Chapter - 001 Computer Fundamental & History

What is Computer? Computer is an Electronics Device, Which accept data, processing & give me outpu t. Charles Babbage is called the Father if the Computer.

Full Form Commonly operating machine particularly used for technical educational research.

Characteristics of Computer Speed Accuracy AllAll-rounder Versatility} Storage .

Types of Computer Mini computer Micro computer Desktop Laptop palmtop notebook Mainframe computer .

Mouse Microprocessors Monitor .Function of Computer Input Processing Output Keyboard .

ENIVAC. weighed more than 30 tons and occupied 1500 sq.Generation of Computers First Generation [1942 to 1955] First electronic part used for this was Vacuum tubes. They contained 180 00 vacuum tube. IBM 701. EDVAC. . Computers invented in this generation were MARK-1. MARKIBM 702.ft.

Advantage of First Generation They were able to perform thousands of mathematical operations per minute. .

heated .Disadvantages Very expensive to built and operate. Used to get over .

[Vacuum tube] .Second Generation [1954 to 1964] Transistor were developed in 1947 and implement ed for computers in 1950. They are smaller in size compare to V.T.

much faster & more dependable .Advantages Smaller in size. Less Expensive to built.

.Third Generation [1964 to 1975] Basic elements of these computers was IC [Integrated Circuits]. The combine all the parts of computers in a single silicon chip. Mainframe & minicomputer were m ade out of these parts only.

.Advantages Smaller in size. fast. affordable & consumes less electricity. easier to use.

These are personal computers & desktop compu ters used today. MU [Me mory unit].Forth Generation [1980] This generation is already running. Which had all the units like ALU[Arithmatic logic unit]. CU [Control unit] .

. These will be the computers of the future.Fifth Generation [1990] They are still in the process of invention having capabi lities to type as we speak.

less expensive & reliable.Advantages They will be smaller They will be work faster. .

Parts of computer Hardware Software .

mouse .g.Monitor.Hardware What is Hardware? Hardware is a set of physical Components. E.Keyboard. We can seen & touch it. CPU.

we can seen it but don·t touch.Software Software is a computers logically parts.Vista. All types of O/S [operating system] XP.Server 2003/2008.Tally.linux All types of software like MS office. Nero.etc .

Computer parts Input devices Output devices Processing devices storage devices Power supply .

E. is known as the input. Keyboard. Mouse. light pen etc.Input Devices Any data. . which is fed in the computer by the user. Bar code reader. Digital camera.g.

Output devices The device that gives us the processed data or information is cal led OUTPUT.printers . E. Monitor .g.

E. Store them temporarily and then pr ocess the data as per the instruction given. Microprocessor .Processing Devices Processing units receive data & instructions.g.

Processing parts Arithmetic logic unit [ALU] Memory unit [MU] Control unit [CU] All the three units together are known as the central processing unit [CPU] .

figures. statistics that can be processed to prod uce meaningful information. .Data Data is a collection of facts.

G.ppt [Microsoft PowerPoint Fil e] iant. iant.xls [Microsoft Excel File] iant.File File is a collection of any data.rtf [WordPad file] iant.doc [Microso ft word File] iant.bmp [Mspaint file] . E.

taskbar etc . It is a collection of Icon. wallpaper.Desktop The screen of windows is called Desktop.

Desktop .

.Wallpaper The background that appears on the desktop is called wallpaper.

Icon Graphical symbols or pictures that appear on the wallpaper of desktop are called ICON. .

Icon .

. It pr ompts user to start an application.Start Menu Button which appears at the corner of the task bar is called start button.

Start menu .

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