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DATE 15/10/12


Reynolds Experiment Aim: - The aim of this experiment is to visually observe laminar and turbulent flow patterns and also
to determine critical Reynolds Number for transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a circular pipe.

Experimental Setup:
The experimental setup consists of the following things:1. Two tanks with glass wall on both sides to see the water level. 2. Two tanks are connected to each other by a cylindrical glass tube of about 0.025m (25mm) internal diameter having bell mouth entry for water. There is a facility of die entry at the centre of the glass tube. 3. Tank on left hand side (LHS) is a constant level tank having inlet at its bottom and flow stabilizer in the form of wire mesh. 4. Tank on the right hand side (RHS) has an outlet pipe with a valve to control the flow rate of water through the glass tube.

Diagram: -



transition state between laminar and turbulent flow

Procedure: 1. Check that overhead tank is full. Open the inlet valve of the constant level tank on the left hand side. Allow sufficient time for the constant level to be achieved. Keep outside valve on the right hand side tank closed. Water will flow from the left hand side tank to right hand side tank. 2. Eventually the level in the RHS will be the same as that in the LHS tank. 3. Now open the outlet valve at the RHS tank slightly. 4. Introduce die in the glass tube through the use of dropper. 5. Observe the flow pattern of the water and hence the die in the glass tube. 6. Measure the flow rate by collecting a fixed volume of water in a container and noting the time required for filling the volume. 7. Now increase the flow rate at the outlet by opening the outlet valve slightly more. 8. Repeat steps 4, 5, 6 for different flow rates.

Observations and Calculations: Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Volume, V(cm3) 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Time, t(s) 33.8 31.4 23.6 19.7 20.5 19.4 18.6 17.2 Flow Rate, Q(cm3/s) 29.6 31.8 42.4 50.8 48.8 51.5 53.8 58.1 Velocity, v (cm/s) 6.0 6.5 8.6 10.3 9.9 10.5 10.9 11.8 Reynolds Number(Re) 1685.5 1814.3 2413.9 2891.8 2778.9 2936.5 3062.8 3312.1 Flow pattern Laminar Laminar Laminar Turbulent 20% Turbulent 50% Turbulent 80% Turbulent 100% Turbulent

Data: Internal diameter of the glass pipe, D = 25mm Cross-sectional area of glass pipe, A = *D2/4 = 4.908738521cm2 Viscosity of water (at 25C), = 0.000894 Pa*s

Calculation of first reading: Flow Rate, Q = Volume/Time = 1000/33.8 = 29.6cm/s Velocity, V = Flow Rate/Cross-sectional Area = 29.6/4.9= 6.0cm/s Reynolds Number, Re = = = 1685.45

Results and Discussion: 1. In laminar flow it was observed that the when die entered the glass tube, it moved along a straight path in the full length of the tube. This is because the streamlines (and streaklines) do not intersect each other in a laminar flow. 2. In the transition stage between laminar and turbulent flow in starting portion of the tube laminar flow is observed and in the latter part, turbulent flow is observed. In the latter portion small eddies are formed and hence the die disperses in the flow. 3. In fully turbulent flow, from the beginning portion of the tube itself the die got scattered over the full flow and a single line was of die was not observed. 4. Here it can be observed that a laminar flow is observed in the range of Reynolds Number (Re) from 1685.450 to 2413.907. 5. The Critical Reynolds Number observed here is 2891.787. At this value of Reynolds Number, the transition from laminar to turbulent flow begins. 6. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow is observed in the range of 2891.787 > Re > 3062.807. 7. Transition also depends on various other factors such as pipe roughness and flow uniformity. 8. Fully turbulent flow is observed for Reynolds Number 3312.105.