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Ministry of Education
Project Report
Osama Sohail

Ministry of Education
Introduction/ Formation
The Ministry of Education is a Cabinet-leveled ministry of the Government of Pakistan. The ministry's political figure is known as Education Minister of Pakistan, and Parliamentarian named Sardar Asif Ahmad Ali is the current Federal Education Minister of Pakistan while Mr. Ghulam Farid Kathia is a Federal Minister of State. Mr. Jahangir Bashar is the Education Secretary. An education minister is a position in the government is responsible for dealing with educational matters in the country. The Education Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Education. He serves in the cabinet of the Prime Minister. The Minister is required to be a Member of Parliament. Education in Pakistan is overseen by the government Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research.

According to the constitution of Pakistan, it is the states responsibility to provide free primary education. At the time of independence Pakistan had only one university, the University of the Punjab, founded in 1882 in Lahore. Pakistan now has 135 universities, of which 74 are public universities and 61 are private universities. There are an estimated 3193 technical and vocational institutions in Pakistan. Pakistan also has Madrassahs that provide free Islamic education and also offer free boarding and lodging to students who come mainly from the poorer strata of society. Education in Pakistan is overseen by the government Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly

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assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research. The Education system in Pakistan mainly consists of five levels: 1. Primary (Grades one through five) 2. Middle (Grades six through eight) 3. High (Grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC) 4. Intermediate (Grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School (Certificate or HSC) 5. University (Programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees).

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The Ministry of Education in Pakistan mainly depends on its works on two major positions first one is the Secretary of State who is currently Imtiaz Kazi and the other one is Education Minister of State. Education Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Education. He serves in the cabinet of the Prime Minister. An education minister is a position in the government which is responsible for dealing with educational matters in the country. The Secretary of Education Minister supervise several command group heads which are Additional Secretary of Project Monitoring Unit (PMU), Director of Monitoring Cell, Presidents Education Sector Reforms, Senior Joint Secretary of Administrator Wing, Joint Educational Adviser (JEA) of Policy & Planning Wing, Joint Educational Adviser (JEA) of Projects Wing, and Joint Educational Adviser (JEA) of Training Wing.

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Major work/functions of Ministry of Education are to make national policies, plans and programs in education and bring the International aspects of education in the state or country. It is the responsibility of the government to conduct external examinations, maintain equivalence in degrees and diplomas. Moreover, it is also the liability of the government to make education available in the Federally Administered Areas. Government has to provide financial assistance to educationists and men of letters in order to raise the number of educated people in the country. It is the job of the government to construct National libraries in the state. One major function of government is that it has to offer Scholarships to Pakistani students abroad and foreign students in Pakistan. Last but not the least, provide qualitative source for the advancement of curricula, program and textbooks material. All the above mentioned works require Inter-Ministerial and Intra-Ministerial Coordination and also with the accordance of public opinion relating to Ministry and its organizations. As the processing of release of funds and reconciliation of expenditure is done by the government hence government is responsible for the acts of that Ministry. But the rules and regulations for appointments, promotions, transfer etc. are handled by the main Ministry (Education) to reduce the work load of government.

All the above mentioned work/functions are to be done by the Ministry of Education according to the follow-up of Presidents and Prime Ministers Directives.

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Federal Ministry of Education Provincial Education Ministries Secretary of State (Education): Imtiaz Kazi

National education budget (2007) Budget Literacy (2009) Total Male Female Enrollment Total Primary Secondary Post Secondary 37,462,900 22,650,000 2,884,400 1,349,000 58% 69% 45% Rs.95,442 million (2.2% of the GDP)

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Positive Impacts of Government Policies

Major positive impact of government policies is that it has implemented a new curriculum and provided scholarships for new teachers; scholarships for in-service teachers to upgrade their qualifications; and building the capacity of government colleges to deliver the new programs.

Following are some other positive impacts of policies.

Formulation of National Policies, Plans and Programs. Processed all development schemes (DDWP, CDWP, and ECNEC). Organized Inter-Provincial Education Secretaries meetings. Implementation of PSDP, Medium Term Plan (MTP) and Perspective Plan (PP). Coordinated release of funds with Finance Div., Planning & Development Div. and AGPR. Evaluation of education sector expenditures. Improved coordination with Provincial Education, Finance and Planning Departments and District Governments to develop education sector plans. More Accurate collection of statistics.

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Negative Impacts of Government Policies

The impact of poor government policies is that our literacy rate ranges from 87% in Islamabad. Between 20002004, Pakistanis in the age group 5564 had a literacy rate of almost 30%, those aged between 4554 had a literacy rate of nearly 40%, those between 2534 had a literacy rate of 50%, and those aged 1524 had a literacy rate of more than 60%. These data indicate that, with every passing generation, the literacy rate in Pakistan has risen by around 10%. Literacy rates vary regionally, particularly by gender. In tribal areas female literacy is 7.5%. Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (11% of the population) having a command over the English language, which makes it the 9th Largest English Speaking Nation in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia. On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year. Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world. Among other criticisms on the policies made by Pakistani government is the gender disparity in enrollment levels. However, in recent years some progress has been made in trying to fix this problem. In 1990-91, the female to male ratio (F/M ratio) of enrollment was 0.47 for primary level of education. It reached to 0.74 in 1999-2000, showing the F/M ratio has improved by 57.44% within the decade. For the middle level of education it was 0.42 in the start of decade and increased to 0.68 by the end of decade, so it has improved almost 62%. In both cases the gender disparity is decreased but relatively more rapidly at middle level.

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The suggestions for improved governance are as follows:

1. Federal Government should play its role without obviating the principle of subsidiary and the central role of the provincial governments in implementation of education policies. 2. Institutional arrangement for intra-tier and inter-tier coordination needs to be formalized. Education-related policy initiatives within the federal government need to be formalized after consensual discussions amongst all Ministries involved with education. While the Social Sector Committee of the Cabinet is an available forum, historically frequencies of its meetings are few and far between. 3. It may therefore be more profitable to have an education specific Committee of the Cabinet. Ministry of Education, Ministry of Labor and Manpower, Ministry of Science and Technology, Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Religious Affairs (Madrassah Education), Ministry of Special Education, NAVTEC and Provincial Education Departments may comprise this committee. The larger education scenario should develop with all sectors complementary to one another and not inconsistent with one another.

4. An inter-provincial mechanism for national management of broader policy issues of education is institutionalized. The senior most body for the process would be the Inter-provincial Education Ministers Conference, which would have the final say in these matters. A regulatory mechanism should be introduced to standardize the procedure for the mechanism.

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5. We should follow our religion in this regard as the ideological base provided by Islam permits individuals of all faiths and beliefs to coexist in a largely Islamic polity, with respect and tolerance for each other, while the society at large aims to pursue the moral behaviors expected by the Islamic ideology. 6. Education should play an important role in the sensitization of the individual to the ethical demands of our life. Government must recognize the value and importance of knowledge while framing the education policy for the coming generations. 7. In addition, all educational institutions in Sindh province should provide Chinese language courses. The proposal is due to China's growing role as a superpower and Pakistan has close ties with China. 8. Criticism over using Madrassahs and other educational institutions for recruiting terrorists and suicidal attacks training place; by adding more efforts in it; it should be made for the purpose of promoting peace, knowledge and harmony.

It is concluded that government is in the development stage of extending better quality education and English medium learning to all educational institutions across the country. Moreover government has failed to control the literacy rate of the country through its policies. Furthermore, the education system does not provide for a substantial percentage of students to move beyond the primary level. At present, the average enrolment per grade at the middle elementary level is less than one-half the average enrolment per grade at the primary level.

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