 005. 6. inc. Exercise 5 If the directional variograms are difficult to model. add an absolute lag tolerance of 25. 500) and click. 3.g. Select Edit Model and Fix Sill (Make sure Fix Range is off) 8.) Click right to store the new Range 10. Click on your Sill/Range Value (Point 2) and move it around with the mouse to a new location. <Select Edit Model from the menu 2. Click on Point 2 and move it around. Exercise 6 Try a different horizontal angle increment (30°). 90. Exercise 8 Compute variograms using different variogram type options. Dont use composite values above 3. Click right to store the new location. Click right to store the new location. Use extension 003. Compare horizontal variograms to the vertical ones.g. Exercise 4 Try to model the directional variogram at 0. select Nugget location on y axis (Point 1). Exercise 2 Interactively modify the spherical variogram model you just created by following these steps: 1. 2. Click on X to exit Variogram Modeling Program>. Select Edit Model and Fix Range 5.. Exercise 7 Try to compute variograms using different vertical angle orientations. Using the mouse. Use extension 002. 45.. 4. Use extension 004. Notes: Page 2-8 Part #: E005 Rev. such as correlogram.

from the procedure list. It is plotted along the y-axis on the graph. Panel 5 . inc. Select only ROCK item value 1 by using the RANGE command.Optional Data Selection for Down-hole Variograms This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. as well as a summary for a combined variogram.Input Parameters In this panel you can specify the item for analysis and optional minimum and maximum values. Variograms Notes: Calculating Down-hole Variograms On the MS Compass Menu tab. Panel 3 . Panel 1 .File and Variogram Type Selection This panel provides input for the source file. Fill out the panels as described. Panel 2 .Down-hole Variograms. Use extension 006. Use the assay file 11 for analysis with variogram type 1 for a normal variogram. Use 20 intervals with 5m lag distance. windowing angle 90. Specify the filename extension cu for the report and output files. Specify a title such as Downhole variogram . The variogram value is under the column V(H).dat . either by specifying coordinates or a boundary file.Rock type 1 Panel 4 . It is plotted along the x-axis on the graph. Exercise 10 Run variograms for different windowing angles and/or band widths.3D Coordinate Limits for Data Selection This panel allows you to limit the data further. and the Operation Calculation. In the report file. with the default values for min and max. You can also specify the variogram type in this panel. Compute variograms for each hole with horizontal direction 0. windowing angle 15°. On the following page is the plot of the variogram points of the combined variograms. B Page 2-9 . Exercise 9 Run variograms (as in Exercise 5) for rock type 2. select procedure p30101. and vertical direction -90. Use Cu for variogram analysis. Panel 6 .Parameters for Down-hole Assay Variograms This panel provides input for the variogram parameters. you have the option to use the assay or composite files.Optional Variogram Parameters This panel provides titling and selection item options. a summary appears for each variogram calculated. The distance h is under the column DISTANCE. select the Group Statistics. Part #: E005 Rev.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Leave this panel blank. Check reports and see how the number of pairs used changes.

from the procedure list. Page 2-10 Part #: E005 Rev. Pick up a nugget value.Variograms Proprietary Information of Mintec. <select the Group Statistics. Notes: Exercise 1 Model the combined down-hole variogram. inc.dat . Pick up a nugget value. select procedure pvgctr. B . Exercise 2 Calculate and model a down-hole variogram for rock type 2. Fill out the panels as described.Contour Variogram Data>. and the Operation Plot. Exercise 3 Generate down-hole variograms using composite data. Variogram Data Contouring On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc. Panel 1 - GNV2CN Parameters for Variogram Data Contouring This panel provides inputs for the source and destination files. Use the variogram data file generated for ROCK1 (dat303.002), and specify the output file pts303.002. <Check the box to Transform variogram values to percent of variance? and leave the rest of the panel blank>. Panel 2 - Setup Plot Parameters This panel provides input for the plot parameters; <enter the values shown in the following table>. Leave the remainder of the panel blank.

Variograms

Notes:

2250 5250 1000 0.7 250

Minimum Easting Minimum Northing

2750 5750

Maximum Easting Maximum Northing

Pl ot Scal e (RF Scal e, eg, 1000=1:1000) Label Height for Grid Coordinates (CMs) Grid Spacing (Metres)

Panel 3 - Generate Contours from Variogram Data This panel provides input for the contouring parameters. <Use a minimum contour value of 10, maximum 100, with a contour increment of 10. Display no digits to the right of the decimal, using a pen number of four and smoothing factor of five. An annotation size of 0.5, frequency of 20 and a Max triangle size of 200 are appropriate, and dont check the box to overlay an ellipse>. Panel 4 - Pen Specification and Optional User Plot Files This panel provides inputs for the overlay of existing plot files. Leave this panel blank. Panel 5 Standard Title Box Set up This panel provides inputs for titling your plot. Fill in appropriate title block information. Results and Contour Plot The MPLOT panel will appear, giving you the option to preview, plot directly to the plotter, or generate a deferred plot file for later use. <Preview the plot, then close the preview with the X and Exit the MPLOT panel>.

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Page 2-11

Variograms

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc.

Notes:

Exercise 1 Overlay an ellipse to the variogram contours using a 200m major axis and a 125m minor axis. What is the major axis orientation? Adjust lengths until the ellipse fits the contours. If you find an orientation for which you dont have variograms, rerun the variograms programs for the new orientation. Exercise 2 Repeat for rock type 2.

**Variogram Parameter File
**

On the MineSight Compass Menu tab, <select the Group Statistics, and the Operation Edit; from the procedure list, select procedure pvgpar.dat - Variogram Parameter File>. Fill out the panels as described. Having studied the individual variograms, down-the-hole variograms, and the contour maps for each rock type, decide on one set of variograms.

Page 2-12

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc. For example:

Variograms

Notes:

Range (major) 70 (10 )

o

Rock typ e 1 2

Nugget Sil l 0.014 0.007 0.240 0.085

Range (minor)

o

Model type

**40 (100 ) Exponential 60 (135 ) Exponential
**

o

80 (45 )

o

Assume for the vertical axis the same ranges as the minor axis. If you use an exponential model, use three times the range as search distances in the interpolation programs. Panel 1 - Variogram Parameter File This panel provides input for the name of the variogram parameter file to set up and an optional description line. <Write the variogram parameters to the output file vario.rk1 and enter the description Variogram for rock type 1>. Panel 2 Variogram Parameters This panel provides entry for the variogram parameters: model type, nugget, sill, range, and direction of major axis. <Enter the values for Rock type 1 from the table above>, recalling that the sill in the table includes the nugget effect. Results The resulting variogram file will be brought up in the screen.

Exercise 1 Set up variogram parameter file for Rock Type 2. Exercise 2 Set up variogram parameters for both Rock Types 1 and 2 in the same file. Hint: specify the geology label as ROCK in the first panel.

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Page 2-13

Variograms Proprietary Information of Mintec. inc. B . Notes: Page 2-14 Part #: E005 Rev.

dat . E-W. and optional filename extensions. respectively>.Point Validation>.File and Area Selection This panel provides input for the composite file type. <enter Part #: E005 Rev. and accept the defaults for the rest of the panel>. In this case we will assume search parameters as indicated by the variograms. Point Validation From the MineSight Compass Menu tab. area specifications. B Page 3-1 . <Interpolate the CU item using a search distance of 210 meters in all directions and a minimum and maximum number composites of 3 and 15. Panel 1 . Panel 3 . For this run. it should be used instead. Panel 2 . and by elevation 3-D ellipsoidal search Minimum and maximum number of composites to use Maximum distance to the nearest composite Use or omit geologic control Inverse distance powers and variogram parameters Point interpolation program M524V1 outputs the results for each composite used to an ASCII file. Fill out the panels as described. If a specific search scenario has been determined for the model interpolation. <Specify file 9. using different variograms. Search distance N-S.Proprietary Information of Mintec. <select the Group Statistics.Point Interpolation This panel provides input for the item and search parameters to be used in interpolation. from the procedure list. Notes: Learning Outcome In this section you will learn how to use point validation for variogram evaluation Interpolation Controls There is a large range of parameters for controlling the point interpolation. Point Validation/Cross Validation for Variogram Evaluation Point Validation/Cross Validation for Variogram Evaluation Prior to this section. select procedure p52401. you calculated the variograms and modeled them. inc. In this section you can use the Kriging method to determine the error between the estimated and the actual known value of composite data at selected locations. These results are evaluated using program M525TS and the statistical summaries are output to the report file. and the Operation Calculation.Optional Ellipsoidal Search Parameters Ellipsoidal Search and use of anisotropic distances are optional. The theoretical variogram that produces the smallest error can be assumed as the better fit.

and 120.Optional IDW powers and Other Parameters <Use the default IDW powers for each case. minor.1 frequency interval and 40 intervals>. and vertical search distances of 210. Results This section of the report shows summary statistics for actual composite grades versus the results from different interpolations. This section of the report (on the next page) shows the statistics of the differences between actual and kriging values The histogram is the histogram of the errors. generate a detailed report for case 3. Notes: major.Optional Parameters <Enter the name of the previously prepared variogram parameter file (vario. If the variogram parameter file is not entered in this panel. DIPN = 0 and DIPE = 0.Point Validation/Cross Validation for Variogram Evaluation Proprietary Information of Mintec.rk1)>. using a 0. inc. 120. Enter MEDS for the rotation angle specification and check the box to Use anisotropic distances?> Panel 4 . Panel 7 . you will be prompted to enter the variogram parameters on subsequent panels. There is also an optional selection item and geologic matching item available for further data limiting. Panel 6 . respectively. Panel 5 . <Select only ROCK item value 1 for plotting by using the RANGE command. The angles for this example are ROT = 10.Optional Data Selection for Point Interpolation This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values.Optional Data Selection This panel will only come up if you choose the anisotropic distances option on the previous panel. Page 3-2 Part #: E005 Rev. B . and specify ROCK as the geologic matching item>.

B Page 3-3 . inc. Point Validation/Cross Validation for Variogram Evaluation Notes: This section of the report file (on the next page) shows correlation statistics between the actual and kriging values.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Part #: E005 Rev.

B . Page 3-4 Part #: E005 Rev.02. Compare results (you should get a lower correlation and a higher standard error). Rerun the point validation procedure. Use nugget of 0.Point Validation/Cross Validation for Variogram Evaluation Proprietary Information of Mintec. Notes: Exercise Modify the variogram parameter file. inc.

Proprietary Information of Mintec. Part #: E005 Rev. If the cells are too large. from the procedure list. In this section you will be using the cell declustering method which divides the entire area into rectangular regions called cells. a weighted linear combination of all available sample values is used to estimate the global mean. many samples will fall into the same cell. and 15. y. Fill out the panels as described. Enter 50 as the filename extension for both the run and report files>. 50. These methods are the polygonal method and the cell declustering method.dat Decluster Data>.1 frequency interval. B Page 4-1 .Optional Data Selection for Composite Declustering This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values.Declustering Composite Data This panel allows you to adjust the grid size for declustering. Leave this panel blank to use all the values of Cu. If the cells are very small. <select the Group Statistics. <Specify x. This is not required for later work. Declustering Declustering Prior to this section you calculated the composites and sorted statistics. and the Operation Calculation. inc. then most samples will fall into a cell of its own and will therefore receive equal weights of 1. select procedure p52301. Declustering Composite Data On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. By assigning different weights to the available samples. Notes: Learning Outcome In this section you will learn: How to decluster composite values How to produce a histogram of declustered composite values Declustering There are two declustering methods that are generally applicable to any sample data set. and z cell sizes as 50. Each sample received a weight inversely proportional to the number of samples that fall within the same cell. use 40 intervals with a 0. Clustered samples will tend to receive lower weights with this method because the cells in which they are located will also contain several other samples. The estimate one gets from the cell declustering method will depend on the size of the cells specified. Panel 2 .Declustering Composite Data This panel provides input for the item to decluster and an optional selection item. Panel 1 . one can effectively decluster the data set. thereby causing artificial declustering of samples. respectively>. In this section you will use cell declustering technique to decluster the composite data. In both methods. Panel 3 . <Enter Cu as the composite data item to be used with zero as the minimum value.

Page 4-2 Part #:E005 Rev.file dat523. Enter 45 as the filename extension for both the run and report files. Exercise 2 Create a graph of the cell sizes vs mean values.1 with 40 intervals. from the procedure list.ASCII Data Stats>. Histogram of Declustered Data On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. it is column 6>.ASCII Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the analysis parameters.dat . Panel 2 . B .in this example. and enter a title such as Declustered data (cell size 45)>. Panel 3 . and check the box for Free format read>. <Use a minimum value of zero. inc. Fill out the panels as described.ASCII Data Statistical Analysis <Enter column number for item to analyze from the ASCII file . Panel 1 . and the Operation Calculation. Results The report file shows summary statistics for the original and the declustered samples.Declustering Proprietary Information of Mintec. frequency interval of .45) from the previous procedure. Exercise 3 Try declustering using Rock Type 1 only.ASCII Data Statistical Analysis <Enter ASCII output (for cell size equal to 45 . select procedure p40204. The cell size that gives the lowest value should be the best choice. <select the Group Statistics. Notes: Exercise 1 Obtain declustered data using cell sizes 45 x 45 and 40 x 40. Use CU as Grade item label.

inc. Declustering Notes: Part #: E005 Rev.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Results and Histogram Plot The report file presents the declustered data analysis in tabular and symbolic histogram form.Histogram Plot Attributes Set up the Histogram Plot Attributes as desired. B Page 4-3 . Panel 4 .

<Preview the plot.Declustering Proprietary Information of Mintec. Page 4-4 Part #:E005 Rev. giving you the option to preview. inc. the MPLOT panel will appear. plot directly to the plotter. Notes: When you exit the report file. then close the preview with the X and Exit the MPLOT panel>. B . or generate a deferred plot file for later use.

Proprietary Information of Mintec. from the procedure list.> Fill out the panels as described. E-W. In this section you can use inverse distance weighting to add grades to the mine model. and by elevation Minimum and maximum number of composites to use for a block Maximum distance to the nearest composite Use or omit geologic control IDW Interpolation On the MineSight CompassMenu tab and <select the Group 3D Deposit Modeling. select the procedure p62001 IDW Interpolation. B Page 5-1 . and the Operation Calculation. This is required before displaying the model. Notes: Learning Objective In this section you will learn: The types of interpolations available The use of controls on the interpolation How to interpolate grades with MineSight Types of Interpolations There are several methods of interpolation provided to you. calculating reserves or creating pit designs. Search distance N-S. You initialized the mine model and added any necessary geology. Part #: E005 Rev. Polygonal assignment Inverse distance weighting Relative elevations Trend plane Gradients Kriging Interpolation Controls There is a large range of methods for controlling the interpolation available. inc. Model Interpolation Model Interpolation Prior to this section you calculated and sorted the composites.

use the OMIT option>. we can leave this panel blank. Change the following panels: Panel 1 . for multiple passes. The angles for this example are ROT = 10. Leave this panel blank for this example. and allow a minimum of 3 composites and a maximum of 16>.Optional Geologic Codes This panel provides options for up to three block limiting items and two code matching items. Panel 5 .Model Interpolation Proprietary Information of Mintec.Store Local Error This panel provides options for the stroage of local interpolation error values. to view the results. Store the distance to the nearest composite in item DISTP. Panel 2 . Also. For this example.Optional Search Parameters Ellipsoidal Search and use of anistropic distances are optional. Use only Rock Type 1 by specifying Rock as a block limiting item and entering the value 1 as the corresponding integer code. Also use ROCK as a code matching item. Panel 3 . B . create a model view in MineSight 3-D. and the maximum number of data in item NCMPI. <Use an ellipsoidal search of 210 by 120 by 120.M620V1/V2 IDW Search Parameters <Specify a 3-D search to use all composites within 210m horizontally (based on variograms) horizontally and 50m vertically of a block. Use the RESET option for this first interpolation pass. composite file 9.Interpolation Control Items This panel lets you to specify the items and methods for interpolation. <Interpolate the CU and MO composites using inverse distance weighting to the model items CUID and MOID respectively. Enter MEDS for the rotation angle specification and check the box to Use anistropic distances?>. Panel 4 . Page 5-2 Part #: E005 Rev. use model 15. Panel 8 . Results The results of the interpolation are saved to the model file 15. Panel 1 . Panel 6 . inc. interpolate the CU composites to the model item CUPLY using polygonal assignment.M620V1/V2 IDW Search Parameters This panel provides input for the composite files to use. Notes: Exercise Rerun for Rock Type 2. specify the closest composite is within 100 meters. and optional filename extensions.M620V1/V2 IDW Search Parameters <Change the filename extensions for both the run and report files to id2>. Change search distances and use option omit. Panel 7 . Use an inverse distance power of 2.Optional Data Selection This panel will only come up if you choose the anistropic distatncces option on the previous panel. and specify idl as the filename extension for both the run and report files. the area to interpolate. DIPN = 0 and DIPE = 0.Optional Data Selection Since we have already limited the interpolation through block and code matching.

dat Ordinary Kriging>. the area to interpolate. unbiased since the sum of the weights is 1. and 180 respectively>s. from the procedure list.Optional Search Parameters <For this run. Kriging with MineSight Before producing an interpolation using kriging. select procedure p62401.L.Interpolation Control Items Use the OMIT option for this second interpolation pass. such that the estimate is unbiased and has minimum variance. Therefore. <select the Group 3D Deposit Modeling. the results for the interpolation of Rock type 2 can be checked by creating a Model View in MineSight 3-D.U. Model Interpolation Notes: Ordinary Kriging Ordinary kriging is an estimator designed primarily for the local estimation of block grades as a linear combination of the available data in or near the block. Panel 7 .Optional Data Selection The angles for this example are ROT = 45.Proprietary Information of Mintec. For this example. such as inverse distance weighting method. are also linear and theoretically unbiased. and optional filename extensions. Panel 6 . for best linear unbiased estimator. Panel 1 . and best because it aims at minimizing the variance of errors.M624V1: Kriging Search Parameters This panel provides input for the model and composite files to use. and the Operation Calculation.Optional Geologic Codes Use only Rock Type 2 by specifying ROCK as a block limiting item and entering the value 2 as the corresponding integer code. Panel 3 . It is a method that is often associated with the acronym B. The conventional estimation methods. Ordinary kriging is linear because its estimates are weighted linear combinations of the available data. change the major.M620V1/V2 IDW Search Parameters <Specify a 3-D search to use all composites within 240m (based on variograms) horizontally and 50m vertically of a block>. 180.E. and vertical search distances of 240. B Page 5-3 . Fill out the panels as described. Panel 5 . inc. the distinguishing feature of ordinary kriging from the conventional linear estimation methods is its aim of minimizing the error variance. use model file 15. minor. Again. you developed a variogram. DIPN = 0 and DIPE = 0. Three types of variograms are allowed: Spherical Linear Exponential On the MineSight CompassMenu tab. composite file 9. and specify kr1 as the filename extension for both the run and report Part #: E005 Rev. Panel 2 .

nugget. sill. Panel 2 . Specify that the closest composite must be within 100 meters. and direction of major axis. minor. Panel 6 .> recalling that the sill in the table includes the nugget effect.Optional Block Limiting and Geologic Matching This panel provides options for up to three block limiting items and two code matching items. 120.Optional Search Parameters Ellipsoidal Search and use of anisotropic distances are optional. Panel 5 . The results of the interpolation are saved to the file 15 .you can check the results visually by creating a Model View in MineSight 3-D. and optional block discretization parameters. Use only Rock Type 1 by specifying ROCK as a block limiting item and entering the value 1 as the corresponding integer code. Notes: Exercise Repeat calculations for Rock Type 2. inc. Page 5-4 Part #: E005 Rev. For this run. Panel 9 . and vertical search distances of 210. Panel 8 . Change search distances as you did for IDW.Model Interpolation Proprietary Information of Mintec.Variogram Parameters This panel provides entry for the variogram parameters: model type. range.Optional Data Selection This panel will only come up if you choose the anisotropic distances option on the previous panel. and allow a minimum of 3 composites and a maximum of 16>. DIPN = 0 and DIPE = 0. files. B . Specify the storage of the kriging variance in item CUKVR. The angles for this example are ROT = 10. use the OMIT option. <enter major. Panel 3 . Also use ROCK as a code matching item. Panel 4 . Interpolate the CU composites using kriging to the model item CUKRG. respectively. we can leave this panel blank. Use the RESET option for this first interpolation pass.Interpolation Control Items This panel allows you to specify the items and method for interpolation. Use variograms calculated in Section 2. <Enter the values for Rock type 1 from the table in the Variograms section of the workbook.Optional Input Parameters/Composite Type Use this panel to specify the variogram parameter file (if used). Enter MEDS for the rotation angle specification and check the box to Use anisotropic distances?> Panel 7 .Optional Data Selection Since we have already limited the interpolation through block and code matching. and 120. for multiple passes.M624V1: Kriging Search Parameters <Specify a 3-D search to use all composites within 210m (based on variograms) horizontally and 50m vertically of a block.

the desired composite file (file 9. msop09.Proprietary Information of Mintec.dat). column 85) and filename extensions (well use dbg for this example). Specify a minimum of 3 composites and a maximum of 16 composites to interpolate a block. B Page 6-1 . For this example.dat (M624V1 procedure with debug option built in). bench 35. Kriging Debug Procedure Exercise 1 <Run procedure p624db. Accept the defaults for the rest of the panel. 50m in the z direction and a maximum 3D distance for closest composite of 100m. if you have one if not. inc. Use 240m as well as for maximum distance. row 75. Panel 3 Interpolation Control Items This panel provides input for the items to be interpolated. the variogram parameters are entered on a subsequent panel.007 Ranges 80/60/60 Part #: E005 Rev. Panel 4 Optional Input Parameters/Composite Type This panel provides input for the variogram parameter file. well interpolate the composite CU values into the model item CUKRG.dat). You will learn how to: Notes: make a list of the composites used for interpolating a block. well use the search parameters and variogram parameters used for rock type 2. using the kriging option (calc type 0). msop15. leave this panel blank for this example. the area to interpolate (for this example. <Enter a search distance of 240m in the x and y directions. and find out how small changes in search parameters affect your interpolation.078 Directions (MEDS) 45/0/0 model EXP nugget 0. make a visual representation of your search parameters. Panel 2 M624V1: Kriging Search Parameters This panel accepts input for the search distances and parameters for this and subsequent examples. Debugging Interpolation Runs Debugging Interpolation Runs Learning Outcome In this section you will learn how to debug your interpolation runs.> Leave the rest of the panel entries blank. This panel also provides other optional interpolation parameters. Panel 5 Variogram Parameters This panel accepts the variogram parameters if no variogram parameter file has been previously entered.> Fill panels as described in the following: Panel 1 M624V1: Kriging Search Parameters This panel allows you to select the desired model file (file 15. Use the following parameters: Sill (without nugget) 0.

> Panel 7 Optional Data Selection <Define the ellipsoidal orientation.6300 0. and outlier definition options.60 5439.25 103. <Enter rock type 2.60 5432.60 5432.25 93.3300 0.60 2829.10 5558.30 2618.90 5558. B .3700 0.60 5432.0 2435.6100 0.0000 0. Change the ellipsoidal search distances to 120x90x90.69 132.0 VALUE 0.0100 0.40 5537.0100 0.42 103.0 2465. Use MEDS rotation angles and turn on the anisotropic distances option.60 133.0 2420.0000 0. Leave blank for this exercise. use geologic matching for rock type.0 2390.60 5432.> What do you notice? Page 6-2 Part #: E005 Rev. Distances reported are adjusted by anisotropy.3100 0.0 2465.> This is a list of the composites used: Notes: DIST 84.90 5558.90 5558. If you want to see the real distances.0 2405.3906 Note all of the composites are well inside the 240m maximum search distance.60 5432. enter en ellipsoidal search of 240m by 180m by 180m.40 2728.7300 0. You should now notice that the order of the composites has changed.dbg.58 93.40 2628.40 2628. Exercise 2 <Rerun procedure. Enter 45 degrees for first rotation and 0 degrees for the other two.40 2628.4100 0.0 2420.50 EAST 2628.80 2829.90 5558.0 2390.40 ELEV 2435.80 2618.90 5558.0 2480.10 133.80 2618.0 2480.24 86. Select all available data by leaving this panel blank.80 2618.2300 DH 53 53 53 53 53 53 54 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 62 62 Block (75.24 159.0 2435. You can type in the names of the output files and objects.90 5537.80 2618. Panel 9 Input Parameters for ellipsoid generation.40 2628.0000 0.60 138.0000 0. anisotropic distances and search ellipses.02 138.4700 0. Examine Results <Open file rpt624. Panel 6 Optional Limiting and Search Parameters This panel accepts a number of optional search parameters relating to block limiting.09 145.0 2480.80 2618.0 2450. 75) Calculated = 0.90 5558.09 158.0 2405.40 2628.Debugging Interpolation Runs Proprietary Information of Mintec.> Panel 8 Optional Composite Data Selection This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. rerun procedure without the anisotropic option on. This time apply a max distance of 120m. inc.0100 0.80 2618.0 2450.02 145.60 NORTH 5432.42 103.

40 2628. B Page 6-3 .60 ELEV 2480.38 89.> Open report: DIST 84.90 ELEV 2435.70.60 5432.0 2465.4100 DH 53 53 53 53 53 53 It seems like there are no more composites available.0 2435.3700 0.6300 0.6300 0.38 95.> Part #: E005 Rev.6100 0.0 VALUE 0.60 5558.10 5432.52 89.40 2628. Use max distance for outliers equal to 75.0 2390.60 5432.6300 0.38 95.47 95.Proprietary Information of Mintec.0 2405.40 2628.60 5432.0100 DH 53 53 53 53 53 53 61 Exercise 6 Rerun procedure using the octant/quadrant search options.4700 0.0 2435.6100 0.40 2628.40 2628.60 5432.4700 0.20 85.40 2628.0 2465.3700 0.38 89. Change max distance to the closest composite back to 100m.80 NORTH 5432.7300 0.40 2628.0 2450.52 89.0 2450.40 NORTH 5439.99 84.20 85.0 2390.60 5432.60 5432.60 5432.0 VALUE 0.60 ELEV 2435. Exercise 3 <Rerun procedure.40 2618.47 95.40 2628.60 5432.0 2480.40 2628.4700 0.40 2628.40 2628.3100 0. inc.60 5432.60 5432.08 EAST 2628.40 2628.30 2628.6100 0.60 5432.40 2628.60 5432.47 EAST 2628.> What do you notice? Exercise 4 <Rerun procedure.47 EAST 2728.47 99. Use an outlier value of 0.0 2390.38 89.3700 0. <To add one more (7 total) increase max distance to 240m as well as the ellipsoidal searches to 240x180x180: DIST 84.38 95.60 5432.3100 0.0 2450.> Check report and study results: Debugging Interpolation Runs Notes: DIST 77.52 89.47 95.0 2480.40 2628. This time apply a max distance to the closest composite equal to 50m.4100 0.3100 0.0 VALUE 0.4100 DH 54 53 53 53 53 53 53 Exercise 5 <Rerun procedure using the outlier options from the last panel.0 2465.20 85.0 2480. This time apply max number of composites to be used equal to 7.40 NORTH 5432.0 2405.60 5432.40 2628.0 2405.60 5432.

dat to build some ellipses and view them in MineSight 3-D. you can import ellipse as a MineSight object (import file ellips. Notes: Ellipsoidal Search Exercise <Run procedure p624db. Page 6-4 Part #: E005 Rev. inc.> Do not use octant/quadrant options.Debugging Interpolation Runs Proprietary Information of Mintec. Adjust properties of object if needed. In MineSight 3-D.msr). B .

5 IDW of power 3. and by elevation 3-D ellipsoidal search Minimum and maximum number of composites to use Maximum distance to the nearest composite Use or omit geologic control Inverse distance powers and variogram parameters Page 7-1 Part #: E005 Rev. inc.0 Kriging Interpolation Controls There is a large range of parameters for controlling the point interpolation. The results are then summarized showing the differences between the estimated and actual known data values. Pt Validation/Cross Validation of Est Methods . you will decide which method is more appropriate. B . The following interpolations are done by default by the program.5 IDW of power 2.Proprietary Information of Mintec.0 IDW of power 2. Notes: Learning Outcome In this section you will learn: The types of interpolations available in point validation The use of controls on the interpolation How to interpolate point grades with MineSight Types of Point Interpolations Each composite is interpolated using different powers of inverse distance weighting method and Kriging. E-W. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) of power 1. You will also validate search parameters.0 IDW of power 1.Search Parameters Point Validation/Cross Validation of Estimation Methods and/or Search Parameters In this section you will use inverse distance weighting and Kriging methods to determine the error between the estimated and the actual known value of composite data at selected locations. Search distance N-S. Then.

respectively. <Select only ROCK item value 1 for plotting by using the RANGE command. and 120.Optional Parameters Use the default IDW powers for each case. using a 0.Optional Data Selection This panel will only come up if you choose the anisotropic distances option on the previous panel. Enter MEDS for the rotation angle specification and check the box to Use anisotropic distances? > Panel 4 . 120.Point Validation>. from the procedure list. Page 7-2 Part #: E005 Rev. inc. and for the area of the model to validate.Optional Parameters <Enter the name of the previously prepared variogram parameter file (vario. <enter major. you will be prompted to enter the variogram parameters on subsequent panels. <Enter the Rock type 1 search parameter values for the CU item (210m horizontal. Results This report (on the next page) shows summary statistics for actual composite grades versus the results from different interpolations. B . If the variogram parameter file is not entered in this panel.1 frequency interval and 40 intervals.File and Area Selection This panel provides input for the composite file to use.Search Parameters Proprietary Information of Mintec. and the Operation Calculation. There is also an optional selection item and geologic matching item available for further data limiting. Point Validation On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.rk1)>. generate a detailed report for case 3. <Select the composite file 9 and leave the rest of the panel blank>. These results are evaluated using program M525TS and the statistical summaries are output to the report file. Use 3 as the minimum number of composites and 16 as the maximum.Pt Validation/Cross Validation of Est Methods . Panel 6 . The angles for this example are ROT = 10. Notes: Point interpolation program M524V1 outputs the results for each composite used to an ASCII file. 210m 3D).Optional Data Selection for Point Interpolation This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. For this run.> Panel 3 . 50m vertical.dat . and vertical search distances of 210. Fill out the panels as described.Point Interpolation This panel provides input for the validation item and search parameters. DIPN = 0 and DIPE = 0. select procedure p52401. Panel 2 . Panel 1 .Optional Ellipsoidal Search Parameters Ellipsoidal Search and use of anisotropic distances are optional. and specify ROCK as the geologic matching item>. <select the Group Statistics. minor. Panel 7 . Panel 5 .

Pt Validation/Cross Validation of Est Methods .Proprietary Information of Mintec. B Page 7-3 . Part #: E005 Rev.Search Parameters Notes: This section of the report shows the statistics of the differences between actual and kriging values The histogram is the histogram of the errors. inc.

B .Pt Validation/Cross Validation of Est Methods . Notes: This section of the report file shows correlation statistics between the actual and Kriging values. What do you observe? Page 7-4 Part #: E005 Rev. This section of the report file shows correlation statistics between the actual and inverse distance values. Exercise Change some of the search parameters and rerun the above procedure.Search Parameters Proprietary Information of Mintec. inc.

<use CUID as the first (base) item.3D Model Data Statistical Analysis This panel is used to enter the frequency analysis parameters. and the Operation Calculation.01>. Model Statistics/Geologic Reserve Model Statistics/Geologic Reserves Prior to this section you added the grades. Let the area selection default to the entire model. <Enter cu1 as the filename extension for both the run and report files>.2 as multiplier for resource calculation>. For this example. as well as titling options.3D Model Data Statistical Analysis This panel is used to specify the model file for analysis . also enter the items CUKRG. Panel 4 . Notes: Learning Outcome In this section you will learn: How to calculate grade and tonnages above different cutoffs How to calculate grade and tonnages between cutoffs How to produce a histogram plot of model values How to generate reserves by bench or geological resources How to generate probability plots from the model Model Statistics From the MS Compass Menu tab. use a minimum of zero.Histogram Plot Attributes Set up the Histogram Plot Attributes as desired. and MOID. Panel 3 . inc. B Page 8-1 .Statistics (Model)>. In this section you will summarize the mine model data with frequency distributions and calculated the geologic resources. Enter 16. topography. Fill out the panels as described.3D Model Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the item(s) to be analyzed. Panel 6 .dat . Panel 1 . but enter a title such as Inverse Distance Weighting. and 40 intervals with an interval size of 0.1. and necessary geology into the mine model.Optional Data Selection This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values.< Select ROCK item values 1 and 2 by using the RANGE command.3D Model Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides the opportunity to limit the data selection based on model parameters. This is the Ktonnage/ block for our project.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Part #: E005 Rev. Panel 5 . CUPLY. select procedure p60801. <select the Group Statistics. Weight the results by the TOPO item with a multiplier of 0. along with optional weighting and selection items. Panel 2 . from the procedure list.file 15 in this example.

Results and Histogram Plot This section of the report file (rpt608. Page 8-2 Part #: E005 Rev. B . CUPLY and MOID values at specified cutoffs. Notes: This section of the report file shows the tonnage and grade of CUID values at each bench.Model Statistics/Geologic Reserves Proprietary Information of Mintec. CUKRG.cu1) shows the grade and tonnage of CUID. inc. The grade is reported at whatever the minimum value specified on Panel 3.

B Page 8-3 . Part #: E005 Rev. the MPLOT panel will come up. inc. giving you the opportunity to preview the contour data plot. Model Statistics/Geologic Reserve Notes: When you close the report file. send it to the plotter.Proprietary Information of Mintec. or generate a deferred plot file for later use.

from the procedure list. dat608. Use the same cutoff intervals. We will use the data output files from each run to make grade tonnage plots. polygonal and Kriging methods separately.Grade/Tonnage Plots>. B . <select the Group Statistics. and the Operation Plot. <Preview the plot.and dat608. Use filename extensions cui.cup.Model Statistics/Geologic Reserves Proprietary Information of Mintec. Panel 1 Select Files or Parameters We will plot grade/tonnage curves from polygonal. Page 8-4 Part #: E005 Rev. then close the preview with the X and Exit the MPLOT panel>. plot directly to the plotter. Fill out the panel as described. Results and Grade/Tonnage Plot The MPLOT panel will appear. giving you the option to preview. IDW and kriging methods on the same graph. cup. inc. or generate a deferred plot file for later use. Specify the data files produced in the previous section for each of these options: dat608. Differentiate between the curves with contrasting symbol and linetypes. and cuk respectively.cui. select procedure pgtplt. Notes: Exercise Generate model statistics for items from IDW. Grade/Tonnage Plots From the MineSight Compass Menu tab. and enter an appropriate title such as Polygonal vs IDW (+) vs Kriging (#).cuk.dat .

Panel 1 Plotting panel <Enter scale and x. Part #: E005 Rev. B Page 8-5 .Proprietary Information of Mintec. <select the Group Plotting.dat . Plotting files are USERF. Fill out the panel as described. and the Operation Plot. select procedure anyplt. Use appropriate shift commands. not project units)>.Grade/Tonnage Plots>. as shown in the figure on the next page. from the procedure list. Model Statistics/Geologic Reserve Notes: Plot IDW and Kriging Histograms Together On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. inc. y limits (plotting units.

B . click the X>. Notes: Results and Histogram Plot The plot is opened in program M122MF. <To exit. Page 8-6 Part #: E005 Rev. inc.Model Statistics/Geologic Reserves Proprietary Information of Mintec.

<Select ROCK item values 1 and 2 by using the RANGE command.Optional Data Selection for Model Statistics This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. along with optional weighting and selection items. and enter a title such as IDW at user cutoffs/non cumulative. and 1. B Page 8-7 . In addition. use CUID as the first (base) item.2 as multiplier for resource calculation>. select procedure p60802.3D Model Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for file selection . enter 16. Panel 3 .Statistics at User Cutoffs (Model)>. Notes: Part #: E005 Rev. <Enter zero as the first interval and minimum.75. <select the Group Statistics.01.2.4.5. inc. Panel 4 . 0. Panel 5 . weight the results by the TOPO item with a multiplier of 0. check the box to not accumulate intervals. Model Statistics/Geologic Reserve Model Statistics At and Between Cutoffs On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.3D Model Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the item parameters and cutoff grades.0.Proprietary Information of Mintec. and enterci2' as the filename extension for both the run and report files>.5. 0. and the Operation Calculation. from the procedure list. Panel 1 . 1.Histogram Plot Attributes Set up the Histogram Plot Attributes as desired. Panel 2 . 0. For this example. Fill out the panels as described.use file 15 for this example. Panel 6 . This is the Ktonnage/block for our project. The CU cutoffs for this example are 0.3D Model Data Statistical Analysis Calculate the statistics for all benches by accepting the default values.3D Model Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the item(s) to be analyzed.dat .

Model Statistics/Geologic Reserves

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc. Results and Histogram Plot This section of the report file shows the grade and tonnage of CUID values at user specified cutoffs. Note that the figures are for between the cutoffs. The results are presented in a tabular form and as a symbolic histogram. This section of the report file has a bench-by-bench breakdown of CUID values.

Notes:

When you exit the report file, the MPLOT panel will appear, giving you the option to preview, plot directly to the plotter, or generate a deferred plot file for later use. <Preview the plot, then close the preview with the X and Exit the MPLOT panel>.

Page 8-8

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc.

Model Statistics/Geologic Reserve

Notes:

Model Correlations

<On the MineSight Compass Menu tab, select the Group Statistics, and the Operation Calculation; from the procedure list, select procedure p61801.dat - Correlations (Model)>. Fill out the panels as described. Panel 1 - 3-D Model Data Correlation Analysis This panel provides input for file selection, filename extensions, and titling options. <Select the 3D model file (file 15), and specify a filename extension of cu for both the run and report files>. Panel 2 - 3-D Model Data Correlation Analysis This panel provides input for model item selection and axis values. <Enter CUID for the y-axis and CUKRG for the x-axis of the plot. Use a minimum of zero and a maximum of three for both axes>. Panel 3 - 3D Model Data Correlation Analysis <Calculate the statistics for all benches by accepting the default values, and enter a title such as IDW vs Kriging>. Panel 4 - Optional Data Selection for Model Correlations This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. There is also an option for a selection item for further data limiting. <Select only ROCK item value 1 by using the RANGE command>. Results and Correlation Plot This section of the report file (rpt618.cu) shows the summary of correlation statistics between CUID and CUKGR values.

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Page 8-9

Model Statistics/Geologic Reserves

Proprietary Information of Mintec, inc.

Notes:

When you exit the report file, the MPLOT panel will appear, giving you the option to preview, plot directly to the plotter, or generate a deferred plot file for later use. <Preview the plot, then close the preview with the X and Exit the MPLOT panel>.

Page 8-10

Part #: E005 Rev. B

Panel 5 . inc.3D Model Cumulative Probability Plot This panel provides input for file selection.Optional Plot Parameters This panel provides input for various plot parameters. There is also an option for a selection item for further data limiting. Results and Probability Plot The MPLOT panel will appear. Fill out the panels as described. using a minimum value of zero and a maximum value of three. Select the 3D model file (file 15). What do you observe? Model Statistics/Geologic Reserve Notes: Probability Plots On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.3D Model Cumulative Probability Plot This panel provides input for the model item and limits and titling options.Proprietary Information of Mintec. or generate a deferred plot file for later use. giving you the option to preview. select procedure p61901. Select all model data by leaving this panel blank. plot directly to the plotter. from the procedure list. Panel 2 .Optional Data Selection for the Probability Plot This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. <Select the item CUKRG. Panel 1 . and the Operation Plot. Panel 4 . Panel 3 . Part #: E005 Rev.Probability Plot (Model)>. <select the Group Statistics. and filename extensions. Leave this panel blank for this exercise. <Preview the plot. B Page 8-11 .Pen Specification and Optional User Plot Files This panel provides the opportunity to overlay other plotfiles on this plot. then close the preview with the X and Exit the MPLOT panel>. and allow the rest of the panel to default. area specification. Exercise Calculate the correlations between polygonal and Kriging grades. Enter a title such as Probability plot for kriging estimate>. fill this panel out as desired.dat .

B . Page 8-12 Part #: E005 Rev.Model Statistics/Geologic Reserves Proprietary Information of Mintec. inc. Notes: Exercise Create separate probability plots for Rock Types 1 and 2. Compare results.

we need to enter these three items. select procedure p61201. area specification and filename extensions. For this exercise.Mine Model/Surface File Data Items to be Used This panel provides input for the model file type. Panel 1 . and CUID values between 0 and 99.Optional Data Selection for M612RP Calculations This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. we will <define EQCU = CUID + MOID * 5 and leave the box unchecked.Mine Model/Surface File Data Items to be Used This panel provides input for the model items to use in the calculation. Notes: Learning Outcome In this section you will learn how to perform calculations using information stored in the model.> Panel 3 . For this exercise.Proprietary Information of Mintec. and leave the rest of the panel blank. Fill out the panels as described. Part #: E005 Rev.User-Calcs (Model)>. To check the results visually. You can also specify an optional boundary file in this panel. and the Operation Plot. <Use the RANGE command to specify ROCK Types 1 and 2.dat . check the box at the bottom of the panel. if more than ten calculations are required. inc.Define Special Project Calculations for M612RP In this panel the model calculation(s) are defined. <Enter zeros for optional values to substitute for undefined values. well <store only the EQCU item. B Page 9-1 . select the Group Statistics. from the procedure list. <Specify file 15. Since we will calculate EQCU values from values stored for CUID and MOID.> Panel 4 . Model Calculations Model Calculations In this section you will calculate block values for item EQCU and store them in the model. Model Calculations <From the MineSight Compass Menu tab.> Panel 5 .Optional Storage of Items Back to the Model This panel provides input for specifying the item(s) in the model where the result is to be stored.> The results are stored directly to the specified item in the model file.> Panel 2 . simply create a Model View in MineSight 3-D.

Model Calculations Proprietary Information of Mintec. B . inc. Notes: Page 9-2 Part #: E005 Rev.

Mine Model/Surface File Data Items to be Used This panel provides input for the model items to use in the calculation. and CUID values between 0 and 99>. Distance of 39m corresponds more or less to 25% of the model. when DISTP = 0 to 39 > (since we used the same search distances for IDW and Kriging. select procedure p61201. and Relative Variability Index. Panel 3 . area specification and filename extensions. Fill out the panels as described. We will use different approaches: distance to the closest composite. Distances are not true (they are anisotropic).Optional Data Selection for M612RP Calculations This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. combined Kriging variance. and the Operation Calculation. Kriging variance. Fifty percent of the model was assigned distances up to 57m. Notes: Learning Outcome In this section.Mine Model/Surface File Data Items to be Used This panel provides input for the model file type. Quantifying Uncertainty Quantifying Uncertainty Prior to this section you calculated the distance to the closest composite and the Kriging variance. inc. and leave the rest of the panel blank. Distance to the Closest Composites Calculations <Assign the value of 1 to model item ZONE. On the MS Compass Menu tab. <Use the RANGE command to specify DISTP values between 0 and 39. Since we are not actually doing any calculation this run. You can also specify an optional boundary file in this panel. Panel 1 .dat . check the box at the bottom of the panel. we will <define ZONE = 1 and leave the box unchecked>. <select the Group 3D Deposit Modeling.. you will learn how to quantify your confidence in the results of the block model calculations. leave this panel blank. from the procedure list. Panel 4 . Part #: E005 Rev. Specify file 15. and 75% up to 77m. For this exercise.UserCalcs (Model)>. B Page 10-1 .Proprietary Information of Mintec. Panel 2 . if more than ten calculations are required. item DISTP represents the distance to the closest composite for both methods).Define Special Project Calculations for M612RP In this panel the model calculation(s) are defined.

Panel 5 . well store only the ZONE item.DAT. Page 10-2 Part #: E005 Rev. B .Optional Storage of Items Back to the Model This panel provides input for specifying the item(s) in the model where the result is to be stored.Quantifying Uncertainty Proprietary Information of Mintec. probable ore (ZONE =3) and possible ore (ZONE =4).055 and 0.039. inc. Exercise Make a model view of item ZONE in MS2 to check the results of the code assignment. Notes: Kriging Variance Make a model view of the item CUKVR as it was calculated by running procedure P62401. For this exercise. 0.087 (quartiles). Repeat the procedure for: Zone = 2 when DISTP = 40 to 57 Zone = 3 when DISTP = 57 to 77 Zone = 4 when DISTP >77 These values for ZONE will be used to define proven ore (ZONE =1 or 2). Use cutoffs of 0.

Make a model view. Use cutoffs of 0. inc. Store in item CUKCV. Calculate combined variance instead of Kriging variance. Make a model view. Use cutoffs of 0.005. Relative Variability Index Rerun the Kriging procedure for each rock type.Proprietary Information of Mintec.010.021 (quartiles).22. and 0. 0. Calculate RVI instead of Combined variance. Quantifying Uncertainty Notes: Combined Kriging Variance Rerun the Kriging procedure for each rock type. and 0.34. B Page 10-3 . Store in item RVI. 0. What do you notice? Part #: E005 Rev.65 (quartiles).

Notes: Page 10-4 Part #: E005 Rev. B .Quantifying Uncertainty Proprietary Information of Mintec. inc.

It is important to account for the effect of the support in our estimation procedures. shape and orientation of the sample. They change the variance of the distribution by some adjustment factor. channel samples and diamond drillcore samples have different supports. inc.Proprietary Information of Mintec. such as the size. For example. Change of Support Change of Support Prior to this section you had the composite and 3-D model files initialized and loaded. You also calculated the classical statistics and the grade variograms of the composites. the term support refers to the volume of the blocks used for estimation and production. The only parameter that is not affected by the support of the data is the mean. B Page 11-1 . Kriges Relationship of Variance This is the special complement to the partitioning of variances. Notes: Learning Outcome In this section you will learn: What change of support means How to determine indicator cutoffs How to calculate block variance for different size blocks What is Kriges relationship of variance How to determine change of support correction factor How to do global change of support correction Change of support methods Change of Support The term support at the sampling stage refers to the characteristics of the sampling unit. The mean of the data should stay the same even if we change the support. At the modeling and mine planning stage. They leave the mean of the distribution unchanged. All of these methods have two features in common: 1. the distribution of data gradually becomes more symmetrical. Global Correction There are some methods available for adjusting an estimated distribution to account for the support effect. As the support increases. which simply says that the variance of point values is equal to the variance of block values plus the variance of points within blocks. The most popular ones are affine correction and indirect lognormal correction. The equation is given below: sp2 = sb2 + s2pgb Part #: E005 Rev. 2. since increasing the support has the effect of reducing the spread of data values.

Change of Support Proprietary Information of Mintec. try running the procedure with it. and the Operation Calculation. from the procedure list. B . Notes: Calculation of Block Variance <On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. and a factor of three vertically. Exercise 3 If you have another variogram parameter file.Block Variance>.rk1 and discretize by a factor of four in both horizontal directions. Use the existing variogram parameter file vario. Fill out the panels as described. select procedure psblkv. Results The output report file summarizes the following: Exercise 1 Change block size to 10x10 and re-run the procedure. Panel 1 Block Variance Calculation This panel provides input for the variogram parameter file.dat . block size and discretization factors. inc. select the Group Statistics. What change do you see in the block variance? Exercise 2 Change block discretization to 10x10x5 and see the effect on the block variances of 20x20 blocks. What do you observe? Page 11-2 Part #: E005 Rev.

Statistics (Composites)>. Panel 5 .Optional Data Selection for Composite Statistics This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values.dat. Panel 3 . and the Operation Calculation.3-D Composite Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the composite file type and item to analyze. inc. The second column contains the original data as input. Titling options are also provided on this panel.1. <select the Group Statistics. Fill out the panels as described. Results Look into the file BLOCK.177).Change of Support Parameters This panel provides input for the output data file and the block variance.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Panel 1 . and report 40 intervals with an interval of 0. B Page 11-3 . Enter composite file 9 and specify CU as the base assay for analysis and histogram generation. either by specifying a portion of the project area or a boundary file. Panel 4 . select procedure p40201.Histogram Plot Attributes This panel provides options for setting up your histogram display.DAT using Notepad or another text editor. and use the block variance from our earlier kriging run (0. Notes: Part #: E005 Rev. The first column in this file displays the theoretical block grades after the change of support correction is made. Send the results of this run to file block. Panel 2 .dat .rock type 1'. Change of Support Change of Support on Composite Values On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. Select only ROCK item value 1 by using the RANGE command. Set up the Histogram Plot Attributes as desired. Enter a filename extension of cu for the run and report files.3-D Composite Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the histogram frequency parameters and filename extensions.3-D Coordinate Limits for Data Selection This panel allows you to limit the data further. and check the change of support option. Leave this panel blank. and enter a title such as 15m bench composites . from the procedure list. Use a minimum value of zero. Panel 6 .

Change of Support Proprietary Information of Mintec. and other parameters. Notes: Distribution of Theoretical Blocks On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. Panel 4 . inc. item label. and the Operation Calculation. an optional weighting item. Page 11-4 Part #: E005 Rev.Free Format Specs This panel accepts the position of the input item(s) by column.1 ASCII Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the source data file. Panel . Panel 2 . and specify a title such as Theoretical blocks.dat . Use a minimum value of zero with 40 frequency intervals. Set up the Histogram Plot Attributes as desired. Panel . size 0.Histogram Plot Attributes This panel provides options for setting up your histogram display.3 ASCII Data Statistical Analysis This panel provides input for the statistical analysis parameters. Use Block. select procedure p40204. B . from the procedure list. Select Column #1 to read the grade item. BLK as the grade item label. filename extensions. <select the Group Statistics.ASCII Data Stats> . Fill out the panels as described. and check the box to read as free format. and titling options.1. Enter the filename extension blk for both the run and report files.dat as the input file.

Select only ROCK item value 1 by using the RANGE command. Accept the default file 9.7053).257 = 0.Volume-Variance Correction on Composite Grades This panel provides input for the source composite file. from the procedure list. or generate a deferred plot file for later use.Volume-Variance Correction Parameters The Volume-Variance Correction factor will be block to point variance ratios: 0. plot directly to the plotter. Preview the plot. Panel 2 . and select the affine correction option (default). and check the box to bypass file 12. Titling and boundary file options are also provided on this panel.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Panel 4 . <select the Group Statistics. the MPLOT panel will appear. Panel 1 . Change of Support Notes: Volume-Variance Correction on Composite Data On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.VolumeVariance (Composites)>.689.Volume-Variance Correction on Composite Grades This panel provides input for the analysis item. destination item. inc. Part #: E005 Rev. and filename extension naming options.dat . giving you the option to preview. Fill out the panels as described. and the Operation Calculation.Optional Data Selection for Composites This panel allows you to define portions of the data to include or exclude from the analysis based on item values. interval specification. When you exit the report file. Results and Histogram Plot The report file presents the ASCII data analysis in tabular and symbolic histogram form. Check the box to store results. also enter the average grade of the composites (0. then close the preview with the X and Exit the MPLOT panel. B Page 11-5 . and store the results in item CUBLK.17699/0. and an optional selection item. Use the CU item as the source. select procedure pcmpvc. Panel 3 .

Results The plot should look like this: Page 11-6 Part #: E005 Rev. and the Operation Plot.lvc) contains a summary of the Volume-variance correction results. Plotting Panel Enter scale and x.Plot any USERF/DATAF. inc.) Exercise 3 Combine all histograms in one plot: original data (plt402. and indirect lognormal method (plt402.ilm) On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. (Store back to CUBLK.dat . Results The report file (rpt508. Plotting files are USERF. use extension ILM.blk) affine correction (plt402.aff). Fill out the panels as described. from the procedure list. Use extension AFF.72 for the coefficient of variation. not project). Use 0. select the Group Plotting.y limits (plotting units. Notes: Exercise 1 Run stats on item CUBLK to look at the new distribution. Use appropriate shift commands. select procedure anyplt. run statistics.Change of Support Proprietary Information of Mintec. Exercise 2 Run the Volume-Variance Correction using the indirect lognormal method. B .cu) hermite polynomials transformation (plt402.

Panel 4 Volume-Variance Correction Parameters Use a correction factor of 1.dat> Panel 1 Select the File to Use Leave this panel blank. and Procedure Desc. B Page 11-7 .pmodvc. If you Part #: E005 Rev. Change of Support Notes: Volume Variance Correction on Model Data <From the MineSight Compass menu set Select Group Name = STATISTICS. Operations Type = Calculation. Use item CUKRG. Panel 2 Select Items to be Used Select indirect lognormal correction option.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Panel 3 Optional Data Selection Select Rock Type 1. Assume that your SMU unit is 10 x 10 x 15. inc. Store back to item CUKGG.08. = Volume-variance .

dat for this size of a block. you should get a block variance of 0.5025. inc.v.19157/0.6917 and the c. run procedure psblkv.08. Results Notes: Exercise 1 Run stats on item CUKGG to lookat the new distribution. The average model grade for Rock Type 1 is 0.17699 = 1. therefore the correction factor should be 0. B . Page 11-8 Part #: E005 Rev. Exercise 2 Plot grade tonnage curves of CUKGG and CUKRG items to compare the original and adjusted grade distribution. is 0.19157.Change of Support Proprietary Information of Mintec.

The weights for the other data add up to 1 P(x).dat . The second step involves the assignment of the weights to each data point within the search volume of the block. Outlier Restricted Kriging Outlier Restricted Kriging Learning outcome In this section you will learn about outlier restricted kriging and how to set it up in MineSight. Notes: Outlier Restricted Kriging (ORK) ORK requires two major steps.Proprietary Information of Mintec. the sum of all the weights is 1. Make a CU probability plot and determine the outlier value. Part #: E005 Rev. This value is between 0 and 1.Probability Plot (assays or composites).2 (there seem to be a deviation from a straight line in the probability plot around this grade). The first step consists of assigning to each block the probability P(x) or the proportion of the outlier data within the block. B Page 12-1 . Run procedure p41201. Determine the outlier cutoff grade <Select Group Statistics.> For the next steps we are going to assume a cut off grade for outlier equal to 1. as it should be for an unbiased estimator. Thus. These weights are assigned in such a way that the sum of the weights for the outlier data is equal to the probability or proportion which is determined from the first step. inc. Use only benches 2540 to 2600. Operations Plot.

Run model statistics and create grade-tonnage curves.01 or 0. Page 12-2 Part #: E005 Rev.2> Calculate probabilities Assign the probability of occurrence of outlier grades to the blocks. <Select Group Composites.dat Ordinary Kriging Use the same search parameters used in previous runs. B . Run procedure p62401. Operations Calculations. Operations Calculations.Outlier Restricted Kriging Proprietary Information of Mintec. Add the ORK options in the last panel (use item ROCKX from composite file and item CUIND from model). Then assign value ROCKX=1 for Cu>1. This step requires that you have an additional item in file 15 to store the probabilities. Use OR1 and OR2 as extensions for run files and reports. Add one more item to interpolate (CUIND using ROCKX). <Select Group 3D-Modeling. This step requires that you have an additional item in file 9 to store the indicators with min =0. max =1. we are going to assign indicator values to the composites: 0 if the grade is below 1. Replace model item to interpolate to CUPLY. Interpolate only benches 24 to 28.dat IDW interpolation Use the same search parameters used in previous runs. Run procedure p50801. inc. Run procedure p62001. max =1 (or more) and precision = 1. Interpolate only benches 24 to 28. 1 if otherwise. precision = 0. Use OR1 and OR2 as extensions for run files and reports.2. Notes: Calculate indicators In order to calculate the probability of each block to be above grade 1.> Perform ORK <Select Group 3D-Modeling.> Compare results with regular kriging Compare results from ordinary kriging and outlier restricted kriging. The item should be initialized with min =0.2. Operations Calculations.dat User Calcs (Composites) Use item ROCKX.001. Use Inverse Distance Weighting to assign the probabilities. For benches 2540 to 2600 assign value zero to item ROCKX (use rock types 1 and 2).

How to calculate the probability of a block having a grade value above the Cutoff . Then a variogram can be formed from the indicators which can be used for Kriging the indicators.> Panel 2 Optional Variogram Parameters Leave this panel blank Part #: E005 Rev. Run Procedure p30302. Operation type Calculation. Run procedure p50801. Create a normal variogram.> Variogram of Indicators On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. and use altrx =1.> Panel 1 Labels of Composite Items to use <Enter item altrx as the item to store the indicators.How to calculate the indicator function (0 or 1) based on a grade cutoff . The resulting Kriging estimate represents the probability of each block having a grade value above the cutoff.> Panel 3 Limits for Data Selection Leave this panel blank.> Panel 1 Experimental Variograms for 3-D Composites <Enter ALTRX as the item to use. B Page 13-1 . All composite grades above cutoff can be assigned a code of 1 whereas all the composites below can be assigned a code of 0. Assign Indicators On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.How to view the probabilities (from block model) in MineSight Notes: Indicator Kriging The basis of the technique is transforming the composite grades to a (0 or 1) function. inc.Repeat the procedure. <select Group Composites. Use extension alt.dat -User-Calcs (comps) to assign indicators to item altrx. Operation Type Calculations.dat-Variograms (comp). Indicator Kriging to Define Geologic Boundary above a Cutoff Indicator Kriging to Define Geologic Boundary above a Cutoff Learning outcome In this section you will learn: . but this time enter a range for cu from 0.> Panel 2 Optional Data Selection <Enter a RANGE for the calculation on rock type 1 and 2 and cu grade 0 to 99. <select Group Composites.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Panel 4 Special Project Calculations <In this panel you need to assign an initial code of 0 to item altrx.3 to 99.

range = 370). <select Group Composites. Use 22.0 with 45 degree increments and at a vertical angle of 0.0. inc.5 degree horizontal windowing angle and 10 degree vertical windowing angle.> Page 13-2 Part #: E005 Rev. Pick the 3-D global variogram from the list and exit panel.> Model the Indicator Variogram On the MineSight Menu tab.> Panel 4 3-D Coordinate Limits for Data Selection Leave this panel blank Panel 5 Parameters for Multi-Directional Variograms <Compute 4 normal variograms (4x1).Operation Type Calculations.Indicator Kriging to Define Geologic Boundary above a Cutoff Proprietary Information of Mintec. B . sill = . Use 10 intervals with 50 m lag distance. starting at horizontal angle 0.234.dat.068. Notes: Panel 3 Optional Data Selection <Use both rock types. Run procedure p30002.Variogram Modeling. Make a new model (nugget = .

5.3.> Part #: E005 Rev. <select Group 3D Deposit Modeling I Operations Type Calculations.Ordinary Kriging. Set up intervals of 0 to 1 with an increment of 0. inc. Black out all cutoffs except 0.> Panel 4 Optional Input Parameters Leave this panel blank.> Panels 6. Enter 50m in the z direction and a maximum 3D distance for closest composite of 100m. Indicator Kriging to Define Geologic Boundary above a Cutoff Krige Indicators On the MineSight Menu tab. Panel 5 Variogram Parameters <Use figures from previous exercise.Proprietary Information of Mintec.> Panel 2 Krige Search Parameters <Enter a search distance of 370m in the x and y directions as well as a maximum distance.> Panel 3 Interpolation Control Items <Use composite item ALTRX to interpolate item CUIND. 8 Leave those panels blank. Specify a minimum of 3 composites and a maximum of 16 composites to interpolate a block.dat . B Page 13-3 . 7.1. What you will see is a probabilistic boundary of model values above 0.> Panel 1 Files and Model Specification Area <Use extension alt. Run procedure p62401. Notes: View Results in MineSight <Create a view of item CUIND.

inc.Indicator Kriging to Define Geologic Boundary above a Cutoff Proprietary Information of Mintec. Notes: Page 13-4 Part #: E005 Rev. B .

From that distribution. Uses of Indicators Indicators can be used to: deal with outliers model multiple populations estimate categories (descriptive or qualitative variables) estimate distributions estimate confidence intervals Part #: E005 Rev. The distribution is then corrected to account for the actual selective mining unit (SMU) size.Proprietary Information of Mintec.I. You must also have calculated the classical statistics and the grade variograms of the composites.I.) is a technique developed to overcome the problems with estimating local recoverable reserves.1] random variable.) Multiple Indicator Kriging (M.I. you must have initialized and loaded the composite and 3-D model files.) Prior to this section. B Page 14-1 .K. Multiple Indicator Kriging (M. The basis of the technique is the indicator function which transforms the grades at each sampled location into a [0. inc. recoverable reserves within the block can be retrieved.K. This yields the distribution of SMU grades within each block. Accumulation of recoverable reserves for these blocks over a volume gives the global recoverable reserves for that volume.K. The indicator variograms of these variables are estimated at various cutoff grades. Notes: Learning Outcome In this section you will learn: How to determine indicator cutoffs How to calculate indicator variograms How to model indicator variograms How to determine indicator class means How to assign indicators to composite data How to setup indicator variogram parameter files How to calculate affine correction How to do multiple indicator Kriging run How to calculate indicator Kriging reserves Overview Multiple Indicator Kriging (M. The technique consists of estimating the distribution of composite data.

> Results: Page 14-2 Part #: E005 Rev. Run statistics on item CU. B .Multiple Indicator Kriging (M. inc.) Proprietary Information of Mintec. using 100 increments of 0. Do that only for rock type 1. Check the option not to accumulate the intervals. Use extension IK1 for reports and run files. and the operation Calculation.Statistics (composites). Notes: Incremental Statistics <On the MineSight Compass Menu tab. select Group Statistics.K.dat . Run procedure p40201.02.I.

Run procedure pikcut.K.I.I.ik1). cutoffs desired.dat .K. Cutoff Grade Determination <Enter the histogram file output from M402V1 for composites (dat402. cutoffs specified.K.I.K.K Cutoffs <On MineSight Compass Menu tab.> This file must have been generated using statistics within cutoff option. Panel 1 M. It is possible that the user may try this procedure several times until he or she is satisfied with the results. B Page 14-3 .K.MIK Cutoff Analysis.I. Select Group MIK. Multiple Indicator Kriging (M. cutoffs should be for a given grade distribution and the number of M.Proprietary Information of Mintec.> Part #: E005 Rev.) Notes: Determine M.I.I. inc. operations calculations. The basis of analysis is the metal contained in each indicator class. <Enter 10 as the number of M.> This procedure is used to analyze where the M.

Use extension MIK. Leave this panel blank.98 1. select Group MIK and Operations Type Calculation. There will also be a set of variograms for the grade item. inc.Multiple Indicator Kriging (M. Results: Notes: Calculating Indicator Variograms <On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.Indicator Variograms> Panel 1 Compute Indicator Variograms <Use Composite item CU to compute the variograms.) Proprietary Information of Mintec.K.> There will be a set of indicator variograms for each of the 10 cutoffs.88 0.dat. starting at horizontal angle 0.42 0.0. This is the last set. Panel 4 Optional Coordinate Limits You have the option of limiting the area of data selection. B . In the report file. Run procedure p30303.78 0.> Panel 2 Optional Variogram Parameters Specify the cutoffs at which indicator variograms are to be computed: Cutoffs 0. a summary Page 14-4 Part #: E005 Rev.12 1.68 0.66 Panel 3 Optional Data Selection Limit the data input to Rock Type 1 only. Panel 5 Parameters for Multi-Directional Composite Variograms <Compute 2 indicator variograms (2x1).46 1.0 with 90 degree increments and at vertical angle 0.56 0.30 1. Use 10 intervals with 50m lag distance.I.

Operations Type Calculation. Run Procedure p30002. select Group MIK.> Part #: E005 Rev. Multiple Indicator Kriging (M. inc. Use the output from previous procedure as input (dat303. Click on 3-D Global on each of the 10 indicators and then on Exit Panel. Program M300V1 will display on the screen a list of the 2 directional variograms plus the 2-D Global variogram and the 3-D Global variogram for each indicator.mik).I. B Page 14-5 . Model the 10 variograms. appears for each variogram calculated.) Notes: Modeling Indicator Variograms <On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.Variogram Modeling.K. This is a 3-D omni-directional variogram for the first indicator cutoff (IND1).Proprietary Information of Mintec.

Multiple Indicator Kriging (M. Affine correction factor must be equal to or greater than 1 (use 1. The mean beyond the last cutoff is 2.MIK Variogram Parameter File.15).0 whereas the max value is 3. Page 14-6 Part #: E005 Rev.dat . inc.K.7. Notes: Variogram Parameter File <On the MineSight Menu tab.> You can use the figures from the table.I. Operations Type Edit. Run Procedure pvgmik. select Group MIK . B . Use 10 cutoffs.> Panel 1 Output and Description File Variogram parameters will be written to the output file specified (vario.) Proprietary Information of Mintec. Continue to set up the variogram parameters for the other indicator cutoffs. Panel 2 Variogram Parameters <Enter the parameters for the first cutoff.mik).

18 0.68 0.I.> Panel 5 Optional Data Selection Include Rock Type 1 data only.10 0.66 Mean 0.7241 0. Part #: E005 Rev.12 1.15 0.Multiple Indicator Kriging.05 0.) Notes: Cutoff 0.> Panel 2 M24IK Search Parameters <Specify a 3-D search to find all composites within 400m horizontally and 50m vertically of a block.3727 1.05 0.30 1.03 0.dat .06 0.5539 Variogram type 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 Nugget 0. Use 100m as maximum distance to the closest composite.4802 0.> Panel 1 Select Files / Area <Use MIK as file extensions.Proprietary Information of Mintec. Panel 6 Optional Search Parameters Leave this panel blank. B Page 14-7 .> Panel 4 MIK Input Parameters MIK variogram parameters file must be specified (vario.05 0.0279 1.05 0. Multiple Indicator Kriging (M.56 0.mik).88 0.98 1.K.20 0.6132 0.42 0. inc.8232 0.20 0.03 0. Use composite item CU.03 Range 75 75 63 63 57 51 41 41 41 32 Multiple Indicator Kriging <Select Group Name MIK I Operations Type Calculations.02 Sill-nugget 0. Run procedure p62402.03 0.> Panel 3 MIK Interpolation Control Items The program computes the grade and the percent of ore above the specified cutoff for each block and stores them into the 3-D block model. Specify that the block% item is a percent item.9199 1. <Use zero as cutoff grade.2050 1.06 0.78 0.13 0. <Use 5 as min number of composites in a class interval for the program to use local means.17 0.46 1.20 0. Store grade to item CUPCT. Store block% to item PCT. Panel 7 Optional Geologic Codes Kriging will be done in Rock Type 1 blocks only. Use geologic matching (item ROCK).06 0. Use a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 16 composites.1907 0.

Statistics (model).dat . a second weighting item is necessary for MIK cutoffs greater than 0.Multiple Indicator Kriging (M. select Group MIK.> Panel 3 Model Data Statistical Analysis <Use 40 increments of 0.> Panel 5 Mine Model Statistical Analysis <Calculate the statistics for the whole model.01 multipliers). inc.> Panel 6 Histogram Plot Attributes Report: Page 14-8 Part #: E005 Rev.I.> This is the Ktonnage/block for our project. <Use item CUPCT with items TOPO and PCT as weighting items (0. Notes: MIK Reserves <On the MineSight Compass Menu tab.) Proprietary Information of Mintec.> Panel 2 Model Data Statistical Analysis Since MIK computes ore percent in each block.K.> Panel 1 3-D Model Data Statistical Analysis <Use file 15. Operations Calculations. Use extension IK0. Run procedure p60801.2 as multiplier for resource calculation. B . <Limit statistics on rock type 1.1.> Panel 4 Optional Data Selection <Enter 16.

under Group 3d modeling I Operations Calculations. Tangent planes are calculated between all composites and a specified number of neighboring composites. the search is along the dip and strike of a trend plane specified by a mine model code associated with a certain plane strike azimuth and plane dip angle as well as with certain distances along the strike.e.> Try to use the same search parameters as in previous methods. inc.. Each plane must satisfy the following conditions: the plane must pass through the function value at the point in question (i. Exercise <Run procedure p62501. B Page 15-1 . through the Z (grade) value). block values are calculated from neighboring composites (now with gradients). Part #: E005 Rev. Gradient Interpolation Technique M625V1 uses gradients to neighboring points for weighting the sorted composites during interpolation of mine model values. After the tangent planes are generated. Other Non-Kriging Interpolation Methods Other Non-Kriging Interpolation Methods Learning Outcome In this section you will learn: How to use the Trend Planes method of interpolation How to use the Gradient interpolation technique Notes: Trend Plane Search Interpolation M621V1 uses a similar interpolation scheme to M620V1. The angles are weighted by a function of how far or near the various neighboring points are from the point of interest. User needs to specify how many neighbors are used in this calculation. However. Exercise <Run procedure p62101. dip and off the plane. and the angles the plane makes with vectors or lines to all of the various points in the neighborhood must be minimized.dat. M625V1 uses the tangent plane or gradient method to interpolate block values in a mine model.dat. The program can be run from procedure p62101. The procedure can be found in MineSight Compass Menu. The gradient information for each composite is evaluated at the block location and the calculation of the block value is weighted by the distance from the block to each composite.> Try to use the same interpolation parameters as you did with Inverse distance and Kriging methods.dat under Group 3D Modeling I Operation Calculations.Proprietary Information of Mintec.

B . inc. Notes: Page 15-2 Part #: E005 Rev.Other Non-Kriging Interpolation Methods Proprietary Information of Mintec.

- 51-Presentación
- Matriz de Consistencia
- Curso Cip -2008- Formulacion y Evaluacion de Proyectos Mineros
- 1.- Buenas Practicas Estimacion de Reservas - JP Gonzalez - Golder.pdf
- Microergodicidad.pdf
- estadisticas.pdf
- Applied Mineral Inventory Estimation, Alastair J. Sinclair, Garston H. Blackwell [2002].pdf
- ALFARO_Cours_00606.pdf
- Tiempos KOM830 KOM930.txt
- Codigo Template Periodo.txt
- Lom Julio 2015
- Ctran Modeling
- Air Modeling
- Pseudoflow New Life for Lerchs-Grossmann
- Perfil de Proyecto de Inversión Publica 2010 Casapia
- FACT 2.2 Factibilidad Tecnica Geomecanica
- FACT 4.3 Proceso Metalurgicos II
- FACT 4.4 Manejo Del Agua
- N°10-87115_MATERIALDEESTUDIOPARTEXDiap225-252
- N°9-87116_MATERIALDEESTUDIOPARTEIXDiap203-225
- EOM 14 Porque La Estructura Importa
- EOM 07 Principios de La Organizacion
- EOM 01 Formulacion Estrategica
- FACT 5.3 Pruebas y Ensayos Tecnicos
- FACT 5.2 Post Cierre de Minas

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Introduccion Minesight1
- minesight
- E006 Rev B
- Manual MineSight
- ms3d_demo_070207
- Minesight Quick Ref Guide 110603
- Geostatistics 2001
- Manual de Minesight de John
- manual minesight antamina
- Introduction to Cut-off Grade.pdf
- Manual de Minesight Parte 2
- Minesight Block Models and Rough Open Pits (1)
- mining geostatistics.pdf
- Manual de Minesight Parte 5
- Using MineSight VALP
- geostatistics
- Manual de Minesight Parte 4
- Manual de Minesight Parte 6
- Creating the Block Model
- Building Waste Dumps in MineSight
- 210123348 Interpolation Features and Options
- Pit_Expansion_and_Working_With_Polygons_and_Controlling_Slopes-200902.pdf
- Manual de Minesight Parte 7
- Manual de Minesight Parte 1
- QAThYDsrgzUC
- MineSight Reserve: Aproveche el Poder de las Herramientas de Reservas Especializadas
- Applied Geostatistics With SGeMS a User's Guide
- Under Ground Mining Method
- MS3D Auxiliary Files 200909
- Entering Your Traverse Data in MineSight
- Manual Mine Sight Geoestadistica