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(Formerly known as The family Clinic colleges) 1452 A.H Lacson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
Cadavos, Leigh T.
2BSRT-1A S.Y 2012-2013
Mr. Michael Gelilio
Professor • • Title of project Objectives/ Rationale • Materials • Procedures 2 .
-Steps -Exposure factors (Kvp. mAs. SID) -Processing stage -Developing -Rinsing -Fixing -Washing • Film analysis/ effect of chemicals -Image -Density -Contrast -Visibility • Artifacts identification and their cause • Conclusion • Recommendation “Through thick and thin” 3 .
To widen our knowledge to the cause of different artifacts that Radiologic Technology Students would always encounter in their field. Objectives/Rationale To use what we have learned in rad. I Check the availability of the film. I Prepared all the equipment needed. Materials 10”x12”film and cassette “pata” Chicken wings Drumstick of the chicken Scissors Name tag for the name plate Marker Cut-out design of black paper Procedures a.as i Familiarize myself in the work place. and cassette.A comparison of how chemicals affect between specimens with different thickness. Technique 1 in processing film and should able to produced good quality radiograph as a student. Check the chemicals needed in the darkroom. To view thick and thin specimen under a specific exposure factors and determine their differences with regards to effect of chemicals on both specimen. 4 .
I put the black paper with cut-out design on both lateral portion of the film to block the light from the intensifying screen to reach the film so that I can produce an artifacts. Then letting the cassette open. I make sure that the name tag was properly placed in the upper corner of the film. I Fold the upper edges of the film to form a creasing mark on the radiograph. I Prepare the specimens (chicken wings. pata. leigh Rad.technique1 e. While loading the film before the exposure.technique1 d. drumstick) needed for the exposure. Gelilio gives me the exposure factor for my thick and thin specimen. g. Cadavos.b. I close the cassette and prepare myself and the specimen being used in the exposure. Exposure Factors mAs 5 1. c. as I personally pressed the rotor and the exposure button for the exposure. leigh Rad. Cadavos.7 . f. Darkroom is the place where I load and unload the film. Mr.
On the washing stage I soaked the film for 1 minute holding the film upside down. 6 .Kvp SID 60 40” h. and I removed all the papers I used as artifacts and the name plate on the upper corner of the film. I let it hanging dry in the drying chamber inside the darkroom for 5 minutes. l. I first dipped my finger into the fixer solution and touched the lower right edge twice to have a finger print artifact in fixer solution. i. Lifting the film from the washer. and prepare it for visualization. Then on the darkroom I unload the film from the cassette cleaning it with the tissue and having it prepare for the next student who will use it. (Processing stage) Developing Rinsing Fixing Washing drying 90 seconds 30 seconds 3 ½ minutes 1 minute 5minutes j. I start to make scratches on bottom part of the film while it is wet. letting the bottom part of the film not washed so I can produced a stain artifact on the bottom part of it. Before proceeding to the developing stage. k.
Film analysis/ effect of chemicals *(actual positions of my specimen during exposure. “pata” is my thick specimen while the drumstick and the chicken wing are the thin.) Film analysis / Effects of chemicals COMPARISONS 7 .
Details are not that clear specially the soft tissues. The shades of the soft tissues are almost likely the same as the density of the film. • mismatch of exposure factors against the film happened in here that’s why its contrast are not in good detail. The bony structures and the soft tissue that surround the specimen have grayish to white appearance.• “Pata” Thick The image of the pata is not magnified and therefore its distortion from the true size of it is almost likely the same. It also has a relatively few shades of gray interposed between white and black.black shades are at my film density. the soft tissues as well as the bony structures of it Chicken wings and drumstick thin • • The image of this specimen is not well visualized. Since this specimen is thick. Blurred image of this specimen because of the mismatch of the exposure factors and the specimen which has a thin width. • Image • • • Density Contrast • • • Mid. A clear and well visualized “pata” image you can see on the radiograph. while the bones are seen because of its contrast. You have to take a closer look first before you can see the real images. • 8 . It does have relatively large number of tones (shade of gray) between white and black. short scale contrast • long scale contrast (high contrast) (low contrast) Separation of bones (white) from the tissue (gray) are greatly visualized because of right exposure factors given off for specimen with thick width as it penetrates deeply. for the exposure factor given is only applicable to thick masses of thebody. it fits to the exposure factors that’s why it penetrates deep within Every details of the structure is visible. only the bony • • .
part of the ankle joint is also present in the chicken thigh. Hardly seen and difficult to differentiate the internal structure of this specimen. structures were enough distinguish from one another. sacrum and coccyx. radius and ulna were slightly seen. Sharpness and the visibility of the borderlines were well visualized and distinguished. Bones of the tibia.phalanges and calcaneus of the lower limb of the pig are seen. Part of the lumbar area. metatarsals . Easily seen by our naked eyes the clear differentiation between the bones and the soft tissue.• • Structural details are in good quality. interphalangeal joints and epicondyles are visble. • • • Visibility • • • • Artifact identification and their causes 9 . tissue and other internal organs are undefined. fibula. patella. Indistinct or blurred images with poor quality and quantity Visibility of the bones. In the chicken wings humerus. joint space. joint space between femur and tibio-fibula were slightly seen also the femur and tibi-fibula and the condyles of the femur. Metatarso-phalangeal joint. you have to take a closer look at first before you can distinguish one structure from the other.
Abrasion marks This mark is caused by scratching off sharp objects against the film resulting it into scratch marks. d. i get a scissors and start to scratch the gelatin from the film. Crease mark Are caused by abrupt bending of the film before or after the exposure. I made this artifact while I’m loading the film in the darkroom. Finger prints This artifact is caused by hands wet with perspiration or hands that is soaked from the chemicals in either developer o the fixer solution that touches the film. Screen marks This mark is caused by a dirty intensifying screen or a presence of foreign object within the cassette in which someone forgot to remove or clean the Intensifying screen. Yellowish stain This artifact is caused by unwashed chemicals especially the fixer during the processing or washing the film in contaminated water. e. b. I made this artifact by soaking my fingers in the fixer solution and tap it onto the film before I begin to develop and soak the film into the developer. leaving it unwashed and let it dry. while the film is wet.a. c. I fold the edge of the upper portion of the film before doing an exposure. I made this artifact by unwashing the bottom part of the screen. I made the film before drying it. 10 .
splashed some of the developer solution on my film g. This happened when I put the film in the hanger and put in it into the drying chamber. Conclusion 11 . This happened when I am processed my film. • Unwanted white blemishes in the center of the film This artifacts were under the abrasion mark artifacts because it scrapes off gelatin from the film. f. Air bell This artifact is caused by bubbling of air within the chemical solution. I get it and noticed that this dirt affects my film as it removes some part of the gelatin from the film. Developer spots This artifact is caused by splashes of developer in my film.I made this mark by having the black paper with cut-out design on both lateral portion of the film to block the light from the intensifying screen to reach the film to make it unexposed so that I can produce an artifacts. start to raise his film and in agitation manner. I was about to see my images on the film on the safelight after washing it and in my surprise my classmate who was in the developer area. my film accidentally fall from its position and found it at the bottom of the drying chamber were there is prescence of dirt and some of its sharp properties. While my classmates also put their film on the drying chamber.
Sharpness of image and its distortion also add into a good quality radiograph. A proper balance of density . As a student of Radiologic Technology we should take considers the quality of the radiograph we are up to. One of the most important things is the visibility of the internal structures and the parts of it. one must know how to prevent it from destroying your film for this artifact hinders the properties of a good quality radiograph. therefore conclude that we have to use the appropriate exposure factors for different types of masses and thickness. contrast and visibility would take us up into a radiograph free of errors and details are seen.I. Every single detail should be noticed and can easily distinguish by our own eyes. Recommendation I strongly recommend that you should be able to choose the right amount of exposure factors for such thick or thin masses of the body. Because this is a great factor on how your film will looks like after processing it. For us to better visualize the internal parts and that mistakes are no place in the radiograph. The contrast and the density should always be proportional in terms of quantity. 12 . Having the causes of the artifacts. because failure to do so will result into a poor quality radiograph. Always be knowledgeable in terms of the exposure factors with its specific masses for this affects greatly on how chemicals affect the film and how the film can easily be visualized.
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