the SketchUp® Version 4 Workbook

By Bonnie Roskes, P.E.
with Bob deWitt, MFA, MA

Exercises, tips, and tricks that will teach you everything there is to know about SketchUp.

Every effort has been made to ensure that all information contained within this book is complete and accurate. However, the authors assume no responsibility for the use of this information, nor for any infringement upon the intellectual property rights of third parties which would result from such use.

First Edition. Copyright 2004, Bonnie Roskes

No part of this publication may be stored in a system, reproduced, or transmitted in any way or by any means, including but not limited to photography, photocopy, electronic, magnetic, or optical, without the prior agreement and written permission of the publisher.

Manufactured in the United States of America

SketchUp is a registered trademark of @Last Software, Inc.

All technical illustrations and models in this book were produced using SketchUp.

Cover design by Bob deWitt.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Basics
SketchUp Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Viewing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Hotkeys (Keyboard Shortcuts). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Drawing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rectangle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Square and Golden Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Push/Pull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Circle and Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Arc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Freehand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Manipulation Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Select. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Taking Off Quantities Using Select and Entity Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Measure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Protractor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Move and Copy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Copy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Autofold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Autofold with Curved Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Using Move to Resize Curves and Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Rotate and Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Rotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Rotate - Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Scaling with the Axis Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Offset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Displaying and Smoothing Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Try it Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Annotation Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Creating Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Dimension Display and Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Dimensioning Using the Text Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Using the Axis Tool with Dimensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Chapter 2: Making Multiple Copies
Basic Move and Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Multiple Linear Copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Multiple Rotated Copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

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the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook

Chapter 3: Intersect and Follow Me
Follow Me. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Basic Follow Me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Follow Me with Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Round Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Intersect with Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 Cutting and Embossing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 Project: Intersecting Arches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 Arch Cutouts Using Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 Try it Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Cutting Using Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Hiding Intersection Edges with Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Combining Follow Me and Intersect with Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Project: Intersecting Moldings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Project - Creating a Wall Niche. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Try it Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 Project - Creating a Faucet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

Chapter 4: Working with Roofs
Simple Roof and Dormers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Using Offset for Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Project: Resolving Sloping Roofs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Method 1: Set Slope and Double Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Method 2 - Delete and Recreate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Method 3 - Roofing with Follow Me. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 Try it Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Project - Overhangs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Project - Overhangs with Autofold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124

Chapter 5: Groups
Introduction to Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Breaking Connected Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Disconnecting from Other Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128 Manipulating Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Project - Using Groups for Cutting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 Unsticking Objects from a Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132

Chapter 6: Components
Components Versus Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 Component Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 Component Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Mac Components Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Inserting and Editing Predefined Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Where to Find More Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Manipulating Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Creating and Saving Components in the Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

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Alignment and Insertion Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Cutting Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Cutting Method 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Cutting Method 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Creating a Window Component Plus a Cutout Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Nested Cutting Components - Specific Wall Thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Nested Cutting Components - Any Wall Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Cutting Holes in a Curved Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Project - Using Components for Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Replacing Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Review: Tips for Efficiency with Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Chapter 7: Painting, Materials, and Textures
Overview of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Windows Material Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Mac Materials Browser. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Colors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Textures and Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Importing Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Where to Find More Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Applying Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Using Shift and Ctrl/Option Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Material Transparency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Double-Sided Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Project: Using Transparent Faces to Simulate Fog Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Materials of Groups and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Overview of Materials and Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Using Groups to Separate Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Materials of Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Default Component Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Texture Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Fixed Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Free Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Using Pictures to Create Realistic Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Creating a Painted 2D Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Creating a Painted 3D Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Try it Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Wrapping Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Projecting an Image onto a Non-Planar Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Review: Tips for Efficiency with Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

iii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260 Chapter 12: Program Settings Display Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 Workaround: Simultaneous Section Cuts. . . . . . . . .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Chapter 8: Sectioning Sectioning Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213 Chapter 9: Presentation Walk Through Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250 Curvy Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229 Entity Info. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247 Try it Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 Tour Guide / Slideshow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261 Perspective Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233 Exact Moving and Copying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245 Chapter 11: In-Depth Projects Domed Apse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 Try It Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209 Project: Using Section Planes for Mitering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210 Molding 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206 Exporting Section Slices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243 Scaling in 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203 Using Sections for Interior Design and Presentation . . . . .209 Project: Copying Section Planes for Floor Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 Position Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 Model Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 Chapter 10: Using Exact Dimensions Creating Exact Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 Measuring Length and Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 Model Info > Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218 Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 Model Info > Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258 Spiral Staircase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 Log Cabin . . . .210 Moulding 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249 Aligning Any Two Faces . .251 Steel Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 Smoothing Faces of Rotate-Copied Curved Objects . . . . . . . .211 Project: Section Planes with Model Intersection . . . . . .224 Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 Model Info > Display . . . . . .264 Model Info > Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 animation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Provided Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Creating a Script that Requires User Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . 288 utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Where to Find More Ruby Scripts . 270 Preferences > Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 sketchup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 What’s Included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Creating a Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 contextmenu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Model Info > Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Chapter 13: Ruby Scripting SketchUp Ruby Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 linetool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Preferences > General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Preferences > Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Model Info > Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Model Info > Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Model Info > Tourguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Model Info > Statistics . . . . . . . . . . 271 Preferences > OpenGL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Entering Code on the Ruby Console. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Using the Help Files to Create Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 How to Download a Script from the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Model Info > File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Export and Import (Insert) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rb . . . . . . . . . 266 Model Info > Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Preferences > Templates . . . . . . . .rb . . 269 Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Model Info > Section Planes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Preferences > Shortcuts. . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Exporting Animation. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook vi .

your screen looks like this (Windows above. Mac below): 1 .1 The Basics SketchUp Screen When you launch SketchUp.

zooming is relative to the location of the cursor. You can also enter an exact value. while maintaining the model’s orientation. To look around. hotkey: W) Also known as dynamic rotation. left. activate Orbit and hold and drag the mouse. In this case. or up and down. This tool is helpful when viewing the interior of a model. down to zoom out. To pan the view. Walk (Camera / Walk. If you have a wheel mouse. representing a person standing still and looking side to side or up and down. this tool simulates holding an object and turning it around. down. Pan (Mac: Move Camera) (Camera / Pan. Look Around (Camera / Look Around. See "Perspective Mode" on page 264. select View / Toolbars (Mac: View / Customize Toolbar). it will appear in the VCB. drag the mouse up to zoom in. Pressing Shift while orbiting will pan the view. While in zoom. You can specify the eye height by typing it and pressing Enter. hotkey: Shift+L) In this tool. you can scroll the wheel up or down to zoom. you can pan by pressing Shift while orbiting (dragging the mouse with the middle button pressed). 2 . activate Pan and hold and drag the mouse. such as 45 deg (for field of view) or 35 mm (for focal length). Viewing Tools While drawing. you can double-click on a point in the drawing to make it the new drawing center. Zoom (Camera / Zoom. hotkey: Z) Shifts the center of the drawing (up. activate the tool and drag the mouse from side to side. If you have a 3-button mouse. If you have a 3-button mouse. Orbit (Mac: Orbit Camera) (Camera / Orbit. To rotate your view. or play with them after you’ve created some geometry. right). NOTE: Perspective mode must be on for Walk to work. hotkey: V) Pivots the camera around a stationary point.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook NOTE: To adjust what toolbars and icons are displayed. you can hold the middle mouse button while moving the mouse to rotate the view from within any other tool. You can familiarize yourself with these tools before starting to draw. To change the camera lens (field of view). press Shift while zooming. hotkey: B) Enables you to move around in a drawing as a simulation of walking. you need to know how to change your view and adjust what appears on the screen. This is equivalent to a one-click Pan. This is handy for adjusting the perspective of your image.

Open SketchUp. While each of these creates a 2D object. hotkey: Ctrl/Option+Shift+E) This tool creates lines that typically become edges. Undo View Change NOTE: If you don’t see the axes displayed. Line In this tool you simply click two points to define a rectangle. Open the Drawing page. If you set your own hotkeys that differ than those suggested here. This is a good way to enlarge your view of a specific small area of the drawing. 2. Returns the view to the previous view. select View / Axes or press Alt+X. circles. Hotkeys (Keyboard Shortcuts) Throughout this book. • Auto detect enables both methods. 1. Arc. Polygon. Zoom Extents (Camera / Zoom Extents. a face is automatically created. You are looking at the red-green plane. be sure to remember them and not let what’s written here confuse you! Three setting here affect line creation: • Click-drag-release uses a mouse drag to create lines. Click this tool to fit the entire model onto the screen. open the Preferences window (Window / Preferences.select Window / Preferences (Mac: SketchUp / Preferences) and open the Shortcuts page.The Basics Zoom Window (Camera / Zoom Window hotkey: Ctrl/Option +Shift+W) Drawing Tools Before you can create any forms in SketchUp. and Freehand. 3 . Some of these are preset in SketchUp. you need to first know how to draw a few things using 2D tools. and the zoom adjusts to fit the window into the full screen. Rectangle. or polygons) lie in the same plane and form a closed boundary. The six basic drawing tools are Line. you can use them in any 3D plane. • Click-move-click will define a line by two points. and the blue axis (vertical) is pointing toward you. You can change your hotkeys at any time . before it was changed. hotkeys are provided for some tools. Mac: SketchUp / Preferences). depending on how you use your mouse. When lines (or other objects such as arcs. and an empty drawing appears in Top view. while centering it as well. To control the way lines are drawn. and some are suggested shortcuts you can add. Circle.

5. 12. Some users prefer to leave it open at all times. Because you selected Continue line drawing. or use hotkey: L. 4. or select Draw / Line. either by selecting Window / Model Info or by clicking the icon. Locate the next point in the green direction from the last point. We want to enable both methods. Click Line. and click to place the next point. 10. Hover over this point. Click to locate the second point. you immediately start a new line. you create lines one at a time. however. Click to place the first point (not on the origin). Do not click yet! 8. Also. but you can change this color if you like. then release. By default. If this is not checked. The next endpoint is to be located directly above the midpoint of the first line. Close the Preferences. Open the Colors page and check the color for Edges. TIP: You could also click and hold the first point and drag the mouse to the second point. 13. Most users prefer to click-move-click. 11.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 3. If you like to work with as much screen space as possible. The On Red Axis inference tells you that the line will be parallel to the red axis. 4 . close the Model Info window. check Continue line drawing to automatically start a new line after completing a line. 7. edges are drawn in black. so click Auto detect. Move the cursor in the green direction from this point. 9. Mac: You can add this icon to your toolbar via View / Customize Toolbar. 6. and move the cursor to the right. Now open the Model Info window (if it is not already open). the midpoint is indicated by a cyan dot.

18. Do not click yet. the line will always have this parallel orientation. Make the next line perpendicular from the last line. 21. press Shift when the next line is perpendicular to the previous one and constrain it to the start point. The perpendicular constraint is always available relative to the last line you drew. Click this point. hover over the corner point shown to see the double inference. . Similarly. You can make new lines parallel or perpendicular to any existing line. and move the cursor until you see the Parallel inference (be sure not to activate any other inferences). indicating that this constraint is locked. Now we use a double inference. 17. 15. Move the cursor until you see the Perpendicular inference (the preview line is magenta). . not just the most recent line. Hover over any point along the line shown .The Basics 14. press Shift. 5 . 20. the magenta inference line turns thicker. Click for the next point. 16. . 19. with the red direction constraint shown. Draw the next line in the green direction. trying to maintain the general proportions shown below. . With the Parallel inference still showing. With Shift pressed. . When you press Shift. This ensures that no matter where you move the cursor.

the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 22. Draw a vertical line connecting the midpoints of the horizontal edges of the face you just completed. 27. Line can be used just as easily in 3D. 28. 23. Orbit to the orientation shown below. and draw a line from the point shown straight down. in the blue (vertical) direction. simply hold the middle button / scroll wheel and drag . Click Orbit (Mac: Orbit Camera) and move the mouse to spin the model around. Lines can also be used to divide faces. NOTE: Face colors are set in the Color page of the Model Info window. 24. and these are typically assigned different colors. Draw the third line to complete the face. hover over the desired corner point and move down (in blue) and click when the double constraint appears. Draw one more line to complete the face. To draw a rectangular vertical face.no need to activate Orbit). You can always reverse a face’s front and back by right-clicking and selecting Reverse. 25. Like all drawing tools. 6 . Activate Line. Each face has a front and back. Use a parallel constraint to draw this vertical face. (If you have a three-button or scroll wheel mouse. 26.

and now it is an endpoint. 35. Erase one of the top edges. 30. Recreate the face by simply replacing the line. Both lines are now divided into two lines. Click Erase (Tools / Erase. 33. Erase the dividing line. hotkey: Spacebar). hover over what was the midpoint. and the two faces are healed . To verify this. Because it no longer has a closed boundary. 7 . the face disappears. 34. We will now see how lines can be used to heal faces. 32. Click either face to see it highlighted.The Basics 29. hotkey: E). activate Select (Tools / Select. This line also divided the original face into two faces. 31.joined into one face. To verify this.

37. 39. Set the edge display to By Axis. all affected faces will be deleted. It doesn’t appear so well in black and white. NOTE: These options are also available via Window / Display Settings. and some find it distracting. but on your screen you can see that all edges parallel to one of the axes take on the axis color. 38.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 36. black edges will be used. For the purposes of this book. Now open the Model Info to the Display page. Some prefer to work with By Axis on. 8 . If you erase a line that is a boundary for more than one face. Redraw the line to recreate both faces. Both faces sharing this edge disappear. Erase the common edge shown. and because these graphics are in black and white anyway.

you need to change the axes. 2. Draw another rectangle from a point on the top edge to the midpoint of the left edge. Click Axes. and click Point 2 to define the red axis. 5.The Basics Rectangle If you need to draw a rectangular face. 4. blue pointing up.red and green in the horizontal plane. 9 . Start a new file (Top view) and click Rectangle (or select Draw / Rectangle. or by clicking and dragging from the first point to the second. NOTE: While sizing the rectangle. 6. select Tools / Axes. To draw a skewed rectangle in the red-green plane. Locate the origin at Point 1. Here are the new axes . 1. For the green axis direction. Rectangle does it in one step. 3. you don’t need to use Line to draw four separate lines. These are explained in the next section. or use hotkey: R). you may see two indicators Square and Golden Section. Draw a rectangle by clicking the two opposite points. click any point above the new red axis. So far the rectangles have been parallel to the red and green axes. or press hotkey: X.

Click the midpoint shown to create the double-constrained vertical rectangle. turn it off by selecting View / Axes). even though you are in Top view. Draw the next rectangle by clicking on Point 1 and hovering over Point 2. You do not need to use Shift in every case for a double constraint. hover over Point 2. and press Shift to lock the width. 13. Pull up in the blue direction and click to create the rectangle. 7.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook NOTE: You can see the blue axis. This is because you are working in Perspective mode. Create the first rectangle by clicking Point 1 and hovering over Point 2. You have now used a double constraint to both lock the width and set the height to include a specific point. You can also erase all the extra lines in the middle to heal the face into one face. Click and hover again using the points shown. If you turn this off (Camera / Perspective) the blue axis will point directly up and be invisible in this view. click Point 3. Start at Point 1. 12. 8. Because the axis display can be distracting. and pull up to Point 3. 9. With Shift pressed. Then move the cursor from Point 2 and press Shift to lock this width. 10. 11. Orbit so that you can create some vertical faces. 10 .

Golden sections work the same way. here’s how to create it: 1. it is a ratio used since the earliest days of architectural design. 5. 4. you should reset the axes. Display the axes again. 3. If you are planning to continue your work in the same file. Then use Line to connect one of the corners to one of the midpoints. Simply activate Rectangle and start drawing. Square and Golden Section While using Rectangle. Erase the circle and complete the rectangle by adding 2 lines. 11 . it can be created automatically. For those unfamiliar with the golden section. 2. If you click when you see the indicator. Draw the line shown below. Use Rectangle to create a square. we can measure the dimensions of the rectangle. right-click on any axis. This is an extension of the original segment to where it meets the circle. Activate Circle and use Points 1 and 2 to draw the circle. As you can see. First the square.The Basics Here is the final set of walls. But if you’re curious. 14. To test the results. and select Reset. first clicking on one corner point then hovering over the endpoint of the segment you want to measure. you’ll create a square. Use Measure. SketchUp lets you know when the cursor is in a position to create a square. it’s easy to create two of the most commonly-used rectangles: squares and golden sections.

In SketchUp. art. 1. 11. Push/Pull it is so crucial to working in SketchUp that it’s important to cover it before moving on to other tools. Finally.61803 is phi . and the fewer segments you have.61803. To set the zero angle. and nature . Now if you measure these lengths. even a thousand-segment circle may yield a slightly inaccurate golden section. Orbit to an isometric view. 8. it is probably because of the circle you used. The definition of a golden section is that the ratio of AB to BC equals AC to AB. click the other endpoint of the diagonal line.a crucial number in architecture. their ratio should be 0. circles are created as a series of short line segments. 12 .0.including the human body. The ratio of the longer segment to the shorter one should be 1.61803. create the rotated copy by defining the rotation angle as shown here: 12. Here is a more accurate way to create a golden section: 7.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. it takes a face and makes a 3D assembly of faces. Push/Pull is what makes SketchUp so unique and easy to use. Depending on the scale. Start in top view. 10. it’s basically an extrude tool but much more flexible and intuitive. If you get slightly inaccurate results. the less accurate is the circle. While not exactly a 2D drawing tool. you get 0.61803. This value of 1. This line will be copied. and use Line to make a trapezoid. If you divide this value into 1. Push/Pull 9. In CAD terms. so press Ctrl/Option and place the protractor at the midpoint end of the diagonal line. Return to the square with diagonal line. Activate Rotate. Activate Select and select only the diagonal line (no faces). Simply put. Use this copied line to complete the rectangle.

Draw two rectangles on the top of the trapezoid. or you can hold and drag the face up or down. Now push the top of the trapezoid down. To use this tool. But this can only be done when you want to use the distance of the last 13 .The Basics 2. and to the two boxes along the front. the face updates dynamically while you move the mouse. Then double-click on the other rectangle . Use Push/Pull to pull out one of the rectangles. You can only go as far as the top of the box forms. Use Rectangle (or Line) to draw two rectangle from the bottom edge of the front face. Either way. It also creates a prismatic form . 3. 4. You can use inferences while using Push/Pull . 8. 5. you can either click on the face and then click the point (above or below the face ) to set the height. Click Push/Pull (or select Tools / Push/Pull. 6. 9.stop at the midpoint of the edge shown. The should be aligned to each other.this pulls it out by the same distance you just used. Push/Pull always pushes or pulls a face in a direction perpendicular to the face. the object automatically aligns to that face. TIP: When using an inference point to set a Push/Pull distance.) Constrain the second rectangle to be the same height as the first.the start and end faces are the same size. To push the other rectangle in by the same distance. (When you use a 2D drawing tool on a face. Use Push/Pull to push in one of the rectangles. you could double-click it. it’s easier to use two clicks (face and height point). 7. Use another Push/Pull to continue pushing this face past the boxes. rather than dragging the face. or use hotkey: P).

13. Push the rectangles all the way through the trapezoidal form simply end the operation at the bottom face. 14. If you used Push/Pull somewhere else. the distance you want is no longer stored. there are lines above the box corners. Erase two of the lines. then click anywhere on any edge of the bottom face. 14 .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Push/Pull. Push in the vertical face above the other box. 10. This prevents you from pushing too far or not far enough. To get the same Push/Pull distance. and is very useful in cases where you cannot see all the way to the bottom of the hole. You can also use Push/Pull to create voids. 11. click the unpushed rectangle. Now pull up the top trapezoidal face. dividing the front into five separate faces. healing the face above one of the boxes. When the On Face constraint appears. click to use this distance. then came back to the second rectangle. 12. TIP: An easy way to push all the way through is to first click the rectangular face you want to push through. then move the cursor to the one already pushed. Because of the box forms.

19. but the neighboring faces move with it. There is an added feature of Push/Pull that enables you to control how the adjacent faces act. you can add a small balcony. This leaves the neighboring faces in place. NOTE: You could get the same results using the Move tool. Now use a normal Push/Pull . but Push/Pull ensures that you are always moving perpendicular to the face. we will work on the back face. and adds vertical faces. 16. Undo this operation (Ctrl+Z. Orbit to the back and pull out the face shown. Undo. and pull the same face using the Ctrl/Option key. 15 . this time holding down the Ctrl/Option key.no Ctrl/Option . undo again. Quite a difference! 17. between them and the pulled face. 20. The pulled face remains the same size. For another demonstration of this feature.on the face shown. 18. and pull it again. and pull out the side of the trapezoid. With one additional line and another Push/Pull. To demonstrate this.The Basics 15. Cmd+Z).

2. Activate Circle (Draw / Circle. Draw a circle in the red-green plane by clicking the center point and then a point on the circumference. Push the triangular portion of the face inward until it cuts all the way through. 3. NOTE: Like with all 2D drawing tools. Because the circle divided the vertical side into two faces. You can also create circles on existing faces. 1. 16 . You could also click and drag from the center to the circumference. Just orbit so that you are facing the plane you want to draw in.when the line turns magenta that means its endpoints are equidistant from the corner.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Circle and Polygon These two tools are grouped together because they are basically the same. Create a circle on the side face. 4. The next circle will be concentric with the front face of the cylinder. 5. rather it’s comprised of many short segments. Create a box with a diagonal line on one of the faces . then move the cursor around the center until the green dot appears. Both create multi-segmented polygons. The difference basically lies in the appearance of the faces that result when you use Push/Pull. Even though the circle is a series of lines. you can draw a circle in any of the three planes. hotkey: C). curved face. a higher number of segments is a better approximation to a circle. the cylinder face appears smooth and round. It is actually comprised of a series of flat faces. but looks and acts as one. If you look closely at the circle. you’ll see that it’s not actually round. To pick up the Center inference. first hover over one of the endpoints. you can use Push/Pull on the circular portion to pull out a cylinder.

which is actually an octagon. If not already displayed. Entity Info displays the radius. (Before extruding you can also change its segmentation. 10. Before the circle is complete. the window should be blank. You can also change the number of sides after the circle is completed. Type “8s” to change the sides to 8. in Windows. number of segments. 9. if the circle is located on an existing face (such as in this example). show the Entity Info window (Window / Entity Info). 11. and length (Windows only) of the circle. Assign a slightly smaller radius . Once a circle has been extruded. However. the circle will sometimes be created on top of (not within) the face.) TIP: You could also have displayed this by right-clicking on the circle and selecting Entity Info from the menu. you can still change its radius. The same applies for Polygon. the length does not appear.remember to specify your units. (If. Complete the circle. With nothing selected.) If you change segmentation this way. Start to draw a concentric circle on this face. Activate Select and select the circle shown. the segment number stays active for future circles. (For 1’-8” you could type 1’8.The Basics 6. click the right-facing arrow at the top of the window and select Show Details. You need the “s” because a number alone will be interpreted as a dimension.simply type in the radius and press Enter. you can choose to specify a radius or a different number of segments. 8. 7. NOTE: You can also use the VCB to set the circle radius .) 17 . but do not click the second point to complete it. and Push/Pull this inner circle back to the vertical face of the box. until the number is changed again.

16. to match the circle. Open the polygon’s Entity Info and change the number of segments to 8. The hollow cylinder now has a draft angle. you can no longer change its segmentation. Polygons are drawn just like circles .) 14. 18 . This places a marking point at the center of any arc. right-click on the circle and select Point at Center. the polygon should have 6 sides. (If you’re a perfectionist. Note that it has 8 sides . Before drawing the polygon. hotkey: Shift + D)). 17. You should now have two adjacent octagons. which are created using the Measure tool. Create a polygon with approximately the same radius as the circle.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 12. you can also use the Entity Info to assign the exact same radii to the circle and polygon. By default. NOTE: The “8s” method would also work for polygons. or polygon. But once you Push/Pull a polygon (or circle). circle. 15. Now draw a small circle on the sloped face (leave room for another circle next to it). 13.this is the last segmentation value you used. unless this was already changed. and can be hidden or erased just like construction lines. NOTE: This point is actually construction geometry. Align the polygon center to this point. Activate Polygon (Draw / Polygon.center then radius.

Select the top part of the circle and delete it. Depending on how you move the cursor. but you can add them yourself. 24. Enter 12. Another difference in these faces is how they are selected. Circular faces are faceted as well. Click when the circle preview is vertical. shaded.) The circular face appears smooth. To see the edges of the circular faces. Select the circular face . you can align the circle with either adjacent face. (Remember. while the polygonal face is faceted. 23. Locate the center at the midpoint of the edge shown (do not click yet). You are left with an arc that has bold lines. etc. select View / Hidden Geometry. these objects are the same. or press F4. 21.it is selected as one face. and orient the radius straight down (or straight across) so that the box edge contains two segment endpoints. only their appearance is different. X-ray. Activate Select. NOTE: If you had placed the circle so that its segments overlapped the edge. the edge divides the circle in half. Each of these faces can be selected separately. indicating that it is not considered properly aligned with the face. (see "Display Settings" on page 261). 19 . then double-click the second face to extrude it the same distance. To see how these are different. Activate Circle. but their edges are smoothed and hidden. 22. Make the circle vertical. Press F4 again to hide the edges. On the Mac these shortcuts are not preset. 19. You can change the number of segments before placing the first point by simply typing the number (no “s” needed). the F keys are preset to implement display commands such as wireframe. Because two of the segment endpoints lie on the edge. Push/Pull them both. and the value appears next to Sides in the VCB. you can Push/Pull one face. 20. In actuality. the circle would not have been divided. and click one of the polygonal facets. In Windows.The Basics 18.

NOTE: In addition to using Entity Info. simply use Line to connect its endpoints. 20 . Start with the same form you used in the Circle exercise 2. To resolve the arc to the face. the Move tool can also be used to resize circles and polygons. Undo the extrusion. Because this arc was created from a circle. This will be shown later in this chapter. or by selecting Draw / Arc or by using hotkey: A. Push/Pull the arc face again.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 25. This breaks the curve into its individual segments. (Ctrl/Cmd+Z). its extruded face is smooth. (You could also use Line to recreate any of the arc’s segments. Undo the extrusion. You can draw arcs in any face. Activate Arc via the icon. You can now select the top two segments and delete them. Right-click on the arc (be sure not to right-click on a face) and select Convert to Polygon. or in any of the three main planes. and this time it is faceted. 28.) The arc is now thin-lined. Arc creates multi-segmented representations of arcs. and right-click on the arc and select Explode Curve. Arc Similar to Circle and Polygon. 26. Move also enables you to resize curved extruded faces. 27. Push/Pull the arc face outward. 1.

Select two edge points on the side face. indicated by the Tangent at Vertex inference. Then move the cursor along the face to set the bulge.The Basics 3. the new arc is tangent to the adjacent one by default. To define the bulge. Do the same for the third arc in the chain. and locate the second chord point (single-click) on the top edge. 7. placing the first chord point along the vertical edge and the second point on the face. Move the cursor so that this arc becomes tangent to the top edge. 21 . 5. the arc chord appears in magenta when both ends are equidistant from the corner. An arc is started by first defining its chord. 4. double-click to keep it tangent. NOTE: You can also specify exact dimensions for the bulge. Start a second arc in the top corner. move the cursor until the arc appears in cyan and the Tangent to Edge inference appears. Like when drawing a line. TIP: If you are having trouble placing the starting point of the new arc exactly on the endpoint of the previous one. rather than the adjacent arc. 6. 8. To set the arc bulge. try zooming in closer. When you draw an arc starting from an existing arc. Start the next arc as before. Arcs in a chain do not necessarily have to be tangent to their adjacent arcs.

But for another way to change the arc. (If you have trouble locating the center. In these cases. or before you set the bulge. 10. you can no longer change the arc this way (the 4s method). which appears in the VCB. Once you create another object or activate another tool. and press Enter. Change the segment number to 8. and draw an arc using the top edge of the rectangle.” 13. Use Push/Pull on the arc. 22 . arc chain. Type 4s.one for each edge. Like with circles. if both chord points are located on edges. Unless the chord points are equidistant from the corner point. one way to change the number of segments is to enter the new number after the arc is created. Both the radius and number of segments can be edited. The arc now has 4 segments. you also need to type “4s. Activate Circle. Move the cursor until the Half Circle inference appears. hover over one of the arc endpoints first. 14. there are two tangency possibilities . You can also find the center point of any arc. NOTE: You can also change the number of segments while selecting the chord points. 11. open its Entity Info window.) 12. and enter a slightly smaller radius (don’t forget the units symbol if necessary). and circle to create voids.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook NOTE: Be careful when making an arc tangent to an edge. Draw a rectangle on the diagonal face. and place the center at the center of the last arc. 9.

18. you can still enter a decimal value: 2. 17. Now make the arc radius larger. but change it to 8 segments. You could use Entity Info to change the radius of the arc faces on either end of the extrusions. like the previous arc. Each segment is now a separate entity. Create the next arc vertically from the bottom edge of the cutout. The arc shrinks. the polygon is segmented. an arc can be broken down into individual segments.The Basics 15. Pull them down. On the side. Right-click the arc and select Explode Curve. Erase the line between the arc and rectangle. 20. and erase the face. and use Convert to Polygon on one of them. the edge below will update instead. But if the new radius will make an arc greater than a semi-circle.5’ is the same as 2’-6”. It should have 4 segments. you cannot change the segmentation. 19.) This time the arc updates but does not affect the rectangle (now a trapezoid) below it. Like a circle. This is because an arc can be fit to the current edge below at a size less than a semi-circle. create two semi-circles of the same size and height. resizing the rectangle below it as well. 16. (Note that even if you are using architectural units. 23 . But once Push/Pull is used.

Erase the rest of the curve to clear the face.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Freehand Another self-explanatory tool name. inferences from other points are not displayed. Click Freehand. 2. Start with a box. Undo again. and use Explode Curve. This smooth vs. the lines will be thin. 8. The lines are thick because they are not edges of a face. indicating a face has been formed. or select Draw / Freehand. Undo and use Convert to Polygon to create a faceted extrusion. this curve is approximated into segments. Orbit to the other side. 6. Now the curve is broken into separate segments. 24 . Freehand is used to create freehand sketches. Like circles and arcs. arcs. To make a curve closed. keeping the Shift key pressed. faceted behavior works the same way as for circles. the curved face is smooth. Push/Pull out the freehand face. 7. and draw a closed freehand curve. Then draw a similar closed curve. Because the mouse button remains pressed. Draw an open curve by clicking and dragging the mouse. 3. 5. 4. simply end it at its start point. though it is selected and manipulated as one object. or press hotkey: F. 1. Although the curve is segmented. and polygons. Verify this by erasing individual segments. If you do it right.

Even though this was created as a closed curve. or press hotkey: Spacebar. Selecting is very straightforward. erasing. but this exercise may show you some features you didn’t know about. Use a line to close the curve. 25 . 3. Start with a box. objects need to be selected before you can apply another tool to them. because. meaning it is not closed. 10. or select Tools / Select. The lines are thin. Among other things. Click an edge to select it. in many cases. To change this into a standard object (a curve that will affect neighboring objects). 9. the cursor appears as an arrow. rotating. Once closed. the resulting curve does not integrate with any other geometry. Manipulation Tools These are tools you can used once you have some geometry in your model. but it has not divided the box face into two faces you cannot erase the enclosed face. 2.The Basics When you use Shift. and making construction lines. You will probably have to zoom in closely to the start and end points to find the break. right-click on it and select Explode. moving. copying. Click Select. it does not translate into a closed curve when exploded. When in Select mode. the lines are thin. 1. Select You need to understand this tool before getting into the other manipulation tools. scaling. The lines are now thick. this section includes tools for measuring.

6. . Use Ctrl/Option to add two edges. 7. located on the Color page of the Model Info window. select Edit / Deselect All. The edge now is deselected. 10. Now click a face to select it. . 9. or by pressing Ctrl+A (Cmd+A). 5. Pressing Shift+Ctrl/Option removes objects from the selection set. . Selected faces are covered with a dotted pattern. .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook The selected edge appears in the color specified for Highlight. then click the face again (with Shift) to deselect it. Keep in mind that edges and faces are considered separate objects. . TIP: You can select everything by selecting Edit / Select All. so be aware of what you need to select for the tool you want to use! Add another face to the set of selected objects. 26 . Pressing Shift toggles objects between selected and deselected. To deselect everything. 8. also in the Highlight color. Remove one face and one edge. by pressing Ctrl/Option while selecting. Press Shift and select a face . or press hotkey: Ctrl/Option + T. 4.

Drag a right-to-left window to select three faces of the large box (the two you can see plus the bottom face) plus the three edges. This type of window selects objects that are completely enclosed within it . Add a rectangle to one of the faces and Push/Pull it out. side and top faces. enclosing the front face of the small box. We will now use window (marquee) selections. 14. Now orbit around so that the small box is behind the larger one. and vice-versa. because you might select objects that are hidden behind objects. In this case. Return to Select mode and drag a window from left to right. and draw the same window selection box. Objects that were previously selected are deselected. 12.the face and the four surrounding edges. 27 . The selection window affects all objects inside it.The Basics 11. Press Shift to toggle selected objects and drag a window that encloses both boxes. This window selects everything completely or partially inside it . 13. Therefore you need to be careful when using a right-to-left window. Shift and Ctrl/Option keys can be used with window selection. the window has also selected some edges and faces of the small box. and surrounding edges. Clear the selection (click anywhere in the blank space). this time from right to left.the front face. 15. throughout the depth of the model into the screen.

In this view you can see the edges and faces of the small box that are selected. you can select all connected faces. 22. If you right-click an edge. orbit the view as shown. Press Ctrl/Option or use Shift. and drag a right-to-left box around it. or all connected geometry. This selects all contiguous edges and faces. double-click on any face. press Ctrl/Option + Shift. To deselect the small box. While in Select. Switch back to Shaded mode by clicking the icon. 28 . and re-select the face. 18. triple-click on any edge or face. Finally. Click Wireframe. 19. Switching to wireframe can show you exactly what’s been selected. The small box is deselected. or by pressing hotkey: F7. or press hotkey: F5. This selects not only the face. 23. but also all surrounding edges. The context menu also provides these selection options. 21. Double-click on any edge to select the edge plus all adjacent faces. but the last selection window also deselected the side face of the large box. Here’s a neat feature that allows you to select multiple objects at once. 20. 17. Unattached objects remain unselected.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 16.

Now select one edge. Entity Info will tell you how many objects are selected. and their total length is listed. Select a few edges (they don’t have to be contiguous). When a face is selected. or all connected geometry. and the total length is also listed. In this case. are listed. However. 5. and 2 arcs with 8 segments each. Materials are described in Chapter 7. 4. Select a few faces. 29 . The total number of edges is 64.The Basics If you right-click a face. you can select its bounding edges. 4 objects are selected . Length can be calculated for curves as well. total lengths of edges. its length is listed. and total area of faces. you have the options Soft and Smooth . In addition. 2. 3. which makes sense since arcs and circles are basically created as a series of small edges. Layers are described in Chapter 9. 1. However. its area is listed in the window. Taking Off Quantities Using Select and Entity Info The Entity Info window enables you to easily calculate numbers of objects. it gives quantities only for one object at a time. connected faces.2 circles with 24 segments each. at this time.these are options that control how the edges are displayed (see "Displaying and Smoothing Edges" on page 57). This section applies to both Windows and Mac users. and the total number of faces. as well as total area. Entity Info on the Mac does not give quantities for more than one selected object.

If your selection set contains different types of entities (edges plus faces. To erase multiple edges in one go. If you try to select this rectangular face. of course. The cursor is now an eraser symbol. And. the entire polygon would be erased with one click. 6. you will see the number and total length (Windows only) of the edges to be erased. 5. and will be deleted once you release the button. it has now become a single face. If you accidentally pass over an edge you don’t want to erase. 4. Activate Erase (Tools / Erase. press Esc to start over. If you’re not picking up all the edges you want. keep the mouse button pressed and pass over the edges you want to delete. 3.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. 2. faces plus groups). If the Entity Info window is open. pulled into a cylinder. NOTE: If you hadn’t exploded the polygon. Draw a rectangle that encloses the bottom of the cylinder. TIP: If you pass over edges too quickly. move the mouse more slowly. 1. 30 . hotkey: E). They will be highlighted in the “select” color. you can always use Undo. Use Explode Curve to break the bottom polygon into its individual segments. Click on any of the polygon segments on the bottom face. Push/Pull the rectangle downward and Push/Pull the polygon the same distance by double-clicking on it. Start with a polygon. the remaining lines become thick. the next important thing is knowing how to erase. and nothing else. Because this breaks the circular face. they might be missed. using around 24 sides. Erase After knowing how to select. the total number of entities will be listed.

and the remaining three edges are thick-lined. 12. The hotkey for hiding is H. and its two adjacent faces disappear. only edges. draw a rectangle on it. you need to select them first. Right-click and select Erase. TIP: This menu also contains a Hide option . Erase the remaining circle segments on this face. or right-click and select Erase. To remove faces. 10. 14. Erase one of the vertical edges of the cylinder. 8. You could also use Select to select the face and press the Delete key. then press Delete. all faces adjacent to it will also disappear. and select it. Another way to erase is to select first. 31 . The Erase tool does not work on faces. 13. Orbit to look down on the top face.useful for temporarily removing faces. except for the top face. Press Delete.The Basics 7. Undo to restore these face. Erase one of the edges of the cutout. Only the top face of the base remains. The face is restored. You could also recreate these faces by manually redrawing the edge you erased. 11. If you erase an edge of a face. Use a right-to-left selection window to select all edges and faces of the base. 9.

the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 15. To change the length of this edge. Measure This tool has three purposes: to measure distances. Erase can also be used to soften edges. 3. and to create construction lines. Using Measure this way enables you to scale your entire model. In addition to hiding edges. while smoothed objects still have their profile lines displayed.don’t forget the unit. you can set the edge color to None in the Display Settings window (Window / Display Settings). or keep Shift pressed while you pass over multiple edges. or selecting Edit / Hide). The last feature of the Erase tool is that it can also hide edges (not faces). Mac: Tools / Tape Measure. Just press Shift and click an edge. 1. Hiding also hides profile lines. TIP: You can also hide edges and faces by selecting them first. Measure the length of the base by clicking the two endpoints. Activate Measure (Tools / Measure. 2. As you saw above. 5. hiding edges leaves surfaces looking faceted. The length is indicated in the VCB. Start with this form. to scale an entire model. hotkey: D). while smoothing creates a smooth look. To hide all edges. 4. according to the value you entered. type the desired length (such as 20’) . then pressing H (or selecting Hide from the popup menu. Click Yes to the following question: 32 . Hiding and smoothing are two different things.

33 . if the model looked like this (in which each adjacent face ends at the endpoint). Activate Measure and click two opposite corners of the diagonal face. To implement the change. you also can use Entity Info to change an edge’s length. . and checking the length in the VCB. . . Measure can also create construction lines offset to edges and other construction lines. they will not be scaled in this operation. An infinite construction line is created here. but we need construction lines to know where to locate points. Click the construction line you just drew and move the cursor to one side to see the offset line. 6. We now want to create a shape on the sloped face. To scale an entire model. you can also use Entity Info to measure edges. However. Enter a different length. . This is the error message you get: 8. Measure is what you need to use. but this is not one of those cases. But even when you can use Entity Info to change an edge. click outside the Entity Info window. 7. The edge could not resize because there are too many faces that would be affected. As you’ve already seen. NOTE: If your model has components. the edge could be shortened.The Basics The model changes scale. it will only affect the selected edge. SketchUp wouldn’t know which endpoint to keep in place. . Place it so that it intersects the midpoint of the edge shown. You can verify this by using Measure on the same two endpoints. Components have set dimensions which would be lost if they were scaled. In some cases.

14. and do not click yet. You can enter the offset distance manually. It’s not too late to change the offset. 13. Now for the construction lines in the other direction . the value is assumed to be in inches). The construction line is created at the specified offset. 34 . Create another construction line at the same offset in the other direction. Enter a value like 7’ (don’t forget the foot symbol. Click this construction line and move the cursor to one side. 11. otherwise. to move the new construction line closer to the center.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 9. Create another offset construction line that intersects the midpoint of the other edge. 15. Do not pick up any other inferences. Press Enter. Type 2’ (or whatever makes sense in your case) and press Enter. 10. 12.create one between the other opposite corners of this face.

Then hover on the upper edge to pick up its inference. 22. Move out so that the construction line is along the axis (red or green direction) from the upper edge. so that you can create an offset construction line. and directly above (blue direction) the lower edge. Press Shift to lock the blue direction. The next construction line will use a double constraint. 35 . 18. click the inner portion of the sloped face. 19. the form should be thin-lined (closed and aligned to the sloped face). If drawn correctly. then click any point on the upper edge. Create a construction line along the edge shown by clicking any two points along it. Use the intersections of the construction lines to create the three lines and arc shown below. 21. Activate Push/Pull. This extends the face to the level of the construction line. and click the construction line. 17.The Basics 16. (Here’s another way to do the same thing: Click the lower edge and pull up in the blue direction. Erase all construction lines by selecting Edit / Construction Geometry / Erase (or Hide). Construction lines can also be used to infer points that do not exist. and without picking up any other inference). Do the same along the diagonal edge.) 20. Click the lower edge of the sloped face (not at an endpoint.

such as 25’ and press Enter.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 23. This creates a finite construction line. In the Measure tool. ending at a construction point. start another construction line. This places the first endpoint of the construction line at the point where the two edges would meet. first hover over one edge and press Shift. Create an offset of the diagonal construction line by clicking on it (Line A). 36 . 24. then clicking on the endpoint of the finite construction line (Point B). then click the other edge. Type an offset value. Move in the red or green direction (depending on where your axes are) but don’t click yet. You can then locate the second endpoint of the construction line. 25. using inference locking. TIP: There is a quicker way to do this. From the point where these lines intersect.

you will see 30 degrees listed in the VCB. 28. hotkey: Shift+D). To change the default tick spacing. 1. 37 . Start with a box. We now have the necessary information to create this triangular face. 3. which enables you to snap to the tick marks. Place it at the midpoint of the right vertical edge. Change the snap angle from 15 to 10. Then set the reference line horizontally along the front face. which is measured from the reference line. If you look from the side. and Push/Pull the triangle outward. Activate Protractor (Tools / Protractor. Do not click yet. The final step is to define the angle. aligned with the front face. 2. 27. open the Model Info window to the Units page. Protractor This tool has two purposes: to create angled construction lines and to measure angles. 4. Erase the construction lines. By default. Enable angle snapping should be checked. If you move the cursor two ticks above the reference line. The protractor appears.The Basics 26. the protractor has ticks marking angles every 15 degrees. you can see that the sloped faces of both forms lie on the same plane.

4 to get the same result. 9.) TIP: You can enter negative values as well. (You can also use the top horizontal face for orientation. 6. 8. click the corner shown to place the protractor center. This time we want to keep the protractor flat (red-green plane) and center it at a specific point. Place the cursor to indicate the direction of the angle. Press Enter to set the construction line. To do this. Place the cursor at the 40-degree tick. Define the reference line along the horizontal edge.4) which automatically appears in the VCB. you could type -32. Use this construction line to create this triangular form. we need to set the orientation first. and click to place the construction line. and type the angle (such as 32. 7. Activate Protractor again. 11. you can erase it. Erase the construction line. Now the protractor has tick marks every 10 degrees. Draw a line along the construction line on the front face and Push/Pull the triangular face all the way through.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 5. Because the construction line is no longer needed. If the cursor had set the angle direction the other way. 12. Place the protractor anywhere outside the form and press Shift to lock its orientation. With Shift still pressed. 38 . 10.

Hover (do not click) over Point C. Move the cursor upward (do not click yet) to set the angle direction. You can also click the edge. Start with a box and add a line parallel to the back edge. release the mouse. This measurement of 57. TIP: Entering a ratio is a great way to set the rise:run of a roof slope.to move objects to a different location. 17. 16. points. Press Esc to “free” the protractor so it can be placed somewhere else. 15. You can enter a ratio instead of a degree measurement. 1. and then click its new location. or a combination of selected objects. Move can also be used to resize curves and curved faces. Type 8:12 and press Enter. Click the edge shown. faces. Place it at the corner of the front face.4-degree angle you created before. or to make one or more copies. 3. which will now be used to measure an angle. In the VCB you will see the measurement of angle A-B-C. Activate Move (Tools / Move. hotkey: M).6 is the complement of the 32. Place and orient the protractor from Point B to Point A. Activate Protractor again. 2.The Basics 13. 14. Use this construction line to draw a line along the front face. Move You can modify your model by moving edges. oriented along its bottom edge. Erase and recreate some edges as needed to get this: Move and Copy The Move tool can be used in two ways . 39 . and drag it downward (blue direction).

8. Objects can also be selected first. Shift-lock the window to move parallel to the lower edge of the large face. Move the face along the red (or green) axis to stretch the entire model. undo that step. you need to define two points. Activate Move and click any point in space (Point A) and click or drag to Point B. then moved. Use Select to select the two edges shown. 10. Create a dormer frame over this rectangle. 9. you must activate Move first. If you use Push/Pull on the same face. Draw a rectangle on the large. If you tried Push/Pull. and the cutout on the large face.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 4. thereby stretching the model. then move the point. The two edges move accordingly. Move is still active. following the axis direction (red or green. This is a good place to show the different between Move and Push/Pull. NOTE: Conversely. The move is applied based on the distance and direction between these two points. Move affects edges and faces adjacent to the selected face. Move also works on faces. Move the point shown on the left down till it meets the point indicated on the right. it only extends the selected face. dragging the window by its lower midpoint. 11. So far we’ve used Move on single objects. Delete the front face of the frame. and center the window along this edge. front face. depending on how you made your model). Select the entire window and activate Move. 6. a reference point and a destination point. If you want to move multiple objects. When moving this way. Make it off-center. you must define the selection set before activating Move. using Line in axis directions and Shift-locking. 7. 5. 40 . if you want to move a point.

then click Point B to make a copy of the cylinder. activate Move. try to approach Point B slowly from a point on the top face. and click. With the cylinder selected. Draw two parallel lines from the new endpoints and pull the outer faces up. Press Ctrl/Option. We now want to select this cylinder to copy it. Release Ctrl/Option. 2. Now the edge consists of three lines of equal length. Use Move to move the edge shown. 5. TIP: Selecting Point B can place the copy on either the top face or front face. Create a small cylinder on one of the top faces. Move the cursor so that the edge is divided into three segments. If you’re having trouble getting the copy on the top face. positioned in the same place relative to the edges of the top faces.) 3. (You can also double-click the top edge to select all the faces that touch it.everything inside or touching the window will be selected. 4. Start with a box. Use a right-to-left selection window . 6. 41 . Right-click the edge shown and select Divide. 1. you will create a copy.The Basics Copy When you use the Ctrl/Option key within a Move operation. 7. then click Point A.

Now there are three copies (four total windows). Move keeps planes as planes. Copy it. NOTE: Automatic alignment. Normally.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 8. which enables you to create fold lines where there weren’t any before. Autofold will create as many planes as needed to perform the move. which you just saw. For the second point. Here’s the first instance when Autofold is useful. using any point on the front face as a reference point. Then release Alt/Cmd and click a second reference point. One copy is made. activate Move. 10. 9. Make another copy using the distance between Points A and B The copy is automatically aligned with the front face. which appears in the VCB. 2. Then hover over the bottom edge. make sure the copy is parallel to the bottom edge. activate Offset. Type 3x. Press Enter. Erase as needed to get a circular window. without dividing them into more planes. 1. 42 . Start with this form. and click a reference point anywhere. Moving objects does not change their alignment. works only for copies. There are two ways you can do this: With only the inside face selected. directly above the first one. Now select two of these windows. The copy should still be selected. and copy them to the side face. but you can make several copies at the same spacing. The fold lines between the top and bottom faces are created automatically. and click two points to define the offset distance). and Offset the edges inward (Select the face. 11. Press Alt/Cmd. Autofold Autofold is a very useful enhancement of the Move tool.

3. Now we will create a roof. 6.The Basics The other way to do this is to start with nothing selected. 5. and drag the face upward. then activate Move. click the inner face. Use Move with Shift-locking on the ridge line intersection point. Select both ridge lines. There is only one direction the edges can be moved. Undo this move.use the blue direction. you can’t move in the blue direction. this time using Autofold. release Alt/Cmd. and add two valley lines. This works. and try to move them upward without using Autofold. Press Alt/Cmd. 9. to get this result: 43 . Now select the two ridge lines as before. Use midpoints and Shift-locking to create the ridge lines. 7. Try again. though some cleanup would be necessary. The roof wasn’t created perfectly. Now you can move the edges in any direction . 8. you would only be able to move the inside face within the confines of its plane. but it can easily be cleaned up. Without Autofold. move them up without Autofold. . 4.

The only way you can move this face is up or down. circles. Select the top face of the arc form and activate Move. Now try to move it again. Start with a form like this: 3. Here are a few extra examples. and polygons are another place where Autofold is useful. it’s impossible to show examples of them all.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook There are so many uses for Autofold. 1. Autofold with Curved Faces Faces created as a result of Push/Pull’ing arcs. 44 . 2. this time pressing Alt/Cmd for Autofold. You can now move the face in any direction.

For an odd number of segments (something you would probably never use). These edges correspond to the locations of the quadrant points. but the radius changes. The center of the circle remains in place. Drag the point inward to make a cone. two of the four quadrant points will be located elsewhere along their edges. Watch the VCB to see the radius value update. Activate Move and move the mouse along the top edge until only a quadrant point (and not the entire edge) is highlighted. and to the surfaces created when these entities are extruded. either by dragging. Note that the changes you can make in this exercise can only be performed on curves and faces that have not been edited they must still retain their original shape. Make a cylinder from the circle. Autofold is useful when you want to create skewed cylinders and polygonal prisms. and move the cursor around the circumference of the circle. While Move is still active.The Basics Similarly. play with the mouse to find them. flat cone. and activate Move. dotted line. and polygons. Move one of the quadrant points. Make sure nothing else is selected. Using Move to Resize Curves and Curved Surfaces This section applies to arcs. move the cursor until a movable edge (and not the entire face) is highlighted as a bold. 2. NOTE: If you have an even number of segments. the oval cannot be resized. 1. For example. Create a small circle. or by click-move-click. circles. But at the four quadrant points. 4. 3. these draggable quadrant points will be at segment endpoints or midpoints. 45 . You can also resize the curved face itself. indicating that it is a point you can drag for resizing. the entire circle is highlighted. once you use Scale to change a circle into an oval. only the point itself is highlighted in green. Along most of the circumference. Move the edge outward to create a wide.

7. On the top face. 9. Move the cursor to the midpoint of the second arc only this point should be highlighted (not the entire arc). Pick the endpoint shown and drag it toward the center of the circle. Create the next arc from the end of the first one. This not only changes the arc. Using Move. Don’t extend it past the conical base below. By default it is tangent to its neighbor. now we will resize the arcs. highlight the moveable edge directly below the arc midpoint. create a tangent arc between an endpoint point on the circumference and a point near (not on) the circle center. Double-click to place the endpoint somewhere on the other side of the circle. Drag this point downward to “flatten” the arc. 10.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 5. Do the same at the midpoint of the first arc. 8. but shrinks the circle as well. Activate Move again. Now onto arcs. Do the same for the other face to make it less flat. 11. 46 . Arc endpoints can also be moved. Drag it back to make the face rounder. 6. Push/Pull up the rear face made by the arc chain.

Finally. Like with a circle. And resize the top polygon by dragging a quadrant point inward. Pull up the polygon. but there is always at least one at a segment endpoint. Resize the arc at the bottom of the face by dragging its midpoint forward. 14. which is basically the same as a circle. To resize the polygonal face. activate Move and use one of the moveable quadrant points to shrink the polygon. Draw a hexagon starting from the center of the arc where shown. 47 . 13.The Basics 12. Change both arc faces by moving their common endpoint to the left. 15. we will use a polygon. 16. The location of these points depends on how many segments you have. drag one of its moveable edges. 17.

which works the same way as the Protractor tool Mac: Rotate only works if objects are selected first. The next click sets the rotation reference line. Activate Rotate (Tools / Rotate. and then activate Rotate. 7. right-angled form. But you can’t select just the wing unless you create a dividing line. select the wing first. rotate by eye. 2. start with following. hotkey: Shift+R). 5. on both the top and bottom faces. In this example the reference line is not so important. The next step is to rotate. Because the rotation has affected adjacent faces. The next exercise explores alignment locking when using Rotate. Select the wing to rotate and press Enter. 3. the non-rotated wing no longer consists of right angles. Use some construction lines and the Move tool to correct this. Therefore. You can use the tick marks on the protractor. Move the cursor to activate the rotation. and to make rotated copies. The Protractor appears. We want to rotate one of the wings.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Rotate and Copy Like Move. 48 . Place the center of the protractor on the top face. Once in Rotate. you need to select the objects to rotate. this tool can be used in two ways . Rotate 1. The current rotation angle appears in the VCB. along the intersection with the other wing.to rotate objects to a different position. 4. set it along one of the axes. For a basic look at Rotate. 6. or type an angle value.

6. 49 . Use Move upward on the line to create a ridged roof. We will now create a window that will be placed on the sloping face of the roof. 5. Use Move to place the window on the sloped face. To rotate it into place.The Basics 1. activate Rotate and Shift-lock the protractor to the vertical side of the house (or another face parallel to this). Create a construction line between Points A and B. 2. The house is aligned with the red-green plane. Erase the interior face of the window. 3. In some blank space. Use Rotate to align the house to the construction line. and Push/Pull up the frame. The window needs to be rotated to the orientation of the house. The rectangle is aligned with the red and green axes. and therefore not aligned with the rotated house. but we want it aligned in another direction. 4. Make sure it’s sized so that it will fit entirely within the roof face when rotated. Start by rotating the window to be parallel to the construction line. 7. create a long rectangle with a smaller rectangle inside it. Start with a long box with a line across the top.

Place the copy a reasonable angle from the original. indicating copy mode. 1. click the point where the window meets the roof. 3. anchoring the protractor on the midpoint of the arc diameter line. Then you can align and rotate as needed. 2. Rotate . Press Ctrl/Option and click anywhere to place the reference line. Create a box with a semi-circular protrusion at the top. Note that the cursor symbol now has a plus sign. and cuts the face. Use Rotate on the column. The window is properly inserted. Keeping Shift pressed. 50 . Create one rectangular column 4.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 8.Copy As with the Move tool. Move the cursor to rotate out a copy of the column. you can use Rotate to make rotated copies by using the Ctrl/Option key.

hotkey: S). this side handle. The side handles (as opposed to corner handles) are used to scale the geometry in one 8. This is a handy way to create an oval from a circle. 6. Select the polygon and press Enter.) 51 . to create a total of three copies (four total columns). with eight drag handles. direction. By default. Type something like 3x. A tool tip appears on each handle. and from what point. Draw a multi-segmented polygon (not a circle) in the red-green plane. If the number of copies is too high or low. turning them inside-out. Similarly. moving a side handle causes non-uniform scaling . Hover over a side handle.the circle remains a circle. in effect. 7. the aspect ratios are not maintained. You can also use Scale to mirror objects. (Like the other tools. 1. then press Enter. and hover on one of the corner handles. 2. As with Move. Undo again. 6.The Basics 5. This way you can create an oval using a corner handle. Push/Pull this oval up. corner handles cause uniform scaling in two directions . type a different value (like 4x). or select the objects from within Scale. you can change the number of copies by entering a value. Activate Scale (Tools / Scale. or click-move-click. Undo. 3. Moving this handle will scale relative to the opposite side handle. Move this handle to resize. relative to other geometry. Windows users can either select the objects and then activate Scale. The circle is surrounded by a bounding box. if you use Shift on a side handle. Select the top face and then activate Scale. 5. while keeping Shift pressed. the scaling would be uniform. 4. Scale Use Scale to resize or stretch selected faces. Drag the same corner handle.that is. Using Shift toggles between uniform and non-uniform scaling. Drag. By default. telling you what kind of scaling it will do.

The reason the entire model was affected by the scaling of any two faces is that the top and bottom objects are single objects (scaled polygons). Drag back toward the center using Ctrl/Option. 14. When scaling.) and half values. you can scale non-uniformly about the center. This is how to give a form a draft angle. Look at the VCB. Select the two front faces and activate Scale. 52 .corners. NOTE: If you press Ctrl/Option and Shift together on this face. Scaling in 3D works the same way. etc. Try dragging different handles to see how the entire model adjusts. you are now scaling relative to the center of the face. So far we’ve scaled only in 2D. Drag the handle at the center of the front of the bounding box outward from the model. The entire model scales with these faces. 13. to scale the face outward from the center. 12. Mac: Objects must be selected before Scale can be activated. 11. 10.5. Now there are 26 handles . and note that the scaling snaps to whole values (1. sides. 2. and bounding box faces. To change this behavior. Undo to return to the model before you did any 3D scaling. Drag the corner handle while keeping Ctrl/Option pressed. Hover on one of the corner handles. single objects keep their basic form. Release the handle when the scale is 0. Rather than scaling from the opposite handle. right-click on both the top and bottom edges of this form and select Explode Curves.0. 15.0.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 9. and press Ctrl/Option.

1. to make mirrored copies of objects. Select the top face of this small box and activate Scale. Start with a form like this.0. Drag this handle toward its opposite handle. reflecting the axes in which the original form was created. The form now faces the other direction. together with the Scale tool. in addition to the faces immediately adjacent to them. But you might need to scale objects according to a different set of axes. and press Enter. or turning objects inside out. the Scale bounding box reflects the current red-green-blue directions. TIP: You can make use of components. You get a 3D bounding box. Start dragging the handle at the center of the front of the bounding box. Activate Scale. Note that scaling causes faces to fold automatically. 17. Drag the top of the bounding box upward. 19. 53 . Now when you scale the same faces as before. 18. stopping when the VCB reads -1. only these faces change. select the entire form. Scaling can also be used for mirroring. 2. Scaling with the Axis Tool By default.The Basics 16. Fold lines are added to faces that were previously planar.

and blue is normal to it. and aligned to the sloped face. 4. If you want to start the next exercise in a new file. Click a point on one of the edges. Red and green are aligned to the face edges. and move the cursor inward. 6. Move the axes back to their original location by right-clicking on any axis and selecting Reset. While Scale is still active. turn them on by selecting View / Axes. Now the scale box is 2D.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 3. If you plan to continue working in this file. and offsets them. Select the top face and press Enter. right-click on the sloped face and select Align Axes. Use Ctrl/Option and a corner handle to give the box a draft angle. 1. the axes should be reset or you will get unexpected results when creating new objects. This creates a new face. Activate Offset (Tools / Offset. 2. Start with a form like this. and Push/Pull up the middle face to create a parapet or roof railing wall. 3. 4. Repeat this to create another offset face. 54 . Click to place the offset face inside the original. Offset This tool takes all the edges of a selected face. hotkey: O). If the axes are not displayed. You could use the Axes tool to change the axes. 5. or a series of connected edges in the same plane. the axes automatically reset. but in this case there is an easier way.

based in the default red-green plane. then press Enter and set the offset distance. Draw a box with a sloped face. Click the lower right corner. then select the face or edges. On the Mac. 4. 5. in Windows you can activate Offset. 2. 7. 1. Activate Offset and create an inner (or outer) doorway shape. Axes This tool can move the origin and/or change the orientation of the axes. We will orient the axes to Face A. Select all edges of the doorway. If the axes are not displayed. not including its bottom edge. rather than an entire face. Orbit around to the back wall and create an arched doorway. you must select the face / edges first. Offset can also be used on a series of edges.The Basics 5. 55 . Start by locating the origin at the lower left corner. Note that the two ends of this edge chain remain connected to the bottom edge. The next click defines the red direction. NOTE: As with most tools. Activate Axes (Tools / Axes. 3. 6. Push/Pull the doorway face outward and you have a tunnel or covered entry. hotkey: X). select View / Axes. then activate Offset.

9. The last click defines the green direction. Select any point on the top edge of Face A. 10. Click OK. otherwise inches are assumed. We’re now back where we started. right-click on any axis and select Reset. To move the axes back to their original location. 7. you could use the same method. The red and green axes are now aligned with Face A. 56 . For Architectural units. 8. and the blue axis is normal (perpendicular) to it. Right-click on any axis and select Move. be sure to use the foot symbol.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. To align the axes with Face B. 11. Enter X and Y Move values. but an easier way is to right-click on Face B and select Align Axes. if you want feet. You can also move and/or rotate the axes by specified values. and the axes move accordingly. TIP: Selecting Place from this menu is equivalent to activating Tools / Axes.

Use Line to connect the first set of arc endpoints. 8-segmented arcs. such as spheres. The edge disappears. cylinders. Create a flat plane. 4. Create the first two faces (triangulate the surface) by adding a diagonal line. single objects. There are two ways to control edge display: hiding and softening. Continue in this manner along the remaining segments until all 16 faces have been created. Each face remains a separate object. or press hotkey: H. Hiding edges does not change the structure of the adjacent faces. 5. you can change this by selecting them. Right-click on any interior edge and select Hide. right-clicking. 1. When you are creating curved objects. SketchUp enables you to display and manipulate these objects either as faceted objects.) NOTE: If any faces appear in the Face Back color. and selecting Reverse Faces. 3. First we will look at hiding. etc. (You could also right-click and select Hide. Select a few more edges and hide them by selecting Edit / Hide. hide. Activate Select and select either face next to the edge. and soften edges of curved objects.The Basics Displaying and Smoothing Edges This sections covers ways to show. with two vertical.. or as smooth. 2. 57 .

but can be used for smoothing as well. Turn on Hidden Line display (hotkey: F6). For another easy way to hide edges. To display all hidden edges. 11.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. activate Erase and press Shift. and you can see the edge you made visible. To redisplay a hidden edge. To see the edges that were hidden. its profile lines are hidden. You can click individual edges or press and drag over the edges you want to hide. 7. 58 . Unlike softened edges (as we will see later). Return to Shaded mode. Right-click an edge and select Soften. 8. no matter how you orbit the model. This means that profile lines may be hidden. Use this method to hide interior and exterior edges along one side of the arc. you will not see these edges. select Edit / Unhide / All. select View / Hidden Geometry (hotkey: F4). Softening edges is similar to hiding them. 12. Even if you orbit the model. 9. Hidden edges appear as dotted (not dashed) lines. 10. The edges that were hidden are invisible. right-click it and select Unhide. Blank the hidden edges again (F4). hidden edges are always hidden.

but the face now looks faceted.. because this option only controls appearance. right-click on one of the selected edges and select Soften/Smooth Edges. Now this face can be selected and manipulated as one face . 16. smooth face. You can also soften a group of selected edges. Verify this by using Select. 14.The Basics 13. The edge is invisible. At a certain angle. (You can also display this window by selecting Window / Soften Edges.it is no longer faceted. no edges are softened.) 18. 59 . It still acts as one face. But in contrast to hiding the edge. activate Erase and press Ctrl/Option. Select all the remaining edges of the arc face. Move the slider from 0 degrees to the other end (180 degrees) to see how the edges disappear. all the edges will be softened. 15. Deselect the Smooth normals option. The Soften Edges window has a slider that you can use to control which edges are softened. resulting in one. Note that in the area where the edges are softened. 17. however. The edges are still hidden. the arc face looks smooth. a softened edge joins the adjacent faces into one face. the resulting faces lose their faceted look. When Smooth normals is checked. To soften several edges. When Angle Between Normals is zero.

and erase the window cutout. Make sure Soften coplanar is checked . 23.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 19.this softens any interior. You can orbit the model and always see the profile lines. Display the softened edges by pressing F4 or View / Hidden Geometry. Draw a few lines between the midpoints of these edges. This would not be possible to do if the softened edges weren’t displayed. 20. 22. Draw three more lines to create a small window in one of the faces. Turn on Hidden Line display (F6). Return to Shaded display. as opposed to hidden edges which are dotted. coplanar edges 21. The remaining edges lie within existing faces (even though you can’t see the faces themselves). Softened edges are shown as dashed lines. Blank the softened edges (F4). softened edges are always visible in profile. right-click. You can soften these edges as well . Unlike hidden edges.select them all. and select Soften/Smooth Edges. 60 .

and make sure the slider is set back to zero degrees. Select Unsoften. Click anywhere in the drawing to place the sphere. Open the Shapes category and click one of the spheres. you need to be able to see the edge first.The Basics 24. Displaying hidden geometry (F4) will show you how this object is actually constructed. and press both Shift and Ctrl/Option. 61 . then pull down the base to get this result. Press F4.. Activate Erase. Right-click and select Select/Smooth Edges. Manipulate the hidden edges so that you can delete the lower half. then right-click on an edge that is still softened. hotkey: Shift + C). Display the Component Browser (Window / Components. 26. 25. Softening edges is an extremely useful tool for controlling display and changing the object face structure. which become highlighted. To unsoften all edges. Hold and drag the cursor over a few edges. You can unsoften edges that you cannot see. Try it Yourself Start with a sphere component and explode it. You can unsoften the edges to get facets. select them all using the selection window you used before. To unsoften specific edges.

Click a second point to determine the location of the start point of the text. hotkey: T). click the face shown. and End Point is set to Closed Arrow. Open the Model Info window to the Text page. By default. in the selected font and color.) 4.) The text now appears as one line. you are creating a leader. we will set the type of text to be used. Type something like “Proposed Museum” and press Enter twice to 62 . 3. and make sure Leader is set to View Based. click anywhere in the blank space in front of the building. Before creating text. You can now overwrite the area text. For the font and color. For the next object. Start with a building like this: 5. complete the text. but this can be changed. Text Text can be placed in your model in two ways: attached to geometry or “floating” in space. For the first text object. 2. (Pressing Enter twice also works.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Annotation Tools SketchUp provides two ways to add descriptions to your model: text and dimensions. Activate Text (Tools / Text. (Pressing Enter only once starts a new line of text. When you first click a surface or edge (as opposed to blank space). Type “East Wing” and click outside the text area to complete the text. 6. 1. use whatever you like. the area of the face is listed as the text.

For the next text object. Overwrite the area with “8:12 Roof” and press Enter. if you double-click the text location.it doesn’t change what’s already there. right-click on the “8:12” text and select Entity Info. 63 . you will get a hidden leader.) Now the text has a leader. meaning that it always tries to maintain its orientation relative to where it was originally placed. To display the leader for this text. 10. This setting affects text drawn from now on . In the Entity Info window.The Basics 7. click on the sloped roof face shown. 12. The default text for edges is the measured length.) 8. The type of text we’ve been using is view-based. (There are ways to change existing text. Then double-click where you want the text. as we’ll see. the entire text object disappears. Overwrite the text with something like “Optional Roof Deck. This creates text with a hidden leader. 9. change Leader to View-based.” (Like with a face. You can also fix a leader to an edge. 11. If you orbit so that any leader line is hidden. Open the Model Info and change the Leader to Pushpin and the End point to Dot.

18. you can move any text object. then click again to relocate it. so that you don’t inadvertently move it to another plane. 16. 15. Then click Update Selected Text. in which you want all text available at all times. To see the difference between view-based and pushpin text. but pushpin text remains visible even when text and/or leaders are partially hidden.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 13. 14. One is the Model Info window: choose Pushpin and Open Arrow. While you are in Text mode. 17. Double-click on “8:12 Roof” and change it to “6:12. in which you don’t want irrelevant text cluttering the view. You can also edit text. View-based text disappears when its leader line is hidden. 64 . Because of these differences. In addition to moving and editing existing text. Activate Select and select two of the view-based text objects from the east wing. orbit the model to partially hide the west wing.” Click outside the text area to implement the change. view-based text is appropriate for presenting still shots from certain angles. Note the different leader end point. Add the two objects shown below to the other wing. Click on “West Wing” once. Pushpin text is good for overall studies and plans. TIP: Another way to change text is to right-click on a text object and select Edit Text (Mac: Edit). There are two ways to change these objects. This type of text should be moved using axis direction inferences. you can also change a text object’s type.

as you’ve seen. you can also change its leader type or arrow by right-clicking on it and selecting Leader or Arrow.The Basics The other way you can change objects is via the Entity Info window. Activate Text again. orbit around and note that they do not disappear when their leaders are hidden. NOTE: For a single text object. Do the same for the “West Wing” face. This type of text object has a “hidden” leader line. 19. both of its text objects (“South Facade” and “Optional Roof Deck”) move with it. TIP: As you probably figured out. This way you can also see how many objects are selected. which can be changed using the methods you’ve already seen. To verify that these are now pushpin objects. 21. so that no leader is attached.” then press Enter and type “Facade. 20. Press Enter twice to finish.” This creates two separate text lines. Push/Pull the south facade forward. Either way. both the text and leader move. Text objects that are anchored to faces or edges “stick” to those faces when they are moved. you can change all text objects by using the Select All Text button in the Model Info. 22. 65 . Type “South. the selected objects now have open arrow leader end points. To verify this. and double-click on the front center face. You can also create text directly on a face or edge.

4. 2. Select the points shown below. The dimension text should now reflect the new unit settings. Use a Precision of 0. 5.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Dimensions You can add dimensions to your model to show exact measurements. Now to add some dimensions to this form. dimensions in Millimeters. Open the Model Info to the Units page and select Decimal 66 . 1. Leave enough room for more dimensions closer to the building. Activate Dimension (Tools Dimension). Creating Dimensions This section focuses on ways to create and place dimensions. Then move the mouse in front of the building and click to place the dimension text. Deselect Display units format. so that the dimension will have one decimal point. so that the “mm” will not be displayed on every dimension. Create the next dimension from the right wall to the arc face. The first dimension will be created between two points. 3.0. Start with a form like this. by selecting the two points shown. Dimension display and properties will be covered in the next section. The dimension is listed in whatever units are currently set (shown above in Architectural).

rotated.The Basics 6. 7. While Dimension is still active. you can move existing dimensions.) 67 . 9. Create the vertical dimension the same way. and pull the dimension to the side of the building. You can also dimension an edge with two clicks. Dimensions are objects that can be moved. (Or select Edit / Hide. aligning it with the previous dimension. or right-click and select Hide. 8. Drag all dimensions closer to the building. use the dotted inference line to align it with the corresponding dimension on the other side. Create a similar dimension on the other side of the arc face. Select the two dimensions shown below. copied. Click the edge shown. and hidden like other objects. 10. When locating this dimension. TIP: You could also use the Move tool to do this. and press H to hide them.

68 . then turn off hidden geometry. To dimension the lower arc. and check Show radius/diam prefix. The model is starting to look cluttered. With this setting. dimensions oblique to the viewing plane are hidden. you can attach it. 15. 16. and check Hide when foreshortened. If the “R” prefix does not appear with the radius dimension. Orbit to a more vertical view. 14. The dimension now has the prefix. TIP: You can use the slider on the Dimensions page to control the angle at which dimensions will disappear. Dimension the upper arc the same way. so it’s a good idea now to modify the display. click it and click again to place the dimension.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 11. Open the Model Info to the Dimension page. Open the Model Info window to the Dimension page. Click on one of the dashed line at the center of the face. and the dimensions on the red-green plane will disappear. 12. 13. first display hidden geometry. To dimension the arc face.

then place the dimension. by right-clicking on it. click the edge. 20. For the next dimension. green.The Basics 17. 19. create a parallel dimension along the chamfered corner. 69 .one that is more likely to appear in a drawing. By default. with a “DIA” prefix. Move the cursor down and click to create a vertical dimension . Use the same edge to create a horizontal dimension between the midpoints of the upper and lower arcs. Change this diameter to a radial one. 21. 24. and selecting Radius. Click the dimension on the chamfered corner and move the mouse so that it is aligned with the front edge dimension. circles are assigned diameter dimensions. 22. click on two center points of the cylinders at the top. To dimension the circle itself. the parallel dimension inference line is magenta. Move the cursor in a perpendicular direction away from the selected edge. selecting Type. In addition to dimensioning in the red. and blue directions. you can also create parallel dimensions. 23. Next. 18. Once a dimension is created. you can still change its orientation. Do not click to create this dimension.

Note also that the dimension between the cylinder center points does not change. To edit the dimension. 70 . 26. that this affects all radial and diameter dimensions. You can add prefixes and suffixes to dimensions without changing their numerical value. 28. 27. while in Dimension or Select mode.the number will remain intact. however. The dimension text now contains the extra text. located in between the suffix and prefix. changes to the model cause dimensions to update. As you would expect.” The angle brackets are placeholders for the dimension value . Open the Dimension page again and deselect Show Radius/Diam Prefix. double-click on it.) Type “Radius <> Typ. 25. so be careful when changing this option. To dimension the height of the cylinders. (You can also right-click on it and select Edit Text. which is no longer needed. This method can be used on both arcs and circles. select one of its hidden edges (F4) and move the cursor to the side to create the dimension. But the “R” symbol is still there. The “R” symbol is now gone.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook The dimension now has the “R” prefix. Note. but its leader lines update. Push/Pull up the circle whose height you just dimensioned to see this dimension update.

Change the alignment to Above. Erase or hide all dimensions except those shown. open the Dimension page and check Align to Dimension Line. 2. 4. and change the Arrow Heads to Dot. This is typical of most CAD programs. To change this. so far the dimensions have been aligned so that you can always view them facing you. The dimensions are now located above the dimension lines. but this section will cover the rest. Each dimension is now aligned to the plane in which it lies. no matter the orientation of the model. We will continue with the same model. 1. but can be a bit hard to read unless you are directly facing the dimension. Change back to Horizontal on Screen. 71 . All the dimensions will update. 3.The Basics 29. By default. Use Measure or Scale to change the scale of the entire model. and set alignment to Centered. Dimension Display and Properties Some display options and dimension properties were covered in the previous section.

any dimensions that are not accurate to the specified precision will now have a tilda (~) symbol. and not the witness lines. We will now explore dimension overrides. open the Dimension page again and check Highlight non-associated dimensions. 7. and end in dots at the witness lines. we cannot tell if there are any problems with dimensions. such as overridden numbers. With the current settings.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook The dimensions are all aligned to the viewing plane. This indicates that the dimension itself is still valid. 5. only the number is wrong. This dimension is no longer numerically accurate. Open the Units page and increase the Precision to several decimal places. Now the dimension you edited will appear in the “problem” color. appear in the “problem” color. The dimensions are now more accurate. Note that only the edited dimension text itself. it remains how it was edited. You would also see the “problem” color if you changed the dimension to text. 6. or added a prefix or suffix without using the “<>” format described in the previous section. To remove the tilda symbols. however. Double-click the dimension shown and type in a different number. you can always increase the precision. such as red. The edited dimension does not change. Set a color that is easily visible. In addition. To change this. 72 .

” which you would want on actual plans. Another way to avoid clutter is to hide dimensions when they get too small to display. 12. and to scale the entire model accordingly. and do not check Force Display of 0”. 10. Double-click it. Precision = 0”. to change the dimension shown to a whole foot value. This dimension does not include “zero inches. The dimension now reflects the actual number. check Force Display of 0”. to the correct precision. 9. 11. Now change the units to Architectural. and press Delete to remove the text. The zero is now displayed. simply delete its text. The dimensions are now in inch-foot. rounded to the nearest inch. Use the Measure tool.The Basics 8. Back in the Units page. 73 . Most or all of these dimensions will have a tilda symbol since the precision is low. To remove a dimension override. In the Dimension page check Hide when too small. as described in the previous section. Use the slider to adjust the display tolerance.

If you make geometric changes. These dimensions appear in the “problem” color. the text does not update. and areas. The two dimensions that are affected are those that referred to the corner that was eliminated. To demonstrate this. and by default it is a label of the X. WARNING: Be careful when using this option. the Text tool creates labels. Start with a form like this and activate Text. For the first point. and not just the text itself. Create another edge label. 1. select one of the corner points. because you might create dimensions that immediately disappear! To get an edge’s length. The previous labels do not change. you can label coordinates. Dimensioning Using the Text Tool If you worked through the Text exercise.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 13. Cut a chamfer on the other front corner. click the edge. Y. But what happens when the geometry used to create them disappears? 14. edge lengths. or change units. change the units to display the unit format (i. you have seen how this tool can be used to label dimensions. Z coordinates of the point. 3. Zoom out on the model. 2. and update with changes to geometry.e. Depending on what start point is selected. and note how dimensions disappear when they are small enough. and it includes the format. Unlike dimensions. since it is no longer clear what they reference. Lastly. we have already seen how dimensions are associative to the model. which are not associative to the model. The witness lines are problematic as well. 74 . Drag out the text. cm).

(You may have to zoom in closely to get the On Face constraint. 5.The Basics 4. you can use the Axes tool. from the corner of the rectangle to the closest corner of the box. 3. However. relative to this new rectangle. you will get the area between hidden edges . 6. Create dimensions. and not on one of the segment endpoints. not perpendicular to the previous axes. Remember to reset the axes. Create a box. Click a face to get its area. labeling a circular edge will give you the entire length. 1. 75 . Be sure to click within one of the circle segments. Start a new file. create a rectangle. In the new system.not the entire face. 4.) 2. If you click within a curved face to get its area. Activate Axes (hotkey: X) and create a new set of axes. Using the Axis Tool with Dimensions Dimensions are relative to the current axes. If you need to create dimensions relative to a different set of axes. and turn on the axes display. since there are hidden edges and endpoints within this face.

the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 76 .

It no longer makes a cutout. Select the window (all four faces) and move the window outside the boundary of the front face. (To make the window. Basic Move and Copy This short exercise shows a few ways you can move and copy objects. Resolve the thick-lined rectangle by redrawing any of its lines. Now move the window by clicking one of the inside endpoints. 1.) 6. start with a rectangle. Create a box with one window. and erase the window face. 77 . Erase the window face. Push/Pull it in slightly. Moving and copying were covered briefly in the Basics chapter. and placing it on the front face. Select the window again and copy it. 2. Move the window back to the front face by dragging one of the outer endpoints (or any point on the front of the window) to the front face. The window now sticks out of the building. but this chapter will cover it a bit more in-depth. to which it aligns and cuts. 8. The copy also cuts out the window.2 Making Multiple Copies 5. 4. 7. 3. Copy a window to the side face. The cutout is not made because the face alignment of this window has already been broken.

5’. Use Measure again to create a construction line 10’ above the bottom. you can play with the spacing and number of copies. Look at the VCB to see the delta distance you just used. Make it small enough so that several copies can be made in the red direction. not moving. you would need to rotate.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Alignment to faces works only when copying. it would not have aligned to or cut the face. Start out with a new box. for a total of 5 windows. 1. If you are using feet and inches.just type something like 7’6. what appears here depends on your model. This creates 4 copies at the same spacing.) 6. Type a larger spacing and press Enter. . . (7’6” would also work. 7. the window. If you had moved a window to the side face. Draw an arched window. you do not need a space or dash . To make more copies. 3.. (Of course. and adjust the box height to meet the construction line. Make one copy in the red direction. and one copy in the blue direction. 5. Use Measure to scale this edge to 20’. 4. you can easily do this using the Move tool. To do that. 78 .) 2. The copied window moves a bit farther from the original. as would 7. then move. As long as Move is still active. Verify the height by checking one of the vertical edges in Entity Info. Multiple Linear Copies If you want to make repeated (array) copies. type 4x and press Enter.

Making Multiple Copies

8.

The spacing is too far apart, so type a spacing that will bring the windows closer together. Rather than type in feet and inches, you can also type in decimal feet, like 4.75’.

11. If you need to, adjust the vertical spacing. The second row from the top should be located slightly above the top of the box. The bottom two rows should both be within the face of the box.

9.

There are still too many windows, so type 3* (you can use * or x) to make 4 windows.

12. We will now create another two-story section. Use Offset inward and Push/Pull this new rectangle upward so that it will contain the upper windows. Erase the outer windows in the top 2 rows.

10. Select the 4 windows and use Move to copy them upward (blue direction). Type 3x to create three copies of the row of windows.

13. The upper windows are not flush with the vertical face. Select these 4 windows, and activate Move. Here we will use a double constraint. Click any point on the front of any window. . .

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14. . . . and Shift-lock them along the axis perpendicular to the vertical face.

17. Draw a small circular window at the top left corner of the front face.

15. With Shift pressed, move back to the vertical face, and click when the double constraint is indicated.

18. Select and copy this window anywhere. As long as Move is active, you can specify a relative distance by using angle brackets. Type <3’,0,2’> to make a copy at a 3:2 slope.

16. Resolve each window to this face and cut them out.

NOTE: Distances are entered in order of red, green, and blue directions (as opposed to x, y, z). If your face was in the green-blue plane, you would type <0,3’,2’>.

19. Type 3x to create 3 copies.

20. Change the slope to <3’,0,1’>. Linear array copies are not limited to orthogonal (horizontal or vertical) directions. The remainder of this exercise will focus on sloped copies.

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Making Multiple Copies

21. Add more windows along this line by typing 5*.

25. Now adjust the first-to-last spacing so that all windows fit within the face, and create 7 windows.

In case you hadn’t already noticed, there is always one copy in the highlighted color. When manipulating numbers of copies and spacing, the highlighted copy is the first copy in the row. 22. When changing the spacing between copies on a slant, the distance is the absolute distance (along the slant) between copies. Try something small like 1.5’.

The window line looks good, and now the roof needs to be adjusted to accommodate it. 26. The slope of the window line is known (1:3), so we can draw a construction line with this slope. Activate Protractor and set a 1:3 construction line from the horizontal edge.

23. In this case, the most useful copy method is probably to set the distance to the last copy and adjust the number of copies in between. Change the spacing to something large like 15’. (There are still 5 copies, but each one is spaced at 15’ so they might not all fit on your screen.)

27. This method is fine for cases in which the slope is known, but let’s assume the slope is not known. Erase the construction line, or undo it with Ctrl/Cmd + Z. 28. Draw a construction line between the lowest endpoints of the two outer circles. Place an offset copy of this construction line at the corner point shown.

24. Enter 4/ to create 4 equal divisions between copies (5 total windows).

29. Move the edge shown by dragging its endpoint to meet the construction line.

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30. To create the remaining window cutouts, you have to resolve each circle to the face by redrawing one of its segments (you may have to zoom in very close to do this).

2.

Use Move with Autofold. to move the center point up (in the blue direction).

31. Use similar steps to make a beam along the roof, and create a copy of the beam above each circular window.

TIP: You can create this shape without using Autofold, if you create all six faces before moving the center point.

In this case, Autofold saves you from the lengthy task of creating 3 extra lines!

3.

Now we’ll use a Boolean subtract function - using one shape to cut volume from another. The cutting shape will be a copy of the original one. First complete the bottom face. Then create a copy of the roof slightly below the original.

Multiple Rotated Copies
There are several ways to make rotated copies of objects. To demonstrate this, we will build a gazebo. 1. Start with the roof - use the Polygon tool to draw a hexagon. Place in the red-green plane, not aligned to either axis. Draw a line connecting two opposite corners, and a line from the midpoint of this bisecting line to any corner.

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Making Multiple Copies

4.

Edges are not automatically created at face intersections. With the copied form still selected, right-click on any face of it and select Intersect with Model.

6.

The first object to be copied is a window shape in the roof. Use Offset to create a small triangle in one of the roof faces. Select the triangle and activate Rotate. Use Shift-locking to keep the protractor flat and place it at the center. Make the first rotated copy by clicking two adjacent corner points.

This creates the 6 intersection lines we need.

In this example, the rotation angle was known, and appears in the VCB. The angle is 60 degrees, which is 360 divided by 6 faces. You could have entered this value manually, but the reference point method is useful for cases when you do not know the exact angle.

7.

Because five total copies are needed, type 5x (or 5*). To cut openings, use Push/Pull to push one triangle through, and double-click on the 5 other faces.

NOTE: Of course, you could also draw these 6 lines manually.

5.

Now use Erase to delete everything that extends past the bottom of the roof. Erase the center of the bottom face as well, and you now have a roof with some thickness.

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the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook

8.

Now onto the base of the gazebo, which will be a set of hexagonal walls. Use Offset, Erase, and Push/Pull as needed to create the base.

12. Now type 6/ to specify 6 divisions between copies. For a 360-degree rotation, this also means 6 copies. Press Enter, and the arch appears (uncut) on each face.

9.

Create an arched opening on one wall. 13. Remove the arch faces.

10. Select the arched doorway. In this case, you should switch to Wireframe to verify what’s selected.

11. Activate the Rotate tool. Set the protractor as before, and create a rotated copy anywhere. You could pick two corner points as before to set the rotation angle as before, but let’s do it another way. Type 360 for a full-circle rotation, and press Enter.

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this is called extruding or driving. . Start with a form like this . 2. . 85 . Follow Me This tool basically takes a flat face of any shape. in a few different ways. This is the section that will be used in Follow Me. Basic Follow Me This exercise will show you several ways you can use Follow Me.3 Intersect and Follow Me 3. Move the cursor to the back endpoint shown. Then select (click and release) the cutout face as the face to drive along the path. The first way to use this tool is the “real-time” way. 5. 1. First. In other CAD applications.a box with an arc form pulled up part-way. then move it along the back of the box. . Use 2 arcs to create a cutout section in one corner of the box. activate Follow Me (Tools / Follow Me). . 4. and drives it along a path.

the cutout is made. it’s not always so easy to pick the path. If you miss it. but as you’ve seen. 7. Move along the opposite edge and back to the point from which you started. Here is the result . When you release the mouse. Keep the button pressed and move along the path. 8. It might be a little tough to get this point since the cutout shape starts before this point. dragging method is great in some cases. The real-time. using the edges shown. without releasing the mouse button. Also.the cutout is made along the entire path. Undo to restore the top edge of the box. Try the real-time Follow Me again. which takes you back to the start point. TIP: You can also hold and drag the section all the way around. 86 .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. the driven section must be connected to the path and must meet it at the path endpoint. and the section is removed. Click at this point. try approaching slower or from a different angle. Activate Follow Me and click on the section. Don’t leave out Edge 11.

and pre-select the 11 edges you used before. 11. Use Select to select just the top face. Then activate Follow Me and select the section . Then select the cutout section. closed result. With the edges selected. 87 . activate Follow Me. 14.the cutout goes all along the face. But with an unusual path like this. Undo.Intersect and Follow Me 9. it’s an easier way to make sure you get a clean. The next method shows how to set the path ahead of time. Undo again. This drives the section around in one step. Activate Follow Me and use the same cutout section .the same results as before. If you plan to drive a section around a face. Use Select and select all edges along the top (5 edges total). 12. you don’t have to select each edge in advance. 13. 10. Undo.

Undo again. but only works on sections immediately adjacent to the driven section. Select the section. Undo to erase the arc section and draw a small circle at the corner shown. press Alt/Cmd. you can create the cutout on both faces! The Alt/Cmd-face method is convenient. Undo and use the face-select method with a side face. and select the top face.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 15. If you want to drive around a face. Do not click yet. 19. 88 . activate Follow Me. move the mouse to the side face and click. Use Follow Me to drive it around the top. With nothing selected. you don’t have to pre-select it. Now we will see how driven sections affect the forms on which they are created. 17. This is the result: NOTE: If you switch back and forth between faces a few times. 18. With Alt/Cmd still pressed. 16.

you can see the quarter-circle section sticking into the room. select the top face or select its edges. Activate Follow Me. So. Make it a group by selecting Edit / Make Group or using hotkey: G. Now erase or hide one of the side faces. The section to drive is within the group. with no part inside the building. Because the circle section was partially inside the building. 22. 24. 25. 23. so right-click the section and select Edit Group. 89 . 21. Undo the last action and select the section face. Undo and create a section like this. Now the section has dragged the walls out with it. you need to pre-select the path.Intersect and Follow Me 20. One way to use Follow Me so that the driven section does not affect the form on which it sits is to use groups. Drive this section along the top. When using Follow Me on a group.

Within the group. 28. but if you look inside. the intersections between the straight and curved portions are not clean. Use the bottom face for the path (be sure this face is not subdivided by any edges) and drive the moat section around. the path does not have to touch the section. Right-click outside the group and select Close Group. The top looks like it did before. 29. As an example. With this result. Select the face. 27.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 26. the section is driven around the top. you’ll see that the vertical walls of the room remain unchanged. Create a rectangular section with an arc cutout. If you pre-select the path. 90 . we’ll create a moat around the building (a very useful thing no doubt).

and heal the face.the intersections here are not clean. To find out why. To get perfect results here. Offset the bottom face to the moat section’s midpoint. You may get a warning message that the path does not meet a corner of the section. undo the last action. though still not quite perfect. Extend the lines to meet the arc segments. but in this case the results are fine. Here’s the problem . the offset edges should actually extend to the far edge of the section. 32. 31. 91 . The intersections are cleaner. Now use the edges of this face for the moat section.Intersect and Follow Me 30.

92 . 4. This cuts material from the top of the box. 2. press Shift + C or select Window / Components. Make it a component by using the icon or selecting Edit / Make Component. If the Component Browser is not open. which contains the molding section you just created. and doesn’t create a molding inside the box. 1.) Assign any name and be sure that Replaced selected is checked. Undo. Use Follow Me on this section along the top of the box.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Follow Me with Components The previous exercise showed how you can avoid “stickiness” with Follow Me by using groups. with the advantage that you can reuse sections repeatedly. Start with a box with a molding section like this: 3. The browser opens to the In Model folder. The section now has a bounding box. A good example is the use of moldings. (Or right-click on the section and select Make Component. You can also use components for the same effect. like it would as a group. and select the molding face.

The edited (3D) molding would still appear in the In Model tab. If you have standard moldings (or other sections) that you use frequently. 7. they should be placed in a component library for easy importing.the box remains closed on top. 93 . Right-click outside the molding and select Close Component.) Here is the result from the outside . Then activate Follow Me. but the original molding section would be preserved in the library. 8. Look up from the bottom . 9. first select the top face or the 4 top edges.the molding appears on top of the box walls and ceiling. (You can also click outside the component bounding box. To drive this component around the top of the box. you can see that the component has changed . Select the molding face and it proceeds along the top face. In the browser. Right-click on the component and select Edit Component.Intersect and Follow Me 5.it used to be a 2D section. 6. now it is the entire molding.

94 . then select the arc shape. Where you place the circle affects the outcome of the extrude. To create a hemisphere. Activate Follow Me. 90-degrees apart.a sphere. start with the same arc shape as before. you would erase a circle outside or inside the sphere. For another way to create a sphere. Draw a circle perpendicular to the arc shape. activate Follow Me. The one you just selected is driven around the first one. as long as its center point is located correctly. 8. 4. Make a shape like this. to create the hemisphere. objects. Depending on your selection order. 2. 1. 5. We’ll start with the most basic round shape .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Round Objects By extruding a face along a circle. you will have to erase one of them. 7. The center point must be aligned with the line. The sphere is created. Draw a perpendicular circle of any size at the midpoint of the arc shape line. If the circles are different sizes. you can create rounded. Place a perpendicular circle at the corner point shown. Select the circle. and select the other circle. Select one of the circles. or lathed. Draw two concentric circles. The circle can be any size. start with a half-circle arc closed by a line. Select the circle and activate Follow Me on the arc shape. 3. but does not have to touch it. 6.

shown in X-Ray mode (F9). Use Follow Me along the 180-degree arc. To remedy this. You’ll still get an extrusion that’s not exactly 180 degrees. So. but takes a bit more work. arcs don’t always give you the results you’d expect. If you look closely. The extrusion this time has the rectangular cutout on the outside and the curved portion on the inside. model.the face is Push/Pull’d along the first arc segment. Use this circle to extrude the shape. and this is the result. and move the circle to this corner point. Undo. Activate Follow Me and select the face. and after that the extrusion is curved. you can try an arc with many more segments. 10. then extrude it manually along the arc. This is shown in the exercise "Domed Apse" on page 247. Change the circle to a semi-circle. and make sure nothing is selected. Another way is to use the “slice and copy” method. Here’s a funny aspect of Follow Me. and therefore slower. This will give you the exact shape you want. The disadvantage is that more segments make for a more complex. but it’ll be closer. 11. Undo.Intersect and Follow Me 9. The rectangular cutout is in the center of the object. 13. 12. Now you can see the problem . you can see that the start and end faces are not flush. 95 .

intersecting. To verify that these edges were created. on both sides of the arc wall. This tool basically enables you to perform solid Boolean functions . 96 . Place a construction point at the arc center. 6. 2. Use Undo to return to the step before the intersection edges were created. Select the freeform body and make a few rotated copies around the arc center. and make a wall from the arc. 7. select the arc wall (or at least the front and back faces of it). Use Arc and Offset to make a shape like this. Switch to X-Ray mode (F9) and Push/Pull the freeform body so that it stops inside the wall. Pull the shape back. Now erase the faces inside these edges. (You can also find Intersect with Model on the Edit menu.combining.) Embossing is similar. 5. To find the intersection edges. Orbit to face the front of the arc face. 4.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Intersect with Model These easy exercises are a good introduction to Intersect with Model. 3. centered around the construction center point. 1. The result is a solid arc wall with a solid cutout. and/or subtracting one solid from another. Cutting and Embossing This exercise shows how you can use Intersect with Model to create the edges needed to make cutouts. delete the portions of the freeform body that extend past the arc wall on either side. and use Freeform to create a shape like this. right-click and select Intersect with Model.

) Use Scale to make one archway taller. but this would push in the side of the box as well! 3. Draw a box with a keyhole-shaped archway on one side. and add a dividing line to separate it from the box.Intersect and Follow Me 8. Now we need to move the cutout all the way through the box. and with the arch still selected. Project: Intersecting Arches This project is pretty straightforward . Now that the arch is no longer “sticky. Arch Cutouts Using Groups This exercise is similar to the previous project. Push/Pull this arch out. 3. Start with one arch form and rotate-copy it 90-degrees about the midpoint.it can only move side-to-side.intersecting two arches that meet at a 90-degree angle. make it into a group. NOTE: You could move it into the box using Autofold. 2. but uses an arch form to create intersecting cutouts. 97 . Erase as needed to get an embossed effect. Here are some guidelines: 1. (Rotating is easy when you display hidden geometry. Undo the move.” you can move it into the box. 2. The intersection edges are only needed on the outer face of the arc wall. Delete everything in the openings . Try selecting it and moving it as is . 1.selection windows are very helpful for this. Right-click on this face and select Intersect with Model. Recreate and erase edges as needed (sometimes easiest to do in X-Ray or Wireframe mode). and use Intersect with Model to get the intersection edges. The result is a vaulted ceiling.

groups must be exploded before creating intersections. no part of them remains inside the box when they are deleted. and erase and clean up to get an arcade. right-click and select Explode. (This is also true for components. 7. Undo until you return to the step in which you had two arch groups. Run Intersect with Model and erase the arch groups and arch faces on the box. 5. To solve this.) 98 . Run Intersect again. 6. How to get the center of rotation? Hover over midpoints of two adjacent edges of the box.you should be able to snap to that point.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 4. Make a 90-degree rotated copy of the group. Then move the cursor to where they should intersect on the top face of the box . Because the cutouts were grouped. Select both groups.

Create a narrow. Assign any name. 2. components work just like groups. Use cutout groups. so that it stops in the hollow space. Close the end faces. and are used when you have objects you want to use repeatedly. and Push/Pull. 1. TIP: You could smooth the long. 3. 99 . Select the box and make it a component. explode them. rotate-copy them. and be sure that Replace selected is checked. Position the cutter component within the grill. using lines and arcs. Basically. lateral edges by using Ctrl/Option + Erase. and intersect them. tall box that can be used to cut grill holes. Create a form like this.Intersect and Follow Me Try it Yourself Use the method described above to create a six-sided arcade. Cutting Using Components This exercise shows how components can be used in conjunction with Intersect with Model. Offset. This will be the grill form that will have several cutouts made. There will be a bit more cleanup than the previous four-sided case. It may be easiest to do this in X-Ray mode (F9). 4.

If you try selecting and deleting the interior faces. Select the entire component and perform an intersection.” 6. representing where the cutter meets the front of the hollow grill “shell. You should have 4 faces. or right-click and select Close Component. 8. The easiest way to edit this component is to blank everything else. 100 . 10.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 5. Trim the cutter on either side of these edges. Make several copies of the component. check Hide for both components and the rest of the model. The edges where it meets the grill are created. 9. On the Components page of the Model Info window. you can’t do it yet . and open one of the components for editing (double-click on a component to edit it). Close the component by double-clicking outside it. 7.the grill faces are not yet broken.

To break the face. Hiding Intersection Edges with Components This exercise is a neat work-around to the problem of model intersection. hotkey: Shift + C). (If your model does not look like this. 1. in which you cannot find edges on a component when its intersecting face has already been cut. The next exercise provides a workaround for this. Now you can delete the cutout faces. you to use the components as cutters. Select all of the components and run Intersect with Model again. you can erase and recreate the needed edges. 2. 12. To do the same thing with a solid. Divide the front or back top edge into three segments. We will add skylights to this sloped roof. Select the middle edge and use Move with Autofold to move it up. Display the Component Browser (Window / Components. Start with a short rectangular box. Open the Shapes category and click one of the spheres. 101 . and not a full solid. 3.) This works because the grill is a hollow shell.Intersect and Follow Me 11. you would have to explode each component.

9. Some edges are created. This should be the result: no intersection edges visible and the components are still in place. but these are just where the sphere intersects with the other spheres. select it. Here is the crucial step: select and Hide (do not erase) all the intersection edges. . 7. With all edges selected. Use Scale and Move to place it and make two copies of it along the sloped face. however! The roof face has to appear whole. Now edit one of the sphere components. press H or right-click and select Hide. and perform an intersection. Because the top roof face has already been cut. no edges are created where the sphere meets it. or an entire component. 102 .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 4. Now edit one of the spheres and do an intersection. 5. Drag the sphere to the sloped face. Erase everything but the face that represents the skylight. Do not hide the cutout faces. Undo this intersection and close the component. 8. Run Intersect on the sloped face to create cutting edges. 6. The easiest way to do this is to keep Ctrl/Option pressed and use several left-to-right selection windows. Be sure not to create any selection window that would enclose an entire cutout face. The intersection edge with the “whole” roof face is created this time.

12. 13.Intersect and Follow Me 10. Erase the cutout faces. Then unhide the skylights. Then hide the skylights. 11. To make this realistic. Close the component. In the Library. The skylights appear on the roof. Then click the skylight face to apply the glass material. but you cannot see through them because the roof face is still whole. Display the intersection edges you hid before (Edit Unhide / All). open the Transparent category and click one of the glass thumbnails. What remains are those edges you hid before. open the Material Browser (Window / Material Browser). Now you can see through the glass into the model. 103 .

2. Extend the edges and draw two rectangular faces of the same depth. but it’s useful to know how to handle objects that intersect. One type of molding will be used for Edges 1. Use Follow Me to create two different moldings. Use Follow Me to drive the first molding section along half the roof. Draw a form like this. and another one for Edges 4. then use Intersect with Model to create the intersection edges. 3. 5. 4. 1. Make the other molding different. These will be used as the bases of the two moldings. which you’ll find are very often used in conjunction with each other. and 3. 104 .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Combining Follow Me and Intersect with Model These exercises use both tools. 2. Use arcs and lines to make one molding section like this: Project: Intersecting Moldings This project represents something you’d probably never actually design. and 6. 5.

or work in X-Ray mode.. but cleaning up will be easy. Now drive the other molding section along the rest. 105 . overlapping moldings. For the interior corner.Creating a Wall Niche Use Follow Me to create a rotated form to use as a cutout. Make the cutout using an arch shape. Looks rather messy. To easily find its center later. the interior corner should also look clean. Project . Clean both molding intersections using Intersect with Model. Viewed from the outside. you can hide the top face of the house and work from the inside. then deleting overhangs. driving it around a circle using Follow Me. place a vertical construction line at the center point. Here is the house with the 2 different. and use Intersect with Model to make the cutout. 7.Intersect and Follow Me 6. 1.

106 . There are some loose guidelines laid out below. different handles. In Front view.a different look altogether.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 2. 2. Try it Yourself Create a niche using a different cross-section. It will help later if you add a construction line where the center of the faucet will be. and use the cutout’s construction line to move the cutout halfway into the box. Create a box. Now for the faucet handles . . Be creative. 1. use lines and tangent arcs to draw the outline of the faucet cross-section. Start with the faucet base section. Start with a half-section like this . The drive the cross-section around a circle. . along with components to create a faucet.Creating a Faucet Use the Intersect and Follow Me tools. Your faucet can use a different base. using Intersect with Model. Project . The rest should be easy. different number of handles .each one will be a component. 3.

7. . Make the handle a component and make a few rotated copies. The faucet body has already been cut at the intersection. Save the file.skp. The handles overlap at the middle. Hide the other 2 handles and erase the circular cutout faces. Move the handles into place. so there is no actual intersection anymore. 9.hiding intersection edges first. . We will look at a few ways to create intersection edges. Unhide everything and edit a handle. 4. Try performing an Intersect on the handle. naming it something like faucet. 6. Hide two of the handles and run Intersect with Model on the base.Intersect and Follow Me 3. and drive it around a circle Place a construction point at its center. NOTE: If you did the exercise "Hiding Intersection Edges with Components" on page 101. 5. it will help later with placement. you know there is a workaround to this . and will need to jump back a few times to the faucet as it is now.nothing happens. Then you could get intersection edges on the handle! 107 . 8. The result . so use Intersect with Model to trim them. .

15. The intersection edges are created on the handles as well. Unhide. 11. Now select everything . 12. Hide the handles to see the intersection edges. Revert to the saved file once again. Erase everything on the other side of these edges and close the component. these edges are not part of the handle components themselves. Verify this by editing one of the handles . 13. Go back to the saved version of the file . 108 .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 10. and now hide the body.the intersection edges do not appear.body plus 4 handles . However. 14.there should be no intersections. they are separate entities.and intersect everything. This time run Intersect on a handle to see where it meets the base.

you need to Explode it first.e. Then trim the handle on the other side of the circle (and erase the circle itself). 18. since you will move them back down later. type in 3’) Remember the distance. We will now shorten the handle so that it just barely sticks into the faucet body. 22. If you want to trim the handle by these edges. Select the circle and handle and perform an intersection. Now we will see how to create the faucet body as a solid (not a shell). Finally. erase the intersection edges you created when you first edited the handle. Now the handle can be trimmed. Return one last time to the saved file. 109 . 20. 19. Now select all 4 handles and copy them straight up at a known distance (i. Move this circle so that it intersects the handle somewhere between the end and the intersection edges. 17. 21. This is most easily done in X-Ray or Wireframe mode. with solid cutouts for the handles. Use the construction point to draw a circle in the blue direction. Close the handle. Edit one of the handles and intersect it with the model to get the edges along the faucet body.Intersect and Follow Me 16.

Select the faucet and all 4 exploded handles. Trim away the parts of the handles that protrude from the body and erase the circular faces on the base. Now you can move the copied handle components back down. which will not work if the handles remain as components. Now explode each of the original handles. 24. making it more realistic than the shell we’ve seen before in this exercise. 110 . and you have 5 solid pieces. We want to keep a portion of each handle. 25. The faucet body itself is still a solid. What remains are solid cutouts you could use to insert the handles. and intersect them.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 23.

4. To get the proportions of your house to match this. This chapter contains a few simple exercises to show you how simple roof design can be once you’re familiar with the SketchUp interface. Sometimes the most difficult aspect of building design can be roofs. vertical face of the dormer. It should be small enough so that you can fit three of them along the long side of the roof. Release the mouse when you hit the roof face. Move the ridge endpoint back. and draw a line to break the side face. and complete the dormer form with lines along the roof. This is a double constraint. Simple Roof and Dormers This exercise will show you how to create this: The next step is to create a simple dormer. Then drag a line from the top point straight back toward the roof. 1. use Move to move the roof faces down. constraining it to the axis in the ridge direction.4 Working with Roofs 3. 111 . Draw the two lower horizontal lines the same way. 2. Use axis and point inferences to draw the front. 5. Create a basic house form.

Move the dormers straight back toward the roof (along the axis again).the cutout is still made. and the dormer is still perpendicular to the face. This is how the dormer should look from inside (hide the side of the face to peek in). Now copy the three dormers straight back. This dormer might not be exactly vertical. 9. (In addition to Move. 10. The final result .) 8. Complete the dormer by creating two pushed-in windows and erasing faces. 112 . But you get the idea .a simple house with 7 dormers.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. Use Scale on the three copied dormers to turn them “inside out. depending on the slope you used. Place another copy on the sloped gable. You’ll also have to erase the section of the roof face within the dormer. Copies are automatically aligned to their destination face. you also use Ctrl+C (Cmd+C) to copy and Ctrl+V (Cmd+V) to paste. stopping when you get to the face. 11. 7.” using a scale value of -1. Select the entire dormer and make a few copies.

Heal the top face by erasing the extra lines. This is useful for creating parapets and overhanging roofs. 7. Note that you can still see a few dots on the top face . Push/Pull the offset face upward to create a parapet wall.Working with Roofs Using Offset for Roofs This simple exercise will demonstrate how to use the Offset tool. Add some approximate ridge lines for a sloped roof and raise them up using Move with Autofold. 3. Add a larger. 5. Pull the offset face and the top of the building up. until you’re back at the simple building form with no offsets. Start with a form like this and use Offset to offset the top face. 1. Undo what you’ve done so far. 113 . L-shaped form behind it.these are the ends of vertical lines that can be seen in wireframe. Erase these small vertical lines in Wireframe display. The offset lines still touch the adjacent building Offset correctly constrains all endpoints. 6. 2. 4. Now offset the six edges shown.

Make Width A larger than Width B. On the house form. Save this model as House.skp. we need to first create an 8:12 construction line along a face that is perpendicular to H-E. and the other two roofs will be adjusted to it. Since Face A is perpendicular to H-E. The construction line will then be moved to an appropriate location for raising the roof ridge into place. To raise line H-E to the proper height for an 8:12 114 . The slope we want to use for all roofs is 8:12. keeping all roof slopes at the same pitch. since it’s complex and there is an easier tool to use (Follow Me). 1. and type 8:12. not below. this ratio is automatically entered in the VCB. The following references points will be used: Use the cursor to indicate the direction of the roof angle (above. Because the ridge lines will be moved upward using Point E. it will be used to create the construction line. But it’s a great way to practice using double constraints. Method 1: Set Slope and Double Constraints This method is probably not what you’d use to actually solve this problem. slope. Move the construction line in the red direction from Point D. This form will be used to explore three ways to make a uniformly sloped roof: 3. Use Protractor to draw a construction line starting at Point C. to the point where it intersects Line B-E.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Project: Resolving Sloping Roofs This exercise will show you how to create one roof for the entire house. draw the two valley lines and three ridge lines. using parallel and perpendicular constraints to give both wings 90-degree corners. which is larger than Width C. Press Enter to create the construction line. line C-F). we will want to raise all ridge lines together to the level of an 8:12 slope for the main roof (H-E). the construction line needs to be positioned correctly. Draw the basic form. To begin. This is so the slope of the roof will be aligned properly with the center section of the house. 2. 4. The roof of the main section (between H and E) will be established at this slope first. Align the protractor with Face A and align the reference line along C-F.

skp. Because the construction line is no longer needed. but you can’t move it as long as the chevron is a single face. 12. perpendicular wing. Push/Pull this chevron face back to the valley intersection with the main roof (Point D). Now spin the house around so that you can see the intersection area that needs to be resolved. save the file as RoofIntersections_before. The lower point on the chevron apex needs to be moved. right-click it and select Erase. Therefore. 6. make another copy of this file. from either Point A or Point C.Working with Roofs 5. called RoofIntersections. Since we’ll want to refer back to this state of the model later. 9. 10. Now the main section’s roof has an 8:12 pitch. Use Move to drag the lower middle chevron point to Point E.skp. 8. so fill in the missing material. 115 . Now move the outer chevron point to Point F. divide the chevron by drawing a vertical line at the apex. however. which you will continue working in. 11. Draw an 8:12 construction line on Face B. The current pitch is too flat. Select all three ridge lines and move them up by Point E until it meets the construction line. 13. have different slopes. We’ll start fixing this by focusing first on the wider. Because it’s a good rule of thumb to save your model after every few steps. 7. The other two roofs.

20. This roof is now resolved. Clean up the rear face by deleting the extra line. draw the line shown. The last (upper) chevron point needs a double constraint to move into the proper position. 17. place your cursor anywhere on this face. Press Shift to lock this constraint. Use this double constraint to create the new valley line. Keep pressing Shift. Start dragging this point along its ridge line (along an axis) and Shift-lock this direction.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 14. To complete this corner. This will place the point at the correct location along the ridge line to generate the same 8:12 slope as Face D. 15. Now erase all extra lines. click to relocate the chevron point. Now the slope on the interior corner needs to be readjusted. To do this. 18. 16. 116 . Because it is the rear face of the center roof (Face D) that will be extended to connect with the modified (higher) roof. 19. you need to create a valley line from Point D that lies at the correct angle on the center roof. Now place the cursor anywhere along the center ridge line. When the line-face constraint appears. So draw a line from Point D that is constrained to Face E.

You can’t go any further than this point. 24. As before. which will be used to remove material from the roof. . . Therefore. Erase the extra line on Face D. This time the roof is too steep. but the ridge line can’t be used for a double constraint because it is not parallel to any axis. Now the triangular face at the exterior corner is the only one whose slope is not 8:12. 27. draw a vertical line at the chevron apex. Move the top triangle point so that it is constrained to the center roof ridge line (in the red direction). and constrain to Face F as well. Constrain this point to Face D. locking it to the construction line. 23. Orbit to face this area. 22. create a construction line along this ridge. Now swing around to face the front of the diagonal wing. as well as the construction line. The lower apex point also needs to be moved.. This point can be moved freely along the ridge line. . . . press Shift .Working with Roofs 21. 28. Draw another chevron shape as before. to match its slope. Create another 8:12 construction line on this face. 26. Move the top point of the chevron apex to Point H. Push/Pull the chevron face back to the valley line of the center roof (Point I). 117 . Drag the chevron point along the ridge line. 25. and needs to be constrained along the diagonal roof ridge line.

constrained to Face D. Erase the extra portion of this line. 2. Now all three roofs have the same slope.skp. First we’ll resolve the wider. 1.skp). Push/Pull the triangular face to the end of the house. Erase all extra lines at this corner. The original center roof ridge line is now too long. 118 . 3.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 29. 4. Go back to the preliminary file you saved RoofIntersections_before. 90-degree wing. because you will use it later. and use an 8:12 construction line to draw a triangular face. It will give you some more practice withe double constraints. Move the roof apex point so that it is along line B-E. where the back of the roof needs to be fixed. Be sure to save the file (RoofIntersections. This deletes all the faces that will change as well. 6. by constraining their endpoints to both the center ridge line and Face A. as you can see in wireframe view. Method 2 . Replace the edges of the center roof. 5. Replace the front face. Erase all the edges you know will change (five total).Delete and Recreate This method is a slightly faster way to achieve the same results. Orbit to the other side.

Erase any extra lines and replace faces to get the resolved corner. Replace the front face. 11. draw a line constrained to the center ridge line and the adjacent face. and place an 8:12 triangle on top of it. 14. and Push/Pull the triangle to the other side. That takes care of the perpendicular wing. but the diagonal wing is a bit trickier. This replaces one face of the center roof. the center ridge line was too long and needed to be trimmed. From Point I. 10. draw a line constrained to the center ridge line and adjacent face. Draw a line between the two points shown to extend the ridge line.Working with Roofs 7. 13. but there’s some trimming to do. to the endpoint of the line you just drew from Point G. Swing around to that side and erase the five edges you know will change. draw a line from where the diagonal ridge line first meets the center roof face. This time it’s too short. This replaces the other face of the center roof. 9. 119 . First. On the other side. From Point G. 8. 12.

select all faces above the ridge line and delete them (press the Delete key). The results . recreate any faces if needed.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 15. 120 . Here is the result .skp. and create a triangular section of the roof. 4. Method 3 . Select the triangular roof section. To continue with the cleanup. It looks like a mess. Select all faces of the roof and run Intersect with Model. 6. Start with the initial house form . but without all the tedious constraint work.a good bit of cleanup is needed. 5. 3. 1.Roofing with Follow Me This is the easiest method. you have created (almost) the same roof as in the previous 2 exercises. Then press Alt/Cmd and select the top face of the house. but start erasing the edges you know are overhanging. To make sure there are no extra entities hiding. TIP: Another (easier) way to do the same thing: start with nothing selected and activate Follow Me. Create the 8:12 construction line. Erase edges and recreate faces as needed to get the resolved roof. There are a few little edges that still need to be erased. It then becomes clearer which of the remaining edges can then be erased. Use Follow Me to drive the triangular section around the top face. switch to X-Ray mode (hotkey: F9). 2. As before.House. In these few steps.all the intersections between the selected faces are now marked by edges. Make sure it extends past the halfway point of the wing.

Working with Roofs 7. since it is already parallel to the red and green axes. it is a convenient place to start for creating overhangs. Project . 1.Overhangs Because the model you just created has uniform roof slopes. 90-degree wing. diagonal wing. It would be easy to create an overhang roof on the large. using an ornate roof section. Set the axes to match this wing. 121 . The only difference between this roof and the double-constraint method roof is that the front roof faces are also sloped. Here is an example. use Move to fix the ends of the roof ridge lines. not vertical. Try it Yourself Use the Follow Me / Intersect with Model on a similar building. But to show another feature of SketchUp. To straighten these faces. but you can go nuts using use straight or curved sections.skp. we will use the narrow. Open the original form House.

both methods work equally well. We don’t need the entire roof created now. Now Push/Pull the opposite face up. because this same section will be used for both narrow and wide parts of the house. 122 . Leftover portions will be trimmed later. so you can make this section as tall as you want.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 2. just a face from which we can create the overhang. 5. Create a triangular roof section and Push/Pull it back just a bit. 4. NOTE: You could have created just this face without all the Push/Pull’ing as well. 3. You would have had to use some parallel and perpendicular constraints. Push/Pull this face to create the overhang. All we need from this is one rectangular face. 6. Push/Pull the roof up to give it some thickness. Make sure it goes pretty far.

Clean up the front faces of both wings as well. This section will have to be used for the other side as well.Working with Roofs 7. 123 . create a vertical construction line at the midpoint of the diagonal wing. Mirror the opposite roof section using Scale. so it will need to be copied and mirrored. As before. 8. Use Follow Me to drive the section along one side. 11. Then copy the roof section and the construction line anywhere in the blank space. use Intersect with Model to clean up the top of the roof. To make this easier. 9. (This is the reason you changed the axes!) Then move the mirrored section to the correct intersection point on the original roof section. 10. Drive this section along the three remaining roof edges.

. This method works when all slopes are already uniform. Select all six roof edges. Open the saved file RoofIntersections. The results . switch to X-Ray mode and erase all those little edges that are hidden in regular shaded model Project . 2. 1. .. Copy the edges down slightly. . .all edges on the top are neatly resolved. as are the intersections on the underside of the house.Overhangs with Autofold Here’s an easier and faster way to achieve similar results.skp. To complete the cleanup. Use Push/Pull to extend the overhanging roof on both sides. 13.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 12. 124 .

Now select the six vertical fascias. Push/Pull one of the new faces outward and double-click the remaining faces to extend them out the same distance. You are free to press Shift.Working with Roofs 3. so let’s fix one now. We can either fix the corners now or later.the one that overlaps. but the diagonal ones do. Click any point along the top edge of one of the fascias. Erase all extra lines on the top and underside of the roof. Draw two intersection lines on the top and underside. Look at the inside corner . 125 . 6. 4. Move the fascias in the blue direction. 7.Autofold is already activated. The 90-degree corners don’t need to be resolved. and constrain them to the slope of the adjacent roof face. 5. Release the Alt/Cmd key . Activate Move with Autofold.

in the previous exercise the fascias are at right angles to the roof planes. The difference with the result here is that the fascias are all vertical. Here’s the whole house . 126 .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook The other corner is easy to fix.fixed corner and all. You have now created a continuous overhanging roof using a pretty small number of steps.

The way to make objects independent from one another is to use groups. An edge along the shared face. that face acts as one face . Select the objects you want to group and do one of the following: • Select Edit / Make Group • Use the hotkey G. however. and why they are useful. Start with two joined forms. To ungroup objects. one object. • Right-click and select Explode. Breaking Connected Faces When two objects have a common face.5 Groups 2. You may have noticed the “stickiness” of SketchUp faces stick to one another. select the group and then: • Select Edit / Group / Explode • Press Alt+G. A free edge can be moved in two directions. can only be moved within that face. 127 .the objects are both stuck to it. • Right-click and select Make Group. To separate the forms. Grouping is easy. draw the line shown on the bottom face (if it’s not already there). 3. Introduction to Groups The following short exercises will get you familiar with the concept of groups. and objects become embedded in one another. and are treated as. Grouping one or both of the objects breaks this link. A groups is a set of of objects that act as. 1. 4.

square column.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 5. Draw a circle along the bottom face for a base. 3. and the square face was not included in the Push/Pull operation. 7. (You can also just use a straight. The base does not stick to the column. select the large form and group it (hotkey:G. 128 . and the form itself. A bounding box appears around all selected objects. you can move its edges. If you try moving the smaller form. The original circle was automatically divided into two faces by the square. You cannot disconnect it from the larger form.) 6. Now you can create a circular base with one Push/Pull. This is very easy to create: take a square column. wherever you want. select these lines and scale them inward. Push/Pull the base down. Now if you create the smaller form along the same common wall. and group the column. you are restricted to the common face. draw lines connecting the midpoints of the four vertical lines. right-click and select Make Group). Erase the small form. Disconnecting from Other Objects 1. 2. Erase the base. select Edit / Make Group. Start with a tapered rectangular column.

Because of stickiness between faces. Create a rectangular form. 6. 129 . the faces will stick and you won’t be able to move it vertically. Move the column and base so that it is slightly embedded into the rectangular form. (If you move the base onto the box first. Insert both of these into your drawing. which are explained further in the next chapter. the whole thing could be selected and manipulated. Open the Component browser (Window / Components) to the Seating category and locate the two sofa components shown. and you should be in Move mode. 5. To erase or move the column and base. If you had grouped the column and base before embedding it. 2. then position it over the rectangular box. However.Groups 4. if you erase or hide the top rectangular face. Join the components together. Groups are also useful for embedded objects.) 1. you will see that a portion of the base still remains inside. then move it down into the box. Manipulating Groups For this exercise you will use components. move the column/base up first. select all visible portions and perform the operation. ensuring that no portions are left out.

We will now add more items to this group. as you can see by the enlarged bounding box.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 3. indicating that anything you do now affects only the group. attached to the sofa along the longer wall. 5. The component is added to the group. 7. (You can also select this from the Edit menu. or simply double-click the group.) 4. 8.) 130 . Insert another sofa section. If you orbit around. TIP: In the Model Info window. Components page. rectangular room for the furniture and make this room into a group. (You can also select it and select Edit / Group / Edit Group. Move the sofa group into the room. 6. Right-click outside the group and select Close Group. use the protractor to rotate the component and move it to join the rest of the sofa. While still in Move mode. Insert another straight section. or click anywhere outside the group while in Select mode. Create an open. This will prevent future objects from sticking to the walls. Then Select all three sections and group them. and makes the room easier to copy later. The rest of the model appears faded. or you can choose to hide the rest of the model altogether while editing groups (and components). you can adjust the fade level. or use Wireframe or X-Ray mode. Right-click on the sofa and select Edit Group. you can pick the lower back corner of the sofa’s bounding box and move it to the corner of the room.

and then cut it (Ctrl/Option+X or Edit / Cut). . 14. 16. copy the room group. Groups can be moved. The room is not the right size and orientation for this layout. Before closing the group.a clock on the wall. clock. . First. 11. 15. and table. which now consists of three objects . 131 . then edit the copied room. First. and rotated like any other single object. Now we will add a table to the group. using Move to switch the long and short sides of the floor. 10. 12.Groups 9. . locate TableEnd. This puts the object on the clipboard. Insert this table anywhere in your model . mirror the group using Scale. add one more object . 13. . In the Furniture category of components. Close the group. Open the sofa group for editing and paste in the table (Ctrl/Option+V or Edit / Paste). Copy the furniture group to the copied room.sofa. scaled. We now want to copy this group to another room.

the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 17. Project . Unsticking Objects from a Group Sometimes you may create a group that you might later want to break. You can also use this method to copy (not cut) objects from a group. An example of this could be a group of objects from which you want to remove some objects and place them elsewhere. If you want any part of a group to remain after trimming. outside the group. 132 . 1. Create a nut-and-bolt group and place it in a box. 3. but the method is easy and clear.Using Groups for Cutting Use a cutting shape to get both results shown below. The second case occurs when you explode the group first. it must be exploded first! This is a simplified example. Editing a group is straightforward. 2. you know how to delete objects from a group. Then move the group into the corner. like to the top of the box. And a simple cut-and-paste operation enables you to preserve the removed objects and insert them elsewhere. and paste the removed nut somewhere else. The first case is the result of keeping the cutting group and running Intersect with Model. then paste them elsewhere. Edit the group and Cut (don’t erase) the top nut. Start with a form like this and make a cutting shape that passes all the way through. Close the group. and you have two similar rooms. In Move mode. rotate the group so that the orientation fits the room. Make this shape a group.

There are 2 setting here related to components. Components can either exist only within the drawing in which they were created (internal). you can make a window component. They don't require you to define a name. so editing one component edits all simultaneously. but components visually display those axes. Many components are provided for you (see "Where to Find More Components" on page 140). because its reference information is only stored once. Mac: To find component files. or can be exported for use in other drawings (external). In Windows. Mac: SketchUp / Preferences) to the Files page. A component is a collection of objects that works as one unit. but it's important to understand the differences between the two. This is a good way to build efficiency into your model. doors. make copies of it. 1. Both groups and components store their own set of drawing axes. are usually best inserted and/or saved as components. or adjust special behaviors. etc. Instancing: When you place a component in your drawing. open the Preferences (Window / Preferences. For example. but this section lists the basic differences between the two. To sum up: • Often-used and referenced parts such as windows.skp files. then group different arrays of copies together. (However. it creates a definition within the file. All instances of the same component all refer to this definition. and you can create your own. These are simply groups of *. Naming / Referencing: Components can be named so that you can reference them again from the Component Browser.6 Components Materials: When you explode either a group or components. any elements inside that object that were assigned the default material take on the material of the group or component. 133 . having many complex components can slow down performance. Groups do not have this capability. Default Components is where the installed components are stored. Groups are simply a collection of geometry that acts as one object. start in the root directory and go to Library\Application Support\ SketchUp\Components. File Size: Using a component multiple times will not increase your file size. insertion point. Chapter 5 focuses on groups. you can control this behavior. multiple copies of groups do not refer to any other source. Alignment and Hole Cutting: Both groups and components have options that allow you to align them and 'stick' them to the faces they are placed on. Simplicity: Groups are fast and straightforward to make and use. The folder you set for Components is where component files will be created when you save them. You can also save a component individually as a standalone SketchUp file. Component Files SketchUp comes with many components defined for you. are all unique. that can be reused in a drawing. on the other hand. They also have the ability to cut holes in faces With components. Components Versus Groups Groups and Components are similar.) Multiple groups. whereas groups work more automatically. grouped into categories. • You can combine groups and components. so each one increases the file size. trees.

134 . The categories reflect the folders in the default Components folder. see "Mac Components Browser" on page 136. and can be inserted into another file as a component. 4. Open one of the folders. to see the *. each representing a category of components. Component Browser 3. Click the folder icon for Default Components. hotkey: Shift + C). Use your explorer to open the SketchUp 4 / Components folder.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 2.skp files it contains. There are several folders in this default folder. Each of these files is a file that can be opened itself within SketchUp. Mac: For additional Mac-related information. Open the Component browser (Window / Components. such as Transportation.

You can also access In Model from the dropdown list.skp file. You can select File / Insert / Component to browse to any *. Similarly. you can click the dropdown arrow in the browser to browse to another folder. click the arrow to the right of the dropdown menu. The third method is the easiest if you are using predefined components. locate the component you want to insert.Components There are three ways to insert a component. If you hover over the thumbnail you will see the component name. To change the view from thumbnails to a text list. Select List View. it appears in the In Model area of the browser. and drag it (or use click-move-click) to place it into your file. Click the house icon to open this category. Simply open the desired category. When a component has been placed in your model. 135 .

Right-click on either truck and select Edit Component. you will see In Model. 3. The three components you inserted will appear here. Similarly. you can click the Load icon at the top of the browser. SUV. As in Windows. Open the Transportation category and insert a truck. which lists all components you’ve inserted into your model. Open the browser by selecting Window / Components. 1. Select File / Insert / Component to browse to any *. Click the thumbnail. 136 . then click to place the component into the model. If you hover over the thumbnail you will see the component name. We’ll start with predefined components to save you the trouble of creating your own (for now). and car. 2. In addition to the predefined categories. Switch to List View to see the components listed by name. The house icon takes you directly to In Model. To insert a predefined component. The component categories can be accessed from the dropdown menu at the top of the browser. select the category from the dropdown menu and find the thumbnail representing the component you want.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Mac Components Browser The Mac browser works similarly to the one in Windows. with some exceptions. Open In Model. where all the components currently inserted in the model are listed. there are three ways to insert a component. You can also activate Select and double-click a truck to open it for editing. Inserting and Editing Predefined Components Editing components is a simple procedure.skp file. Insert another truck. 4.

You only changed the definition of the component in your model. 8. Only the edited truck was changed. (This fading can be changed in Model Info. 5. 9. You can also change just one component. Close the component. Under In Model you can see that a new component was added. The other truck updates the same way . Right-click one of the trucks and select Edit (Just This One). This is an important point: you did not change the original component you took from the Transportation category. They will be different sizes. and the other objects in the model appear faded. You can confirm this by inserting another truck from In Model. Select the entire truck and use Scale to make the truck an appropriate size.Components The opened component appears in a bounding box.this is the essence of components: change one and you change them all. Perform some change on the door. and another one from Transportation.it should be larger than the SUV. like using Line to add a door handle and a vertical door line. 137 . Truck01# 1 is the one you just modified. One thing we can easily change about this truck is its size . You can also click anywhere outside the component to close it. 6.) 7. Right-click outside the component and select Close Component. thereby creating a new component.

Now that the SUV was exploded. There are 5 SUV tires. and other objects included in the SUV.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 10. 13. only that object is selected . you can just select the SUV to see its info. the SUV Tire component now appears on the list of components in your model. Right-click on the SUV and select Entity Info. 15. If you select any face or edge. (If Entity Info is already open. without exploding their parent component first. 12. 14. face. formerly nested within the larger SUV component. by clicking on the right-facing arrow and selecting Show nested.) The Statistics tab. and does not act as one individual objects. TIP: You can display nested components in the browser. 138 . Switch to Components in the drop-down menu to see all nested components included with the SUV. lists all the edges. Each tire is a component. Now select one of the tires. 11. Now this vehicle is no longer grouped. Another way to edit a component is to explode it. set to All geometry.not the entire vehicle. Right-click on the SUV and click Explode.

Components 16. and layers. click on the arrow at the top of the pane and select Show Details. The General tab lists the component name. 17. it still appears in In Model. you can click on the right-facing arrow at the top of the browser and select Purge Unused.) 19. Even though the SUV was exploded and no longer exists in the model as a component. materials. 139 . This option is only available in In Model. Use this window to assign a new name. To purge all unused components. (Mac: If you don’t see Statistics. Here you can see how many edges and faces comprise one SUV tire. to rename the new truck component. right-click on it and select Purge. open Model Info to the Statistics page and click Purge unused. Mac: Open the Entity Info for one of the tires. The Statistics area provides the same info as Entity Info. right-click on it and select Properties. In Windows. (Mac: This will purge all unused components.) NOTE: To purge all unused components. To delete it. 18. Right-click on one of the tires and select Properties (All Like This).

as you will see. since components will continue to be added. Also try www.com. Start a new file and draw a rectangle in the red-green plane to serve as a reference.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Mac: The Properties option does not work as of this writing.thecomponentstore. and the components are installed to SketchUp’s default directory. 2. check out www. Manipulating Components This exercise will show you how to create a component in its own file.com and open the Downloads page. Go go www. select File / Insert / Component or browse within the Component Browser to where you saved the table. 5. 3.skp in whatever folder you choose. Under the top bar on this page. To insert this component into the model. You can search for something specific or post a request to see if someone might have what you’re looking for. In the meantime. and make changes to the component in its original file.sketchup. however. To change the insertion point. click Components (you will also find materials and plug-ins here. Insert the table onto the rectangle. 140 . right-click the table and select Change Axes. Once installed. then redefine the component with the new name. You can also try www. you must first explode it. 4. Create a table with one corner at the origin. This is a great repository for components as well as materials. there are a few places you can try. The reason for starting at the origin is this: when you save objects as a component. check under each subfolder to see what’s included. and don’t feel like creating your own. naming a component can only be done when the component is created. Check this download area often.sketchup. These are objects created by SketchUp users who have generously posted them for public use. the default component insertion point is based on the origin of the sketch axes.com/forum (located in the Support section of the main website) and click Materials/Components. insert it and manipulate it into another file. Save this file as 4LegTable.exe file is placed in a folder you choose. The insertion point can be changed. Its insertion point is based on where the origin was in the table’s original file. Now the table appears in In Model. Finally.objectivenetworks.net. To give a component a different name. but it is a known bug that will be fixed. Where to Find More Components If you need components that aren’t included in the installation.) Download the groups of components you want. Locate and activate this file. 1. and an *.

you are in Move mode (note that the Move icon is pressed). While still in Move mode. The original table file is not changed.Components 6. 8. Rotate the table 90 degrees. You can have multiple instances of the same component that have different orientations and scales. This time you insert it by its leg. and insert another one from In Model. 7. Erase the previous component. and four crosses appear. 10. Immediately after inserting a component. locate the new origin at the outer corner of the leg closest to the current origin. use Scale to give the table a longer length and shorter height. 12. Click one of the crosses on the top face to set the protractor. you can also rotate it. 9. This does not affect the makeup of the component itself. These are rotation handles. Since you are still in Move mode. 141 . Keeping the red and green directions the same. 11. NOTE: This change only affects the component in the current file. Move the cursor over any face of the component’s bounding box. click the endpoint shown and drag it to the corner of the rectangular face. Insert another table. In addition to being able to move the component.

and use the Axes tool to move the origin to the bottom corner of the leg. 16. edit the unscaled table (use Edit Component. NOTE: If you had selected Scale Definition. 17. Save the current file and open 4LegTable. The new beams appear. Go back once again to the table file. right-click on the component and select Reload. Create rectangular beams connecting the table legs in the long direction. Now we will go back and edit the table in its original file. To return the scaled table to its default size. Returning to the previous file. Back in the other file.skp. Now the tables are inserted correctly. 18. To demonstrate multiple scales. right-click and select Reset Scale. 20. and a scaled version appears on the scaled table. 19. that would have reset the default scale to that of the selected table. 15. and save the file.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 13. Both tables now have the same scale. 14. 142 . Close the component. not Just this one). but the insertion point has reverted back to the component’s origin. Make a cylinder on the table. Reselect the same file. Any future instances of the component would be scaled. reload again.

Drag the component from In Model onto the front and side faces of the box. or in Select mode click anywhere outside the component. ) 5. this box will be grayed out.Components Creating and Saving Components in the Library This exercise creates a window component. it can then be saved as its own file to be used in the future as a component. the component must be saved as its own *. NOTE: If you right-click a group and select Make Component. 3. If the component cannot cut a hole. 2. as in the case of a double-faced wall. 143 . 4. once the bug is fixed). then Cut Opening will automatically be checked. To do this. After it is created. 1. Mac: This icon is available when you customize your UI. Or click once on the component and then click again to place the window. and make sure Cut Opening is checked so that future instances of the component will also make cutouts. Select all elements of the window. (You can also right-click on selected objects and select Make Component. and select Edit / Make Component. In Windows (and Mac. Edit one of the components to add a ledge to all the windows. Assign a name like Arch Window. you can then change the name in the component’s Properties.skp file. Or you can click the Make Component icon. Create a box with an arched window. The component is defined only for this file. this assigns an automatic name (Group#1) to the component. Right-click and select Close Component. NOTE: If the component is capable of cutting a hole in the face. at this point you cannot use it in other files.

and it will appear as a new category in the browser.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. then open the Windows folder. 9. 10. . Right-click on any of the windows. you must first create the folder. There are already several window components here. Note: If you save a component into one of the default component folders (like in this exercise). Save the component as ArchWindow01. The logical place for this component would be in the Windows folder.. Open ArchWindows to see the component you created. Browse to the folder you created. so open this folder. Create a new folder within Windows called ArchWindows. Browse to where the default components are kept (by default. 7. or on the component in In Model. it will appear immediately in the Component browser. 144 . Select Save As. If you want a component to appear in a different folder. Now open the main Components browser. Then click on the right-facing arrow at the top of the browser and select Add folder.\Program Files\@Last Software\SketchUp4\Components (Mac: Library\ Application Support\SketchUp\Components). 11. This component will now be available in future files. 8.. in the desired location.skp in the ArchWindows folder.

Try inserting another window on the sloped face. The alignment is set for only vertical faces. 3. 1. We would like to change this so that the window frame is flush with the wall (i. 145 . It is not possible . Insert a window outside the form. alignment must be defined when creating the component. 4. Erase this window. you must first explode it and then redefine it as a component with the desired alignment. components such as windows are generally created in the red-green plane before being made into components.the window does not align itself to this face. Therefore. which is why it didn’t work on the sloped face. the window itself is set into the wall). Mac: The Properties option does not work as of this writing. Change Vertical to Any. Now you can insert a window into the sloped face.Components Alignment and Insertion Point Components can be set to automatically align to faces in your model. The alignment of an inserted component is relative to the component’s red-green plane. Start with a form with vertical faces and one sloped face. These windows are inserted so that their frames stick out.e. Windows: Right-click on the Octagon component in In Model and select Properties. 6. 5. relative to the alignment face. 2. Insert the Window component called Octagon. To modify an existing component. but it is a known bug that will be fixed. and you can adjust the point at which they are inserted. In the meantime.

Select the window frame and pane and make it a component. it will end up on the back plane of the window. This happens because aligning a component. 9. Assign the name “Inset Octagon” and make sure Replace selected is checked. The first step is to move the transparent window face from the back of the window to the front. It also helps to hide the bottom face. Explode this new component. 8. Anywhere you try and locate the origin. you cannot move the origin point to a different plane. in effect. Because we want to insert this window by a point on its front. The window face must be aligned with the face that will be cut. Because the component is still set to glue to Any face.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 7. and hide the wall. WARNING: Do not Erase these faces! We will need them later. makes a 3D object behave like a 2D object. 146 . and if you erase the vertical face the alignment parameters will be lost. Insert another window on the vertical wall. click Set Plane.

12. Because they are aligned with their faces. The faces are cut according to the edges in the component’s red-green plane. and keep the red and green directions the same as before.Components 10. but does not move back into the wall. Make sure Cut opening is selected as well. while the old components have protruding frames. 11. they can only rotate within the planes of the faces. These new components have inset frames. Select None for Glue to. and insert Inset Octagons on both faces. Press Esc to return to the Create Component window. 14. and click Set Plane again. Then reselect Any plane. and click Create to make the component. Locate the origin at the lower left corner on the front face of the window. 147 . Erase the component. Unhide the faces (Edit / Unhide / All) The component is created. Try rotating any of these windows. 15. 13.

Therefore. so if you are working with double-faced (or double-sided) walls.the component would not know which face to align to or cut. 6. it cannot align automatically to a face . 4. To resolve this. you need a few extra steps. 3. so fix this by redrawing any of the window lines or segments. 5. and Cut Opening is grayed out as well. The lines of the window are thick.redraw one of the window segments and erase the window face. Now you can erase the window face. Because this component contains more than one cutting face. Create an arched cutout on a thin box. 2. Create a component from this window. 148 . The cut is not made on the back face. explode the component. None is selected for Glue to. On the back face you can do the same thing . When you drag this Arch Window from the Component Browser onto the wall. the wall is not cut. the back face will not be cut. however.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Cutting Openings Components can cut an opening on one face only. Cutting Method 1 1. To create openings on both faces.

however. the window cuts the front face. redraw a segment of the window on the front face. Because components can only cut through one face. Recreate the back face. Erase the window cutouts on the back face. Basically you create two components to be used each time you insert the cutout . Start with the same wall and window as before. Erase the back face of the wall. 2. we can eliminate one of the cut faces. and Push/Pull them out the same distance. 6. Make a vertical wall and create an arch outline plus offset. Explode both of the windows and resolve the thick lines. Copy these arches to the other side of the wall. and Push/Pull to the back face. 1. 4. Create the component. and drag this component to create another window on the front face. Cutting Method 2 1.Components TIP: Another way to create the cutout would be to explode the window component. is still missing. Creating a Window Component Plus a Cutout Component Here’s a convenient way to handle cutouts for components that have a non-rectangular shape. This time. 5. and the component will glue to Any face. The back face of the wall. Now when you make a component out of the window objects.one is the component itself and the other is used as the cutout. 149 . 3. Cut Opening is available (and checked).

the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 2. Push each of the four walls of the post slightly inward. To create the cutting component. This involves drawing some new lines and erasing some old lines. so that it will be inserted at the lower corner of the cutout shape. but there is no cutout. The component axes will be changed one more time. 6. Use Change Axes to place the origin here: 4. Erase any unneeded lines. as shown below. This creates edges along the wall where it meets the arch window. 3. You cannot see the post. Select the entire window and make it a component called Arch Window. Now insert another copy of the component. and use Push/Pull to cut the window on either side of it. 5. It is inserted at the correct depth. and the wall face hasn’t been divided by the window. This ensures that the post is contained within the wall. then recreating faces. run Intersect with Model on one face of the wall. so that you won’t see this post when you first insert the window. If you’re ambitious. Because we want to set the location of the insertion point. click Set Plane and set the origin like this: 150 . Check Replace selected. 7. Create a post in the center of the window. you can resolve the extra material at the top of the post. Click Create to create the window component.

1. Push/Pull it back to create the opening. Now insert a window component at the lower corner of the cutout. so it’s easiest to create them in this plane. When exploded. Because this original cutout was not replaced with a component. you can still manipulate it. Select the arch cutout face and make it a component. Start out in top view (drawing in the red-green plane). When components are set to cut. Insert a window component at the corner of the hole. and only the arch cutout shape remains. 151 . so that you don’t have to create intersection edges each time. Push/Pull to create the opening. Nested Cutting Components Specific Wall Thickness This method presents a very neat way to use one component to cut both faces of a wall simultaneously. Create the basic shape . Insert an arch cutout component and Explode it. 11. 3.Components 8. 2. The disadvantage is that inserting each window now involves three steps. the subcomponents are “released” to do their cutting. The advantage of this method is that you can have a cutout shape accompanying each window. they need to be aligned according to the red-green plane of the component. 9. Erase the window component. 2.an arch once again. 10. There is another way to do the same thing. Future insertions of the cutout plus the window will now involve the following 3 steps: 1. This exercise also gives an introduction to the use of materials. which is shown later in this chapter. Leave both Cut opening and Replace selected blank. involving nesting and exploding components. You create the front and back components that are set to cut. then combine them into the total window component.

all vertical faces created by this have the same material. In the library. If you are using Architectural units. The front and back cutouts are both set to cut openings. You can also type the distance manually. For now. 11. but you don’t want to insert them separately each time. Display materials by selecting Window / Material Browser. this distance is a snap distance. Add a post in the center. Now with the insertion point set. Make the parameters the same as the back cutout. Select both components. and create a new component called 12” Arch Window. Select the top window objects (be sure not to select the bottom arch component) and make it a component called Front Cutout. Assign a different material to the outer face. 8. Make sure it can glue to Any face. So. called Back Cutout. keep Glue to to None. Erase this new component. Now draw a 12” thick wall. 10. with Cut openings.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 3. 9. This is called a nested component (components within a component). Click Set Plane and set the origin here: 5. you can create a component that contains these two components. Assign the same glass material to the center face of this arch. and with Replace selected. The easiest way is to draw a long rectangle. Make this face a component. Click the arch face to apply the glass material to it. 12. 6. such as Ashlar Stone (found in the Sketchy Materials folder). Explode this top component and Offset the arch outward. Copy this component 12” upward (or use any known distance). Push/Pull this outer face up. open the Transparent folder and click one of the glass materials. and then type “. 152 .12” to change the second dimension. 4. 7. change Glue to to Any so that it will align correctly to any wall. otherwise you cannot change the insertion point.

only the front.) Draw one arch shape (keeping the face within it). (If you want. Fix the post. Explode the component. and assign the glass material to the window faces. Because the cutting faces are transparent glass.Components 13. TIP: Press Shift while applying a material to paint all connected faces. Nested Cutting Components Any Wall Thickness This method uses nested components that can be used to cut walls of any thickness. 153 . This method uses a single component. and copy it. which uses two separate components . Make a window from the copy. which are now free to cut the front and back walls. Start in top view like before.) 1. Push/Pull it up to create the vertical wall and insert a 12” Arch Window component into the wall. Also. 14. but does not allow for window frames on both sides of the wall . but look at it from behind. A face can have different materials on its front and back. This activates the front and back cutout components. 2. but once it’s done you can cut your walls with one click. the post needs a back face. (To use a component with details on both sides of a wall means you need to have a set wall thickness. using transparent glass and another material for the window frame. The next method solves this problem. It is similar to "Creating a Window Component Plus a Cutout Component" on page 149. you can see whatever is behind the wall (add a small box behind the wall to verify this). But the disadvantage is that the component is dependent on the wall thickness.the window plus the cutout shape. you can start with a wall and create all the components vertically. 3. The window looks great from the front. This type of component is a bit heavier to prepare than simple windows.

You can now see through the glass and through the wall. 154 .) 9. Make a Window Front component from this framed shape (not including the original arch shape). 8. 5. The wall has a neat cutout. Make a vertical wall of any thickness and insert the Window and Opening component. Create a new component consisting of the window component plus the arch shape.F9. (It might be easiest to do this in X-Ray mode . 7.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 4. and it should be glued to Any plane. which you can verify if you draw a box behind the window. Check the window from behind. It should be glued to no planes.” The insertion point should be along the back of the frame. Explode this component so that it breaks down into the window component and arch cutout shape. 6. and it does not cut openings. Move the original arch into this new component. fitting it into the cutout area. called “Window and Opening. and there is a face of glass where the window starts. Push/Pull the arch face through the wall.

But we’ll do another few things first in order to demonstrate the Scale tool. 3. the component will not be able to cut both walls. 5. and erase its interior face. such as 6 or 8. First we need to create the curved wall. Start with an arc. It cuts only one of the faces. cutting an opening in it. 155 . draw an arch. which makes it a bit easier to visualize the intersection edges later. This is easiest to do in Top view. set to cut openings. using a small number of segments. but doing it by eye is good enough for this exercise (and for most things in SketchUp). Rotate so that the window extends evenly from both sides. 1. There are ways to obtain the exact rotation angle. Make a component from this window. Push/Pull it inward. At this point you could finish up by creating the intersection between the window and the walls. Use Offset and Push/Pull to create a wall.Components Cutting Holes in a Curved Wall In order for a component to cut. its cutting face must be entirely contained within the plane it is cutting. and trimming. But what if the wall is curved? A curved wall is actually a series of connected flat planes. 2. Insert one of these components along another face. 4. Now insert a component over a joint between two of the wall segments. It properly aligns to the face. exploding the component. and display hidden edges. and if a component is placed over a joint between walls. Within the first flat segment.

Select the entire window and activate Scale The bounding box doesn’t correspond to the orientation of the window .. Close the component and run Intersect with Model.the box dimensions are relative to the current axes. 7. 156 . Open the Model Info to the Components page. it will be easier to work with it if the curved wall is hidden while editing. Use Edit (Just This One) on this component. Then you can erase the extra lines. it must be exploded. use Axes to align the axes to the window. 9. as well as the window face. Because we will be scaling this component. 8. 10.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. You return to Scale. and click Hide for Fade rest of Model. Before the window can be trimmed. Pull the front of the window outward. Without leaving Scale. and now the drag handles make more sense.

1.skp 157 . Create the main building and one out-building. temporary component to be used as placeholders. such as TreeGeometric18. and a short-line component where you want shrubs. you can create a small. Then at the end of your design. Whatever you add to the edited component appears on the other one. and place it in the correct location. and use a tall-line component where you want tall trees. in the correct orientation.Using Components for Mirroring This model uses a main building plus one component. (You can also right-click on the line component in the Component Browser. Edit either component. Make a basic plan. you can replace them with the intended component. copied and mirrored.Components Project .) Browse to the tree you want. Make the out-building a component. A good example for this is a landscape in which you’ll place many trees of the same type. it can bog down your drawing’s speed. Replacing Components If you place a large number of the same component into your drawing. 2. Use Scale to mirror the outbuilding. Right-click on any tall line and select Reload. If you know in advance where these components will go.

158 . (Components that are in use have this option grayed out . Browse to the modified trash can file. But if you use numerous and complex components. • The number of instances of any component does not affect performance (since they are all copies of the original). it still appears listed in In Model. Review: Tips for Efficiency with Components • If you want to make a component of a symmetrical object. you can replace the placeholders. use Measure to resize it. and click Open. Then when the model is ready. this can get cumbersome. Any changes to first half are reflected in the other. You can purge an individual component by right-clicking it and selecting Purge. then mirror the copy. The cans are now face down. this can cut down the file size.) In In Model you can click on the right-facing arrow and select Purge Unused. you can use substitute components . These components are still attached to your drawing.as placeholders for the real thing. they are replaced with TreeGeometric10 . it’s a good idea to purge the ones you’re not using. and all tall lines are replaced with the 18’ tree. For complex components. when you delete all instances of a component from your drawing. To solve this. and layers.simple objects like lines or boxes . make a copy. • As you may have noticed. To get rid of all unused components. materials. and having a large number of them can slow down performance. it's handy to make a component of one half.in this case. Therefore. 4.this can’t be used as a way to mass-delete components. Do the same with the shorter lines . TIP: If the scale of your model does not accommodate the trees.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 3. open the Model Info to the Statistics page and click Purge unused. Click Open (or double-click the component name).10’ trees.

or select Window / Material Browser (Mac: Window / Colors). Overview of Materials One of the things that makes SketchUp such a great visualization tool is its texture. and textures to any face or edge. 159 . Click the dropdown arrow to see the other categories provided. Hovering over a thumbnail will open a tool tip telling you the name of the material.) By default. You can use this to apply colors. By default. 2. pictures.7 Painting. and Textures You can drag its top bar to dock it anywhere on the screen. 1. the browser opens to a category called Base Materials. Windows Material Browser (Mac users: see "Mac Materials Browser" on page 161. Materials. Click Roofing to see the materials in that category. or material. the Material Browser appears on the left side of the screen. click the Paint icon. To open the Material Browser. feature.

you can change this default folder on the Files page of the Preferences. Now click the In Model tab.. including those you make yourself. Change the name (one is provided by default). Clicking Create opens a window in which you can create a new material based on the one you selected. TIP: In Windows.. Note that the default tab you’re in is called Library. 160 . The library contains all the material included with your installation. 6.\@Last Software\SketchUp4\Materials. as we’ll see later. Returning to the library. The graphics provided are jpg’s. and are located by default in the folder . 4. This is not the only way to add a material to the model. 3. you cannot click Edit because materials in the library cannot be changed from within the browser. by modifying the path for Texture Images. Right-click on any material and select Add to Model. and the thumbnail is now listed.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook All materials are either a solid color or a graphic. You can use the browser icon to locate graphic files in any folder. There are 4 color selection methods: • Color Wheel: Select a color from the circular spectrum. You can also click the Create button at the top of the browser. edit materials in the In Model tab. But there are no materials yet defined in your model. as we’ll see later. You can. right-click on a material and select Create. and then you can modify the color or select another image. NOTE: In Windows. however. plus any you add to it. 5.

NOTE: You cannot drag textures from this well into your model. or Crayons. You can drag and drop colors from this well into your model or into any other visible color well. you will be asked if you want to save changes to the library. Be careful not to delete materials you might want! The deletion is not final however. • HSB: Hue. You can activate the Color Picker by clicking on any color well in the SketchUp interface. CMYK. Blue values. but this is how to create materials similar to other ones. You can also click Image Palettes and select the preinstalled Spectrum image. but is sometimes also referred to as Materials browser. Another way to select a color is to click Color Wheel you can click anywhere on the wheel to select the color at that point. on the right side of the screen. which shows the current selection. The magnifying glass to the left of the Active Color Well activates the Screen Sampler. by default. click the Paint icon. or select Window / Colors. You cannot edit a material itself. meaning that your faces are unpainted when created. Saturation. If you do. Texture Palettes. RGB. anywhere on the screen. Materials. Mac Materials Browser On the Mac. you will simply get the solid color associated with the texture. 7. The browser appears. such as in the Material browser pane. Saturation. • RGB: Red. Luminance values. but you can move it anywhere. There are several ways to select colors and textures to assign to faces. or HSB sliders). Brightness values. The popup menu also has a Delete option. When you want to apply color. 161 . and Textures • HSL: Hue.Painting. To show the Materials / Colors browser. Green. or HSB values. Or click Crayons for an easy way to view and pick colors. Click Color Sliders to specify a color numerically by RGB. This enables you to select a color from anything current visible. Below the toolbar is the Active Color Well. SketchUp uses the Mac OSX internal Color Picker (Color Wheel) or any color chosen from Color Sliders (Grey Scale. CMYK. Click Add to add the new material to the library. Image Palettes. then use the magnifying glass to pick out a color. Colors The default color is initially blank. the browser is actually called Colors.

this new personal palette is called My Textures but you can rename it. which tile seamlessly when repeated. To switch between categories..an expandable palette of small color wells into which you can drag colors that you frequently use. Dragging a color over an existing one will replace it. just like from within Colors in Model. You can delete a swatch by dragging an empty square over it. Click Image Palette.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Below the Color Picker Panel is the User Palette .) New Texture enables you to load an external image file to be used as a texture. You can also select Remove from the Colors dropdown menu in Colors in Model or My Textures. Textures and Materials By default. These images are stored in Root directory\Library\Application Support\SketchUp\Materials. You can also import an image to use for picking colors. where the image Spectrum is already preinstalled. By default. go to Colors in Model and select Purge Unused from the List dropdown menu. which is the only place they can be edited. simply select the category from the dropdown menu. (This option is also available when you right-click inside the pane. At the bottom of the pane is a Color button. click this to get a dropdown menu including the option New Texture. you can still drag it back into your personal palette. drag a color swatch from any visible color well into one of the small wells. Once a color. 162 . such as Exterior Finishes.jpg images.) You can also drop an image file directly into the Image Well of the Image Palette. (Colors and textures used in your model are automatically added to Colors in Model. Roofing. Like the User Palette. you need to create a “personal” palette. so it’s a good place to store materials and colors you want to transfer between models. the browser opens to a category called Base Materials. Importing Images You can also import your own custom textures. If you want to be able to edit a material or image. You can delete a material from your personal palette by right-clicking on its swatch and selecting Remove. an image or material can be edited. it appears in the Colors in Model palette. available in the dropdown menu. etc. Select Colors in Model or My Textures (if you want to edit the image) from the palette dropdown menu. Markers. Texture categories include preinstalled textures provided for you as *. because you cannot undo the action! If the material still exists in the User Palette. To remove unused materials.) Open the List dropdown menu at the bottom of any pane and click New. (You can also add a new texture by right-clicking within this pane of Colors in Model. Be careful when using this. texture. or image has been used in your model. or the personal palette. Once loaded into My Textures. To add a color to the User Palette. Select New from file to browse to the image you want to import. images imported this way remain available from model to model. The User Palette remains constant between files.

) Installation instructions are provided for Windows and Mac. check out www. This is a great repository for materials as well as components. If you want to return any face to its non-painted state. Under the top bar on this page. NOTE: Faces in SketchUp are double-sided.sketchup. (Mac: In the Active Color Well) instead of Default which was there before. 1. click Materials (you will also find components and plug-ins here. let’s apply some materials to faces. Click the thumbnail to activate the material. Go go www. just apply Default as you would any material. It appears at the top of the browser. You can also try www. The exception is when you use transparent materials. Finally. Applying Materials Now that you can navigate your way through the browser in Windows or Mac. This will be shown later in this chapter. Mac: select Colors in Model from the dropdown menu or click the house icon to take you directly to Colors in Model. 3. and when you apply a material it generally paints one side only. The main reason to import an image into the Image Palette is to use it for picking colors. The arrows next to the house icon can be used to scroll between the last palettes you used. and Textures TIP: If the image is only to be used as a texture. Where to Find More Materials If you need materials that aren’t included in the installation. 5. 163 .Painting.com and open the Downloads page.net. Materials. there are a few places you can try. and don’t feel like creating your own. Open the Material Browser to the Roofing category and add CorrugateRust to the model. Click the In Model tab to see that the material has been added. You can search for something specific or post a request to see if someone might have what you’re looking for.sketchup. you may want to import it directly into Colors in Model or My Textures (If you want to edit it).objectivenetworks. Start a new file and draw two forms like these: TIP: “Default” is always available. These are objects and materials created by SketchUp users who have generously posted them for public use.com/forum (located in the Support section of the main website) and click Materials/Components. Click one of the roof faces to paint it with CorrugateRust. 4. 2.

but there are easier ways. In this example. the vertical faces are all considered contiguous because they touch at the back of the house. 164 . Undo. NOTE: Faces painted using Ctrl must be contiguous to the selected face. 7. This applies the material to the selected face and all faces connected to it . in the Edge Display section. In the In Model tab (Mac: Colors in Model). 11. In this case the entire building is painted. the edges are set to take on the material of the object. 8. This applies the paint to all faces that share the same material as the selected face. Any face you click while CorrugateRust is active will take on that material. If you want edges to have their own color. 9. In the case of this exercise. look at the thumbnail in the In Model browser. In this case. go to the Exterior Finishes category.that are not already painted. Press Ctrl/Option and click one of the vertical faces of the large building. In Windows. Use Select to select the three faces shown. to indicate that it is in use. Another way to paint multiple faces is to select them first. Now this material is active. 10. It now has a small white triangle at the lower right corner. the selected face has the default color. Click the other two roof faces to paint them the same way. and click Stone-masonry. there are now two in-use materials. use All Same.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. You can change this in the Display page of the Model Info. but not the smaller building because it is detached. For the next material.directly or indirectly . You can apply this material to each face separately. as do all the non-roof faces of both buildings. and make sure Stone-masonry is still active. Now press Shift and click the same face. Mac: There is no indication for materials in use. A face that is already painted would break this continuity.

it still appears in In Model / Colors in Model. Even though Concrete-warm is no longer used.) 13. Materials. (This also gets rid of unused components and layers. select yet another material. connected faces. Each is replaced by siding. like Concrete-warm. Now only the materials in use appear. Press Shift and click one of the “Concrete-warm” faces. such as Siding2. Click any one of the selected faces to apply the material to all three. click Purge Unused. Now activate a new material. To demonstrate the use of Shift again. In Windows. this would replace only similar. so it’s a good idea to get rid of the ones you don’t need. Or right-click on the right-facing arrow in In Model and select Purge unused. and clicked one of the faces on the larger building. Mac: Purge Unused is also located in the List dropdown menu. 165 .Painting. and Textures 12. The smaller building would not be affected NOTE: You could also right-click on the thumbnail of a material that isn’t used and select Delete (Mac: Remove). In the Statistics page of Model Info. Keeping lots of unused materials can bog down your file. 14. NOTE: If you had pressed Ctrl Option and Shift together. its “in-use” triangle indicator is gone.

you could have figured that out without using the dropper. The first thing we’ll change is the size. One of the neatest features of materials in SketchUp is the capability of real-time editing. Select the face shown. In Windows. and its material (Stone-masonry) is indicated in the browser. As soon as you enter a value. 166 . 17. This is the size that is repeated for the tiled image. Mac: There is no dropper icon. 18. Change the length to 3’ (don’t forget the foot symbol if you’re in Architectural units). you can also select Window / Material Editor. 16. the material updates on the model itself.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 15. click the dropper icon. so you must use the Paint + Cmd method. which is 5’-4” long and 4’-4” high. NOTE: In Windows. but imagine how useful the dropper is when you have dozens of materials in use!) 19. or select Edit from the material thumbnail’s popup menu. You can also activate the “dropper” function by simply pressing Alt/Cmd while in the Paint tool. (Sure. and the height changes in order to maintain the aspect ratio. Click Edit. You can also double-click a thumbnail to edit it. which is used to detect the material of a selected face.

then clicking on any other material in the browser window. 24. Mac: Click the chain icon to unlock the aspect ratio. which doesn’t really convey in a black-and-white book! Mac: You can change the name of a material in Colors in Model by editing it and entering a new name. 167 . right-click and select Add to Libary (Update Library Copy is not available because the name has now changed). HSL. And if you add it to the library like this. greyscale. The new name is reflected in the tool tip. and go back into edit mode. luminance) values to change the color. you have two options: you can add it to the library or edit the library material to have the new properties. Materials. Now you can specify any value you like for the height. there will be two materials with the same name. Adjust the RGB (red-green-blue) or HSL (hue. In Windows. 23. Now click the lock symbol. you can access any of the Mac color pickers (RGB. if you right-click on the edited material.you might not want to overwrite library materials. Be careful with this . 22. Enter 6’ for some very tall stones. Switch back to the library. Change the name to something like GreenStone. deep green. a bitmapped texture will be colored that color. and Textures 20. and here is your new material. If the other material is a bitmapped texture. You can also change any material in the browser by editing it. Mac: While the Edit pane is available. Another thing you can change is color.Painting. This example uses a nice. The name of the material has not changed. CYMK. Don’t select anything. the selected material will change to that texture. 21. 25. or Color Wheel) to change color. which unlocks the aspect ratio. if the other material is a solid color. In Windows. saturation. Close the Edit Material window.

168 . As you’ve seen. both have the same result. 28. 1. 27. The selected face is now painted with siding.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 26.) Click Siding2. In Windows. and close. Use either Shift or Ctrl/Option to select one face and paint the entire form. Start with a form like this. The Ctrl/Option key will paint the selected face plus all faces that are connected to it. Use this to check one of the Greenstone faces. New faces that are created like this have the same paint as the face from which they originated. All the unpainted faces are contiguous and are therefore painted. This opens a window in which you can choose any of the materials in the In Model tab. 2. In this case. (Note that this does not open the entire library.Shift and Ctrl/Option. Using Shift and Ctrl/Option Keys The previous exercise involved the use of “mass-painting” keys . and Push/Pull them in or out. Shift paints all faces that have the same material as the selected face. Click the material thumbnail. you can change a face’s material via its Entity Info. One last thing: Draw rectangles on a couple faces.

Only the faces above the already-painted face are painted. or see-through walls. locate the Transparent category. 2. Start with a sloped-top form like this. but as you’ll see. This is because these top unpainted faces are not contiguous to the bottom unpainted faces . Undo. Use Shift and select the vertical face shown. 169 . and paint only the horizontal face shown with a different material. 1. these would be painted as well. 4. 3. This paints all faces that have the same material as the selected face (in this case. Undo. There are a few predefined materials here. Materials. If there were other forms that had unpainted faces. Material Transparency Any color or texture used as a material can have transparency properties . you can make any color or texture image transparent. and Textures 3. with a circular cutout on the back face. In the Materials browser. 5. screens.Painting.enabling you to create realistic windows. 4. unpainted material). Add another half-face along the diagonal wall. the default.the continuity is broken by the painted horizontal face. and use Ctrl/Option and select the same face. Select a solid transparent material such as Dark Green Glass and apply it to the lower half of the front face.

but you can still see through it. their preview swatch is divided in two sections . Just like any other material property. but transparency is maintained. The level of transparency is controlled by the Opacity slider. Mac: Even though the opacity slider is present in the browser at all times. and move it closer to 100% to make the material more opaque. As you increase transparency. Change the transparent face to one of the Glass Block images. If the material is then edited. . Move the slider closer to zero percent to see the transparency increase. . . changing its transparency changes the material itself. 6. Change the color of this material by using one of the color methods (Color Wheel is shown here). Select something dramatic like dark red. Textures can be transparent as well. The default setting of this material looks rather opaque. 5. Open this material for editing. When materials are transparent. . note how the preview swatch changes. 8. a new 'transparent' material is created in the browser and the original material remains unaltered. .the opaque color (bottom) and its transparent appearance (top).the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook The face is colored. 7. When that happens. so edit it and move the Opacity slider closer to the middle. without creating a new material. The color changes. 9. 170 . adjusting opacity is reflected in real time on the model. adjusting the opacity will not affect a selected material unless that material is immediately painted onto an object.

Now add a cylinder in front of the form. 15. The transparent stone material should now have more of a multi-colored look 13. and assign a new color (reddish-purple) as shown. creating a cone. You can also play with the colors of texture materials. even if you have closed the editing pane and applied the edited material. and the material color becomes uniform. check Reset Color. Materials. and its preview shows a solid swatch. To return the texture to its original state. 12. Select Colorize. Turn shadows on by clicking the icon. 14. 171 . Assign a texture to this cone such as Stone Vein (found in the Exterior Finishes category). Here’s another neat feature of transparent faces. its Opacity is 100%. There are no shadows cast from the transparent cone. Simply re-edit the material and select Reset Color. 11. Use Move to shrink the top circle. Mac: You can reset any edited material. or selecting View / Shadows. and Textures 10. You can now see the rectangular form behind the cone. When you edit this material. and the preview splits accordingly.Painting. Use the slider to increase transparency. Deselect Colorize (Windows only).

17. Set the Opacity of the cone to a value greater than 70%. 172 . Turn transparency back on. Working without transparency can speed things up. This makes all materials appear opaque. This face now hides the cone. and when you working with a large model that uses lots of transparency.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 16. Orbit back to face the front. but you can then apply a different material to the opposite face. Open the Model Info to the Display page. and deselect Enable transparency. Once this value is crossed. Turn off shadows (or leave them on). Transparency display can be memory-consuming. 20. the lower half of the preview swatch shows how the material looks when opaque. Faces in SketchUp are two-sided. 19. and orbit the model so that you are looking in through the circular back face. Note that so far we have been working in Shaded with textures mode. 18. Apply any non-transparent material to the glass-block face. this side still shows transparent glass blocks. your renderings can be slow. Lastly. the material casts shadows. By default a transparent material is first assigned to both faces. Remember. we will adjust some transparency display properties.

in a nutshell shows how you can have two different materials on any face. Apply an exterior texture. Switch to Shaded (hotkey: F7). 2. or check X-ray mode on the Display tab of Model Info). Pick a transparent material and apply it to one side of this wall. this material is automatically applied to both sides of the face. This is reflected in the fact that there is a Face Front and a Face Back color (set on the Colors page of Model Info.) This feature enables you to get very creative with materials . 22.applying different ones to both sides of a face. apply an interior finish like ceramic tile. 1. such as siding. Materials. Start with a roofless house with some windows and a door. Add a vertical wall through the middle of the house. turn on X-Ray mode (hotkey: F9. The interior faces remain unpainted. This. 173 . and Textures 21. Double-Sided Faces As you may have noticed. To these 4 interior faces. faces in SketchUp have two sides. This causes the textured materials to appear in their solid colors. Because it is transparent. to all 4 exterior faces. Lastly. 3. Now the entire model is transparent.Painting.

you can apply transparency so that the smaller form is visible when hidden. and the other side of the face is unpainted. and both sides of the floor take this transparent material. to the floor. Apply any other material. 8. 6. If you change a solid material to transparent. like wood chip. without affecting the material on the other side. You can still make this face double-sided. Edit the material you applied to the exterior walls. This double-sidedeness can be very handy for presentations. Make this floor material transparent. but you can’t see out. Apply a solid interior material. both sides will take on the transparent material. 5. You can change a solid material to transparent. and the original transparent material remains. and decrease its Opacity. For example.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 4. Orbit to the other side. if you have a small form that is hidden by a larger form. Now you can see in. 174 . 7. The underside of the floor is still unpainted. transparent or not. to one side of this wall.

Painting. groups and components can have their own default materials. The exercises in this section will show you how this all works. Undo to bring the insert back to the default material. Just like individual faces. and create a group out of the insert form. Overview of Materials and Groups This quick exercise will show you how groups are affected during mass painting. 5. and how to handle painting groups themselves. Place numerous large rectangular double-sided transparent faces behind the house. This time the faces of the group are omitted. and apply a material just to the vertical face of the insert. and use Ctrl/Option to apply paint to the same face. Materials. 1. Edit the group. 4. and Textures Project: Using Transparent Faces to Simulate Fog Effects Create a house with several trees behind it. If you want to apply different materials to different faces of the group. When groups and components are in use. Undo. 175 . 2. and adjust the opacity to simulate fog. the entire group is painted. Create a form like this. 3. you must do it from within the group. This applies the material to all unpainted faces. including those in the group. Materials of Groups and Components You’ve already seen how to apply materials using the Shift and Ctrl/Option keys. Use Shift to apply a material to any face of the box (not a face of the group). this can change the way faces are painted. Activate a different material and click any face of the hexagonal insert. When you apply a material to any face of the group.

This material is applied to the entire group. the Magnifying Glass will sample any color on the screen. In the Material Browser. even though not all faces of the group use this material. This is the group’s default material. 10. 176 . Now the only unpainted faces are the sides of the insert. Close the group. check its Entity Info. Also. 9. except for the face that is already painted. 8. Just like with a face.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. Choose a different material to paint the other insert group. find the Default material (Windows . you can “sample” the default color directly on the screen using the Cmd key with the Paint tool. Alternatively.open the In Model tab). To paint the remaining faces of the insert. Make a copy of the insert. This face takes on the default material of the group. Edit one of the groups. to see the material of one of the groups. 7. and apply Default to the painted vertical face. The painted vertical face is applied to the copy as well. and not the global default (unpainted) material of the overall model. 11. Mac: The Material browser itself contains a Default Material button. choose another material and select any of its faces (even the face that is already painted).

Painting, Materials, and Textures

Using Groups to Separate Materials
If you’ve read the chapter on Groups, you already understand how groups prevent objects from “sticking” to one another. This is also relevant for materials. This exercise will create a cabinet, and the use of groups makes it easier to apply various materials. 1. Start with the basic cabinet shape, and apply a single color (like black) to the four vertical faces of the base. Use Ctrl/Option to paint a wood material on the faces of the cabinet.

2.

Undo the counter (if you made it). Select the cabinet and its base, and make a group. Then create a counter top. Because this counter is not connected to the cabinet group below it, it has the default (unpainted) material.

3.

Push/Pull the front of the counter slightly outward. Activate a stone or marble material, and use Ctrl/Option to apply it to the entire counter.

To create the counter top, we want to create a rectangle on the top of the cabinet and Push/Pull it up. If you do this now, the counter will have the same material as the cabinet, which is not what we want. Because you used Ctrl/Option and not Shift, the bottom face remains unpainted. For a nicer looking cabinet, edit the group and add some doors. In this example, Move/Copy, Offset, and Push/Pull were used.

4.

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Materials of Components
Using materials on components works pretty much the same way as for groups. The main difference is that you can implement material or color changes over all instances of a component, whereas each group would have to be edited separately. As with groups, components can be omitted when mass-painting faces. For this house, if you press Ctrl/Option while applying a material to one of the walls, the windows and doors will not be painted. (Using Shift will paint them, assuming the components are originally unpainted.)

If you change the default colors of the model, the color of the car body will change as well. This is set in the Color page of the Model Info.

2.

To determine the material assigned to any face, click on the paint dropper icon in the Materials Browser (Windows only). You can also press Alt/Cmd while the Paint tool is active, to get the dropper icon.

3. This exercise will focus on how components themselves are painted, and their default colors. We will use car components, since they are already created for you, and contain a variety of colors. 1. In a new file, bring in an SUV component. Some of the faces of this car are painted (transparent windows and black tires), but the body faces are created in the default material - Face Front.

Click on any body face of the car, and Default is indicated in the browser as the face’s material. A component’s (or group’s) default material is also listed in its Entity Info. Default (unpainted) is the component material.

4.

In the Materials browser, open In Model, where you can see the colors (black and transparent gray) used for the tires and windows.

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5.

We will change the color of the car body, but first we’ll set the appearance of the edges. Open the Model Info window to the Display page, and set Edge color to By Material. (You can also find this on the Display Settings window.)

8.

Bring in another SUV from either the Transportation category of the browser, or from In Model. The new SUV will have the default color. Changing the color of one component does not change the component definition.

9.

6.

7.

Select any color and apply it to any face of the car; the body faces are painted. The windows and tires are already painted, so they retain their assigned colors. And all edges take on the color you just assigned. We will now change the edges so that they are all black. In Model Info / Display, set Edge Display to All Same.

To add another color to the file, we will add hubcaps. Open one of the components for editing, then open one of the tires for editing. Draw a circle on the outer face of the tire and color it light gray.

10. Close the tire, and close the SUV. All the tires now have hubcaps. (They only appear on one side, however, since the tires are not mirrored about the center of the vehicle!)

This setting will color all edges by the color set in Model Info / Colors page. By default, this color is black.

11. Open the Materials Browser to In Model, and you will see the color that you used for the hubcaps.

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12. From the Transportation category (not In Model), bring in one more SUV. The new one has the original tires - no hubcaps.

16. You can color each car differently without affecting the definition of the component. Because these are components, you can make changes that affect all instances. For example, you can edit one car and make its roof black; this will color all roofs black.

13. Look in the In Model tab of the Component Browser. A new component has been added to the list. SUV has hubcaps, and SUV#1 does not. Don’t confuse this with the components that appear in the Transportation category - you changed the SUV in your model; you did not change the original.

Default Component Materials
14. Delete SUV#1. It still appears in your browser, so purge it. As you’ve seen when painting a component, the material is applied to all faces of the component that have the component’s default material. In the car exercises, all of the components had Default (unpainted) as their material, so their unpainted faces took on whatever material you applied. Mac: The default material is the first thumbnail in Colors In Model. You can change this color by changing the Face Front color in Model Info. However, you cannot set a texture as the default material. If you try, you only get the basic color of the texture, not the texture, itself. Not all components have Default as their assigned material, however. If a component has a specified material or color, then it is faces of this material/color that will be replaced by an applied material. Confused? Try this short exercise. 1. 2. Create a four-legged table. Apply a wood material to the legs. Make a component of the table and insert a few more.

15. Bring in two more SUV’s from In Model. These look the same as the two already in place (with hubcaps).

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3.

Apply a different material to each table. The material is applied to the table top only, because these are the faces that are still unpainted, which matches the component material of Default. The legs already have an assigned material, so they stay wooden.

7. 8.

Mac: Open Model Info / Colors and change the Face Front color - this will become the new default component material. You cannot specify a texture here; only its base color will be used. The table faces are now all wood. Edit the component, and change the table top material. The default component material is still wood.

4.

So far this is what you’ve already seen with the cars - replacing unpainted faces. The next component, though, will use a specific material. Use Undo to return to the original, default table, and make it a component. Make sure the wood material is still in the model even if it is not currently assigned.

9.

Make three more copies, and assign each table a different material. This time the legs are painted. This is because the legs were originally wood, which is the default material of the component. And the default material is what gets replaced when you assign a new material. The table tops already have another material, so they remain unchanged.

5.

In the component’s Entity Info, click on the material thumbnail.

10. In Windows, as you’ve seen, a component’s default material can be changed without affecting the component itself. For one of the changed tables, the default material is no longer wood - it is the material you applied.

6.

Select the wood material to make it the component default.

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Texture Positioning
The rest of this chapter focuses on how you can manipulate texture files, including image files, to fit your model. This exercise gives you the basics on positioning texture (or “texture tweaking” as @Last likes to call it). There are two modes you can use to position textures: Fixed Pins and Free Pins.

3.

Select the smaller front face and move it from side to side. The texture stays in place while the face moves - the texture does not stick to the face. Return the face to its original position.

Fixed Pins
Fixed pins is the more exact mode for texture positioning. You have 4 pins of different colors, each with its own function, each works relative to the anchor (red) pin. 1. Start with a form like this. 4. To set the texture so that it sticks to the face, you must position it. Right-click on this front face and select Texture / Position.

2.

Locate the Stone masonry texture in the Exterior Finishes category and add it to the model. Edit the material so that the stone blocks will be large enough, relative to the model.

5.

In this mode you will see 4 pins, either all yellow or of 4 different colors. We want the latter mode - Fixed Pins. If you’re not in this mode, right-click and make sure Fixed Pins is checked. The pins surround one instance of the texture - the rest are tiled instances.

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10. right-click and select Done. Materials. In addition to dragging pins. To accept this new position. 8. 7. rotation. Right now we will use it just for scaling. and drag the red pin to the lower left corner of the face. then click. Scaling. and distortion are all done relative to this pin. Move the mouse around to drag the texture to a different location. Drag the green pin to the lower right corner of the face. The green pin is used for overall scaling and/or rotation. This lifts the pin out of its position. you can also move them. Click anywhere on the texture and keep the mouse button pressed. shearing. 9. The blue pin is for shearing (making diagonal) as well as vertical scaling. Now drag the green pin back to the lower right corner. Move the mouse to the desired location (between Blocks 2 and 3). and Textures 6. hold. and click again to place the pin there. (You can access inference points like endpoints and midpoints while in position mode. Now 3 full stone blocks fill the face horizontally.Painting. Two blocks are now spaced along the face. (You can also click anywhere in blank space to exit position mode. Drag the blue pin up or down so that 4 rows of blocks fit vertically in the face.) 183 .) Now Block 1 will always start at the lower left corner of the face. Click. Hover over the green pin until you see a small square around it. The red pin is the anchor pin. 11. 12.

Drag the yellow pin up so that the seam line above Blocks 1.the texture always remains on the face). The yellow pin is used for out-of-plane distortion. This is more useful for actual photographic images that you’re trying to fit to a face. and 3 is aligned with the diagonal edge. only the front face has changed. 2. note that the rest of the model has the original stone texture. 18. the face contains 2 blocks at the bottom and 4 rows vertically. their perspective has changed. 16. 17. Exit position mode. Enter position mode again. To shrink the overall scale. No matter where it’s located.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 13. 15. but we will use it here anyway. To return to the original texture size and position. 184 . Slope the front face by moving the edge shown. 14. first place the green pin to the right of Block 3 and drag this pin back to the corner. and here is the result: the blocks look as if they are getting closer. Now move the front face again. right-click on the face and select Texture / Reset Position. (The result only looks out of plane . Also.

unscaled. We will now look at rotation and shearing. so if you apply it to any face (including the changed one). Now move the red pin and drag it so that a block starts at the corner shown. If you stay on the dashed red rotation line. Drag the green pin upward so that the angle of the blocks matches the diagonal edge (do not release the mouse yet). The texture in the Material Browser is the original one. 185 . unsheared. This is how you can rotate and scale the texture in one step. Materials. Now we will see how to apply this modified texture to the rest of the model. unrotated blocks. Drag and rotate the blue pin to shear the blocks. 21. 22. 24. and Textures 19.Painting. you will get the original. Go back to position mode and drag the red pin to the corner shown. Now drag the green pin outward to increase the overall scale. Leave position mode. The result is that the blocks are rotated but still have vertical sides. 23. you will not change the scale of the blocks. 20.

right-click on the image and select Save Picture As. Now apply this material to the other faces (you can use Shift or Ctrl/Option when selecting any face). Place the picture on the door by clicking the lower left and upper right corners of the door rectangle. NOTE: To save a picture from a website. You can use the picture as a texture on the door. Imagine you’ve designed a house and your client hands you a picture of a friend’s house that has the exact door he wants. Click the front face to pick up this texture. Start with a house and an estimated rectangular outline for the door. you can use the dropper. Free Pins Free pin mode is useful when you want to make an image fit within a certain shape.spiritelements.com. use the Paint tool with Alt/Cmd pressed. To sample a texture. One is to select File / Insert / Image as Texture. 1. There are a few ways to insert a picture to be used as a texture. This example uses the door shown below.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 25. and use free pins to fit the picture exactly to the door in your model. in the “Custom Doors” category. 26. Some images are copyright protected and cannot be saved. It was taken from the site www. but handy when you need to make adjustments by eye. It is not as exact as Fixed Pin mode. 2. 186 . The sloped blocks now appear on all faces. In Windows.

you can switch modes temporarily by pressing Shift. you are in Fixed pin mode. The picture fills the doorway. 4. Place it at the closest door corner. To enter Free pin mode. move. In Free pin mode. you can continue to lift. Materials. Right-click on the image and select Texture / Position. each pin has the same function . Use this method to place four pins at the four rectangular corners of the door in the picture. 187 . 5. “lift” one of the Free pins off the image. Like in Fixed pin mode. and Textures 3. and drag it to move the picture around. 7. but does not have the correct size or orientation. Like you did with the Fixed pins. right-click and deselect Fixed Pins. You can use this to place the door in its general location. If you see colored pins. 6. disregarding (for now) the arch portion at the top. 9.to pull its corner to stretch and distort the picture. there are four yellow pins around one of the tiled images. Now click and hold each pin and drag it to the closest corner of the model doorway. 8.Painting. If the picture isn’t perfectly aligned. leaving positioning mode. TIP: While in either Free or Fixed Pin mode. In Free pin mode. and drag pins until the alignment looks good. To keep this image “distortion” (you distort the image to make it look right). place the cursor anywhere on the image.

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10. The door fills the rectangle, but the arch portion is missing. Use Arc to place an arc at the top of the doorway. Erase the line between the rectangle and arc, and the image extends into the arc. Resize the arc to fit the picture.

Using Pictures to Create Realistic Objects
If you have pictures handy, you can easily use them to create photorealistic objects you can place in your drawings.

Creating a Painted 2D Tree
This exercise uses a picture to create a tree in your model. Here is the picture that will be used:

If needed, you could return to position mode and place a pin at the top of the door in the picture. Then that pin would be moved to the midpoint of the arc. 11. Move the door, and the image follows.

Any picture of a tree can be used. If you don’t have a tree picture, try a person, street lamp, road sign- something that you would always want to face you in a 3D model (not appear as a 2D cutout). 1. Start with a basic house. Select File / Insert / Image and browse to your picture. We don’t want it aligned to any of the house faces, so place it on the red-green plane, away from the house.

12. Now move just the door edges, not the face itself. This places the door shape on another portion of the door image, so be careful not to do this!

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2.

Just like a group or component, when it is selected and you are in Move mode, you can also rotate it. Place the protractor on the necessary edge to make it vertical. Then explode the picture so that it will act as a regular SketchUp face.

4.

Now use Line and/or Arc to trace around the tree. When the outline is closed, the lines will become thin.

5.

When the outline is complete, delete the rest of the picture.

TIP: You also could have arrived at this point using Insert / Image as Texture. In that case, you would first have to create the vertical face for the tree, and then apply the picture to that face.

3.

For this next step, it might help to change the edge color. Open the Model Info window to the Colors page and select a color for Edges that contrasts with the tree.

NOTE: The picture is not positioned with respect to the edges around the tree, but you could use texture positioning to fix this.

6.

Make the tree a component, and insert a few more of them around the house. Use Scale to make some trees wider, shorter, or taller, or to make mirror images.

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7.

If you orbit the model, the trees look like how they were created - flat cutout faces. This can be changed in the definition of the component itself. Even when components have different scales, their properties are still the same. In Windows, right-click on any tree and select Properties (All Like This). In the Properties window, check Always face camera.

9.

Now orbit the model around. No matter what the angle, the trees are always facing you.

Creating a Painted 3D Bus
This exercise uses a picture to create the side, front, and top of a bus. This will work for any vehicle, but a bus is handy because it’s prismatic. You can do a web search for a bus picture, but the one used in this example is from the Greyhound web site http://store.yahoo.com/greyhoundlogoshop/. (It’s actually a toy bus, but it looks real enough!) Here is the picture:

Always face camera is also available when first defining a component, as well as in a component’s Entity Info. (In the Entity Info window, if only half of the options appear, click on the right-facing arrow and select Show Details. This expands the window.) Mac: The Properties option does not work as of this writing, but it is a known bug that will be fixed. In the meantime, to make a component always face the camera, this option must be set when the component is first created. To modify an existing component, you must explode it and redefine the component. If the edges surrounding the trees look too thick, open the Display page of Model Info and uncheck Profiles. This will make all edges thin. Or you could set Edge Color to None to eliminate edges altogether.

1.

8.

First make a box in the general shape of a bus. If you care about making it realistic, make the length something like 30’.

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2.

There are two ways to import a picture as a texture. The first is via the Material Browser. Click the Create button at the top.

5.

Undo to take the material off the box and out of the browser. Now select File / Insert / Image as Texture. The picture comes into the model and you can drag it by its lower left endpoint. The picture will align itself to any face, so click the two corner points of the side of the box.

3.

Mac: Click Image Palette, and select New from file to browse to the image you want to import. You can also right-click on the texture swatches and select New Texture. In the Mix New Material window, check Use texture image and browse to the bus picture. Make the size something realistic - if you keep the lock symbol as is, you can enter 30’ for the length and the height will update automatically. Finally, enter the name of the new material (“Bus”) at the top left.

NOTE: If you want to drop the picture onto the face at its current size, just double-click on the face. Press Ctrl if you want to place the picture by its center. Press Shift while placing the second corner point if you want non-uniform scaling.

6.

Enter position mode, and zoom in closely to see the 4 corner pins. Move the pins to the corners of the side of the bus.

4.

This new material now appears in the In Model tab of the Material Browser. Paint this material onto the side of the bus. This method would work fine since it can always be repositioned, but this placement method allows no control over where the picture is placed.

TIP: It’s very helpful to use the zoom functions when placing pushpins. Use Zoom Window to lift the pin, then Zoom Extents to see the whole model. Zoom Window again to the target point, and click to place the pin.

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7.

Now drag each pin to a corner on the side of the box.. The side of the box should now contain the portion of the picture that is the side of the bus, stretched and moved to the right scale and orientation.

10. Now for the front of the bus. Again there are two ways to apply the picture here. First, click the thumbnail in the Material Browser and apply it to the front face. With texture positioning this would work, but the initial placement of the picture is random not connected to the picture on the side of the bus.

8.

Leave positioning mode. The side of the box looks good, but the tires are cut off. 11. Undo. Here’s a better way. Use the dropper or Paint + Alt/Cmd to “sample” the material on the side of the bus. Now click the front face. The picture still needs to be adjusted, but its placement is correct along the edge shared with the side face.

9.

Push/Pull the bottom of the box so that the wheels are visible. Use lines and arcs to trace the bottom of the bus to include the wheels. Push/Pull the wheels all the way through. Now the wheels are included in the bus.

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12. Enter positioning mode. (If your picture isn’t facing the right way, or is upside down, you can right-click and select Flip / Left/Right or Up/Down.) The pins along the common edge are already located correctly. Move and drag the other two pins into place.

Try it Yourself
The picture used here is of a birdhouse taken from the website www.cleanairgardening.com/hapawobiho.html. Any similar picture will work, including one of an actual house, or perhaps a group of townhouses.

13. The top face is done the same way. Use the sample method to pick up either the side or front face material, and apply the material to the top. The roof is already aligned along the 2 edges common to the side and front faces. Adjust the one pin that isn’t located correctly.

Build a model that approximates the shape of the house. Insert the image on one face and position it, then modify the geometry and insert the image on other faces.

You may need to do some fine-tuning with the pins to get the results you want. 14. To apply the material to the opposite side, get a sample of the texture on the first side and apply it. It has the correct shape and orientation, only backward!

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194 . 3. Start with a cube and use File / Insert / Image as Texture to apply the map to one face. 4. Use texture positioning to center the picture on the face. in which you can both move and rotate the picture. and how to modify a picture wrapped around a curved. 1. If you want an alignment that is not along one of the faces.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Wrapping Images This exercise shows you how to wrap a picture along planar faces from a set angle. Unpaint the cube and use File / Insert / Image to bring in the picture. but any image will work. The wrapping is correct. The picture used here is a map of the continental USA. 2.at an angle in which a corner of the cube sticks out. Sample this positioned texture and apply it to adjacent faces. 5. according to the horizontal alignment of the original face. Make the scale a bit larger than the face itself. you must insert the image by itself (not as a texture). Move it to a position like this . Activate Move mode.

but you cannot right-click on the face to access texture positioning. In Fixed pin mode. Explode the image. and Textures 6. not the sampled texture from the cube. 195 . delete it. 8.) 7. To change the orientation or scale of the image on a cylinder. and the wrapping adheres to the angle of the picture. first display hidden edges (F4). Because this texture was created from an exploded material and projected onto a face. it is a projected texture. Materials. Verify this by right-clicking on the face Projected is checked under Texture. 11. use the green pin to rotate the picture. (Use the thumbnail from the In Model tab of the Material Browser. Then with the image still selected. 9. 10. Now draw a cylinder and apply the picture to it. and sample the texture. Apply the material to the faces. Then right-click on any of the face segments and select Texture / Position. The picture wraps smoothly.Painting.

For another example of a projected image. 16. and drag it right into SketchUp. Then apply the texture to the cylinder . Rotate the picture to be vertical. This brings the image into the red-green plane. and turn off the hidden lines. Sample the rotated image. 15.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook When finished. Explode the picture and Push/Pull it into the wavy form. Draw a rectangle that extends past the projected sides of the picture. Switch to Top view and turn off Perspective mode (Alt + P). Trim the rectangle in front of the arcs and Push/Pull so that the top and bottom extend past the picture. 12. That’s why pictures imported this way activate Scale mode (note the drag handles). start a new file.the rotated picture wraps around the whole cylinder. 13. so that you can change the size immediately if you want. 196 . only the edited segment has the rotated picture. 14. at the picture’s original size. and use draw two tangent arcs. Locate the map file in your browser.

and apply it to the wavy face. to manipulate the textures on this wavy face. Trim all but the projected face. and Textures 17. Then right-click on any face segment and select Texture. 197 . Therefore. not a wrapping. you need to first display hidden edges. . 18. the wavy face looks fine in Front view. and use Erase + Ctrl/Option to soften edges on this face. Just like with the cylinder. but in an isometric view you can see distortion along the curved face.Painting. . select this option to toggle it off. . Run Intersect with Model. This is a projection. Materials. . 19. Projected is indicated as the current format. . Sample the exploded picture.

Zoom in or out as needed. The texture of this face now has the “true” scale. but not all do .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 20. An image inserted this way does not need to be placed on a face . you probably won’t get perfectly matched results with this method. The solution: turn hidden edges back on. 1.it is a unique. NOTE: To use mapquest. many of the segments have a continuous pattern. Similar to the previous exercise. and position the texture in each face segment. in order. type in any address and click Search. Sample this texture.mapquest. and apply the texture to the rest of the wavy face. drag the map to match that of the adjacent face segment.while positioning.com. 198 . Projecting an Image onto a Non-Planar Face 21. this exercise shows you how to project a map onto a topographical surface. then the other to insert it at its current aspect ratio. In this example. • Click one corner point. This case is easy . You can insert an image several ways: • Double-click to drop it at its current size. the results look like wrapping. then right-click on the graphic and select Save Picture As. but it’ll look pretty close. turn off hidden edges. You can get a map from the site www. separate object. one by one. With hidden edges turned back off. Use File / Insert / Image to insert the map into the model. Unless you’re working at a very large zoom scale.the pattern looks jumpy.

We want the picture to act as a regular SketchUp face. Use Move with Autofold to move the edge up from Point 1 to Point 2. and Textures • To insert by its center. 3. Use the same Autofold method to smooth out the entire surface. To represent the topographical lines. use Freehand (hotkey: F) to draw a few wavy lines on the face. Use Push/Pull to pull up the first section. Materials. 6. • You can also drag a picture into SketchUp directly from the file browser. and follows the pulled sections. so explode it. we will use Autofold. but you can change the scale after inserting. keep Shift pressed while placing.Painting. they will be thin-lined and will divide the face. Pull up the remaining sections progressively higher. 199 . This is the result .the step is gone and edges are added where needed. First. • To change its aspect ratio. then press Ctrl/Option and click the outer point. Note that the map acts like a material. To smooth the face. click the center point. This inserts the picture at its original size. 4. You can double-click repeatedly if you want to keep all height differences the same. (starting and ending on the face edges). 2. If drawn correctly. select the edge shown. 5.

We will now try another method . You could achieve the same results if you have created a face first.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook This is one method for creating a realistic-looking topo surface. With this method. . 7. We already have a topo surface. click it and apply it to the surface. then used File / Insert / Image as Texture to apply the map directly to the face. Then apply the default material to the model. Select the entire surface by triple-clicking on any of its faces. we’ll see how not to apply the map to this surface. 9. Place the first corner directly above the relevant corner of the topo face . To get just the surface. 200 . erase all the side (vertical) faces. Use Soften/Smooth Edges to smooth the surface. The advantage of applying the image by itself (File / Image / Texture) is that you do not have to start out knowing the exact dimensions of the map you can build the model based on the picture. Undo. 8. . so we will remove the picture from it. the material is applied to each sub-face individually. 10. This occurs even when the surface has been smoothed. and use File / Insert / Image to bring in the map again.starting with the topo surface and projecting the image onto it. resulting in a jumbled mess. The map should still be present in the Material Browser. First.

. it is necessary to turn off Perspective mode (Camera / Perspective. and not subdivided. 15. Materials. NOTE: You can’t use Insert / Image as Texture here. After using Intersect with Model. this example includes an arc driveway. It is projected directly onto the surface.and for the second point switch to Top view. The map is now directly above the topo surface. For exact placement. 12. hotkey: Alt + P). draw the footprint of a building. . and apply it to the topo surface. Then sample the texture from the flat image. Now to place a building directly on this topo surface. 14. 13. . Move the flat image plus footprint directly below the topo surface and Push/Pull the footprint plus driveway up beyond the topo surface. 201 . As before. you can delete everything below the topo surface. Place the second corner at the corner of the topo surface. and Textures 11. Explode it. On the flat image. .Painting. because there is no flat face to apply the image to.

when a component is no longer in use it still appears in the Component Browser. This also clears unused components and layers. Then when the model is ready for presentation. if it is available. the In Model tab (Mac: Colors in Model) lists all materials that are both in use and not in use. • Lastly. You can speed things up by getting rid of materials you’re not using. To remove all materials. • Working with lots of transparent materials can slow your rendering. consider using single-color materials while working in your model. You can also right-click on individual thumbnails and select Remove. Mac: Purge Unused is in the List dropdown menu at the bottom of the Materials browser when Colors in Model is open. you can replace these materials with image files. right-click on the right-facing arrow at the top of the In Model tab and select Purge unused. Materials that are not in use can either be materials that were replaced. You can also open the Model Info to the Statistics page and click Purge unused. working with large texture graphic files can also slow performance. You can purge components the same way right-click and select Purge or use Purge unused. 202 . If materials still remain after purging. If you find this to be the case. or materials that were imported into the model from a library but not yet assigned to any face. • Having a large number of in-model materials can slow down performance. Switching off Transparency mode can speed things up.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Review: Tips for Efficiency with Materials • When applying and replacing materials in your model. Like materials. This option is found in the Display tab of the Model Info. they are probably attached to components that are also no longer in use. Right-click on any unused material and select Delete/Remove.

8 Sectioning 3. Click Add Section Plane (Mac: Create Section Planes). Section planes free you from having to constantly hide and unhide geometry. Open the Components Browser to the Shapes folder and insert a Sphere. NOTE: WIndows: If this toolbar is not displayed. 1. Section cuts enable you to look inside your model. select View / Toolbars / Section Planes. 4. 2. Click to make the section. If you don't see this. Sectioning Overview This exercise will show you the basics of using the section tools. with arrows indicating the direction that will be cut. and use Rotate to slightly tilt the sphere. providing a powerful way to visualize spatial relationships. Locate the section plane on the vertical face shown. thick lines appear. select View / Toolbars / Section Planes. Wherever a face intersects with the section plane. When you move the cursor around the drawing. Explode the sphere. If you do not see the Section Planes toolbar. 203 . Mac: the Section Plane icon is located at the bottom of the Tool Palette. notice how the plane indicator aligns to the various faces. and they dynamically demonstrate the relationships of spaces. The plane appears. Mac: If the Tool Palette is not displayed. 5. and they can make documenting and constructing complex forms much more straightforward and accurate. select Window / Tool Palette. Create a base for the sphere. select Tools / Section Plane.

Click Add Section Plane again. and click Toggle Section Plane Display. Press Shift to lock the orientation. Now the plane is hidden. and locate the section plane at the midpoint of the adjacent edge. As you’ve seen. The cut lines disappear (the entire model is displayed). 6.the section plane and section cuts (those thick intersection lines). (Mac: Display Section Planes) or select View / Section Planes. Mac: This icon can be added to the toolbar via View / Customize Toolbar. 10. sections consist of two parts . Display and then erase the section plane. Click Toggle Section Cuts (Mac: Display Section Cut Effect) or select View / Section Cuts. this command affects the display of all the planes. 9. Select and erase the section plane. and align it with the face shown. 204 . You can also set the section line thickness and colors of active and inactive section planes. If you have multiple section planes. but do not click yet. or can be turned on by selecting View / Section Cut.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook This default color of section lines can be changed on the Section Planes page of the Model Info window. though the section plane is still visible. Display the section cuts again. 7. 8.

14. Shift-lock the orientation and place the plane deeper into the sphere. Erase or hide the section plane. or click Toggle Section Plane display to blank it. Reverse again. Now add a section plane and hover on one of the points on the sphere itself. 205 .Sectioning 11. Right-click within the section plane (on an edge or within the empty gray area) and select Align View. 13. Right-click and select Create Group from Slice. This aligns the section plane with the screen . and the opposite part of the model appears. The arrows change direction.you are looking straight into the section. They become thin lines. aligned to the planes that contain them. 16. Ungroup (Edit / Group / Explode. right-click again. You can also save the cut lines as a group. Orbit out of this view. and select Reverse. 12. 15. This leaves a group of line segments on the model where the section plane was. hotkey: Alt+G) the group of lines.

The last steps involve using sections to create a slide show presentation. 2. 4. Use Measure to scale the house. and your model is now trimmed by a plane. You can’t see much from this small opening. Start with a house like this. Insert a door component to the front of the house.with the Move tool. if needed. you probably need to get inside to design walls. so select the plane and move it toward the other side. Add another section plane where shown.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 17. but for complex structures it may be more convenient to use section planes. etc. You can now see inside the house. 206 . Using Sections for Interior Design and Presentation If you are designing a closed building. We now want to add a staircase along the right side wall. Erase all faces and edges in front of the cut lines. which creates an additional section cut line along the front of the house. This exercise will show a very simple house and a few interior elements. floor layouts. Add the second floor. 1. You can hide and unhide walls. Moving section planes is done the same way as moving any geometric object . 3. stairs. Place a section plane on the front face.

10.Sectioning 5. Move this plane very slightly inward so that you get past the front door. only one section can be active at any time. add components such as doors and windows. 9. Remember. and orbit so that you are nearly facing the front of the house. Now you can easily erase the wall separating the small wing from the main house. 7. However. This returns you to the section at the front of the house. The current view is saved as Page 1. Right-click on the first section plane you created and select Active Cut. and copy the active plane to the back of the house. 6.) In this way you can use sections to build walls. 207 . if the display of section planes clutters your display. you can always toggle their display. We will now use Pages to create a slide show in which you can see sections dynamically. Select View / Tourguide / Add Page. Display the planes again. slightly in front of the back wall. Use lines and Push/Pull to make a basic staircase. etc. furniture. plants. you could avoid this by making a group of either the walls or staircase section. Though you can have an infinite number of section planes. Click Toggle Section Plane Display to clear the planes. 8. (This removes area from the side wall of the house which we will ignore for this exercise.

208 . Orbit to a similar orientation as you had for Page 1. this time leaving the plane displayed. and save as Page 4. Copy this diagonal plane to the back corner and activate it. Save this as Page 3. Orbit to the view you want. 16. you could create the new plane and then click the tab for Page 3. 14.) 13. Clicking a tab moves the current view dynamically to the selected view. TIP: If you wanted to use the same exact view as Page 3. and create a new page (Page 2). You can add these icons to your toolbar via View / Customize Toolbar. and turn off the plane display. Then activate the new plane and save the view as Page 4. Move it so that is it just inside the front corner. Orbit to a similar view as Page 3. 15. Activate this new plane. (You can leave them in place. At the top left of the screen you can see the tabs for all the saved views. Mac: You can also click the Start Slideshow icon. Pages and slideshows are detailed more in Chapter 9. Select and rotate the plane so that it cuts the face diagonally. 12.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 11. but the display tends to get cluttered this way. Create a new plane on the face shown. Turn the planes back on. Select View / Tourguide / Play Slideshow for a running presentation moving along the pages. but hide the ones that you have created so far.

Right-click on each section plane and select Create Group from Slice. Divide any of the near-vertical edges into 4 or 5 equal segments.Sectioning Exporting Section Slices You can export an active section slice as a 2D file in the *. 2. 1. Assign a file name. Locate the first section plane at the endpoint of the first segment of the subdivided edge. 1.dxf format. Start with a building shaped like this. If you want to specify conversion parameters. which will reflect the precise measurements of your model. using Scale to shrink the top face. 209 . A group of cut lines appears along each plane.dxf).dwg or *. and copy the section plane to the remaining segment endpoints. Select File / Export / Section Slice. This enables you to export vector information. Project: Copying Section Planes for Floor Plans Create a 4-story pyramid-shaped building. 2. 3. with sections planes representing each floor. Under Export Type. NOTE: See "Export and Import (Insert)" on page 274 for details on other ways to import into and export from SketchUp. select the type of file (which version of AutoCAD. *dwg or *. click Options.

but this isn’t the section we want. rotate it. display the building in X-Ray mode (hotkey: F9). and offset it slightly inward. Use Rotate to move the section plane into place along the corner. . 3. and do the same editing for the other floors. Edit one of the section groups. 210 . Place a section plane on the indicated vertical face. Recreate the section face . When you are finished with all the floors. 2.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 4. Close the group. Copy the section. Start with a molding section like this. and apply a contrasting color to the floor face. and Push/Pull them both so that the mouldings overlap. 5. but this project shows another possible usage for sectioning. Moulding 1 1. Project: Using Section Planes for Mitering NOTE: Using Intersect with Model is a much easier way to create a mitered corner. Trim so that only the offset face remains. A section is cut.

2. the edges are resolved to the faces. But if your section has no vertical face. 1. 5. Create a slice group from this section plane. Retrace edges if you need to replace any faces of the portions that are to remain.Sectioning 4. you need a few extra steps. Start with a new section. in which no interior angle is 90 degrees. Molding 2 The previous molding was easy to miter because it had a vertical face on which you could place the section plane. When you explode the group. we will create one. Use Erase or Select+Delete to remove all edges and faces of the overhangs. 211 . Because there is no obvious face on which to place the section plane. Create a construction line where the intersection plane will be.

Create a horizontal section plane parallel at the center point of the circle. and place a section plane on this face. and place a construction point at its center. Project: Section Planes with Model Intersection Create a Follow Me series of striations along a drafted form. 4. Draw a small vertical circle on one of the faces. and trim as needed. The rest is like before: create a group from the section slice. This leaves the lines and circles ungrouped and selected. 4. Copy both the circle and plane twice along the diagonal edge. 212 . Create a vertical rectangular face from this construction line. 5. Make slice groups on all planes. edit the group. 2. Right-click one of the slice groups and Explode it. Group the circle so that you can easily use the whole circle in the Follow Me tool. Create the drafted pyramid form with one arc face. 3.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 3.. 1.

Workaround: Simultaneous Section Cuts So far you’ve seen that. There is a workaround for this.. 8. You can also soften the edges. It will be tedious erasing all of the tiny edges making up the curved faces. 2. 1. only one can be active at any time. If your original form or cutout shape had no curves. Start with a form like this. activate Follow Me Then right-click on the circle group and select Edit Group. there would be a lot less cleanup! TIP: In Select mode. then right-click on the section plane and select Active Cut. Add a section plane to one face and move it to the desired position. Now you can erase all the faces and edges we don’t want. and run Intersect with Model the whole model. 3. although you can have many section planes. which would be easiest in Wireframe (F5) model 213 . if you double-click on an edge. 7. it selects the face and its edges. it selects the edge plus any adjacent faces. perfectly located striations. To activate the plane. Be careful if you use this to delete faces of the outer tube. Do the same for the other two sets of groups. Now select both the form and the section plane and group them. You would need to delete these one by one. involving the use of groups. Explode the groups. Deactivate the plane. Click the circle face to define it as the section to drive around the path. however. If you double-click a face. Here is the pyramid with the evenly-spaced. Edit the group. because the edges along the pyramid form will also be selected. With the path already selected.Sectioning 6. it must be done within the context of the group.

These would be progressively nested groups . You can now add another section plane. For numerous sections. this can get confusing. To add more section planes. you would move it to the desired position. but to move the first one you would have to edit the group once again. Then. 214 . Then close the group.e. the next group would consist of both the previous group and the latest section plane. This second plane can be moved easily. TIP: An alternative to deactivating the section plane would be to move it away from the form before grouping.i. you would have to create more groups. thereby automatically activating it. while editing the group.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 4. there aren’t too many cases in which you’d need dozens of section planes. But then again.

Give its faces a texture. drag the mouse up (holding the left mouse button). This tool is easy enough to explain in words. facing the house straight on. place objects on different layers. Create a house with a sunroom and back patio. This chapter consists of one exercise which will show you how to walk through and look around a model. and create a slide show. such as brick. We will now use the Walk tool to walk through the house. We will now look at some of the walk-through tools. 3. Add materials as well.9 Presentation 2. create shadows. and add some windows and doors to the front and back. save views. Walk Through Tools 1. but you really have to play with it to get a feel for it. position the view so that you are standing outside the front door. Basically. • To walk forward. First. 215 . Add a chimney to the side and hollow it out. it simulates moving and turning while exploring your model.

TIP: While in any camera tool (Zoom. which you can use to change your field of vision. Another useful tool is Look Around.) you can access any other camera tool by right-clicking and selecting it from the context menu. jumping to a higher or lower floor). 5. press Shift and move the mouse up or down to change the number of degrees you can see. 216 . Activate Walk (Camera / Walk. • To turn left or right. Walk does not work in Paraline mode. Use Look Around (Camera / Look Around. drag the mouse upward to pass through the door into the house. drag the mouse to either side. or a focal length (such as 35mm). drag the mouse down. • Drag the mouse from side to side to turn your head. to face the opposite side wall. You can also type in the desired angle. • Perspective mode must be on (Camera / Perspective. See "Perspective Mode" on page 264.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook • To walk backward. hotkey: W). This simulates standing in one place and turning your head. You can use Walk in conjunction with Zoom (Camera / Zoom. you can press Ctrl/Option to move faster (this is called the “run” feature and is handy for large models). Orbit. • To move (not turn) left or right. hotkey: Z). • To move up or down (for example. Use Zoom if necessary to adjust your angle of vision. etc. Walk. 4. hold Shift while dragging the mouse up or down. hold Shift while dragging the mouse to either side. just inside the front door. From the front door. hotkey: Shift+L) to turn from the point where you are standing. • While walking or turning. In Zoom. hotkey: Alt+P). You can enter a different Eye Height (displayed in the VCB) if you want to stand in a higher or lower • Drag the mouse up and down to look up and down.

But you can also do this while in Walk. Now adjust your viewing position so that you are facing into the sunroom at a slight angle.Presentation 6. to simulate an actual (tall) person. or the number will be interpreted as Eye Height. Look in the VCB to see the current Eye Height (your VCB might look different). NOTE: While using the camera tools. 9. and make an arched cutout. TIP: You already know that you can change your field of vision in the Zoom tool. you may easily move yourself outside the house. especially if you are unfamiliar with their handling. This view will be saved as a page. If necessary. 7. enter a reasonable value. Make this dividing wall a brick wall. Insert some components. Activate Walk again so that you can move forward and face inside the sunroom.) 217 . Fill in the wall separating the sunroom from the main house. After moving and turning using Walk. like 6’. 8. like a sofa and coffee table. by entering a value like 75deg or 35mm. Be sure to include units. You can always go back to your previous view using Undo View Change. you should now be looking into the sunroom.

6. shadows. 4. called Page 2. page. 1.). Select View / Tourguide / Add Page. This adds a page after the existing one. This updates the page name. pages can be added to a slide show. The page is listed as a tab at the top left directly above the modeling window (Mac: centered above the modeling window). in which you can create and modify pages. 218 . With the Page window still open. Click Add to create the first page. This opens the Pages window (also known as Page Manager). so these will be included with the view each time you return to it. Right-click on the Page 2 tab and select Page Manager. etc. Move the view to one like this. By default. 5. you also saved all the properties (camera. Change the name of this tab to Facing Sun Room and press Enter.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Pages Pages are the equivalent of saving views. You can now click this tab whenever you want to return to this view. NOTE: you can also click Add in the Page window to add a new 2. 3. rename the page In Sun Room and press Enter. Select Window / Pages. In addition.

10. Right-click on the last page you created and select Add. Currently there is only one layer in the model . Therefore.Layer 0 (the default layer for every drawing). 9.Presentation 7. NOTE: You can also control page order via the right-facing arrow at the top of the Pages window. Use Move Up and Move Down to change the order of the list. 219 . To create new layers you must open the Layer Manager. This is now the correct order. stand in the sunroom and face the back door. NOTE: For Windows users. Your page tabs should now look like the following. 1. or select Window / Layers. This creates Page 3. You cannot use layers to isolate geometry. Mac: Select View / Customize Toolbars. Turn and move so that you can see the front door and the chimney outline. right-click on Facing Sun Room and select Move Left. Layers are used in SketchUp for display purposes only to show / hide objects and to display objects of a certain type by a certain color. if you don’t see this icon. They are listed from left to right in the order in which they were created. 12. For the last page (for now).for this you can use groups or components. Click the Layer Manager icon. 11. Layers We are now ready to place objects on different layers. To get the desired viewing order. you should face the sunroom before standing inside it. make sure View / Toolbars / Layers is checked. Use the Page window to change the name to Facing Entrance. Call this new page Facing Patio Door. or prevent geometry from interacting with adjacent geometry . 8.

you can get the area of all faces on a particular layer. the Furniture layer appears in the dropdown menu . Now when you select a piece of furniture. Windows: in the Select Layer dropdown menu you can see that the pieces currently sit on Layer 0. In the Layers window. 3. This hides all objects on this layer. Click Add and create a new layer called Furniture.objects created now will be placed on that layer. they were added when you inserted components.this moves all selected items to the new layer. select them all. (Shift selects contiguous layers. Open this list and select Furniture . as with components and materials. such as Glass. All layers are listed in the dropdown menu. 5. The layer is listed. Go to the Facing Sunroom page. you need to click Purge. The layer with the dot is the active layer . Each layer is assigned a color. which is used if you click Color by Layer. 220 . Also. TIP: For both Windows and Mac. uncheck the Visible box for the Furniture layer. If you do have extra layers. 4. open their Entity Info window. Go to the In Sunroom page. TIP: Color by Layer is useful when you want to visualize how objects are divided onto layers. You can use this window as another way to change the layer of a single selected object. The layer color here is not important. in this case Layer 0 is both. 6. and select all pieces of furniture you inserted. select the layer to which you want to object assigned. empty layers are not automatically deleted. TIP: Once you have different objects on different layers. Right-click on a face and select Area / Layer. Ctrl/Cmd selects individual layers. 2.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook If you see extra layers listed. Mac: To change the layer of selected objects. another way to set a layer as active is to select it from the Select Layer drop-down menu. To clean out unneeded layers. Right-click on a piece of furniture and select Entity Info.) You can choose to relocate the contents of these layers to the Default (Layer0) or Current layer (the one with the circle filled in). using Shift or Ctrl/Cmd and click Delete.

To save the current status of the page. if you switch to another page and switch back. Make sure the furniture is hidden. Hiding layers in different pages is useful for showing what a space will look like under various scenarios. and place all chimney faces and edges on it. This makes sense . 7. and right-click the page name and select Update. 9. click on the right-facing arrow and select Purge.) Now the chimney outlines are not visible in these views. Suppose you want to be able to show this house with or without the chimney.) 8. without every single change being recorded and saved.you want to be able to change what appears on a page. TIP: To delete layers that have no objects. 221 . Changes such as these that you make to pages are not saved automatically. or change a page’s view. (You could also select View / Tourguide / Update Page. At this point. Easily done . (Don’t forget to use Update. Now update the Facing Entrance and Facing Patio Door pages so that the Chimney layer is hidden on them.Presentation The view should now look like this . the furniture will reappear.no furniture in the sunroom.simply create a layer called Chimney. you must update it.

it should go before Back Yard Landscaped. We want this to be a new page. Place all greenery on a layer called Rear Landscaping. Make this view a page called Back Yard Landscaped. but rather than place it at the end. Use layers and pages to switch back and forth between the two options. Here are two examples: Front Yard Option 1 11. Front Yard Option 2 12.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 10. This is what your page order should look like: 222 . and add some trees and shrubs. and hide this layer. Try It Yourself Create two different landscape designs for the front of the house. Spin around the face the back yard.

you must place the camera at both the desired location and desired height. Note that the default Eye Height is listed as 5’-6” this can be changed but it makes sense for this case. (This picture is shown in wireframe for display purposes you can do this just as easily in shaded mode. Place the camera at a point on the floor between the patio door and the adjacent window. 4. 3. Both methods will be shown here. Select Camera / Position Camera. As soon as you click. 2. the eye height is no longer assumed . offset about 2’ from the back wall. Go to the Facing Patio Door page. the view changes to represent a 5’-6” person standing at the camera location.) 223 . You are still facing the same direction as before. Make sure the On Face constraint appears. In this view you are standing in the sun room. just from a different location. There are two ways to do this . Move back a bit.either click to locate and the current view direction is preserved. Construction lines are very helpful in this case. If you want to define the camera direction. so that you stay on the floor. or click and drag to define where the camera is facing.Presentation Position Camera Another way you can change your camera view is to position the camera in a specific place. 1. and create a construction line on the floor. facing toward the back corner of the house.

1. the view changes so that your eye is at the camera location. such as a pool or gazebo. Move the construction line vertically (blue direction) about 5-’6” or so. Here you can select any page and modify its properties. To represent the desired eye height. Tour Guide / Slideshow The slide show is a great way to present an animated view.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 5. 6. When you release the mouse. in order. you should see some shrubs and trees. you’ll want to return to this view to see if the new items can be seen from the window. and you are facing straight into the back yard. If the Rear Landscaping layer is visible. 7. Open the Page Manager (Pages window). Deactivating this option is useful when you want to save certain views but omit them from a presentation. This could be a good view to save as a page . 224 .if anything is added to the back yard. but drag it in the axis direction that extends into the back yard. Select Camera / Position Camera and click on the construction line at a point facing out the first window from the patio door. • Include in Slideshow: Determines whether the page will be included in the slide show. Do not release the mouse. of the pages in your model.

Select View / TourGuide / Settings. call it something like Front Iso View. For Back Yard Landscaped.the only difference between these is the layers that are visible. If any of the items are unchecked. 6. uncheck Layers. The easiest way to demonstrate page settings is to manipulate the setting of hidden layers. so these two pages should look the same. 5. In this window you can set the timing and transition options for the slide show. and make it the first page. in order. 8. 2. For any option that is not selected. Mac: You can also click the Start Slideshow icon. reset the Layers option. 7. which opens the Model Info to the Tourguide page. You can add this icon via View / Customize Toolbar. Right-click on any page tab and select Slideshow (Windows only). 225 . For Back Yard Landscaped. or select View / Tourguide / Play Slideshow. Back Yard Landscaped will now display those layers that were visible in Back Yard. 4. the settings will be preserved from the last active page. outside front view of the house. Set the options so that page transitions are enabled. In your presentation you would probably want to start off with a general. Each page will appear on the screen. Now click again on Back Yard and Back Yard Landscaped (in order). Make a view like this one. Click on pages Back Yard and Back Yard Landscaped . the page will use the relevant settings of the previous page. 3. starting from the active page. TIP: Another way to scroll through the pages is to use the PageUp and PageDown keys.Presentation • Properties to save: The various conditions that can be preserved for the page.

Open the Model Info to the Colors tab and check Gradient. See "Exporting Animation" on page 275. Mac: you can add the Shadows icon to the toolbar via View / Customize Toolbar. Press Stop to end the slide show.) Shadows SketchUp’s shadow casting tools is a great way to present a realistic view of your model. select View / Toolbars / Shadows. Windows: The shadow commands are available on the Shadows toolbar. and to see how the model will look under various conditions of time and location. check Use sun for shading on the Display Settings window. Among other things. First. or it will continue. 1. This is how the house should look with a sky and ground added. (Mac: You can also stop the slideshow by clicking on one of the page tabs. The current page is indicated by the page tabs at the top of the screen. and without having to transfer *. 10. this enables you to share your designs with those who do not have SketchUp installed.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 9. or adjust them. If you don’t see this. without actual viewing shadows. You can press Pause or Stop any time. Once your slide show has been created to your satisfaction. You can also select View / Shadows. NOTE: To view faces as though the sun is hitting them. you can export it to an animation file.skp files. Sky and Ground under Background. 226 . or Window / Shadow Settings / Display Shadows. You can accept the default blue and green colors. set the sky and ground conditions so that the shadows will look more realistic.

NOTE: The default location is Boulder. Here you can set the country and city where your model is located. you should see the shadows cast on the house. but to set the location you need more options. Light controls he amount of diffuse lighting. a bold north line will be shown on the model. Use the default of Boulder. the latitude and longitude of this location determine how the shadows will appear. of course. After your date and time are set. Colorado because this is where @Last Software is located. Colorado. 5.) This example uses 135 degrees.Presentation NOTE: Keeping these background effects active will slow down the performance of the model. 4. Pick a spring/summer month like May or June. This may have severely impact performance impact on slower computers. By default. You can use the sliders on the Shadows toolbar to set the time and date. • On Ground: Casts shadows onto the ground plane. 6. TIP: Selecting Show Details will open Light and Dark options. Windows: Be sure that Toggle Shadows is clicked. In Windows. • Show in Model: If checked. This opens the Location page of Model Info. and Dark controls the amount of ambient lighting. • On Faces: Casts shadows on faces. or using hotkey: Alt+S. you can click Select and select two points in the model to align the arrow. plus a few extra options. Click the arrow and select Location. To change this. 2. The rest of the options are explained below: 3. • From Edges: Casts shadows from stand-alone edges (lines drawn in space that are not connected to any faces. click the Shadow Dialog icon to open the Sunlight and Shadow Options. and a time in the early morning. (You can also enter a new value in the North Angle field. Mac (and Windows): Use Window / Shadow Settings. Now click the Shadows page. so you don’t want to use them all the time. or those using software rendering. This page contains the same options as the Shadow Settings window. You can also set the North direction. 7. This is equivalent to clicking the Toggle Shadows icon. and from the house to the ground. Display Shadows: Toggles the display of shadows. Light: Controls the tonal balance of the lighting in the SketchUp display. 227 . north is aligned along the positive direction of the green axis.

9. You can combine the walk-through tools. or be sure Display shadows is checked in the Shadow Settings window. 10. Late Afternoon. or be sure the Shadows icon is activated (if it is on the toolbar). the shadows should look something like this: 12. You can specify in the Page window to be omitted from the slide show. If the rear landscaping is visible on this page. For the Facing Entrance page. 11. set the time later in the afternoon. you can dynamically view the effects of the sun passing over the sky over the course of the day. Early Morning. TIP: You can play with the Light and Dark options to control how light the interior will appear. but by now you can see how they are all related. Now you should see sunlight entering from the back windows. With the north angle. Either in the Shadow Settings window or by using the slider in the Shadows toolbar. date and time set as specified. Late Afternoon still active. location. uncheck Shadows. You can also see the effects of shadows inside the house. or you can leave it in. shadows. Use the slider to get an early morning shadow.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Mac: Check View / Shadows. 13. 8. and/or slide show to create a masterful presentation of your model! 228 . This will cause the shadows on this page to match the settings from the previous page. This chapter covered several topics. With May. pages. Make a page of this view called something like May. If you click from one shadow page to the other. click Facing Entrance. you should see shadows from the trees in the back yard as well. Make this a page called May. layers. You should see sunlight from the front windows cast along the side wall. The shadows now appear in the other direction.

you would have to add the appropriate symbol.using square brackets . you will see how to enter exact values. Perhaps you’ll be working with a specific area on a site plan. The end of the construction line is the point where the building footprint will start. This sets the default method of input.0] . And for each tool.in a word. So. All three values (red. (You do need to specify 0 for the blue direction. green.6. its intent is for simple design and easy modification .10 Using Exact Dimensions Creating Exact Geometry SketchUp is not CAD. Click Enable length snapping.which appears in the VCB. This chapter focuses on the design of a building (three buildings.5. and set the snap length to 2’. or you’ll need to incorporate components of known dimensions. however. Type [13. you can always enter any type of number in any unit. Let’s work in Decimal Feet. it is certainly doable. For the next point. This does not limit the NOTE: You do not have to use the foot symbol because you set Feet as the default unit. and the way units are listed in the Value Control Box (VCB). the value will still be interpreted correctly. and press Enter. actually) in which all of the drawing tools are used. If you wanted inches or different units. blue) must be entered. Use Measure and start the construction line at the origin. you probably won’t use exact values for an entire design. The first step is always to set the units you will be working in.) 1. Let’s assume the first point of the building is at a known distance from the origin. 229 . When using SketchUp as intended. way you can input dimensions. designing using exact dimensions isn’t exactly what makes SketchUp so unique. If you add a foot symbol. we will enter an exact coordinate. 2. Open the Model Info window to the Units page. These are entered in square brackets. But it is certainly conceivable that part of your work will require working with known numbers. conceptualization. as we will see later.

type 22. 6. type 10. Add two more lines in the red and green directions to complete the footprint. Type <7.5. Start a line in the red axis and make it 40’ long. For a 3: 5 slope. 0> and press Enter. Now type the desired length .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 3. Angle brackets are used to specify relative distances .25. 8.0> and press Enter. The next line will be diagonal. 230 . When the perpendicular inference appears. The 40’ line is created. Too short. or type 40 and press Enter. Start with the slope.distances from the line’s start point. 20. The next line is to be perpendicular to this last line. As long as another line has not yet been started (so don’t move the mouse). You can use snapping (the values in the VCB update every 2 feet). 5. but it establishes the correct direction. keeping the 3:5 slope. Assume we know the desired slope and total length. 4. you can still change the line you just drew. The line is extended to the correct length. you can simply type <3. This line is too short.5. 7.

You can change both lengths or just one length. 231 . Just as you can change line lengths after they are created. but the length remains 25’. Type . will be located a set distance from the first diagonal line you drew. If you draw a rectangle now. 14. a rectangle. 11. Note that the lengths change relative to the first point you selected for the rectangle . Use Measure to create an offset construction line 11’-3” from the diagonal line. The first (red) length should be 25’ . but we want a diagonal rectangle. The green length updates as you move the mouse.{Point C). So use the Axes tool to set new axes. To leave one length as is.red and green lengths.Using Exact Dimensions 9. Click to create the rectangle. green” format.the length of line A-B. The width changes. and for the first corner click the point on the construction line in the green direction from Point A. The next form. leave it blank in the “red. Look in the VCB. its width can be set later.5. Assuming the 25’ length is to be fixed. 13. Now activate Rectangle. Press Enter.. type 12.19. we can still adjust the other length. 12.67 (note the comma at the beginning) to change the width only. 10. To change the other dimension. Two lengths are displayed . it will be aligned in the red and green directions. Set the other corner in the green direction from Point B. you can do the same for rectangles. 15.

the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 16. To mirror line A-B. 19. Copy the rectangle and use Scale to mirror it. on the other side of the larger form. Press Esc to release the protractor. 20. Now we’ll create a mirror image of the rectangle.0 degrees) appears in the VCB. 18. The angle (31. Right-click on any axis and select Reset. You can now create lines D-E and E-F. to the point along the construction line in the red direction from Point C. Trim the lines. first use Protractor to measure its angle from vertical. Create a construction line the same offset distance. 17. 21. We need to switch back to the default axes. Assuming you don’t remember how far the rectangle is from line A-B. 232 . 23. Use it again to create a 31-degree construction line from the opposite corner. 22. from line D-E. erase the constructions (You can use Edit / Construction Geometry / Erase) and redraw as necessary to complete the symmetric form. use Measure to measure it. Then drag it by Point G. Let’s modify the first form to be symmetric.

5 + 19. 3. Now select the other edges 3 of the rectangle. If the Entity Info window isn’t open. The beauty of this small window is that you can keep it open all the time without interfering with your work.the footprint of the 3 buildings. and their total length is listed (12. 1. In Windows. Select all 3 faces created so far. But length and area are only listed for entities of the same type. 5. Entity Info will indicate how many entities are selected. If you select a combination of edges and faces. select the edge shown. Entity Info will not give the length of more than one selected edge.5 + 12. display it (Windows / Entity Info). This gives you the area of the selected face. To get the perimeter of the main building. If you change the units (in Model Info).34). Entity Info now informs you that 4 edges are selected. you need to reselect the edge to see the change. you could select all 6 edges separately. Entity Info will tell you how many total entities are selected. you get the total area . 233 . This is the perimeter of the 6-edge building. The length is listed in the units and precision you set at the beginning of the exercise. In Windows. The window tells you that an edge is selected. In Select mode. Now select only the face (no edges).67 + 19.5’. This works for curved edges as well. you can keep it closed if you want to maximize your work space. But for an easier way. Mac: At this time. double-click the face to select it and all its bounding edges. Of course. but won't give you a total area for more than one face. 2. Then Shift-select the face to deselect it. 4.67 = 64. 6. and its length is 12.Using Exact Dimensions Entity Info This window enables you to obtain lengths and areas of one or more objects. Mac: At this time.

copy. We will now create cutouts that will used as windows and doors of the center building.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Exact Moving and Copying You already know how to move. you can specify the dimensions. but it’s not too late to change it. 7. 3. This can be useful.2400mm. 5. You can also use units other than the default units. Double-click the other two forms to pull them up to the same height. 1. Enter 750mm. The VCB tells you the height of the form. Before.it would be the default input unit. the first dimension number is applied to the longer side! So start with a rectangle whose horizontal sides are longer than the vertical sides. 4. clicking the second corner. 2. Since these are different units than the default (decimal feet). if you use certain components that are in metric dimensions. Use Arc to create the archway above the door. you would not have to type mm . NOTE: If you changed the units to decimal mm. Enter 1500mm for the arc bulge. or immediately after. and move the cursor upward to define the direction of the arc. the first dimension (1700) is applied to this side. Click the two endpoints of the top edge of the rectangle. Press Enter to create the rectangle. 1700mm. Too large. 6. you need to include the “mm” symbols. Start creating a rectangle on the front face. but you design buildings in English units. Enter 24. NOTE: You would have gotten the same result if you started out with a vertical rectangle. Activate Push/Pull and pull one of the forms upward. but this section extends that knowledge to using exact move / copy distances and rotation angles. 234 . Because the horizontal legs were initially longer. and rotate. So the rectangle switches from horizontal to vertical. and entered 2400mm. Type 1700mm. The way you draw the initial rectangle is important when applying dimensions. for example.

make the door a group. 235 .5. 12. This cutout shape will be used for the windows and another door. 13. Entity Info tells you how many edges. so do this in the Units page of the Model Info. Make a copy of the door and activate Scale. placing it at the midpoint of the bottom of the face. so type 0. 10.Using Exact Dimensions 8. A bit small for the window we want. and erase the face to create a cutout. Mac: Entity Info will tell you that a group has been selected. etc. To make moving and copying easier. 14. but provides no details. This is a more reasonable size.67. faces. 9. Start to move the window again by its lower midpoint 11. Shrink the window so that the scale factor snaps to 0. You can also type this value manually. At this point it’s useful to go back to Architectural units. Move the door by the midpoint of its lower edge. Move the window so that its lower midpoint sits at the endpoint of the lower left corner of the face. are contained in the group. Erase the dividing line.

so don’t forget to include a zero placeholder for the green direction. Now type 5x. because the units are now set to architectural. Enter <4’. This won’t work at the current spacing. TIP: Even though you’re working in architectural units.14’2>. Therefore. Also. A better way to copy windows on this face would be to create a copy at the farthest spacing. so type 6x. 236 . the spacing between the first and last window is 32’. evenly spaced at 6’. and we want 4’ from each side to the window centers. Don’t forget the foot symbols. We can squeeze in one more window on this face. 19.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 15. This face is 40’ long.33’.0. 20. Copy this window anywhere in the lateral direction. we will use the angle bracket format. 17. you can still type in decimal values . Type 6’ to set the window spacing. 16. This creates a total of five copies. 5. then divide the space in between. the movement is in the red-blue plane. 18. To place it exactly relative to the face corner.in this case. Enter this value. so try 5’-4”.

26. Push/Pull this face upward 13’. 22. 25. Use Offset on the three front edges of the roof. but you cannot update it while Ctrl/Option is pressed. Type 14’ to set the offset distance. The scale factor appears in the VCB.Using Exact Dimensions 21. This would happen if there were slight innaccuracies when creating the footprint. So click anywhere to scale the door. Copy the arched door to the top floor. and and use Ctrl/Option so that the scaling will be relative to the center of the door. and the factor will be adjusted afterward. If the offset edges are thick. 23. Activate Scale. 237 . zoom in closely to see if there are slight overhangs. you can continue to update the offset distance. Type 6/ (note the division symbol) to divide this 32’ length into six spaces between windows (7 total windows). The windows are a bit crowded. change the number of windows by entering 5/. by dragging its lower midpoint to the midpoint of Edge A-B. and fix them. such as rounding digits of angles. We will now create the top floor. Let’s make this door a bit wider. 24. NOTE: Like with the other tools where exact values are used.

and measuring the width. 29. zoom in closely to the ends of the arc and fix them. but you cannot do this while the arc is a “pure” arc. 30. or 1. To resolve this arc. 33. Draw a horizontal half-circle arc whose diameter is Edge A-B.25 to increase the original width by 25%. indicating that it is not aligned in the plane of the lower roof.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 27. The inner arc has thick lines. We will now add some railing posts. Zoom in on the first segment of the parapet wall. If you do this step. and select Explode Curve. Type 1. If you want. You can type 18. you can verify the new width by switching to decimal mm units. 238 . This breaks the arc into separate segments whose midpoints can be found. 32. It should be 2125mm. Offset the arc inward 9” (for inches you do not need to include the “ symbol). create a construction line parallel to Edge A-B. To place the post exactly in the center of the wall. Right-click on the outer arc. that passes through the midpoint of Edge A-C.25 times 1700 mm. Push/Pull this parapet to a height of 1’-6”. Now for the roof deck.5’. or 1’6. We want to locate the midpoint of Edge A-B. 31. 28. which is 1. be sure to switch back to architectural units. 34.

Type (or snap to) 15 degrees. The edge count includes edges along the cylinder that are currently hidden.Using Exact Dimensions 35. Use Push/Pull to make a 2’ post from this circle. so type 11x. As always. Either before or after clicking the second point to create the circle. 39. Mac: Entity Info tells you only that a group has been selected. Make the post a group. Use Rotate to make rotated copies of the post. Place a circle centered on the construction line. we use the same format as for linear copies. In Windows. Not enough to go all the way around. 239 . To make an array. This is a good size. 40. Entity Info tells you how many faces and edges are in this group. Type 8x for eight copies (nine posts). A 6” diameter post is a bit large. so type 2 (for a 4” diameter post). type 3 to define the radius as 3”. 36. 38. 37. you can still change this value. in the red direction from the midpoint of Edge A-B.

0. Note the circles on this face. Because the number of copies was not changed. Change the spacing to 25/. they are all still there. Copy the top face of the parapet wall to the top of the posts. Replace the hidden face and undo the copies. Type 165 to place the last copy. 42. As with linear copies. This looks much safer. Rotate-copy the same post once more. 240 . One foot is a pretty safe clear distance. these circles would be separate faces within the rail face. TIP: You could also enter a relative move value of <0. 44. you can all the copies. 43. But since they are groups. Now type 8/ to create eight spaces (nine posts). but we can check to make sure. Use Measure to measure the clear distance between posts. 47. It’s easiest to use Shift-locking for this. and remove every other post. If the posts had not been grouped. the posts do not affect this rail face. but the posts are wide enough to for someone to fall through.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 41. If you hide the front face. Enter 30 to double the spacing. You can still change the rotation angle as well. 46. This looks nice. the face is a single face.2’>. you can set the angle between the first and last copy and set number of spaces in between. Now for the top rail. indicating where the posts meet the face. 45.

we will join the main building with the two side buildings. Don’t worry about exact placement you already know how. To soften these vertical segment edges. press Ctrl/Option and click or pass over the edges. Start by copying the doorway on the top floor onto the side of the box that faces the main building. 51. activate Erase.) 50. Here is what your roof deck should look like. 52.Using Exact Dimensions 48. until it hits the parallel face of the main building. 49. Continuing on. Push/Pull the face up 6” to create the top rail. 241 . straight along the red axis. align the axes to the outbuilding first. The outer face of the top rail is segmented because we exploded the original outer arc. You can now copy the doorway from the cube. To copy this doorway onto the main building. (The inner face is smooth.

54. Start by making a copy of the bridge plus the doorways and walls on either side. You can now create a bridge linking these two doorways. 242 . Mirror it and move it into place.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 53. 6” top rail. The one shown below has the same overall dimensions as the rail on the roof deck: 1’-6” parapet. The posts are copied from the main building. all edits you make to one building are automatically reflected in the other. You can create something simpler. To place the same bridge on the other side. but this looks pretty nice and ties the structures together. With this method you wouldn’t have to copy objects from one out-building to the other. we will use the same method as we used for copying the rectangles. NOTE: Another way to create mirrored objects is to use components together with the Scale tool. and are spaced about 1’ apart. 2’-0” posts.

the text is created in the current units. however. NOTE: Text works well for labeling dimensions. Right-click on the face and select Area / Selection. Now use the Text tool to label these measurements. and use the Text tool to label these measurements.67 = 472. If you change the units. A better way to show measurements is to use Dimensions. all subsequent labels will reflect the change. 243 . open Entity Info for the edge shown. The area is displayed .24. On one of the out-buildings. 3. Do the same calculation on the edge shown.00 * 19. Now for area measurements. 1. 6. similar to edges. Another way to get the area of a face is through its Entity Info. 4. you only have to select the new edge to see its length. 2. As you’ve already seen. 5. As with all measurements.Using Exact Dimensions Measuring Length and Area You can check lengths of edges and areas of faces. but labels are not associative (they will not update if there are geometric or unit changes). when Entity Info is open. Existing labels will not update.

can also calculate the length of multiple edges). in Windows. click Add) called something like “Outbuilding Facade. as described below. The Area / Selection method only works for a single face. NOTE: You can also right-click on the material thumbnail in the In Model tab of the Material Browser. you can use Entity Info (which. 9. Use Text to label the area. Another way to get a multiple-face area calculation is to place all faces on the same layer. Right-click any of these faces and select Area / Material. 8. Create a new layer (Window / Layers. and select Area.” 244 .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 7. 10. Open the Materials browser and assign any material to the 4 front faces shown below. If you want the area of multiple faces. The combined area of all 4 faces is calculated. Or you can assign materials or manipulate layers.

Select Area / Layer to see the combined area of the faces. the box will be scaled relative to the current red and green axes. Remember. Place the two front out-building faces on the new layer. Scaling in 3D This last. You can replace the modified materials and layers. Display the layer again. the area of one face was 472. Select the corner midpoint handle shown. 1. Because this handle allows non-uniform scaling by default (though you can change this by pressing Shift). 245 . 3. Align the axes once again to the box (right out-building) form. and 944 is twice that value. You can do this with the Entity Info window.red and green. and right-click on either of the faces.Using Exact Dimensions 11. 12. short section demonstrates using exact scale values when scaling in 3D. or leave them as they are. Select the two faces shown and activate Scale. Otherwise. 2. you can change the scale factor in two dimensions .

5. Now click the corner handle shown. Don’t forget to separate the values by a comma. and you can change the scale in all three directions. 5. But press Shift. blue. By default this handle scales uniformly. and multiple the green dimension by three. then enter values to modify the scaling.3 to reduce the red dimension to one-half. and note the two comma-separated values in the VCB. Move the cursor to see how this handle can be moved. green.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 4. 6. and to list them in order of red. You cannot enter values while Shift is pressed. Enter 0. but you can click anywhere to scale. 246 . Note that adjacent faces are automatically folded when required by the scaled faces.

4. not a curved one. Use arcs to create the shape of the dome.) 5. as you’ll see. Create the base as a half-cylinder.a straight-line extrusion. and we’ll try this using another method. Group the base to keep it from sticking to other objects. This method shows you how to extrude a face along a 180-degree arc. Create a vertical construction line starting from the center of the cylinder. The resulting dome has a small notch in the center not the dome we want. This first extrusion segment is the reason for the notched result. Try using Follow Me (you need to first explode the base to use its arc edge. 1. 247 .11 In-Depth Projects Domed Apse Here is a neat way to create a domed apse. Undo back to the point at which the base is still grouped. 3. Zoom in closely and manually extrude the face along the arc. Why does this happen? Undo and activate Follow Me. then select the arc face. 2. Extruding a face along a curved that is less than a complete circle is slightly problematic. The face is Push/Pull’ed along the first arc segment .

8. This is how the apse appears with softened edges. Try it Yourself Double the rotation angle to get this: The dome slice is now aligned with the base. 9. Select the inner arc face. Modify the dome section to get this: 248 . Rotate-copy the dome wedge enough times to cover the base. and use Move with Autofold to move the inner vertex of the dome slice to the inner vertex of the base. Display hidden edges by pressing F4. 7. rotate it as shown.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 6. With the inner face still selected. Push/Pull the arc form to the first inner edge of the base.

3. if you smooth each edge individually by right-clicking and selecting Soften. 249 . 1. Each copied segment has side walls. Use the Erase tool with Ctrl/Option pressed. 4. it still has a faceted look. the wall cannot be smoothed. NOTE: For the smooth version (without interior faces). Replace the front faces by creating lines. As long as interior walls are joined to the exterior wall. Smoothing Faces of Rotate-Copied Curved Objects For the exercise you just did. you need to consider the interior walls of copied objects and how they affect edge smoothing. right-click and select Soften/Smooth Edges. This explains why. Start with the results of the previous exercise. You can now soften the edges without the facets. Rotate-copy these two faces over the 180-degree arc.In-Depth Projects Or this: 2. To change this. the side faces of the rotated object should be removed. or select all edges. you will still get a faceted (not smooth) look. when you smooth the edges. Look at the results in X-Ray mode (F9).

250 .inserting a component onto a face that does not conform to the red-green-blue planes. Face A is now rotated. It’s actually not as complex as it seems when you sit down and try it. activate Rotate. The first two rotations will reference the construction line where the cube now sits. The cube must be rotated three times to have the correct orientation. reference line along Edge F-G. rotated to Construction Line D. you might find it applicable for components . but if you look at the underside of the cube you can see that Face E is not aligned to Construction Line D. Start with a cylinder and a small cube. 2.aligned with Face E. With the cube still selected. and orient it toward Point C. Align the protractor with Face A. anchor it to Point B. Rotate the top of the cylinder. While this example is simplistic. 4. The cube will be rotated to sit on this face.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Aligning Any Two Faces This may not be a situation you run across very often. 3. but it’s still useful to understand how this works. Rotate the cube as before . placed on Point F. Create any two construction lines on this face. 1. Select the cube and move it by dragging one of its corners to meet one of the construction lines. Rotate it by clicking anywhere on Construction Line D.

and rotated to the other construction line (M). 251 . 2. using some simple tools and a bit of creativity. It’s easiest to pick one of the points where M meets the rotated face. Draw three arcs to create a vertical face representing the section of the mouse at the top. 3. but the method can be applied to anything. draw a few tangent arcs plus a line across the top. place the protractor on Point K. to approximate the bottom face of the mouse. Erase the face enclosed by the curves. The cube now has the correct orientation. Now draw an arc to represent how the mouse changes shape from top to bottom. Align with Face J.In-Depth Projects Now the edge between Faces A and E is aligned to Construction Line D. 1. but if you need to use a certain component you may need to know how to align it. Curvy Things SketchUp can be used to model almost anything. This exercise will create a mouse. An example of a case in which you’d have to use this method would be inserting a window into a rotated face perhaps a skylight. In the red-green plane. Obviously in such a case you’d probably rather draw the window directly into the face. 5. Move the cube to sit atop the cylinder. set the reference line along Edge K-L. The last unaligned face can now be rotated.

You want to scale this face so that it meets each of the three profile curves. First. Move the left side handle so that the bottom corner meets the left profile curve. 7. Select all profile curves (do not select the face) and group them. TIP: Non-uniform scaling is required here.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 4. You can drag using a corner handle to scale two sides at once. so that the bottom face will stay flat. And do the same on the right side. You now have a section face and three profile curves. Or you can just use an offset distance that feels right. but be sure to keep Shift pressed. 8. 6. Select the front face of this “slice” and activate Scale. 252 . You can use the endpoint of the first segment of one of the profile curves as the limit. drag the top center handle up so that the face meets the top profile curve. 5. Push/Pull the section face out.

perform the same series of steps: The basic shape is complete. Over the next three iterations. but leave the left arc as is .In-Depth Projects 9. and drag the outer side handle slightly inward. We’ll do this over three segment iterations. or to the next segment endpoint. Scale the front face as before. For the last segment. You can fill in the last few lines by hand. 12. 10. 11. Usually a right-handed mouse has an indentation on the left side for your thumb. The profile curves are no longer needed. The way to handle this is to scale the left arc gradually so that it turns from convex to concave. Activate Scale on this arc. either by the same distance you used before (simple double-click the face). Push/Pull this scaled face. you may want to use divide the area into 2 or 3 iterations. or you can Push/Pull to the end of the profile and scale the face almost to nothing. but we can dress up the mouse a bit. do the Push/Pull and Scale step.it is scaled enough. For the remainder of the mouse. so that the top and lower two corners meet the profile curves. 253 .

bring in a Sphere component from the Shapes category. This method is so flexible . To add another “twist. Here’s another example with a section face and three profile curves: 14.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook 13. and unsoften some edges to block off the button areas. 15.” you can even rotate the scaled faces. Use Scale to adjust the overall size. Use Move to place the wheel where it belongs. Use hidden edges as a guide and edges. For the mouse wheel.it can be used to make anything. and to push in the sides. 254 . Use your Materials browser or palette to color the mouse and its three buttons.

25 channels: The columns are TS8x6x1/5: Create each of the following shapes in their own file (red-green plane) and save each to a component folder. You can then insert components. The beams are W8x15: And the connectors are angles L1.5x1. These are used at various lengths and copied to get a frame like this: Between the beams run C4x7. and edit them to give them length. rotate and move as needed.In-Depth Projects Steel Frame This project requires just four steel sections components. Get the overall dimensions correct. but the exact steel thickness is not important.5x1/4: 255 .

the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook The beam-column connection is made with two angles. and connect each channel with two angles. Multiple channels run between beams. 256 . Edit the channel webs to extend back to the beam web.

and connect the channels to the new beam. Add another beam and column.In-Depth Projects Use Copy and Flip (or Scale) to make both ends of the channel the same. 257 .

Make cutouts for an arched doorway and windows. Create the notch at the end by rotating and moving into place. 258 . and add more columns. then assemble them into a house.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Then copy the whole frame to the other side. and overlap them and trim. Log Cabin Use components to make notched logs. Start with a basic cylindrical component.

259 . Stack logs and create the corner. Flatten the top and bottom logs. Make cutout shapes for the door and window.In-Depth Projects The notches should be cut so that they extends 1/4 depth into the log.

section along it. using components. 260 . Make the step a component. Use trimmed lines and concentric circles to define the shape of one step. and drive a cross. Rotate-copy. Edit the step component. and separate the steps vertically by the same height.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Spiral Staircase Create a spiral staircase with a railing. Create a railing path.

Displays the model as a collection of simple lines. Sections: Opens the Section Planes page of the Model Info. Colors: Opens the Colors page of the Model Info. See "Model Info > Display" on page 266. See "Model Info > Colors" on page 264. There are also hotkeys for these functions. • The toolbars contain icons for adjusting shading. (Equivalent hotkey: F5) Hidden Line (hotkey: F6): Looks like wireframe display. • The Display Settings window is one that you may want displayed all the time. There are no faces displayed. See "Model Info > Section Planes" on page 267. you could select or Push/Pull a face.12 Program Settings This chapter covers certain aspects and settings of the user interface you may want to manipulate. (Equivalent hotkey: F6) Clicking the arrow at the top of this window opens the following submenu: Faces are displayed. which you cannot do in wireframe. In other words. You can toggle the display of this window by selecting Window / Display Settings. • The Model Info window has a Display page that contains many of the same items as the Display Settings window. and transparency display. Hide Details: Removes the lower half of the window. though they are not colored. 261 . textures. but lines behind faces are hidden. or you can set up a hotkey (see "Preferences > Shortcuts" on page 272). Wireframe (hotkey: F5): Display Settings There are several places in the user interface that control aspects of how the model is displayed.

262 . The front and back of a face can have different colors. Displays any material that has been applied to faces. All faces become transparent. but with color applied to the faces. Edge Style: Display shaded using textures (hotkey: F8): • Profiles: Draws lines that are in profile (outside edges) with a thicker line weight.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Shaded (hotkey: F7): Display in X-Ray Mode (hotkey: F9): Same as hidden line. Enter the extension distance in the box to the right. If any materials were applied to faces. Enter the profile thickness in the box to the right. This is a good way to see the interior of a model. which are set in the Colors page of the Model Info. similar to a hand-sketched drawing. • Extension: Extends each edge slightly past its endpoints. the material will be represented by a single color.

Applying only to faces will not affect edges. In this example. • Enable Transparency: Enables you to see through materials defined as transparent. the display order of transparent materials is accurate. • Quality: Choose Faster for a render that is quick. 263 . Faces: • Use sun for shading: Uses the current shadow settings to shade the faces.Program Settings • Jitter: Applies a hand-sketched look to edges. but with less sorting accuracy. If this option is not checked. transparent materials will be displayed as opaque. Edge Color: • All Same: All edges have the color assigned on the Color page of the Model Info window. For this to work. which is above Face 3. Edges that are not parallel to any axis take on the assigned edge color on the Color page of the Model Info window. • By Material: Edges are colored according to the applied material. or blue). thereby requiring heavier calculations and possibly a slower render. The faces look the same as when shadows are enabled. green. but shadows are not actually created. • By Axis: Edges have the color of the axes to which they are parallel (red. Face 1 is above Face 2. • None: Edges are not shown. material has to be applied to both faces and edges. This is only relevant in shaded views. the material for Face 3 appears to “jump” in front of Face 2. In this case. However. Use Nicer if you want to maintain sorting accuracy.

Mac: Check Background for a solid color. This is also referred to as axonometric projection. Use a color that will contrast well with the Face Front and Face Back colors. hotkey: Alt + P). 264 . edge. or group when selected. it paints the selected side. Model Info To set properties of your model. which is the default. you might want to set up a hotkey for it . Model Info > Colors The opposite is Paraline mode. The reverse side will remain the same color. or on the Display Settings window. the model appears to shrink in the distance. (If you want to set up global properties for SketchUp itself. or Gradient if you want a graded effect from one color to another. representing how the human eye actually views 3D objects. Once a material is assigned. in which parallel lines remain parallel on the screen. unless a material is assigned to that face as well. • Construction lines: The color of construction geometry. Choose Solid if you want a single color. and reflects what is usually presented in construction drawings. but you can always switch front and back by right-clicking and selecting Reverse Faces.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Perspective Mode In Perspective mode (Camera / Perspective. The way a face is oriented generally depends on how it was created. • Highlight: The color of a face. or by using the hotkey Alt+P. You can switch between these modes by toggling Camera / Perspective. Geometry: • Edges: The color set here will be the color of edges when All Same is set under Edge Display. These colors apply to faces that have the default (none) material.see "Preferences > Shortcuts" on page 272. (Edge Display be found on the Display page of Model Info. select Window / Model Info or click the Model Info icon. Background: The background color of the SketchUp window.) • Face Front. created by the Measure and Protractor tools. Face Back: Faces have different colors on the front and back. see "Preferences" on page 270) TIP: If you access this window often.

these options control the display of similar components and all other objects. font style. You NOTE: All dimensioning options are detailed in the exercise "Dimensions" on page 66. Model Info > Components Model Info > Dimensions Fade similar components. and to set their colors. can check Hide to blank them completely. Fade rest of model: When editing a component (or group). allowing you to see geometry below the ground plane. 265 . If you are using software-based OpenGL rendering. or a “DIA” in front of circle dimensions. Use the Fade slider if you still want to see these elements displayed faintly. leaving only the edited component on the screen. Use the Ground Transparency slider to make the gradient ground effect transparent to various degrees. Ground: Enables you to use sky and ground backgrounds. Text: Click Choose Font to set the font. Show Radius/Diam.Program Settings • Sky. • Show ground from below: Makes the ground visible when looking up from below the ground (worm’s eye view). and font size of dimension text. don’t use this option. Sky is visible above the horizon. Ground is visible below the horizon. Prefix: Displays an “R” in front of arc dimensions. For text color. click the color box to set the font color.

this is where you can set its component properties. • Hide when too small: Hides dimensions that become hard to read when you zoom out.see "Display Settings" on page 261. select whether the dimension text appears Centered. file size. Click the color box to select the highlight color. • Hide when foreshortened: Hides dimensions that are oblique to the viewing plane. Alignment: If the file is saved to be used later as a component. and description.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Leader Lines: Choose from 5 types of arrows. the version of SketchUp in which it was created. The slider sets the tolerance angle at which dimensions are hidden. Dimension • Horizontal to Screen: Dimension text is always horizontal. Troubleshooting General: Information about the file itself: where it is saved. With this settings. 266 . Almost all of these options are also available on the Display Settings window . Model Info > File For aligned dimensions. or dimension text that has been edited. or Outside the dimension line. The slider controls the size of dimensions that will be hidden. regardless of the face’s actual material or color. Above. Model Info > Display • Align to Dimension Line: Dimension text is aligned to the plane of the dimension itself. Face Display: The only option here not available elsewhere is Monochrome. • Highlight non-associated dimensions: Highlights dimension whose geometry has changed. faces are assigned the Face Front or Face Back color.

A high width helps you better see the section plane. longitude. trees. • Always face camera: Keeps a component facing you no matter the orientation of the camera. To show the north angle on the screen. that material color is used instead. • Inactive Section Plane: The color for inactive section planes. click Show in Model. Model Info > Section Planes Model Info > Location Lines: Enter the width of cut lines. For other options relevant to shadows. A vast number of locations around the globe is provided. If you assign a material to a section plane. To set it this way. Colors: • Section Cut Line: The default color for section slices. Geographic Location: Select the country and city in which your model is located. • Active Section Plane: The color for active section planes. but you can add a custom location. This is handy for 2D components like people. Solar Orientation: Enter the north angle manually.Program Settings • Glue to: Sets the type of face to which the component will align. see "Model Info > Shadows" on page 268. first click the reference point and then any point in the north direction. signs. 267 . or click Select to set the north direction on the screen. etc. Click Custom location and enter the relevant information: latitude. and time zone. • Cut opening: Should be checked if the component is a window or door (or something similar) that cuts through walls.

This may have severely impact performance impact on slower computers. such as edges. In Windows. • a face has a pointer to the loops that bound it. image objects. a face that does not have edges bounding it will be deleted. If not all vertices lie on the same plane. The scan checks that: • faces are bounded by a loops of at least 3 edges. SketchUp tries to recompute the plane equation and then check to see if the vertices are on the re-computed plane. Adjust the Light slider for diffuse lighting. Check Validity can fix things. you can also use the the Shadows toolbar (View / Toolbars / Shadows). Purge unused: Removes any unused components. and attempt to fix any problems. or those using software rendering. Check Validity: Causes SketchUp to scan your model. If you check Show nested components. • a face does not have zero area • an edge does not have 2 ends at the same point. you should be using a 100% OpenGL compatible graphics card. • a face adheres to a plane equation. report any invalid geometry. layers. • all edges that are used by a face are in the same component that the face is in. or using hotkey: Alt + S. In other cases. You can obtain these numbers for the entire model or only components. If you wish to use SketchUp interactively with shadows enabled. • On Faces: Casts shadows on faces. and the Dark slider for ambient lighting. and a loop has a pointer back to the face that it bounds. faces. 268 . In some cases. Time: Sets the date and time for shadow creation. and other extraneous information from your file.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Model Info > Shadows Model Info > Statistics NOTE: These options also appear when you select Window / Shadow Settings. Light: Controls the tonal balance of the lighting in the SketchUp display. all objects within components will be included in the count. materials. Shadow: • Display Shadows: Toggles the display of shadows. there is nothing that can reasonably be done to fix the problem. The place you pick on the Location page of Model Info controls how the shadows are created. This is equivalent to clicking the Toggle Shadows icon. For example. • From Edges: Casts shadows from stand-alone edges (lines drawn in space that are not connected to any faces). (Results will depend on your OpenGL driver. On this page you can count the numbers of certain types of objects in your model. recomputing a plane equation for a face will correct the face. For example. or groups.) • On Ground: Casts shadows onto the ground plane.

Length Units: Controls how lengths are measured and displayed. and will disappear when any part of the leader is hidden. • Transition Time: The seconds for each transition. A Pushpin leader maintains 3D orientation. click this to apply new settings to those objects.Program Settings Model Info > Text Model Info > Tourguide NOTE: All text options are detailed in the exercise "Text" on page 62. Text: Click Choose Fonts to select the font. For text color. and affect the dimensions and text labels you create. • Format: Controls units and type of measurement that appears in the Value Control Box. Model Info > Units • Leader: A View-Based leader maintains its 2D orientation. These options are relevant for creating animations of saved pages. the pages will switch immediately. • Enable page Transitions: Smoothly and dynamically transitions between adjacent pages. click the color box. Leader Lines • End Point: Choose from 4 different types of end points. If not checked. The units you set are used in the Value Control Box. Select All Text: Selects all text objects. Update Selected Text: If you have text objects selected. Architectural: 3’-2 15/16”. font size. 269 . and is always visible as you orbit your model. • Page Delay: The amount of time each page will be visible (not including transition time). and font style for the text.

(For settings that apply to the current model only. Once exported. you don’t need more than 1/8” precision. Snap Length must be greater than Precision. controls the degree of accuracy. your preferences can then be imported later using Import. Click Style: Controls how you draw lines with the Line tool.dat file. a zero will be displayed for inches. You can use Imperial or Metric units. in a *. 12’). When creating dimensions. • Enable angle snapping: Enables you to snap to increments defined by the Snap Angle (the box to the right). 30. Angle Units: Controls the measurements of angles.25’.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Decimal: 106. When creating dimensions. see "Model Info" on page 264. When saving. You can open this window by selecting Window / Preferences (Mac: SketchUp / Preferences). • Click-drag-release: Draw lines by clicking on a point. 5. Engineering: 32.5320’ Only Imperial units (feet) are used. the unit will not be displayed after the dimension number. • Precision: Depending on the type of unit. click the arrow at the top of the window and select Export. (For architectural work. • Click-move-click: Draw lines by clicking on each endpoint. and File Locations. • Precision: You can specify zero or one decimal place. • Force display of 0’: Relevant for Architectural units.) • Enable length snapping: Enables you to snap to drawing increments set by the Snap Length (the box to the right). even when the value is an even foot value (12’-0” vs. You can choose whether to save Accelerators (keyboard shortcuts or hotkeys). This angle may be 1.SketchUp will figure it out by how you draw. This places your preferences. to save your preferences to a file that can be imported into SketchUp on another computer. 10. 3. click Options if you want to specify which preferences are saved. 270 . • Display units format: Relevant for Decimal units.) In Windows. and ending the line when the mouse button is released.5”. or 45 degrees. 15. 1042mm. • Auto detect: Both techniques will work . including keyboard shortcuts. You can use up to 1/64” and 6 decimal places. etc. dragging the cursor. Preferences > Drawing Preferences SketchUp Preferences are settings that apply to the application itself.

new windows will appear directly on top of previous windows. 271 . This can help orient you in 3D space. The backup is located in the same folder as the drawing.skb.nothing’s perfect!) crashes. Additional Mac options: This page displays the default paths in which certain types of SketchUp files are stored. Otherwise you are free to draw from any point. green. but will also add a lot of lines to the screen. Cascade main windows: New drawing windows will appear cascaded below the previous drawing windows. every 10 minutes). If disabled. and blue axes with the cursor when drawing. Auto-activate paint tool (Mac only): Causes SketchUp to automatically activate the Paint tool after you select a color swatch. you may be prompted to open the recovery file instead of the original file. To change a path. Use large tool buttons: Great when working with high screen resolution. This way you can draw single or multiple lines at will.Program Settings • Continue line drawing: Automatically starts a new line at the endpoint of the previous line. If your computer (or SketchUp . but not with Click-Drag-Release. If you use Auto Detect. Display Crosshairs: Displays the red. and has the extension *. Preferences > General Preferences > Files (Windows only) Create backup: A backup file will be created each time you save your drawing. Save current window size: Saves the size of the current window as the default size for SketchUp. this enlarges all the SketchUp icons. select it and click Modify. recovery may be disruptive. lines are continuous when using ClickMove-Click. or if you are working on a slow computer or a laptop. For large files.e. Auto save: Saves your drawing to a temporary file at a specified time interval (i.

this setting can speed up your drawing. resolution and color depth settings. For more information on Carmack's Reverse. there is no way of knowing in advance whether the mode you choose will work properly. Numbers cannot be used. Entity Info. Use Hardware Acceleration: Enables SketchUp to use the 3D hardware acceleration features of your system. you can control this in the Windows Control Panel / Display / Advanced / Performance. OpenGL driver. Fast Feedback will automatically engage only when rendering is slow. F2. Then simply type the shortcut (i.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Preferences > OpenGL Capabilities (Windows only): Certain OpenGL modes do not fully support shadows cast on faces. You may see a flicker when drawing large elements. This information can be very helpful when diagnosing technical problems. Depending on your card and driver.) and click Add. Also. 272 . Details: Displays important information about your video card.org/wiki/John_Carmack Preferences > Shortcuts You can set up keyboard shortcuts. If a shortcut has already been defined for a command. Shift+Ctrl+P. All the SketchUp commands are listed in the Commands menu. Use Carmack's Reverse for shadows: Carmack's Reverse is a algorithm for stencil shadow volumes that solves the problem of when the viewer's "eye" enters the shadow volume. Please be careful when changing this setting. Do not change this setting unless you are experiencing this problem. Survey: Guides you through a series of questions that allow @Last technical support to better identify certain problems. Some modes may exhibit rendering artifacts in low precision modes. since they could be confused with data entered in the Value Control Box. To add your own shortcut. This setting provides a work-around. if you are lucky enough to own a graphics card that truly supports OpenGL acceleration as advertised. otherwise known as accelerator keys or hotkeys. hardware acceleration may only be available at certain resolutions and color depths.e. to enable you to reach commands faster than with the mouse or menu. TIP: You can also set up shortcuts to toggle the display of windows such as Model Info. Correct Reversed Picking Driver Bug (Mac: Use face highlight workaround): Some drivers exhibit a strange bug that makes SketchUp select the reverse of faces with the Select tool. In Windows. etc. yet routinely advertise otherwise. visit http://en. it will appear in the Accelerators window. SketchUp defaults to using software rendering (acceleration disabled) While this option may impact speed and quality.wikipedia. and the current rendering mode that SketchUp is using. and Display Settings. all you have to do is enable the checkbox. it dramatically increases your chances of SketchUp working correctly. Use Fast Feedback: For large models or complex renders due to shadows and materials. select the command and place the cursor in the Add Accelerator field. Please be careful when changing this setting! The majority of drivers shipped today do not fully support the OpenGL specification. Ctrl+B. G.

The shortcut will appear in the field at the bottom of the pane. In the Template page of the Preferences. click Browse to find this template file. the Default button is used when there is more than one shortcut assigned to a command. (This is a function of the OSX graphic interface called Aqua. The templates that appear in the drop-down menu on this page are either those that are stored in your template folders (~/Library/Application Support/SketchUp/Templates). modify it to To remove icons. etc. To make a template. location. suit your needs (units. you can save your shortcuts by exporting all your preferences. Do not press Return. and save the file to a convenient directory. In Windows. or any other file that has ever been used as a template. To add icons. Select the command and simply type the letter(s) you want assigned to it. Mac: Commands are listed under Function. open a new SketchUp document. See the general explanation under "Preferences" on page 270.) 273 . Assigned shortcuts are listed under Key.Program Settings In Windows.). The default shortcut is the one that will appear in the menu. Mac users can customize what icons appear on toolbars by selecting View / Customize Toolbar. simply drag them off the bottom of the bar and they will disappear. drag them into the toolbar where you want them placed. Preferences > Templates You can set default settings and add your own base geometry to a file you want to use as a template. Now every time you create a new SketchUp document it will be created as a copy of your template file. simply click on another command to implement the shortcut. Select a toolbar to toggle its display on and off. Toolbars Windows users can customize the icons that appear by selecting View / Toolbars.

listed in the picture below.dxf. When exporting. visibility. You can move. be very careful not to insert immensely large files. Chapter 7 contains numerous examples on using inserted images as materials. The image file becomes embedded into your SketchUp document. • Export: Enables you save the embedded image to a format you can edit in another graphics package. File / Export / 2D Graphic You can export a SketchUp model into numerous graphic formats. To change these settings. click the Options button of the Export window. *.tga. Click on the Options button of the Export window for a list of adjustable parameters for each format.bmp. SketchUp uses the current units as a reference for translation. Image objects have their own local (right-click) menu: • Entity Info: Displays a window containing information such as source file. *. the Import and Export windows have an Option button. File / Export / Animation See "Exporting Animation" on page 275. • Reload: If you change the image’s source file. or scale this rectangle. dimensions. SketchUp will export the DWG file accordingly. or even convert the image to gray-scale. and import certain formats into SketchUp. *.jpg and *. by which you can control certain conversion settings.png. if the SketchUp unit setting is Decimal/Meters.3ds (3D Studio) and *. which is basically a rectangle with the image mapped on it. 274 .dwg.tif.png. You can also adjust resolution to control file size.wrl (VRML). *.jpg. File / Export / 3D Model A SketchUp model can be exported into the following formats: *. shadows. and to project it onto a non-flat surface. and/or construction geometry. Please refer to SketchUp’s online help for descriptions of these options. *. but it must remain a rectangle. which enables you to send your SketchUp files to others without any information loss. The file is imported as an image object. edges (wires). File / Insert / Image You may want to import an image file so that you trace over a scan or photograph. and the link still appears in the Entity Info. File / Insert / Component You can insert a separate SketchUp file into the current drawing to be used as a component. File / Export / Section Slice See "Exporting Section Slices" on page 209. you can use Reload to update the image in SketchUp. In most cases. and AutoCAD must be set to Decimal in order for the units to translate correctly as meters. Another way to limit file size is to use compressed file formats such as *. The exported file may be set to contain faces. Receive enables the image to receive shadows cast by other objects. and layer. • Shadows: Cast will cause the image to cast shadows on other objects. By default. and *. rotate. You can insert images of the following formats: *. For instance. image objects retain the aspect ratio of their original file.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Export and Import (Insert) You can save (export) your model in multiple formats. You can press Shift while importing to change this. • Explode: Enables you to use the image as a texture. but it also means that file size can increase dramatically. Therefore.

Select the file type from the drop-down menu. please refer to SketchUp’s online help. entities with thickness. The image is also tiled to fit the face to which it was applied. you can export the slide show as an animation file. You can burn a DVD. This enables you to share your designs with those who do not have SketchUp. you may have to use Zoom Extents to see it. And. Therefore. and is automatically added to the In Model tab of the Material browser. TIP: Because importing a large file can be time-consuming. 275 . File / Insert / Image as Texture: Similar to Insert / Image. While a typical *. but at this time SketchUp does not support solids. primarily by manipulating frame size and frame rate. it helps to know how you can control video file size. To create an animation file. dimensions. the image cannot be removed from that face. polylines. a movie file may play back more smoothly than the SketchUp slide show. TIP: Before creating an animation file. faces. and because a large file can slow SketchUp’s performance. For descriptions of import options.dwg and *dxf extensions. text. the video from such a file could be prohibitively large. Exporting Animation If you create pages of your model and save them as a slide show. read about animation and exporting animation in the SketchUp online help. These will be ignored on import. File / Insert / DWG/DXF You can import AutoCAD files with *. 3D Faces. select File / Export / Animation. and places the thumbnail in the In Model tab of the Material browser. • Use as Material: Creates a material from the image.Program Settings • Unglue: If you attach an image to a face. but SketchUp must translate the contents into usable drawing elements. tapered width polylines. or text. you may want to crop the imported file so as to import only necessary entities.skp file is small and easy to transmit via the web. you can use video editing applications to enhance your animation by adding music. and proprietary ADT objects. so that you don’t even need a computer to view the animation. splines. The main disadvantage of animation export is the large resulting file size. importing may take some time for large CAD files. but the image is applied directly to a face. You can then use Pages to control visibility. unless you use Unglue. Entities such as lines. For large and complex models. Once a drawing is imported. hatching. You could also import different layers as different groups. and nested blocks are supported. Therefore. Imported drawings come in with their layer system intact and all elements are grouped together. circles. arcs. XREFS. regions. voice.

and between 24 and 30 is considered “full speed. Codec: Enables you to specify which codec (compression plug-in) to apply to your video. making an infinite loop. Width / Height: Frame size in pixels.97 fps for television in the US and other countries. For detailed information. as well as adjust quality settings. televisions. and pre-1950 movies. The result on a diagonal line is a stepped or jagged look. Loop to Starting Page: Generates an additional video segment that transitions from the last page back to the first. such as 29. refer to the Codec List and Video Compression pages in SketchUp’s online help. 25 fps for television in Europe. Locking this aspect ratio maintains a fixed proportion of video at any frame size. a vertical or horizontal line could have a harsh edge. it takes a heavy processor to run a smooth animation that has been anti-aliased. NOTE: Certain applications have exact frame rate requirements. between 12 and 15 is good for keeping file size down while providing smooth playback. including digital 276 . but requires more processing power.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook To specify output parameters. plasma displays. most computer screens. 24 fps for film. 640x480 is considered a “full screen” frame size. while anti-aliasing is highly desirable in a still image.” A setting of 3 fps is a great way to quickly create draft quality test videos. Values larger than 640x480 are not recommended unless specifically required. There are preset configurations designed for common cases. Without anti-aliasing. and usually requires robust compression. This creates a much more realistic image. Anti-alias: The technique by which software softens the transition between the edge of an object and the background. A 16:9 ratio is the standard for wide screen displays. Frame Rate: A setting between 8 and 10 frames per second is considered the minimum required for convincing movement. or you can select Custom to specify settings. So. Aspect Ratio: A 4:3 ratio is standard for television. etc. the edge is composed of a single color while the background is a different single color. click Options. and so forth. Format (Mac): Specify the codec (compression plug-in) and adjust quality settings. 320x240 is a good size for CD-ROM and for transfer to videotape. Play When Finished: SketchUp will start your default video player and play the file immediately after it is created. Anti-aliasing samples the edge color and the background color and interposes a range of transitional colors between them so that the edge 'blends' into the background in such a way as to minimize the jagged effect.

Each line you enter appears in the console with verification text below it.active_model model. You can also open the file index. This chapter will not cover how to program in the Ruby language . and will thrill the scripting gurus out there.add_line(from.messagebox("Hello. pressing Enter after each one.20.13 Ruby Scripting Ruby scripting is a new feature in Version 4.entities. Be aware that Ruby is also case-sensitive. This involves first defining 2 sets of numbers . from = [10. also called a variable. To create a SketchUp message window with some text in it. type this line at the bottom of the console (you can use whatever text you want between the quotation marks.” as long as you keep them consistent in the 4th line. but we’ll do it slightly differently here to show that you can use different variable names. Not all terms and characters can be used.one for each point. We’ll start with the first option .. Now for a slightly more useful script .one that draws a line between 2 specific points. and to create some very basic scripts and routines (methods).0] to = [30. SketchUp’s Ruby Help page includes this example. information on creating code is available elsewhere. and a window with your text appears on the screen. open the Ruby Console within SketchUp by selecting Window / Ruby Console. World") 277 . Press Enter. This chapter will explain how use the Ruby console. (Errors will appear here if you make a mistake.that would take another book. under the SketchUp installation.): UI. SketchUp Ruby Basics Within SketchUp. with some embellishment. At the end of the chapter is some information on obtaining scripts created by other SketchUp users. For instance.to) You can use names (variables) other than “from” and “to. “end” is actually a command in Ruby.) Entering Code on the Ruby Console First. It also shows how to implement the scripts that are provided with SketchUp. and how to make basic changes. You can type in lines of code here.0] model = Sketchup.entering code directly in the console. or use the console to run scripts saved within text files. Each set of numbers is listed under a unique a name. so you can’t use it as a variable.0. This section will include some of the information from the Help system. Type these 4 lines. Besides.html located in the Ruby\Docs folder. select Help / Ruby Help for some basic information.

) Now close and restart SketchUp. 0.active_model 278 . "From Y".rb” and save it in the Plugins folder. and then run it from within SketchUp. Change “to” and recreate the line by entering these 2 lines: Name this script file something like “line_from_to. toy. The variables can be changed by entering new values. and the last line tells SketchUp to end the method. This is a script . referred to in SketchUp as a method. fromy. The “line_from_to. from = [fromx. the Ruby console will open and show you an error message to let you know. tox. Creating a Script that Requires User Input Creating a Script Every time you want to create a line between 2 points.inch] 4. toz] 8. fromx. 0. If there are errors in the script.active_model model. def line_from_to 2. prompts = ["From X". fromz. toz = results 6. This creates the line as before. 10.rb” script will now include some extra lines.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook The last line of code is what actually creates the line from “from” to “to. 0. results = inputbox prompts. def line_from_to from = [0. open the Ruby console and type the name of the method: line_from_to. your script is OK.20. fromy. values = [0. to) end 10. This creates a routine.” It will be placed in the SketchUp\Plugins folder. 0] to = [30. from the defined “from” point to the defined “to” point. in which each line is numbered for reference. the line is created. values.add_line(from. Here is the new script.entities.inch. The first line assigns the name “line_from_to” to the method. What if you want to create a line between 2 points with different coordinates each time? We can change the script to include prompts. "From Z". This time we will save these lines to a text file. to = [tox.inch. fromz] 7. "To X". then take the input values to run the same line creation tool. 0.to) This creates a second line.a file external to SketchUp that can be called when needed.0] model.inch.entities. "To Y". If the console doesn’t open.” After you enter the last line of code. since scripts in this folder are loaded automatically when SketchUp is launched.add_line(from. To run the script. toy.inch. you will not want to bother typing in these 4 lines. to = [100. The script is a text file with the extension “rb. model = Sketchup. "Start and End Points" 5.0] model = Sketchup.inch. (You could also add these 6 lines to an existing script file in the Plugins folder. starting from the original “from” point to the new “to” point. (Do not include these numbers in your actual script!) 1. "To Z"] 3. Create a text file with the 6 lines below.20.

entities. "To Y". Line 4: Now close and restart SketchUp once again and run “line_from_to. end Here are the explanations of the new lines of code: Line 1: from = [fromx. like 10' 6" or 100cm . to) end Same as before . If the default values are lengths. You can also enter values in other units. which have default values. 9. Lines 8. It’s a good idea to include units.add_line(from. 0. Lines 6 and 7: to) 10.” You now get a prompt window asking for two sets of coordinates. "To X". tox. model. fromy. the script will parse the entered values in the correct units. default values.inch. toy. 279 . fromy. fromz] to = [tox. values.inch.add_line(from. Line 3: values = [0.active_model model. toz] Defines start point “from” and end point “to. "Start and End Points" Creates the prompt window that will ask the user to define the 6 values. "From Y".Ruby Scripting 9. 0. assigns a name to the method.inch. This is helpful when you want to add text to explain what the lines of code are for. TIP: If you want to add text in your script that will not be read as code. prompts = ["From X".inch] Defines initial.” based on the input variables. toy. 10. simply place a # symbol at the start of the line. 0.creates the line from the “from” point to the “to” point. Line 2: model = Sketchup. "To Z"] Defines the names of the 6 values the user will be prompted for. because the inputbox method tries to return the same kind of object that you give it. "From Z". then it will parse your entries as lengths. in order of input. fromz. 0. This means that if your units are set to metric. Line 5: fromx. toz = results Assigns variable names to the 6 input values.inch. results = inputbox prompts.entities.inch. and 10: def line_from_to Same as before.

Close and restart once again. and click OK to create your custom line. In the script file.add_item("Line between two points") { line_from_to } Adds an item to the Draw menu called Line between two points. . with no comment lines: file_loaded?("linefromto. Line 13: end . add these 3 lines at the end (after the last “end” line): 11.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Change the values as needed. if( not Here’s how the entire script file should look. that runs the line_from_to script. . with no effect to the code itself.rb") ) Checks to see that the file is already loaded so that it is only added to the menu once. Line 12: UI. and now the tool appears in the Draw menu: If this is a tool you will use often. Here is how you can add the tool to one of the SketchUp menus for easy access. .add_item("Line between two points") { line_from_to } 13 end Explanations: Line 11: Lines can be indented.menu("Draw").menu("Draw"). and line spaces added.rb") ) 12 UI. . if( not file_loaded?("linefromto. you probably don’t want to run it each time via the Ruby console. 280 .

Scroll to the “adds” and locate “add_circle. prompts = ["Radius". "Height"] 3. completing a face within the circle.inch.” Click Entities. optionally. 2. and Push/Pull’ing it up.feet] 4. This involves 3 steps: Creating a circle in the red-green plane. This method will be called “vertical_cylinder. Open Help / Ruby Help and click the link for SketchUp Ruby Method Index. we will draw the circle. create a UI box that asks for all the needed values. center = [0. values. Explanations of each line follow: Next. like in the “line_from_to” script. and.” Remember. Here is the complete script. Here is the syntax you need to provide in the code: First. do not include the line numbers below in your actual script. radius. The input box of this script doesn’t ask for the number of segments.Ruby Scripting Using the Help Files to Create Code As an example of another very simple script. 0] (Line 6 sets the center of the base at the origin. this time consult the Ruby Class Index. the number of circle segments. height = results 6. 0. we will create a vertical cylinder. 1. radius. 281 . We need to consult the Help file for the syntax of the “add_circle” command. values = [10. "Cylinder settings" 5. normal vector. so the default value of 24 will be used. def vertical_cylinder 2. The provided Help files can tell you what the syntax should be for each command. results = inputbox prompts. To get the syntax for a vector.) You need to provide a center point.

We will use the second one. There are 3 ways you can create a new vector.add_face baseedges Creates a face called “baseface” from the “baseedges” edges. radius) 282 .” vec = Geom::Vector3d. Lines 8 and 9: The “distance” value is what the user entered as “height. entities. Continue the code: 7. because we know the coordinates of the vector parallel to the X.”. Look up “add_face”.dot(vec) < 0 baseedges = entities.” 12. If you want it upward. end model = Sketchup.pushpull height 13.entities 10.add_circle(center. With the second option you can define an array of edges. called “baseface. 1) 8.entities These two lines initialize what’s included in “model” and “entities.active_model 9. The 24 edges created by this command are grouped under the name “baseedges. radius) Explanations: Line 7: Now look up “pushpull. 1) Creates a vector along to the Z axis .normal to the X-Y plane.active_model entities = model.new(0. entities = model. baseface. Line 10: If you run the “vertical_cylinder” script now.new(0. Creates the circle for the cylinder base based on the center point. vec. baseedges = 11. 0.normal.” The face is the one just created. vec = Geom::Vector3d. model = Sketchup. vec. normal vector.. which is what “basecircle” is.add_circle(center. add the following line before the pushpull line (before Line 12): height = -height if baseface. it will work but the cylinder will be created downward. and radius.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Click Vector 3D. Y plane.” Now we will create a face within the base circle edges. baseface = entities. 0.

type in the following: load ‘utilities. or leave the defaults: And get your vertical cylinder. All scripts in the Plugins folder are automatically loaded. and run the script in the Ruby console: In the Examples folder. and “true” appears in the window. Scripts in sub-folders (like Examples) are not automatically loaded. you need to type in some code to load them. There should be 3 scripts in this folder. Press Enter. This indicates the script is already loaded and can be run at any time.rb’ (exact syntax is important!). Some of these are placed in the Plugins folder of the SketchUp installation. plus a sub-folder named Examples. you should have these 6 scripts: Type in the values. Scripts can be loaded via the Ruby Console (Window / Ruby Console). To verify this. The syntax for this is: require ‘examples/box.Ruby Scripting Make sure the script file is in the Plugins folder. 283 .rb’ (substituting sub-folder or script names as needed). Provided Scripts SketchUp comes with several scripts already provided.

Now Box appears under Tools.rb automatically.” Now check the Tools menu . 284 . and save the file. There is no Create menu. open the box. Some scripts are coded to run directly from the SketchUp menu.rb script in the Examples folder. and find the following line. so that you don’t have to type in the script name each time in the Ruby console. As an example.the Box function is not there yet. Or you can use the “require” syntax again. simply move the script into Plugins. Scroll to the bottom.rb file in a text editor. and it is successfully loaded. If you want to load box. So change Create to Tools.the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Because there is a box. but it makes sense to place a box tool in the Tools menu. The update only takes effect after you close and restart SketchUp. you get another “true.

Ruby Scripting

Run this function - it enables you to create a box with specified lengths on all 3 sides.

animation.rb
This script creates two new functions, one for spinning the model and one to stop spinning it. The last section of the script is the code that assigns command names and places them in menus. By default, the Spin View and Stop Spinning commands are placed in the Camera menu.

Some users prefer to keep all scripts under Plugins, so that they do not need to be loaded each time.

You can manipulate this code if you want the rotation to stop after one 360-degree rotation. Locate this group of lines in the code:

You may also want to keep all scripts in the same SketchUp menu. You can use the name Plugins or Ruby or Macros. This way, you’ll know what’s included with SketchUp, and what’s extra.

Uncomment the line “frame < 360” by removing the # symbol. Erase or comment-out the next “true” line.

What’s Included
This section describes the scripts that are included with SketchUp. You can open a script in any word processing program. Any line that starts with the # symbol is not read as code - it provides explanatory information for the user. If you are looking for a way to learn how to use Ruby in SketchUp, it’s a good idea to look through these files. The scripts contain numerous comment lines to explain the code lines. You can test your understanding by changing some things around, and you can also use these files as a base for new script files. Save the file, restart SketchUp, and run Animation / Spin View again. Now the model only goes around once.

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attributes.rb
This script contains 3 commands that you can use to calculate area costs based on materials and selected faces. The commands are placed, by default, in the Plugins menu under Cost.

To assign a unit cost to specific faces, regardless of material, first select the face(s). Then run Assign Estimate to Faces. In this case, only the 6’ x 10’ face was selected.

As an example, the following model uses 2 materials and has one rectangular face with no assigned material.

To get the entire cost, run Compute Estimate.

Run Assign Estimate to Material to assign a unit cost to any material in the In Model tab of the Material browser.

Check the results: Top face: area = 200 cost = 200 x $1.20 = $240 Side faces: area = 2(200) + 2(400) - 60 = 1140 cost = 1140 x $2.70 = 3,078 area = 60 cost = 60 x $3.00 = $180

Inner face:

Total cost = $240 + $3,078 + $180 = $3,498 The bottom face has no material and was not assigned its own cost, and therefore is not included in the cost estimate. If you make changes to any of the faces, simply re-run Compute Estimate for the new cost.

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box.rb
As described above, this script creates a box with specific dimensions. By default, Box is located in the Tools menu.

examples.rb
This file contains explanations of what can be found in some of the other script files, as well as a few short examples of additional scripts: setLayer(layerName): First, select objects you want to move to another layer. Then use the syntax setLayer "layername". If the layer you type does not exist, it will be created. totalArea: Calculates the total area of all faces in the model. perimeter: Calculates the perimeter of all selected faces. Edges that are common to more than one face are only counted once.

If you investigate the lines of the code for this script, you will see that it basically creates a rectangle using two 2 of the dimensions, then uses Push/Pull to extrude the rectangle to the third dimension.

linetool.rb
This file contains a class called linetool. To implement it, you can type “linetool” in the Ruby console. With this class active, SketchUp works as if the Line tool is active, but you create construction lines instead of edges.

contextmenu.rb
This script enables you to add a construction point at the center of an arc or circle. First, it checks whether the right-clicked object is in fact a single arc. If it is, the item Point at Center is added to the context menu.

selection.rb
This file contains several scripts that enable you to manipulate selection sets. Type any of these script names into the Ruby console to run them. invert_selection: First select some entities, then run this script. The selection set is inverted - all unselected entities become selected, and vice-versa. hide_rest: Hides everything that is not selected. This is very handy if you want to display only a few selected objects in a large model. do_select: This script can be typed with expressions that enable you to select objects with certain characteristics. You can select by layer, by type, etc., and combine variables to get even more specific.

do_select {|e| e.layer.name == "Joe"}
Selects all objects on layer Joe.

do_select {|e| e.layer.name == "Joe" || e.layer.name == "Bob"}
Selects all objects either on layer Joe or Bob.

do_select {|e| (e.layer.name =~ /W.*/) == 0}
Select objects on layers that start with the letter W.

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do_select {|e| e.kinf_of?(Sketchup::Edge)}
Selects all edges.

utilities.rb
This file contains several scripts, 3 of which are placed by default in the Tools / Utilities menu.

do_select {|e| e.kind_of(Sketchup::Edge) && e.layer.name == "Joe"}
Selects all edges on layer Joe. select_by_layer: Brings up a window that lists all the layers used in the model. Select the layer, click OK, and all objects on that layer are selected.

select_by_material: Brings up a window that lists all the materials used in the model. Select the material, click OK, and all objects on that layer are selected.

create_face_from_selection: First select all edges that surround the face you want to create. Then run the script, or select Tools / Utilities / Create Face. As long as the edges form a closed loop and are all on the same plane, the face will be created. This is handy, for example, when you want to close the top of a cylinder without redrawing one of the many circle segments.

sketchup.rb
This file contains some general scripts that are often used by other scripts.

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TrackMouseTool: Shows coordinates of points and screen positions, as well as lengths of selected edges and areas of selected faces. You can access this tool via Tools / Utilities / Query Tool. To use the tool, simply hover over a point, such as an endpoint, midpoint, or center point, to get its coordinates.

Where to Find More Ruby Scripts
The first place to check for more scripts is the SketchUp User Forum (www.sketchup.com/forum). Click the link to the Ruby Forum, where users have posted their scripts for public use. You’ll find scripts to create windows, spiral stairs, helixes, fog - the possibilities (and scripts) are endless. You don’t have to be a programmer, or even proficient at SketchUp, to download and use these. One user-created repository for scripts can be found at http://su.plugins.ro/. A general repository for SketchUp models, components, and materials is www.objectivenetworks.net. As of this writing, there is no category yet for sharing scripts, but keep an eye on this site for future updates. It’s also possible that @Last will be providing a Ruby library in the future, on their own website (www.sketchup.com). In the future there will probably be many places you can find scripts, but at the moment Ruby is a relatively new feature and only a few talented users have delved into it.

How to Download a Script from the Internet
If you’ve found a script on a website that you want to save, right-click on the link and select Save Target As.

You can also hover on a face to get the coordinate of the cursor, as well as the area of the face. For a curved face, the area is calculated for individual segments, not the entire face.

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If you want the script to load automatically, save it to the Plugins folder. If you download from the SketchUp website, the saved file is always named “download.php.”

Now when you restart SketchUp, the scrip will be loaded. This example loaded “extend.rb,” a script that extends one or more lines to the nearest intersecting line. It works through the context menu: select the lines to extend, then right-click and select Extend to nearest.

In this case, simply change the filename, making sure it has the *.rb extension.

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16 Click style .273 Toolbars .28 Always face camera . . . . . . . . . . . .273 Cut Opening . .236 Rotating .8 Axis edge color .272 Carmack’s reverse .151 Cutting with Groups . . . . . . . . . . .271 Blank edges .205.264 Colors . . . .286 Auto Detect . . . . . . .265 Using Follow Me . . .96 Bounding Edges .263 C Camera Position . . . . .16 Dimensions . . . .148 Nested components . . . . . . . . .286 Associated dimensions .275 Autofold .271 AutoCAD file import . . .268 Circle .17 Check Validity . . .16 Changing .287 Continue line drawing . .22 Chamfer .250 All Connected . . . . . . . . . . .207 Active sections . . . . . .69 Finding center of Inferences Center .32. . . . . . .75 with Scale tool . . . .59 Angle of vision .Index Numerics 2D components .271 Curved objects . . . . . .143 Cutting faces . . . . . .213 Add folder . .220 Color Wheel . .271 Cast shadows . . . . .230 Diameter dimensions . .160 Colorize .136 Defined components . .251 Curved walls Windows . .274 Axes . .22 Tangent to edge . .148 Materials of . . . . .266 Attributes script . .190 2D Graphic export .144 Add Section Plane . . .55 Aligning . . .287 Assign estimate . . . . . .50 Correct Reversed Picking Driver Bug . . . . .151 Settings .37 Animation . . . .55 Moving .276 Color by Layer .272 Cost estimate .28 Breaking . . .161 Browser Components . . . .92 Compute estimate .178 Nested . . . . .205 Aligning dimensions . . . . . .276 Apse .136 Delta distance .216 Angled . . . .37 Angles Measuring . .271 Auto Save . . . . .4 Axonometric projection . . .264 Backup files . .132 A Acceleration . . .20. .285 Anti-alias . .272 Cascade . .271 Create face . . . . . . . . .272 Templates . .60 Copy .71 Align View .155 Customizing Shortcut keys . . . . . .203 Align Axes .287 Box selecting .8 Axis inference .70. . .250 Cutting faces . . . .272 Accelerators . . . .274 3DS Export . . .69 Diameter prefix . . .288 Create Group from Slice . . . .56 Align to Dimension Line .223 Capabilities . . .25 Breaking connections .265 291 .247 Arc . . . .6 Boolean functions . . . . .269 Area measurements .24 Coplanar . . .270 Codec . .264 Faces . .56 Displaying .270 Default components . . . . . . . .271 Current window size . . .190 Angle between normals .271 By axis . . . . .21 Arc dimensions . .42 B Background color .56 Resetting . .53 Axis colors . . . . .16 Center of arc . . .143 Aligning faces . . .28 Box script .209 Crosshairs . .274 3D Model export . .272 Accelerator keys . . . . . . . . .56 Using with dimensions . .171 D Decimal units .3. . . . . . .127 Brightness .67 Aligning faces . .127 Constraint See Inferences Construction lines .68 Architectural units . .268 Center of a circle . . . . . . . . . . .271 Convert to Polygon .263 Blue axis .275 Animation script . . . .220 Color by layer . . .227. .159 Buttons . . . . . . . .20 Finding center of . .243 Area of all faces . . . . .286 Create Backup .286 Connected Faces .41 Exact dimensions . . . . . .134 Components . . .134 Materials .72.264 Component Browser . . . . .37 Contextmenu script . .270 Auto Recovery . . .270 Active Cut . . .

266 Hiding edges . . . .224 Inferences Double . . . . . . .266 Display shadows . . .272 Faces Aligning . . .271 Display settings . . . .4 On Axis . . . .11 Locking . . . .266 Horizontal on Screen .274 Images for materials . . . .22 Handles for dragging . .1 H Half circle . . . .266 Display crosshairs . . . . .269 Enable Transparency .66. .270 Enable Page Transitions . .7 Hemisphere . . . .16 Freehand .28 Drag handles . . . . .8 Edge dimensions .268 Display units format .11 Gradient . . .24 Export .72 Include in slideshow .127 Dividing .89 Force Display of 0" . . . . . . .71 Hotkeys . .206 Intersect with Model . . . . . . . .130 Manipulating .135. .265 Transparency .25 From Point inference . . . . . . . . . .216 F Face camera . . . . . .5 Midpoint . . . .20. .6 Domed apse .72. .161 Hue .51 Draw notes and labels . . .266 Hide when too small .161 HSL .2 Extension (edges) . . . . .65 Hidden line . .136 Interior design . . . .132 Editing . .274 Sections . .66 Changing axes .270 Distance Measuring . . . . . . .96 Invert selection .7 Fade . . . . . .24 Line . . . .68. . . . . .272 Healing faces . . . .163 Inaccurate dimensions .276 Freehand . . . . . . . . . .274 Image export .247 Double inferences . . .274 Importing . .11 Tangent at vertex .273 Image Exporting from SketchUp . . .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Dimensions .75 Exact . . . .265 Fast Feedback . . . .57 Highlight non-associated dimensions .21 Tangent to Edge . .275 DXF Export .12 Eye height . .64 Editing groups .276 Explode Curve . . .175 Follow Me . .16 Erase . .94 Hidden leaders .275 Image . . . . . . .136 Materials . . . .209 G Golden section . . .271 Customizing . . . . . .250 Connected . . . . . . . . .23. . . . . . .4 Hardware Acceleration .275 Embedded image . . . . . .266 Floor plans .3. .73. .287 Irregular objects . . . . . . . . .266 Engineering units . .266 Format (units) .24 With Shift key . .270 Equidistant .274 Ground . . .272 HSB .275 Dynamic rotate .5 Square . . . . . . . . . .264 Face highlight workaround .67 Edit text .269 Frame rate .51 292 .130 Rotating . .270 Drawing tools Arc . .274 DXF Import .274 Exporting Animation . . . .274 In Model Components . . . . . . . . . . .21 Inserting components .272 Faster .5 Double-click . . . . .32 Dividing faces . . . .263 Field of view . . .62 Drawing preferences .127 Cutting with .209 Focal length .261 Hide rest . . . .130 Enable length snapping .251 E Edge color by direction .274 Importing DWG/DXF . .287 Hide when foreshortened .129 Materials of . .162 Import Insert . . . . . . .175 Moving . .2. . .229. .5 From Point . . . .265 Troubleshooting . . . . .5 Perpendicular . . .287 Expert . . . . . . .262 Extrude . .68. . .286 Exact dimensions .263 Endpoints . . . .89 GUI . .73.6 Healing . . .229 Examples script . . . . . . . . . .9 DWG Export . .16 Rectangle .130 Scaling .270 Foreshortened dimensions . . . . . .190 Face color .264 Graphic export . . . .3 Polygon . . .131 Using Follow Me . . . .271 File settings . . . . . . . . . .92 With groups .2 File preferences . . .265 Groups . . . .4 Parallel . .216 Fog . . . . .274 DWG Import . .4 Golden section .85 With components . . . .30 Estimate costs .161 I Icons . .229 Settings . . . . . . . .20 Circle . .227. .

. .272 Revolved objects .10 Relative distance . .5 Pencil . .11 Picking Driver Bug . .12 Exact dimensions .37 Length and area . . . .16 Position Camera . . . . . .266 File .220 Purge unused .170 OpenGL preferences . .2 Paraline mode .272 L Labels and notes . .234 Vertical . . . .267 Locking inferences . .264 Components .54 On Axis . . .287 Leader lines .143 Manipulating the view .287 Transparency . .264 Color . . . . . . . .274 Point at center .2 Movie files . . . . . . .18. .72 Profile objects . . . . . . .6 Oval .5 Perspective mode . . . .270 Files . . . .269 Units . . . .17 Radius dimensions . .2. . . .264 Reverse section . . . . .272 Shortcuts . . . . . . . .275 Moving axes . .243 Midpoint inference . . . . . . . . . . .232 Purge layers . .162 N Nested components . . . . .5 Longitude . .4 Opacity . . . .262 Protractor .267 Shadows . .Index J Jitter lines . . .223 Precision of units . . . .266 Reset axes . . . . . .56 Resize .234 with Ctrl key . . .287 Location . . . . .51 Overriding dimensions . .230 Render settings . . . .227 Notes and labels . .264 Parallel dimensions . . . .263 Non-associated dimensions . .220 Select by . . . . . . . .269 Pages . . . .265 Problem dimensions .175 Select by . . . . .9 Exact dimensions . . . . .268 Statistics . . . .218 Updating .263 Query tool . . . . . . . . . . .219 purging . .72 Marquee selection .235 Move Camera . . . .271 Rectangle .62 Length Measuring .62 Lathed objects .270 Predefined components .157 Mitering .3 Dividing a face with . . . . . .15 Pushpin leader .27 Material display . .274 Recovery files .231. .230 Linetool script . .39 Exact dimensions . . . . . .265 Dimensions . . . . .94 Latitude .165.72. .2.270 Line . . . .227. .243 Length snapping . . . . . .272 Templates . . .6 Exact slope .266 Non-uniform scaling . . . . . . . .161 P Page delay .263 K Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . .51 North direction . .227 Layer Manager .51 Reverse Faces . .268 Text .3 Perimeter . . .32.224 Page transitions . . . . . . .251 Profiles (edges) . . . . .269 Q Quality .62 Perpendicular inference .262 Materials Applying . .63. . . .178 Of groups . . .37 Exact dimensions . . . . . . . .69 Parallel inference . . . . . . .163 Browser . .269 Page Properties . . . . . . .151 Nicer . . . . . . .272 Orbit .265 Raster image export . . . .267 Section planes . . .271 OpenGL . . . . . .3. .159 Editing texture image . . . . . .4 Mirroring .138. . .216 Loop to starting page . . .210 O Offset .139.273 Prefix for dimensions . . . .130 Multiple active sections . . . . .219 Layers .70. . . . .68 Radius prefix . . . . . . .161 Model Info .210 Move . .213 My Textures .229.70. .205 Reversed Picking Driver Bug . .272 Picture export . .72 R Radius . . .227 Look Around . .162 Of components .56 Moving groups . .269 Moulding miters . . . . . .2 Manual dimensions . .266 Leaders .94 RGB . .287 293 . . . . .269 Tourguide . . .265 Display . . . .288 M Make Component . . . . .221 Pan .22 Polygon . . .136 Preferences . .264 Phi .270 Drawing . . .169 Measure tool .268 Push/Pull . . .276 Luminance . .32 Measuring Angles . . .207. . .166 Importing images . .266 Location . . . . . . .

3 Shortcuts .261 WRL Export . . . .229.169 Triple-click . . . . . . . .269 Transparency . .2 Zoom Extents .205 Interior design . . . .1 Utilities script . . . . . . .227 Tool buttons . .155 Wireframe .217 Unglue . .274 X X-Ray .225 Tourguide .1 Section plane Reverse . . . . .3 Zoom window . . . . . . .58 Undo last camera change .269 Viewing tools . . . .51 Units . . . . .266 Turn . . . . .32 Templates . .262 Z Zero inch display .73. .213 Sections Exporting .206 Simultaneous . .221 Update selected text . . .the SketchUp Version 4 Workbook Rotate .269 Trackmouse script .269 Use Carmack’s Reverse .263 Ground . .143 Cutting faces . . . . . .208. . .53 Exact values .160 Sphere . . . . . . . .3 Windows .245 Changing axes . . .217 View-based leader . .28 Troubleshooting Dimensions . . . . . . . . .70. . . .66 Survey . .287 Selection script . .209 Select .62.287 Select by material .265 Slideshow .2. .271 Save current window size . .2 W Walk .271 Window zoom .224 Slope of a line .226. .62 Settings . . .127 Suffix for dimensions .271 User Interface . . . .25 Select All Text . .223 Shaded .205 Section plane settings . . . . . . .70 Sunlight and Shadows .24 Sky . . .139 Update page . .57 Snapping . . .272 Use Fast Feedback . . . . . . . . .272 294 . . . . . . .268 Vertical axis . . . . . . .94 S Saturation . .224 Tour Guide settings .270 Zoom . .11 Square inference .217 Undo View Change . . .25. . . . . .2 Vision angle . .262 Shaded with textures . .287 Tour guide .27 Window size .288 V Validity . . . .60 Sorting . . . . . .203 Align View . . .262 Shadows . . .275 Unhide . . . . .227 Suppress Units Display . . . .22 Set Camera Position .72 Toggle Section Cuts . . .2. . . .131 Screen . . . . . . . . . .262 Textures See Materials Tilda symbol . .204 Toggle Shadows . . .270 Soften . . .58 Uniform scaling .265 Transparent materials .204 Toggle Section Plane Display . . . . .269 Texture display .21 Tape Measure . . . . .268 Shortcut keys . . . . . . .263 Spectrum . . . . . . . . .58 Soften coplanar . . . . . . . . .268 Stickiness of faces .265 Sketching .138 Show nested components .229. .148 in curved walls . . . . . .271 Saving automatically . . . . .235 Scaling groups .216 VRML Export .267 Section planes .272 Use face highlight workaround .272 Use Hardware Acceleration . . .48 Groups .271 Toolbars. .273 Total area .3 U Unblank . . . . . . . . . .51 3D exact values . . .94 Spin view . . .288 Transitions . . .265 Show nested . . . .161 Save Backup File . .275 View change . . . . . . . . .287 Semi circle . . . . . . .215 Window selection .271 Scale . . . .130 Round objects . .272 Show ground from below . .61 Unused components .266 Smoothing edges .285 Square . .269 Unsoften .273 Text . . . . . . .272 Use large tool buttons . customizing . .230 Small dimensions . . . . .6 Video . . .268 Show Radius/Diam Prefix . . .11 Statistics . . . . . . . .269 Select by layer .274 T Tangent arcs .

contact Bonnie Roskes 202-243-1046 bonnie. as well as other applications. there is one for Versions 2 and 3. online help systems. including several more on SketchUp and one for DataCAD. and eagerly shares his enthusiasm for SketchUp through his participation in the preparation of this book. illustration and film animation in Arizona. and suggestions are always welcome. He long ago developed an abiding fascination for creating computerized imagery. For questions. Her BSE and MSE are from Johns Hopkins University.net For information on more books by Bonnie Roskes. Utah. comments. and California. and she has written books on the CAD/CAM application OneCNC. feedback. including the model.docwalt. is a structural engineer by education and training. Several more are already in the works. 18 years ago.About the Authors Bonnie Roskes. he began teaching Fine Arts at Utah Valley State College in Orem.biz/ccp51 Published by: Conceptual Product Development. see www. Inc. and engineering applications.f1help. CAM. and software demos for a large client list. Bob deWitt got his start working for 15 years doing freelance work in commercial art. he pursued one of his first loves when. training guides.E. specializing in CAD.roskes@verizon. reference manuals. CAE. and has worked for several years in the software documentation arena. Utah. He holds degrees from Brigham Young University in both Studio Art and Art History. P. He also takes credit for the cover design. She has written user guides. In addition to this SketchUp book. www. and information on updates.com 973-364-1120 . tutorials. Comments. After this.

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