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Binomial Theorem

BINOMIAL THEOREM FOR POSITIVE INTEGRAL INDEX
Synopsis:
1. f x and a are real numbers, then for all , n N ∈
1 1 2 2
1 2
( ) ....
n n n o n n n n
o
x a C x a C x a C x a
− −
+ = + + +
1 1
1
.... ...
n n r r n n n o n
r n n
C x a C x a C x a
− −

+ + + + + i.e
Formula:
0
( ) .
n
n n n r r
r
r
x a C x a

=
+ =

2. MIDDLE TERM IN A BINOMIAL EXPANSION
Synopsis:
If n is an even natural number, then in the binomial expansion of ( ) , 1
2
n
n
x a th
 
+ +
 
 
term is the middle term.
Formula: If is odd natural number , then
1
2
n
th
+  
 
 
and
3
2
n
th
+  
 
 
are the middle terms
In the binomial expansion of (x+a)
n
.
3. GREATEST TERM
Synopsis:
Let T
r+1
and T
r
be(r+1)th and rth terms respectively in the expansion of (x+a)
n
. Then,
1
n n r r
r r
T C x a

+
= and
T
r
=
n
C
r-1
x
n-r+1
a
r-1
.

1
1 1
1
n n r r
r r
n n r r
r r
T C x a
T C x a

+
− + −

= =
! ( 1)!( 1)!
.
( )! ! !
n r n r a
n r r n x
− − +
×

=
1
.
n r a
r x
− +
CASE1 When
1
1
n
x
a
+
+
is an integer
Let
1
.
1
n
m
x
a
+
=
+
Then, from (i), we have
T
r+1
> T
r
for r=1,2,3,…..(m-1) ……(ii)
T
r+1
= T
r
for r = m ….(iii)
and, T
r+1
< T
r
for r = m +1, ….n …(iv)
∴ T
2
> T
1
, T
3
> T
2
, T
4
> T
3
, ……, T
m
>T
m-1
[From (ii)]
T
m+1
= T
m
[From (iii)]
and, T
m+2
< T
m+1
, T
m+3
< T
m+2
, …T
n+1
< T
n
[From (iv)]
⇒ T
1
< T
2
< ….<T
m-1
< T
m
=T
m+1
> T
m+2
> …> T
n
This shows that mth and (m+1)th terms are greatest terms.
Case II: When
1
1
n
x
a
+
+
is not an integer.
Let m be the integral part of
1
1
n
x
a
+
+
. Then, from (i), we have
1
1, 2.....,
r r
T T for m
+
> = …(v)
and,
1
1, 2,....
r r
T T for r m m n
+
< = + + ….(vi)

2 1 3 2 1
, ,....,
m m
T T T T T T
+
> > > [From (v)]
and,
2 1 3 2 1
, ,...,
m m m m n n
T T T T T T
+ + + + +
< < < [From (vi)]

1 2 3 1 2 3... 1
....
m m m m n
T T T T T T T T
+ + + +
< < < < < > > >
⇒ (m+1)th term is the greatest term.
4. MULTINOMIAL THEOREM
Using binomial theorem, we have
0
) ,
n
n n n r r
r
r
x a C x a n N

=
+ = ∈

=
0
!
( )! !
n
n r r
r
n
x a
n r r

=


=
!
,
! !
s r
r s n
n
x a
r s
+ =

where s=n-r.
This result can be generalized in the following form :
1 2
( .... )
n
k
x x x + + + =
1 2
1 2
1 2
.... 1 2
!
....
! !.... !
k
k
r r r
k
r r r n k
n
x x x
r r r
+ + + =

The general term in the above expansion is
3 1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3
!
....
! ! !..... !
k
r r r r
k
k
n
x x x x
r r r r
The number of terms in the above expansion is equal to the number of non-negative integral solution of the
equation.
r
1
+r
2
+…..+r
k
= n, because each solution of this equation gives a term in the above
expansion. The number of such solutions is
1
1
n k
k
C
+ −

.
5. PARTICULAR CASES
(i)
!
( )
! ! !
n r s t
r s t n
n
x y z x y z
r s t
+ + =
+ + =

The above expansion has
3 1 2
3 1 2
n n
C C
+ − +

= terms.
(ii)
!
( )
! ! ! !
n p q r s
p q r s n
n
x y z u x y z u
p q r s
+ + + =
+ + + =

There are
4 1 3
4 1 3
n n
C C
+ − +

= terms in the above expansion.
REMARK The greatest coefficient in the expansion of
1 2
( .... )
n
m
x x x + + + is
!
,
( !) [( 1)!]
m r r
n
q q

+
where q and
r are the quotient and remainder respectively when n is divided by m.
PROPERTIES OF THE BINOMIAL COEFFICEINT
PROPERTY I In the expansion of (1+x)
n
the coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and the
end are equal.
PROPERTY II The sum of the binomial coefficients in the expansion of (1+x)
n
is 2
n
.
i.e,
1 2
... 2
n
o n
C C C C + + + + = or,
0
2
n
n n
r
r
C
=
=

.
PROPERTY III The sum of the coefficients of the odd terms in the expansion of (1+x)
n
is equal to the sum
of the coefficients of the even terms and each is equal to 2
n-1
.
i.e, C
o
+C
2
+C
4
+….=C
1
+C
3
+C
5
+……=2
n-1
.
PROPERTY IV Prove that:
1 2
1 2
1
. . .
1
n n n
r r r
n n n
C C C
r r r
− −
− −

= =

and so on.
PROPERTY V Co-C
1
+C
2
-C
3
+C
4
-…+(-1)
n
Cn=0
1. Find the coefficient of x
m
in the expression (1+x)
n
+2(1+x)
n-1
+3(1+x)
n-2
+….+(n-m+1) (1+x)
m
, where
0 n ≤ .
2. Find the sum of the series :
2 3 4
0
1 3 7 15
( 1) ....
2 2 2 2
r r r n
r n
r r r r r
r
C upto m terms
=
 
− + + + +
 
 

\
3. Find the sum of the series
2 3 4
0
1 3 7 15
( 1) ....
2 2 2 2
r r r n
r n
r r r r r
r
C to
=
 
− + + + + + ∞
 
 

4. If k and n be positive integers and s
k
=1
k
+ …+ n
k,
then show that
1 1
1
( 1) ( 1)
m
m m
r r
r
C s n n
+ +
=
= + − +

5. Prove that :
1 2
1 2
2 2 2
0 1 1 2 2
k k k
n n n n n n
k k k
− −
− −         
− +
        
− −
        
+…..+ +(-1)
k-1
.... ( 1)
0
n n k n
k k
−     
+ + − =
    
    
, where
n
k
n
C
k
 
=
 
 
6 In the expansion of the binomial expression (x+a)
15
, if the eleventh term is the geometric mean of the
eighth and twelfth terms, which term in the expansion is the greatest.
7. Prove that the greatest term in the expansion of (1+x)
2n
has also the greatest coefficient, then
1
,
1
n n
x
n n
+  

 
+
 
.
8.
1 2 3 2 3
1 1 2 1 3
1 ....
1 (1 ) (1 )
x x x
C C C
nx nx nx
    + + +  
− + − +
     
+ + +
 
   
1
( 1) 0
(1 )
n
n n
nx
C
nx
  +
+ − =
 
+
 
9. If
n
C
o
,
n
C
1
,
n
C
1
,
n
C
2
, …..,
n
C
n
denote the binomial coefficients in the expansion of (1+x)
n
and p+q=1,
then prove that
(i)
0
n
n r n r
r
r
r C p q np

=
=

(ii)
2 2 2
0
n
n r n r
r
r
r C p q n p npq

=
= +

10. Evaluate
3 2
0
3 2
6 11 6
n
n
r
r
r
C
r r r
=
+
+ + +

, Where
0 1
, ,.....
n n n
n
C C C are the binomial coefficients in the
expansion of (1+x)
n
.
11. When
(32)
(32)
32 is divided by 7, prove that the remainder is 4.
12. A is a set containing n elements. A subset P of A is chosen at random. The set A is reconstructed by
replacing the elements of P. A subset Q is again chosen at random. Find the number of ways selecting
P and Q so that.
(i) P and Q are disjoint sets. (ii) P Q ∩ contains just one element
(iii) P Q ∪ contains just one element
(iv) Q is a subset of P
(v) P Q φ ∩ =
(vi) P and Q have equal number of elements
(vii) Q contains just one element more than P
(viii) P Q A ∪ = (ix) P = Q
PASSAGE – 1
Numerically greatest Term in the Expansion of (x + a)n
Let T
r
and T
r+1
be r
th
and (r+1)
th
terms respectively in the expansion of bionomial
(x+a)
n
. Then T
r
=
n
C
r-1
x
n-r+1
a
r-1
and T
r+1
=
n
C
r
x
n-r
a
r

1
1
r
r
T n r a
T r x
+
− +
=
Now, T
r+1
> , = , < T
r
According as
1
, , 1,
n r a
r x
− +  
> = <
 
 
i.e. according as
1
1 , , ,
n x
r a
+
− > = < i.e.
according as
1
, ,
1
n
r
x
a
+
< = >
+
.
So, if
1
1
n
x
a
+
+
is an integer, say p, then T
r+1
> T
r
if r < p otherwise T
r+1
≤ T
r
So, T
p
= T
p+1
(numerically) and these are greater than any other term in the expansion.
Next, if
1
1
n
x
a
+
+
is a non-integer, suppose m be its integral part then T
r+1
< T
r
if r ≤m and
T
r+1
< T
r
if r > m.
So, T
m+1
is the numerically greatest term among the terms of the expansion.
Again we can also write that k
th
term is numerically greatest if T
k
> T
k+1
and T
k-1
.
1. The numerically greatest term in the expansion of (1-2x)
8
, when x=2 is
a)
8
C
6
4
6
b)
8
C
4
4
4
c) 2
1 7
d) None of these
2. Magnitude wise the greatest term in the expansion of (3, -2x)
9
when x=1 is
a)
9
C
2
3
7
2
2
b)
9
C
3
3
6 2
3
c)
9
C
4
3
5
2
4
d) both (b) and (c)
3. If x > 0 and the 4
th
term in the expansion of
10
3
2
8
x
 
+
 
 
has maximum value, then
a) 2< x < 3 b) 3 < x <
10
3
c) 4 < x < 5 d) None of these
4. If n is even positive integer, then the condition that the numerically greatest term in the expansion of
(1+x)
n
may have the greatest coefficient also is
a)
2
| |
2
n n
x
n n
+
< <
+
b)
1
| |
1
n n
x
n n
+
< <
+
c)
4
| |
4
n n
x
n n
+
< <
+
d) None of these
5. The interval in which x must lies so that the numerically greatest term in the expansion of (1-x)
21
has
the greatest coefficient is, (x > 0).
a)
5 6
,
6 5
(
(
¸ ¸
b)
5 6
,
6 5
| |
]
\ ¹
c)
4 5
,
5 4
 
 
 
d)
4 5
,
5 4
(
(
¸ ¸
Definite Integrals
THE NEWTON – LEIBNITZ FORMULA OR THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMOF INTEGRAL
CALCULUS
If φ (x) is one the primitives or anti derivatives of a function f(x)defined on [a, b], then the definite integral
of f(x) over [a, b] is given by φ (b) - φ (a) and is denoted by ( )
b
a
f x dx

.
Thus, if ( ( )) ( ),
d
x f x
dx
φ = then ( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
f x dx b a φ φ = −

The numbers a and b are called the limits of integration ‘a’ is called the lower limit and ‘b’ is the upper
limit. The interval [a, b] is called the interval of integration.
INTEGRAL FUNCTION AND ITS PROPERTIES
PROPERTY I : The integral function of an integrable function is always continuous
PROPERTY II : If φ (x) is the integral function of a continuous function f(x) defined
on [a, b], then φ (x) is differentiable on (a, b) and φ
1
(x) = f(x) for all x ∈ (a, b).
PROPERTY III : The integral function of an odd function is an even function
If f(x) is an odd function, then φ (x) = ( )
x
a
f t dt

is an even function
PROPERTY IV : If f(t) is an even function, then φ (x) =
0
( )
x
f t dt

an odd function
(1) Prove that
/ 2
2 2 2 2 2
0
sin cos
,
( cos sin ) 4 ( )
x x x
dx
a x b x ab a b
π
π
=
+ +

where a, b > 0.
(2) Prove that
2
2
0
2
, 1
1
1
2 cos 1
, 0 1
1
if a
a
I dx
a a x
if a
a
π
π
π

>

 −
= =

− +

< <

− 

(3) Prove that
2
2
2 2
0
2
, 0
sin
2
2 cos
, 0
2
if a b
x
a
dx
a ab x b
if b a
b
π
π
π

> >


=

− +

> >



(4) Show that
2
0
1
, 1.
cos
1
dx a
a x
a
π
π
= >



Also, deduce that
2
0
1 2
(2 cos ) 3 3
dx
x
π
π
=


(5) If
1 1
2 2
2
2
0 0
x x
x e dx e dx β
− −
+ =
∫ ∫
, then find the value of β .
(6) For x > 0, let f(x) =
1
log
.
1
x
e
t
dt
t +

Find the function f(x) + f
1
x
 
 
 
and show that
1 1
( )
2
f e f
e
 
+ =
 
 
(7) If in is positive integer, prove that
!
0
a
x n
e x dx n

=

2
1 1 ....
2! !
n
a
a a
e a
n

( ¦ ¹
− + + + +
´ ` (
¹ ) ¸ ¸
Also, deduce the value
of
0
x n
e x dx



PROPERTIES OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS
(12) ( ) ( )
b b
a a
f x dx f t dt =
∫ ∫
i.e., integration is independent of the change of variable.
(13) ( ) ( ) ( )
b c b
a a c
f x dx f x dx f x dx = +
∫ ∫ ∫
, where a < c < b.
(14) Property ( ) ( ) .
b b
a a
f x dx f a b x dx = + −
∫ ∫
(15) Property
0
( ) 2 ( ) , ( )
a a
a
f x dx f x dx if f x is an even function


=


∫ ∫
0
2 ( ) , ( )
( )
0 , ( )
a
a
a
f x dx if f x is an even function
f x dx
if f x is an odd function



=





(16) Prove that
2
0
sin 2 sin cos
8 2
2
x x x
dx
x
π
π
π π
 
 
 
=


(17) Evaluate
2
2 (1 sin )
1 cos
x x
dx
x
π
π −
+
+

(19)
0
( ) { ( ) ( )}
a a
a
f x dx f x f x dt

= + −
∫ ∫
(18) Property
2
0
0
2 ( ) , (2 ) ( )
( )
0 , (2 ) ( )
a
a
f x dx if f a x f x
f x dx
if f a x f x

− =

=


− = −



(19) Property
2
0 0
( ) { ( ) (2 )}
a a
f x dx f x f a x dx = = −
∫ ∫
(20) Property
1
( ) ( ) {( ) }
b
a a
f x dx b a f b a x a dx = − − +
∫ ∫
(21) Property f(x) is a periodic function with period T, then
(i)
0 0
( ) ( ) ,
nT T
f x dx n f x dx n Z = ∈
∫ ∫
(ii) ( ) ( ) , ,
0
a nT T
f x dx n f x dx n Z a R
a
+
= ∈ ∈
∫ ∫
(iii)
0
( ) ( ) ( ) , ,
T
nT
f x dx n m f x dx m n Z
mT
= − ∈


(iv)
0
( ) ( ) , ,
a
a nT
f x dx f x dx n Z a R
nT
+
= ∈ ∈


(v) ( ) ( ) , ,
b
a
b nT
f x dx f x dx n Z a R
a nT
+
= ∈ ∈

+

INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
(7) Evaluate the following integral
sin 2
sin( / 3) sin( / 3)
x
dx
x x π π

− +
(11) Evaluate the following integral
3
1
sin sin( )
dx
x x a +

(12) Evaluate the following integral
3
2 sin sin 2
( cos )
a x b x
dx
b a x
+
+

(13) Evaluate the following integral
3/ 2 3/ 2
3 3
sin cos
sin cos sin( )
x x
dx
x x x θ
+
+

(14) Evaluate the following integral
13/ 2 5/ 2 1/ 2
(1 ) x x +

dx
(15) Evaluate
4
1
1
x
x
−  

 
+
 
dx
(16) Evaluate
2 3
1
( 2 10)
dx
x x

+ +
(17) For any natural number m, evaluate
3 2 2 1/
( )(2 3 6) , 0
m m m m m
x x x x x dx x ∫ + + + + >
(18) Evaluate
25/13 27/13
sec cos x ec x dx ∫ (19)
3 2
sin cos 2 x x dx ∫
(20)
7
2 5
(1 )
x
dx
x


(21)
3 5
1
sin
dx
xcs x

(22) Evaluate
6 6
1
cos sin
dx
x x

+
(23) Evaluate ( tan cot ) x x dx ∫ +
(24) Evaluate
3 5
cos cos
2
x x
dx
+
∫ (25) Evaluate
3 2
1
( 1)
x
dx
x x x x


+ + +
(28) Prove that
2 2 2 2
( )
x
dx
x a x b

+ +
2 2
1 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
tan ,
1
log ,
2
x b
if a b
a b
a b
x b b a
if a b
b a x b b a

  
+  
 >
 

 −
 
  

 + − −
<

− + + −


(29) Evaluate cos 1 ecx dx ∫ − (30)
1 x
dx
x
+

(31) Evaluate
2
cos sin
sin cos
x x
dx
x x


(32) Evaluate
2
2
cos sin 2
(2cos sin )
x x
dx
x x
+


(33)
1
2 3/ 2
sin
(1 )
x
dx
x



(34) sin x dx ∫
(35)
1 2
(sin ) x dx

∫ (36)
1 1
1 1
sin cos
sin cos
x x
x x
− −
− −


+
(37)
1 2
cot (1 ) x x dx

∫ − + (38)
2
1 2
2cos
tan sec
2 sin 2
d
θ
θ θ
θ

 

 

 
(39)
1
sin
x
dx
a x


+
(40)
2
2
cos sin 2
(2cos sin )
x x
dx
x x
+


(41)
3
sin
2
cos sin
cos
x
x x x
e dx
x
  −

 
 
(42 cos 2 log(1 tan ) x x dx ∫ +
(43) If f(x) is a polynomial function of the degree prove that
( ) { ( ) '( ) ''( ) '''( ) .... ( 1) ( )}
x x n n
e f x dx e f x f x f x f x f x ∫ = − + − + + − , where
f
n
(x) =
( )
n
n
d f x
dx
(44) Evaluate
4 3
cos sin cos
sin cos
.
2 2
cos
x x x x x
x x x
e
x x
 
− +  
+

 
 
 
dx
(45)
1
2 2
tan
(1 )
x
dx
x x


+
(46)
2 2
sec log(1 sin ) x x dx ∫ +
(47)
2
2
( 1){ 1 1}
1
x
x x
e dx
x
+ + +

+
(48)
2
1
sin (2cos 1)
dx
x x


(49)
6 6 2 2 2 2
1
( )
dx
x a a x x a

− + −
(50)
2
1
(1 )
x
x
dx
x xe
+

+
Limits
FORMAL APPROACH TO LIMIT
Before we proceed to formulate a definition of the limit of a function at a point on the basis of the discussion
made in the previous article, we intend to discuss some basic concepts which will be used in further
discussions.
NEIGHBOURHOOD (NBD) OF A POINT
Let a be a real number and let δ be a positive real number. Then the set of all real numbers lying between a-
δ and a+δ is called the neighbourhood of a of radius ‘δ ’ and is denoted by Nδ (a).
Thus Nδ (a) = (a-δ , a+δ ) = {x. R|a-δ <x<a+δ }
The set Nδ (a) – {a} is called deleted nbd of a of radius δ . The set (a-δ , a) is called the left nbd of a
and the set (a, a+δ ) is known as the right nbd of a.
If δ is very small and x lies in the interval (a-δ , a), then x is said to approach to a from the left and
we write x a → . If x. (a, a+δ ), then x is said to approach to a from the right which is denoted by x a
+
→ .
Consider the statement |x-a|<δ . We have
|x-a|<δ ⇔ -δ <x-a<δ ⇔ a-δ ⇔ x. Nδ (a).
Thus, |x – a| < δ means that x lies in the nbd of ‘a’ of radius δ as shown in Fig.
• • •
Let f(x) be a function with domain D and let ‘a’ be point such that every nbd of a contains infinitely many
points of D.A real number l is limit of f(x) as x tends to a, if for every nbd of l, there exists a nbd of ‘a’, such
that images of all points in the deleted nbd of a are in the nbd of l.
In other words, a real number l is lmit of f(x) x tends to a, if for every. > 0 there exists 0 aδ > such
that 0 < |x – a| < δ ⇒ |f(x) – l | < ε ⇔ x. (a - δ , a+δ ), x≠ a ⇒ f(x). (l+ε )
If l is the limit of f(x) as x tends to a, then we write ( ) 1
x a
Lim f x

=
THE ALGEBRA OF LIMITS
Let f and g be two real functions with domain D. We define four new functions , , / f g fg f g ± on
domain D by setting.
(f ± g) (x) = f(x) ± g(x), (fg) (x) =f(x) g(x)
(f/g) (x) = f(x)/g(x), if g(x) ≠ 0 for any x D ∈ .
Following are some results concerning the limits of these functions.
Let lim
x a →
f(x) =l and lim ( ) .
x a
g x m

= If l and m exist, then
(i) lim( )( ) lim ( ) lim ( )
x a x a x a
f g x f x g x l m
→ → →
± = ± = ±
(ii) lim( )( ) lim ( ).lim ( )
x a x a x a
fg x f x g x lm
→ → →
= =
(iii)
lim ( )
lim ( ) ,
lim ( )
x a
x a
x a
f x
f l
x
g g x m



 
= =
 
 
provided 0 m ≠
(iv) lim ( ) .lim ( ),
x a x a
Kf x K f x
→ →
= where K is constant
(v) lim| ( ) lim ( ) | | |
x a x a
f x f x l
→ →
= =
(vi)
( )
lim{ ( )}
x m
x a
f x g l

=
(vii) If f(x) ≤ g(x) for every x in the deleted nbd of a, then lim
x a →
f(x) ≤ lim
x a →
g(x
(viii) If f(x) ≤ g(x) ≤ h (x) for every x in the deleted nbd of a and, lim ( ) lim ( )
x a x a
f x l h x
→ →
= = then
lim ( ) .
x a
g x l

=
(ix)
( )
lim ( ) lim ( ) ( )
x a x a
fog x f g x f m
→ →
= =
In particular
a δ − a δ + a
(i) lim
x a →
log f(x) =log
( )
lim ( ) log
x a
f x l

=
(ii)
lim ( )
( ) 1
lim .
x a
f x
f x
x a
e e e


= =
(iii) If
1
lim ( ) , lim 0
( )
x a x a
f x or then
f x
→ →
= +∞ −∞ =
(iv) Evaluate
2 2 2
3
[1 (sin ) ] [2 (sin ) ] .... [ 9sin ) ]
lim lim
0
x x x
n
x x n x
n
x
→∞
¦ ¹ | | + + + ¦ ¦
´ ` ]
¦ ¦ → \ ¹ ¹ )
(v) Evaluate
3
3
3
8
lim
8
n
n
r
r
r
→∞
=

+

Here Π stands for the product.
(ix)
2
2
1/
1 cos( )
lim
(1 )
x
cx bx a
x
α
α

− + +

(x) If f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y) for all x, y ∈ R and f(1) = 1, then evaluate
(tan ) (sin )
2 2
lim
2
0 (sin )
f x f x
x x f x


Maxima and Minima
MAXIMUM Let f(x) be a function with domain D ⊂ R. Then, f(x) is said to attaining the maximum
value at a point a ∈ D if f(x) ≤ f (a0 for all x ∈ D.
MINIMUMLet f(x) be a function with domain D ⊂ R. Then, f(x) is said to attain the minimum value at a
point a ∈ D if f(x) ≥f(a0 for all x ∈ D.
LOCAL MAXIMUMA function f(x) is said to attain a local maximum at x = 0 a if there exists a
neighbourhood (a-δ m a+δ ) of a such that
f(x) < f(a) for all x ∈ (a - δ , a + δ ), x ≠ a (or)
f(x) – f(a) < 0 for all x ∈ (a - δ , a+δ ), x ≠ a. In such a case f(a) is called the local maximum value of f(x)
at x = a.
LOCAL MINIMUMA function f(x) is said to attain a local minimum at x = a if there exists a
neighbourhood (a - δ , a+δ ) of a such that
f(x) > f(a) for all x ∈ (a - δ , a + δ ), x ≠ a
(or) f(x) – f(a0 > 0 for all x ∈ (a - δ , a + δ ), x ≠ a
The value of the function at x=a i.e., f(a0 is called the local minimum value of
f(x) at x = a.
NECESSARY CONDITION FOR EXTREME VALUES:
We have the following theorem which we state without proof.
THEOREMA necessary condition for f (a) to be an extreme value of a function f(x) is that f’(a) = 0, in
case it exists.
ILLUSTRATION Let f(x) =
3 2
10 , 0
3sin , 0
x x x x
x x
 + + <

− ≥

Investigate x = 0 for local maximum/minimum.
PROPERTIES OF MAXIMA AND MINIMA
(I) If f(x) is continuous function in its domain, then at least one maxima and one minima must lie
between two equal values of x.
(II) Maxima and Minima occur alternately, that is, between two maxima there is one minimum and vice-
versa.
(III) If f(x) → ∞as x →a or b and f’(x) = 0 only for one value of x (say c) between a and b, then f© is
necessarily the minimum and the least value.
If f(x) → ∞as x →a or b, f(c) is necessarily the maximum the greatest value.
(1) The circle x
2
+y
2
=1 cuts the x-axis at P and Q. Another circle with center at Q and variable radius
intersects the first circle at R above the x-axis and the line segment PQ at S. Find the maximum area
of ∆QSR.
(2) P is a point on the ellipse
2 2
2 2
1
x y
a b
+ = whose center is O and N is the foot of the perpendicular from
O upon the tangent at P. Find the maximum area of ∆OPN and the coordinates of P.
(3) Let A(p
2
, -p), B(q
2
, q) and C(r
2
, -r) be the vertices of the triangle ABC. A parallelogram AFDE is
drawn with D, E and F on the lines segments BC, CA and AB respectively. Using calculus show that
the maximum area of such a parallelogram is
1
4
(p+q) (q+r) (p-r)
(4) (at
1
2
, 2at
i
); i=1, 2, 3 are the vertices of a triangle inscribed in the parabola y
2
= 4ax. A parallelogram
AFDE is drawn with D, E, F on the line segments BC, CA and AB respectively. Show that the
maximum area of such a parallelogram is
2
1 2 2 3 1 3
( ) ( )( ).
2
a
t t t t t t − − −
(8) From a fixed point P on the circumference of a circle of radius a, the perpendicular PM is let fall on
the tangent at point Q. Prove that the maximum area of PQM ∆ is
2
3 3
8
a
.
(9) Find the values of p for which f(x) = x
3
+ 6(p-3)x
2
+3(p
2
-4)x+10 has positive point of maximum.
(10) Find the condition that f(x) = x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + c has
(i) a local minimum at a certain x ∈ R
+
(ii) a local maximum at a certain x ∈ R
-
(iii) a local maximum at certain x ∈ R
-
and minimum at certain x ∈ R
+
.
(11) If f(x) = cos
3
x + λ cos
2
x, x ∈(0, π ). Find the range of λ so that f(x) has exactly one maximum and
exactly one minimum.
Monotonic Functions
STRICTLY INCREASING FUNCTION A function f(x) is said to be a strictly increasing function on (a,
b) if
1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) x x f x f x < ⇒ < all
1 2
, ( , ) x x a b ∈
STRICTLY INCREASING FUNCTION A function f(x) is said to be a strictly decreasing function on (a,
b) if
1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) x x f x f x < ⇒ > for all x
1
, x
2
∈ (a, b)
NECESSARY CONDITION Let f(x) be a differentiable function defined on (a, b). Then f

(x) > 0 or < 0
according as f(x) is increasing or decreasing on (a, b).
SUFFICIENT CONDITION
THEOREM Let f be a differentiable real function defined on an open interval (a, b).
COROLLARY Let f(x) be a function defined on (a, b)
(a) If f’(x) > 0 for all x ∈ (a, b) except for a finite number of points, where f’(x)=0, then f(x) is
increasing on (a, b).
(b) If f’(x) < 0 for all x∈(a, b0 except for a finite number of points, where f’(x)=0, then f(x) id
decreasing on (a, b).
SOME USEFUL PROPERTIES OF MONOTONIC FUNCTIONS
(1) If f (x) is strictly increasing function on an interval [a, b], then f
-1
exists and it is also positive.
(2) If f(x) is strictly increasing function on an interval [a, b] such that it is continuous, then f
-1
I
continuous on [f(a), f(b)].
(3) If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] such that f’(c ) ≥0 (f’©>0) for each c∈(a, b), then f(x) is
monotonically (strictly) increasing function on [a, b].
(4) If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] such that f’ (c ) ≤0 (f’© < 0) for each ∈ (a, b), then f(x) is
monotonically (strictly) decreasing function on [a, b]
(5) If f(x) and g(x) are monotonically (or strictly) increasing (or decreasing) functions on [a, b], then
gof(x) is a monotonically (or strictly) increasing function on [a, b]
(6) If one of the two functions f(x) and g(x) is strictly (or monotonically) increasing and other a strictly
(monotonically) decreasing, then g of (x) is strictly (monotonically) decreasing on [a, b].
(1) Let f(x) =
2 3
, 0
, 0
ax
xe x
x ax x x
 ≤


+ − > 

, where a is a positive constant.
Find the intervals in which f’ (x) is increasing.
(2) If φ (x) =f(x) + f(1-x) and f’’ (x) < 0 for all x ∈[0, 1]. Prove that φ (x) is increasing in [0, ½] and
decreasing in (1/2, 1].
(3) Let g(x) = 2f(x/2) + f(2-x) and f’’(x) < 0 for all x ∈(0, 2). Find the intervals of increases and
decrease of g(x).
Mean Values Theorems and Some Other Applications of Derivatives
ROLE’S THEOREM
STATEMENT Let f be a real valued function defined on the closed interval [a, b] such that
(i) It is continuous on the closed interval [a, b],
(ii) it is differentiable on the open interval (a, b), and
(iii) f(a) = f(b).
LAGRANGE’S MEAN VALUE THEOREM
STATEMENT Let f(x) be a function defined on [a, b] such that
it is continuous on [a, b] (ii) it is differentiable on (a, b).
Then there exists a real number c ∈ (a, b) such that
( ) ( )
'( )
f b f a
f c
b a

=

(1) Prove that (b-a)sec
2
a<tanb-tana<(b-a)sec
2
b, where 0 < a < b <
2
π
.
(2) If f(x) and g(x) are continuous functions in [a, b] and they are differentiable in (a, b), then prove
that there exists c ∈ (a, b) such that
( ) ( ) ( ) '( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) '( )
f a f b f a f b
b a
g a f b g a g c
= −
(3) If the function of f: [0, 4] → R is differentiable, then show that
(1) (f(4))
2
– (f(0))
2
= 8f’(a) f(b) for a, b ∈ (0, 4)
(2)
4
2 2
0
( ) 2[ ( ) ( ) )] f t dt f f α α β β = +

for all 0 < , α β < 2.
(4) If 2a+3b+6c=0, then prove that the equation ax
2
+bx+c=0 has at least one real
root in (0, 1)
(5) If a
o
x
n
+ a
1
x
n-1
+….+a
n-1
x=0 has a real positive root α , then prove that the equation
1 2
0 1 1
( 1) ... 0
n n
n
na x n a x a
− −

+ − + + = has a positive real root less than α
Permutations and Combinations
FACTORIAL
The continued product of first n natural numbers is called the “n factorial” and is denoted by n or n! i.e.
! 1 2 3 4 ... ( 1) n n n = × × × × × − ×
EXPONENT OF PRIME p in n!
Let p be a prime number and n be a positive integer. Then, the last integer amongst 1, 2,
3…., (n-1), n which is divisible by p is ,
n
p
p
 
 
 
where
n
p
 
 
 
denotes the greatest integer
less than or equal to
n
p
.
(1) Find the number of zeros at the end of 100!.
(2) Find the largest positive integer n for which 35! Is divisible by 3
n
.
SYMBOL
n
Pr OR, P(n, r) :
If n is a natural number and r is a positive integer satisfying 0 , r n ≤ ≤ then the natural number
!
( )!
n
n r −
is denoted by the symbol
n
P
r
or, P(n, r)
PROPERTIES OF
n
C
r
or, C(n, r)
We shall now discuss some important properties of
n
C
r
.
PROPERTY I
n
C
r
=
n
C
n-r

for 0 r n ≤ ≤
PROPERTY II Let n and r be non-negative such that r ≤ n. Then,
1
1
n n n
r r r
C C C
+

+ =
PROPERTY III Let n and r be non-negative integers such that 1 . r n ≤ ≤ Then,
1
1
.
n n
r r
n
C C
r


=
PROPERTY IV If 1 , r n ≤ ≤ then
1
1 1
. ( 1) .
n n
r r
n C n r C

− −
= − +
PROPERTY V If
n
C
x
=
n
C
y
⇒ x = y or, x+y=n.
PROPERTY VI If If n is even, then the greatest value of (0 )
n
r
C r n ≤ ≤ is
/ 2
n
n
C
PROPERTY VII If n is odd then the greatest value of
n
Cr (0 ) r n ≤ ≤ is
1
2
n
n
C +
or,
1
2
n
n
C −
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MULTIPLICATION
If there are two jobs such that one of them can be completed in m ways, and when it has been completed in
any one of these m ways, second job can be completed in n ways; then the two jobs in succession can be
completed in m × n wasy.
FUNDAMETNAL PRINCIPLE OF ADDTION
If there are two jobs such that they can be performed independently in m and n ways respectively, then
either of the two jobs can be performed in (m+n) ways.
(1) Five persons entered the lift cabin on the ground floor of an 8 floor house. Suppose each of them can
leave the cabin independently at any floor beginning with the first. Find the total number of ways in
which each of the five persons can leave the cabin (i) at any one of the 7 floors (ii) at different floors.
COMBINATIONS Each of the different selections made by taking some or all of a
number of distinct objects or items, irrespective of their arrangements or order in which they are placed, is
called a combination.
PERMUTATIONS Each of the different arrangements which can be made by taking some or all of a number
of distinct objects is called a permutation.
THEOREM 1: Let r and n be positive integers such that 1 . r n ≤ ≤ Then prove that the number of all
permutations of n distinct items or objects taken r at a time is.
THEOREM 2: The number of all permutations (arrangements) of n distinct objects taken all at a time is n!.
THEOREM 3: The number of ways of selecting items or objects from a group of n distinct items or objects
is
PERMUTATIONS UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS
THEOREM: The number of all permutations (arrangements) of n different objects taken r at a time,
(i) When a particular object is to be always included in each arrangement is
1
1
!
n
r
C r


×
(ii) When a particular object is never taken in each arrangement is
1
1
!
n
r
C r


×
(iii) When two specified objects always occur together is
2
1
! 2!
n
r
C r


× ×
(1) Find the number of ways of arranging m white and n black balls in a row
(m > n) so that no two black balls are placed
PERMUTATIONS OF OBJECTS NOT ALL DISTINCT
THEOREM: The number of mutually distinguishable permutations of n things, take all at a time, of which
p are alike of one kind, q alike of second such that p+q=n, is
!
! !
n
p q
(1) Find the number of ways of selecting two integers a and b from the
set {1, 2, …, 5n}, n N ∈ so that a
4
– b
4
is divisible by 5.
Progressions
SEQUENCE
A sequence is a function whose domain is the set N of natural numbers.
REAL SEQUENCE
A Sequence whose range is a subset of R is called a real sequence.
In other words, a real sequence is a function with domain N and the range a subset of
the set R of real numbers.
PROGRESSIONS: It is not necessary that the terms of a sequence always follow a
Certain pattern or they are described by some explicit formula for the nth term. Those
sequences whose terms follow certain patterns are called progressions.
ILLUSTRATION 1 11, 7, 3, -1, …is an A.P. whose first term is 11 and the common
difference 7-11=-4.
ILLUSTRATION 2 Sow that the sequence <a
n
> defined by a
n
= 2n
2
+1 is not an A.P.
PROPERTIES OF AN ARITHMETIC
PROPERTY I: If a is the first term and d the common difference of an A.P., then its
nth terms a
n
is given by a
n
= a+(n-1)d
PROPERTY II: A sequence is an A.P iff its nth term is of the form An+B i.e. a linear
expression in n. The common difference in such a case is A i.e. the coefficient of n.
PROPERTY III: If a constant is added to or subtracted from each term of an A.P.,
then the resulting sequence is also A.P. with the same common difference.
PROPERTY IV: If each term of a given A.P. is multiplied or divided by a non-zero
constant k, then the resulting sequence is also an A.P. with common difference kd or
d/k, where d is the common difference of the given A.P.
PROPERTY V: In a finite A.P. the sum of the terms equidistant from the beginning
and end is always same and is equal to the sum of first and last term i.e.
a
k
+ a
n-(k-1)
= a
1
+ a
n
for all k=1, 2, 3, …, n-1.
PROPERTY VI: Three numbers a, b, c are in A.P. iff 2b=a+c.
PROPERTY VII: If the terms of an A.P. are chosen at regulr intervals then they from
an A.P.
PROPERTY VIII: If a
n
, a
n+1
and a
n+2
are three consecutive terms of an A.P., then
2a
n+1
= a
n
+a
n+2
.
INSERTION OF ARITHMETIC MEANS
If between two given quantities a and b we have to insert n quantities A
1
, A
2
, …,A
n
such that a, A
1
, A
2
,
…..A
n
, b form an A.P., then we say that A
1
, A
2
, ….,A
n
are arithmetic means between a and b.
INSERTION OF n ARITHMETIC MEANS BETWEEN a AND b.
Let A
1
, A
2
, ….,A
n
be n arithmetic means between two quantities a and b. Then,
a, A
1
, A
2
,…., A
n,
b is an A.P.
Let d be the common difference of this A.P. Clearly, it contains (n+2) terms.
∴ b = (n+2)th term
⇒ b = a+(n+1) d

1
b a
d
n

=
+
Now, A
1
= a + d
⇒ A
1
=
1
1
b a
A a
n
−  
= +
 
+
 
A
2
= a + 2d ⇒
2
2( )
1
b a
A a
n
−  
= +
 
+
 
A
n
= a + nd ⇒ A
n
=
( )
1
n
n b a
A a
n
−  
= +
 
+
 
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
(1) Between 1 and 31 are inserted m arithmetic means so that the ratio of the 7
th
and (m-1)th means is 5 :
9. Find the value of m.
GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
A sequence of non-zero numbers is called a geometric progression (abbreviate as G.P.) if
the ratio of a term and the term preceding to it is always a constant quantity.
The constant ratio is called the common ratio of the G.P.
In other words a sequence, a
1
, a
2
, a
3
,. …,a
n
…. is called a geometric progression if
1
n
n
a
a
+
= constant for all n ∈ N.
PROPERTIES OF GEOMETIC PROGRESSIONS
In this section, we shall discuss some properties of geometric progressions and geometric series
PROPERTY I: If all the terms of a G.P. be multiplied or divided by the same non-zero
constant, then it remains G.P. with the same common ratio.
PROPERTY II: The reciprocals of the terms of a given G.P. form a G.P.
PROPERTY III: If each terms of a G.P. be raised to the same power, the resulting
sequence also forms a G.P.
PROPERTY IV: In a finite G.P the product of the terms equidistant from the
beginning and the end is always same and is equal to the product of the first and the
last term.
PROPERTY V Three non-zero numbers a, b, c are in G.P. iff b
2
= ac
PROPERTY VI If the terms of a given G.P. are chosen at regular intervals, then the
new sequence so formed also forms a G.P.
PROPERTY VII If a
1
, a
2
, a
3….,
a
n, …
be a G.P. of nonzero non negative terms, then
log a
1
, loga
2
, …, loga
n
,…. is an A.P and vice – versa.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
(1) Find all the complex numbers x and y such that x, x+2y, 2x+y are in A.P. and (y+1)
2
, xy + 5, (x+1)
2
are in G.P. Also, find the progression.
(2) If mth term of a G.P.is m and nth term is n, then prove that its rth term is
1/ m n
r n
r m
m
n



 
 
 
SUM OF n TERMS OF A G.P.
THEOREM To prove that the sum of n terms of a G.P. With first term ‘a’ and common ratio ‘r’ is
given by
1
1
n
n
r
S a
r
  −
=
 

 
or,
1
, 1
1
n
n
r
S a r
r
  −
= ≠
 

 
.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
(1) Let S denote the sum of the terms of an infinite G.P. and
2
σ denote the sum of the squares of the
terms. Show that the sum of the first n terms of this geometric progression is given by
2 2
2 2
1
n
S
S
S
σ
σ
(
| | −
− (
]
+
( \ ¹
¸ ¸
(2) Find the geometric progression of real number such that the sum of its first four terms is equal to 30
and the sum of the squares of the first four terms is 340.
(3) Prove that
91
111.....1
times
is not a prime number.
INSERTION OF n GEOMETRIC MEANS BETWEEN TWO GIVEN NUMBERS A AND b.
Let G1, G2, … Gn be n geometric means between two given numbers a and b. Then,
A, G
1
, G
2
, …., G
n
, b is a G.P. consisting of (n+2) terms. Let r be the common ratio of this G.P.
Then,
B = (n+2)th term = ar
n+1
⇒ r
n+1
=
b
a
⇒ r=(b/a)
1/n+1

1/( 1)
1
,
n
b
G ar a
a
+
 
= =
 
 

2/( 1)
2
2
...,
n
b
G ar a
a
+
 
= =
 
 
( 1)
1
n
n
b
G ar a
a
+
 
= =
 
 
AN IMPORTANT PROPERTY OF GEOMETRIC GEANS THEOREM:
If geometric means are inserted between two quantities, then the product of n geometric means is the nth
power of the single geometric mean between the two quantities.
SOME IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF ARITHMETIC AND GEOMETRIC
MEANS BETWEEN TWO GIVEN QUANTITIES.
PROPERTY I If A and G are respectively arithmetic and geometric means between
two positive number a and b, then A > G.
PROPERTY II If A and G are respectively arithmetic and geometric means between
two positive quantities a and b, then the quadratic equation having a, b as its roots is
x
2
– 2Ax + G
2
= 0
PROPERTY III If A and G be the A.M. and G.M. between two positive numbers,
then the numbers are
2 2
A A G ± −
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
(1) If one geometric mean G and two arithmetic means A
1
and A
2
be inserted between two given
quantities, prove that G
2
= (2A
1
– A
2
) (2A
2
-A
1
).
(2) The A.M. between m and n and the G.M. between a and b are each equal to .
ma nb
m n
+
+
Find m and n
in terms of a and b.
ARITHMETICO-GEOMETRIC SERIES Let a, (a + d)r, (a+2d)r
2
, (a+3d)r
3
, … be
an arithmetico –geometric sequence. Then, a+(a+d)r+(a+2d)r
2
+(a+3d)r
3
+… is an
arithmetico geometric series.
ILLUSTRATION Find the nth term of the series
2 3
2 3 4
1 ...
3 3 3
+ + + +
SUM OF n TERMS OF AN ARITHMETICO-GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE
THEOREM The sum of n terms of an arthmetico-geometric sequence
a, (a + d) r, (a+2d)r
2
, (a+3d)r
3
, … is given by
1
(1 ) { ( 1) }
, 1
1 1 1
[2 ( 1) ], 1
2
n n
n
a r a n d r
dr when r
r r r
S
n
a n d when r

 − + −
+ − ≠


− − −
=


+ − =


EXAMPLE Show that the sum of the series
2
2 1 2 1
1 5 ....
2 1 2 1
n n
to
n n
+ +    
+ + +
   
− −
   
n terms is an even or an odd
number according as n is even or odd.
HARMONIC PROGRESSION
DEFINITION A sequence a
1
, a
2
,…., a
n
, …. Of non-zero number is called a Harmonic
progression, if the sequence
1 2 3
1 1 1 1
, , ,..., ,...
n
a a a a
is an Arithmetic progression .
nth TERM OF A HP
The nth term of a H.P is the reciprocal of the nth term of the corresponding A.P. Thus,
if a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, …, a
n
, … is a HP and the common difference of the corresponding AP is d
i.e.
1
1 1
n n
d
a a
+
= − , then
1
1
1
( 1)
n
a
n d
a
=
+ −
If a, b, c are in HP, then
1 1 1
, ,
a b c
are in AP. Therefore
2 1 1
b a c
= + ⇒
2ac
b
a c
=
+
.
(1) If S
1
, S
2
and S
3
denote the sum up to n(>1) terms of three non-constant sequence in A.P., whose first
terms are unity and common differences are in H.P., prove that
1 3 1 2 2 3
1 2 3
2
2
S S S S S S
n
S S S
− −
=
− +
(2) If a, b, c are in HP and a > c, show that
1 1 4
b c a b a c
+ >
− − −
(3) Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. If a, A
1
, A
2
, b are in A.P., a, G
1
, G
2
, b are in G.P. and a, H
1
, H
2
, b
are in H.P., show that
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
(2 ) ( 2 )
9
GG A A a b a b
H H H H ab
+ + +
= =
+
PROPERTIES OF ARITHMETIC, GEOMETRIC AND HARMONIC MEANS BETWEEN TWO GIVEN
NUMBERS
Let A, G and H be arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means of two positive numbers a and b. Then.
,
2
a b
A G ab
+
= and
2ab
H
a b
=
+
. These three means possess the following properties :
PROPERTY1
2ab
H
a b
=
+
A ≥ G ≥ H.
PROPERTY2 A, G, H form a GP i.e, G
2
– AH.
PROPERTY3 The equation having a and b as its roots x
2
– 2Ax + G
2
= 0
PROPERTY4 If A, G, H are arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means between three given numbers a, b
and c, then the equation having a, b, c as its roots is
3
3 2 3
3
3 0
G
x Ax x G
H
− + − =
(1) For what value of n,
1 1 n n
n n
a b
a b
+ +
+
+
is the harmonic mean of a and b?
(2) If A
1
, A
2
; G
1
, G
2
; H
1
, H
2
be two A.M.’s, G.M’s and H.M.s between two number a and b, then prove
that :
(3) If H
1
, H
2
,….,H
n
be n harmonic means between a and b and n is a root of the equation x
2
(1-ab)-
x(a
2
+b
2
)-(1+ab)=0, then prove that H
1
= ab(a-b)
1
1
n
H n r
H nr
+
=
+
METHOD OF DIFFERENCES: Sometimes the nth term of a sequence or a series cannot be
determined by the methods discussed in the earlier sections. In such cases, we use the following steps
to find the nth term T
n
of the given sequence.
STEP 1 Obtain the terms of the sequence and compute the differences between the successive terms
of the given sequence. If these differences are in A.P, then take T
n
= an
2
+ bc +c, where a, b, c are constants.
Determine a, b, c by putting n=1, 2, 3 and putting the values of T
1
, T
2
, T
3
.
STEP 2 If the successive differences computed in step 1 are in G.P. with common ratio r, then take T
n
= ar
n-1
+ bn+c.
STEP 3 If the differences of the differences computed in step 1 are in A.P., then take T
n
= an
3
+ bn
2
+
cn + d and find the values of constants a, b, c, d.
STEP 4 If the differences of the differences computed in step 1 are in G.P. with common ratio r, then
take T
n
= ar
n-1
+ bn
2
+ cn + d The following examples will illustrate the above procedure.
(1) Sum the following series to n terms : 5 + 7+ 13 + 31 + 85 +….
(2) If
1 1 1
1 ....
2 3
n
H
n
= + + + + and,
1
'
2
n
n
H
+
= -
1 2 3 2
...
( 1) ( 1)( 2) ( 2)( 3 2.3
n
n n n n n n
  −
+ + + +
 
− − − − −
 
show that H
n
= H
n
1
(3) Find the sum of first n terms of the series whose nth term is
4 3 2
1
( 2 2 1)
( 1)
n n n n
n n
+ + + −
+
(4) If
1
( 1)( 2)( 3)
,
12
n
r
r
n n n n
T
=
+ + +
=

where T
r
denotes the rth term of the series. Find,
1
1
lim .
n
n
r r
T
→∞
=

(5) Sum the series to n terms:
1 1 1
....
(1 )(1 2 ) (1 2 )(1 3 ) (1 3 )(1 4 ) x x x x x x
+ + +
+ + + + + +
Scalar or Dot Product of Vectors
DEFINITION
Let a

and b

be two non-zero vectors inclined at an angleθ . Then, the scalar product of a

with b

is
denoted by . a b

and is defined as the scalar | | | | cos a b θ

(1) Show that the angle between two diagonals of a cube is
1
1
cos
3

 
 
 
.
(2) The length of the sides a, b, c of a triangle ABC are related as a
2
+b
2
= 5c
2
. Prove, using vector
methods, that the medians drawn to the sides a and b are perpendicular.
(3) Determine the lengths of the diagonals of a parallelogram constructed on the vectors

2 a α β = − and

2 b α β = −

, where

α and

β are unit vectors forming an angle of 60
o
.
(4) Two points A and B are given on the curve y=x
2
such that OA

. 1 i =

and OB

. i

=-2. Find
|2 3 OA OB −

|
VECTOR (CROSS) PRODUCT OF VECTORS
DEFINITION
VECTOR (CROSS) PRODUCT Let , a b

be two non –zero non-parallel vectors. Then
the vector product , a b ×

in that order, is defined as a vector whose magnitude is | || | a b

sinθ where θ is the angle between a

and b

and whose direction is perpendicular to the plane of a

and b

in such a way that , a b

and this direction constitute a right handed system.
PROPERTIES OF VECTOR PRODUCT
The vector product has the following properties:
(1) Vector product I not commutative i.e. if a

and b

are any two vectors, then
a

× b

≠ b

× a

, however - b a ×

.
(2) If a

and b

are two vectors and m is a scalar, then
( ) ma b m a b a mb × = × = ×

(3) If , a b

are two vectors and m, n are scalars, then ( ) ( ) ( ) ma nb mn a b m a nb n ma b × = × = × = ×

(4) Vector product is distributive over vector addition i.e.
( ) a b c a b a c × + = × + ×

and, ( ) b c a b a c a + × = × + ×

(5) For any three vectors , , a b c

, we have ( ) a b c a b a c × − = × − ×

.
(6) The vector product of two non-zero vectors is she the null vector if they are collinear or parallel i.e.
0 || a b a b × = ⇔

, where , a b

are non-null vectors
(7)

0, i i j j k k × = × = × =

, , i j k j i k × = × = −

, , , j k i k j i k i j i k j × = × = × = × = −

(8) If

1 2
, a a i a k = +

and

1 2 3
, b b i b j b k = + +

then

1 2 3
1 2 3
i j k
a b a a a
b b b
× =

SOME USEFUL RESULTS
RESULT I If a

and b

are two non-zero, non-parallel vectors, then unit vectors normal to the plane of a

and b

are
| |
a b
a b
×
±
×


RESULT II Vectors of magnitude λ normal to the plane of a

and b

are
| |
a b
a b
λ
 
×
±
 
×
 


RESULT III The area of the parallelogram with adjacent sides a

and b

is | | a b ×

RESULT IV The area of a triangle with adjacent sides a

and b

is
1
| |
2
a b ×

RESULT V Area of
1
| |
2
ABC AB AC ∆ = ×

=
1
| |
2
BC BA ×

=
1
| |
2
CA CB ×

RESULT VI The area of a plane quadrilateral ABCD is
1
| |
2
AC BD ×

, where AC and BD are its diagonals.
(1) If , , a b c

are the position vectors of the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC, show that the area of
triangle ABC is
1
| |
2
a b c c a × + + ×

.
(2) Show that the perpendicular distance of the point c

from the line joining
a

and b

is
| |
| |
b c c a a b
b a
× + × + ×



(3) If A, B, C, D be any four points in space, prove that | | AB CD BC AD CA BD × + × + ×

= 4 (Area of
triangle ABC).
(4) Let , 10 2 , OA a OB a b = = +

and OC b =

where O is origin. Let p denote the area of the quadrilateral
OABC and q denote the area of the parallelogram with OA and OC as adjacent sides. Prove that p = 6q.
(5) ABCD is a quadrilateral such that , , AB b AD d = =

. AC mb pd = +

Show that the area of the
quadrilateral ABCD is
1
| || |
2
m p b d + ×

PRODUCT OF THREE VECTORS
SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT
DEFINITION Let , , a b c

be three vectors. Then the scalar ( ). a b c ×

is called the scalar product of a

, b

and c

and is denoted by [ ] a b c

.
Thus, [ ] a b c

= ( ) a b ×

. c

.
PROPERTIES OF SCALAR TRIPEL PRODUCT
PROPERTY-I If , , a b c

are cyclically permuted the value of scalar triple product remains same,
i.e ( ). ( ). b c a c a b × = ×

(or), [ ] [ ] [ ] a b c b c a c a b = =

PROPERTY-II The change of cyclic order of vectors in scalar triple product changes the sign of the scalar
triple product but not the magnitude.
i.e.[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] a b c b a c c b a a cb = − = − = −

PROPERTY-III In scalar triple product the positions of dot and cross can be interchanged provided that
the cyclic order of the vectors remains same i.e.
( ). . . ( ) a b c a a b c × = ×

PROPERTY-IV The scalar triple product of three vectors is zero if any two of them are equal.
[ ] [ ] a b c a b c λ λ =

PROPERTY-VI The scalar triple product of three vectors is zero if any two of them are parallel or
collinear.
PROPERTY-VII If , a b c d

are four vectors, then [ ] a b c d +

= [ ] a c d

+ [ ] b c d

PROPERTY-VIII The necessary and sufficient condition for three non-zero, non-collinear vectors , , a b c

to be coplanar is that [ ] 0. a b c =

i.e. , , a b c

are coplanar ⇔ [ ] 0 a b c =

PROPERTY-IX For points with position vectors , , a b c

and d

will be coplanar if
[ , , ] [ , , ] [ , , ] [ , , ] d b c d c a d a b a b c + + =

PROPERTY-X If

2 3
, , a a i a j a k = + +

1 2 3
b b i b j b k = + +

and

1 2 3
c c i c j c k = + +

are three vectors, then
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
[ ]
a a a
a b c b b b
c c c
=

(1) If the vectors

, ai a j ck i k α β = = + = +


and

ci c j bk γ = + +

are coplanar, then prove that c is the
geometric mean of a and b.
(2) Let , , a b c

three non-zero vectors such that c

is a unit vector perpendicular to both a

and b

. If the
angle between a

and b

is / 6 π , prove that
2
1
[ ]
4
a b c =

2 2
| | | | . a b

(3) Consider the vectors:

cos( ) cos( ) A i j k β α γ α = + − + −

cos( ) cos( ) B i j k α β γ β = − + + −

and,

cos( ) cos( ) C i j ak α γ β γ = − + − +

where , α β are γ are different angles in (0, / 2) π . If , , A B C

are coplanar vectors, show that a is
independent of , α β and γ .
(4) If , , a b c

be three on –coplanar unit vectors equally inclined to one another at an angle θ such that
, a b b c pa qb rc × + × = + +

find p, q, r in terms of θ . Also, prove that
2
2 2
2
cos
q
p r
θ
+ + = .
(5) If , , a b c

are three non-coplanar vectors, prove that any vector r

is expressible as
[ [ [
.
[ ] [ ] [ ]
r bc r c a r bc
r a b c
abc abc abc
     
     
= + +
     
     
     



RECIPROCAL SYSTEM OF VECTORS
Let , , a b c

be three non-coplanar vectors, vectors, so that [ ] 0. a b c ≠

We define another set of three
vectors , , a b c

as given below . ,
[ ] [ ]
b c c a
a b
a b c a b c
× ×
= =



[ ]
a b
c
a b c
×
=

(1) If , , a b c

are three non-coplanar vectors and , , a b c

form a reciprocal system of vectors, then prove
that
(i) . . . 1 a a b b c c = = =

(ii) . . 0; . . 0; a b a c b c b a = = = =

. . 0 c a c b = =

(iii)
1
[ ]
[ ]
a b c
a b c
=


(2) If a b c

and
' '
, , ' a b c

be the reciprocal system of vectors, prove that
(i) . . . 3 a a b b c c + + =

(ii) 0 a a b b c c × + × + × =

(3) If a

and b

are two vectors such that . 0, a b ≠

then solve the vector equations
. 0, . 1, r a r b = =

[ ] 1. r a b =

(4) If ( . ) , r a r b c d × + =

then prove that
2
(
,
( . )| |
a d c
r a a
a c a
λ
 
× ×  
= + ×
 
 
 


where λ is a scalar
VOLUME OF A TETRAHEDRON
THEOREM (i) If two pairs of opposite edges of a tetrahedron are perpendicular, then the opposite edges
of the third pair are also perpendicular to each other.
(ii) The sum of the squares of two opposite edges is the same for each pair of opposite edges
(iii) Any two opposite edges in a regular tetrahedron
CENTROID OF A TETRAHEDRON
THEOREM The volume V of a tetrahedron whose three coterminous edges in the right-handed system are
, a b c

is given by
1
[ ]
6
V a b c =

(1) A tetrahedron has three of its vertices of its vertices at A, B and C whre

3 2 , 3 ; 2 OA i j OB i j k OC j = + = + − =


. Find the unit vector perpendicular to the face ABC. The
fourth vertex D is such that . 0 . . DA AB DA AC = =

Find the vector equation of AD. If the volume
of the tetrahedron is 3 2 cubic units and D is on the same side as the origin, find the coordinates
of D.
(2) The position vectors of the vertices A, B and C of a tetrahedron ABCD are

, i j k i + +

and 3i

respectively. The altitude from vertex D to the opposite face ABC meets the median line through
A of the triangle ABC at a point E. If the length of the side AD is 4 and the volume of the
tetrahedron is
2 2
3
cubic units, find the position vector of the point E for all its possible
positions.
(3) OABC is a regular tetrahedron. D is the circumcentre of OAB ∆ and E is the middle point of the
edge AC. Use vector method to find distance DE. .
(4) A pyramid with vertex at the point P whose position vector is

4 2 2 3 i j k + +

has a regular
hexagonal base ABCDEF. The points A and B have position vectors i

and

2 i j +

respectively.
The centre of hexagon has position vector

3 i j k + +

. Given that the volume of the pyramid is
6 3 and the perpendicular from the vertex meets the diagonal AD, locate the position vectors of
the foot of this perpendicular.
(5) Let

1 2 3 1 2 3
, a a i a j a k b b i b j b k = + + = + +


and

1 2 3
c c i c j c k = + +

be three non-zero vectors such
that c

is a unit vector perpendicular to both the vectors a

and b

. If the angle between a

and b

is ,
6
π
prove that
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
1
4
a a a
b b b
c c c
= (a
1
2
+ a
2
2
+ a
3
2
) (b
1
2
+ b
2
2
+ b
3
2
)
(6) If , , a b c

are three on-coplanar vectors and r

is any vector in space, then prove that
. . .
( ) ( ) ( )
[ ] [ ] [ ]
r a r a r c
r b c c a a b
a b c a b c a b c
= × + × + ×



(7) If , , a b c

and d

are four vectors, then prove that
(i) ( ).( ) ( ).( ) ( ).( ) 0 a b c d b c a d c a b d × × + × × + × × =

(ii) .[ { )}] [ . ][ ] d a b c d b d a c d × × × =

Tangents and Normals
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES:
(i) The curve y=ax
3
+bx
2
+cx+5 touches the x-axis at P(-2, 0) and cuts the y-axis at the point Q where its
gradient is 3. Find the equation of the curve completely.
(ii) Find the equation of the normal to the curve y= (1=x)
y
+ sin
-1
(sin
2
x)atx=0
(iii) Determine the constant c such that the straight line joining the points (0, 3) and 95, -2) is tangent to
the curve
1
c
y
x
=
+
(iv) Prove that all normal to the curve x=a cost + at sint, y = a sint - at cost
(v) Find the points at which the tangents to the curves y=x
3
– x – 1 and
y=3x
2
– 4x + 1 are parallel. Also, find the equations of tangents.
(vi) Find the equation of the tangent to x
3
= ay
2
at the point A (at
2
, at
3
). Find also the point where this
tangent meets the curve again.
(vii) Tangent at point P
1
(other than (0, 0) on the curve y=x
3
meets the curve again at P
2
. The tangent at P
2
meets the curve at P
3
and so on. Show that the abscissae of P
1
, P
2
, P
3
. ….., P
n
form a GP. Also, find
the ratio
1 2 3
2 3 4
area PP P
area P PP


(viii) For the function F(x) =
0
2 | |
x
t

dt, find the tangent lines which are parallel to the bisector of the angle
in the first quadrant.
(ix) If , α β are the intercepts made on the axes by the tangent at any point of the curve x=a cos
3
θ ,
y=bsin
3
θ , prove that
2 2
2 2
1
a b
α β
+ = .
(x) If x
1
and y
1
be the intercepts on the axes of X an Y cut off by the tangent to the curve
1,
n n
x y
a b
   
+ =
   
   
then prove that
/ 1 / 1
1 1
1.
n n n n
a b
x y
− −
   
+ =
   
   
(xi) Show that the normal to the rectangular hyperbola xy=c
2
at the point P
1
1
,
c
ct
t
 
 
 
meets the curve
again at the point
2
2
,
c
Q ct
t
 
 
 
, if t
1
3
t
2
= -1

ANGLE OF INTERSECTION OF TWO CURVES
The angle of intersection of two curves is defined to be the angle between the tangents to the two curves at
their point of intersection.
ORTHOGONAL CURVES
If the angle of intersection of two curves is a right angle, the two curves are said to intersect orthogonally
and the curves are called orthogonal curves.
If the curves C
1
and C
2
are orthogonal, then φ = / 2 π
∴ m
1
m
2
= -1 ⇒
1 2
1
C C
dy dy
dx dx
   
= −
   
   
EXAMPLES:
(i) Find the acute angle between the curves y = |x
2
–1| and y=|x
2
– 3| at their points of intersection
(ii) Show that the curves x
3
– 3xy
2
= -2 and 3x
2
y-y
3
=2 cut orthogonally.
(iii) Find the acute angles between the curves y = |2x
2
– 4| and y=|x
2
– 5|.
(iv) Show that the curves y
2
=4ax and ay
2
=4x
3
intersect each other at an angle of tan
-1
1
2
and also if PG
1
and PG
2
be the normals to two curves at common point of intersection (other than the origin)
meeting the axis of X in G
1
and G
2
, then
G
1
G
2
= 4a.
LENGTHS OF TANGENT, NORMAL, SUBTANGENT AND SUBNORMAL
Let the tangent and normal at a point P(x, y) on the curve y=f(x), meet the x-axis at T and N respectively. If
G is the foot of the ordinate at P, then TG and GN are called the Cartesian subtangent and subnormal, while
the lengths PT and PN are called the lengths of the tangent and normal respectively.
If PT makes angle Ψ with x-axis, then tanΨ =
dy
dx
. From Fig we find that
Subtangent = TG = y cot
y
dy
dx
Ψ =
 
 
 
Subnormal = GN = y tan
dy
y
dx
Ψ =
Length of the tangent = PT = y cosec Ψ
=
2
1 cot y + Ψ
Theory of Equations
SOME DEFINITIONS
REAL POLYNOMIAL Let a
o
, a
1
, …., a
n
be real numbers and x is a real variable. Then, f(x)=a
0
+ a
1
x+a
2
x
2
+….+a
n
x
n
is called a real polynomial of real variable x with real coefficients.
For example, 2x
3
– 6x
2
+ 11x-6, x
2
-4x+3 etc. are real polynomials.
COMPLEX POLYNOMIAL If a
0
, a
1
, a
2
…..a
n
be complex numbers and x is a varying complex number,
then f(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x+a
2
x
2
+….+a
n-1
x
n-1
+a
n
x
n
is called a complex polynomial or apolynomial of
complex variable with complex coefficients.
POLYNOMIAL EQUATION If f(x) is a polynomial, real or complex, then f(x) = 0 is called a polynomial
equation.
If f(x) is a polynomial of second degree, then f(x) =0 is called a quadratic equation. The general form of a
quadratic equation is ax
2
+bx+c=0, where a, b, c ∈ C, set of all complex numbers, and a ≠ 0.
ROOTS OF AN EQUATION The values of the variable satisfying the given equation are called its roots.
In other words, x = α is a root of the equation f(x)=0, if f(α )=0.
The real roots of an equation f(x)=0 are the x-coordinates of the points where the curve y=f(x) crosses x-
axis.
SOME RESULTS ON ROOTS OF AN EQUATION
The following are some results on the roots of a polynomial equation with rational coefficients:
I An equation of degree n has n roots, real or imaginary
II Surd and imaginary roots always occur in pairs i.e. if 2-3i is a root of an equation,
then 2+3i is also its root. Similarly, if 2 3 + is a root of a given equation, then 2 3 − is also its
roots.
III An odd degree equation has at least one real root, whose sign is opposite to that of its last term
provided that the coefficient of highest degree term is positive.
IV Every equation of an even degree whose constant term is negative and the coefficient of highest
degree term is positive, has at least two reals, one positive and one negative.
POSITION OF ROOTS OF A POLYNOMIAL EQUATION
If f(x) = 0 is an equation and a, b are two real numbers such that f(a) f(b) < 0, then the
equation f(x) = 0 has at least one real root or an odd number of real roots between a and b. In case f(a) and
f(b) are of the same sign, then either no real root or an even number of real roots f(x)=0 lie between a and b.
DEDUCTIONS
1. Every equation of an odd degree has at least one real root, whose sign is opposite to that of its last
term, provided that the coefficient of first term is positive.
2. Every equation of an even degree whose last term is negative and the coefficient of first term
positive, has at least two real roots, one positive and one negative.
3. If an equation has only one change of sign, it has one positive root and no more.
4. If all the terms of an equation are positive and the equation involves no odd powers of x, then all its
roots are complex.
ILLUSTRATION 1 If a, b, c, d ∈ R such that a < b < c < d, then show that the roots of
the equation (x-a)(x-c)+2(x-b)(x-d)=0 are real and distinct.
ROOTS OF A QUADRATIC EQUTION WITH REALCOEFFICIENTS
An equation of the form ax
2
+ bx + c= 0 where a ≠ 0, a, b, c ∈ R is a called a quadratic equation with real
coefficients.
The quantity D=b
2
– 4ac is known as the discriminant of the quadratic equation in (i) whose roots are given
by
2
4
2
b b ac
a
α
− + −
= and
2
4
2
b b ac
a
β
− + −
=
The nature of the roots is as given below:
1. The roots are real and distinct if D > 0.
2. The roots are real and equal if D = 0.
3. The roots are complex with non-zero imaginary part if D < 0.
4. The roots are rational if a, b, c are rational and D is a perfect square.
5. The roots are of the form P + q ( , ) p q Q ∈ if a, b, c are rational and D is not a perfect square.
6. If a = 1, b, c ∈1 and the roots are rational numbers, then these roots must be integers.
7. If a quadratic equation in x has more than two roots, then it is an identity in x that is a = b = c = 0.
COMMON ROOTS
Let a
1
x
2
+ b
1
x+c
1
=0 and a
2
x
2
+ b
2
x+c
2
=0 be two quadratic equation such that a
1
, a
2
≠ 0 and a
1
b
2
≠ a
2
b
1
. Let
α be the common root of these two equations. Then,
2
1 1 1
0 a b c α α + + =
2
2 2 2
0 a b c α α + + =
Eliminatingα , we get
2
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
b c b c c a c a
a b a b a b a b
  − −
=
 
− −
 
SIGN OF A QUADRTIC EXPRESSION
Let f(x) = ax
2
+ bx+c be a quadratic expression, where a, b, c ∈ R and 0. a ≠ In this
section, we shall determine the sign of f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c for real values of x. As the
discriminate of f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c can be positive, zero or negative. So, we shall discuss the following three
cases.
CASE I : When D = b
2
– 4ac < 0
If D < 0, then it is evident from Figs 20.12 and 20.13 that f(x) > 0 iff a > 0 and f(x) < 0 iff a < 0.
CASE II When D = b
2
– 4ac = 0
From Figs, 20.10 and 20.11, we abserve that:
When D = 0, we have
f(x) ≥ 0 iff a > 0 and f(x) ≤ 0 iff a < 0.
CASE III When D = b
2
– 4ac > 0
From Fig. 20.8 and 20.9, we observe the following if D = b
2
– 4ac > 0 and a > 0, then
0
( ) 0
0 ,
for x or x
f x for x
for x
α β
α β
α β
> < > 

< < <


= =

If D = b
2
– 4ac > 0 and a < 0, then
0
( ) 0
0 ,
for x or x
f x for x
for x
α β
α β
α β
< < > 

> < <


=

CONDITION FOR RESOLUTION INTO LINEAR FACTORS
THEOREM: The quadratic function ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx + 2fy+c is resolvable into
linear rational factors if abc+2fgh-af
2
-bg
2
-ch
2
=0 i.e. 0
a h g
h b f
g f c
=
Probability
ELEMENTARY EVENT
If a random experiment is performed, then each of its outcomes is known as an elementary event.
SAMPLE SPACE The set all possible outcomes of a random experiment is called the sample space
associated with it and it is generally denoted by S.
ILLUSTRATION Consider the experiment of tossing two coins together or a coin twice.
In this experiment the possible outcomes are.
Head on first and Head on second
Head on first and Tail on second,
Tail on first and Head on second,
Tail on first and Tail on second.
If we define
HH = Getting head on both coins,
HT = Getting head on first and tail on second
TH = Getting tail on first and head on second,
TT = Getting tail on both coins.
COMPOUND EVENT A subset of the sample space associated to a random experiment is said to define a
compound event if it is disjoint union of single element subsets of the sample space.
NEGATION OF AN EVENT Corresponding to every event A associated with a random experiment we
define an event “not A” which occurs when and only when A does not occur.
PROBABILITY
DEFINITION If there are n elementary events associated with a random experiment and m of them are
favourable to an event A, then the probability of happing or occurrence of A is denoted by P(A) and is
defined as ratio
m
n
.
Thus, P(A) =
m
n
Clearly, 0 m n ≤ ≤ . Therefore,
0 1
m
n
≤ ≤
⇒ 0 ( ) 1 p a ≤ ≤
If p(A) =1, then A is called certain event and A is called an impossible event, if P(A) = 0.
The number of elementary events which will ensure the non-occurrence A i.e. Which ensure the
occurrence of A is (n-m). Therefore.
( )
n m
P A
n

=
= 1
m
n

= 1 – P(A)
⇒ P(A) + P( ) A = 1
The odds in favour of occurrence of the event A are defined by m : (n-m) i.e, P(A) : P( ) A and the
odds against the occurrence of A are defined n-m : m i.e, P( ) A : P(A)
1. An unbiased die, with face numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, is thrown n times and the list of n number showing
up is noted. What is the probability that, among numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, only three numbers appear in
this list?
2. Three six faced die are thrown together. Find the probability that the sum of the numbers appearing on
them is (9 14). k k ≤ ≤
3. In a bag there are three tickets numbered 1, 2, 3. A ticket is drawn at random and put back, and this is
done four times. Find the probability of getting an even number as the sum.
GEOMETRICAL PROBABILITY
1. Two points are taken on a straight line AB of length unity. Prove that the probability that the distance
between them exceeds (0<l<1) is (1-l)
2
.
2. The outcomes of an experiment are represented by points in the square bounded by x=0, y=0, x=2 and
y=2 in the xy plane. If the probability be distributed uniformly, determine the probability that x
2
+ y
2
>
1.
ALGEBRA OF EVENTS
In this section, we shall see how new events can be constructed by combining two or
More events associated to a random experiment.
Let A and B be two events associated to a random experiment with sample space S. We
Define the event “A or B” which is said to occur iff an elementary event favourable to
either A or B or both is an outcome. In other words, the event “A r B” occurs iff either
A or B or both occur i.e. at least one of A and B occurs. Thus, “A or B” is represented
by the subset (( (( ) ( )) ) ( )) P AP A B A B B A B ∩ ∪ ∩ ∪ ∩ of the sample space S.
Give verbal descriptions of some events and their equivalent set theoretic notations for
ready reference.
Verbal description of the event Equivalent set theoretic notation
Not A
A
A or B (at least one of A or B) A B ∪
A and B A ∩B
A but not B
A B ∩
Neither A nor B
A B ∩
At least one of A, B or C A B C ∪ ∪
Exactly one of A and B
( ) ( ) A B A B ∩ ∪ ∩
All three of A, B and C A B C ∩ ∩
Exactly two of A, B and C
( ) ( ) ( ) A B C A B C A B C ∩ ∩ ∪ ∩ ∩ ∪ ∩ ∩
ILLUSTRATION Let A, B and C are three arbitrary events. Find the expression for
the events noted below, in the context of A, B and C.
(i) Only A occurs (ii) Both A and B, but not C occur
(iii) All the three events (iv) At least one occurs
(v) At least two occur (vi) One and no more occurs
(vii) Two and no more occursI(viii) None occurs
(ix) Not more than two occur.
SOLUTION (i) A B C ∩ ∩ (ii) A B C ∩ ∩
(iii) A B C ∩ ∩ I (iv) A B C ∪ ∪
(v) ( ) ( ) ( ) A B B C A C ∩ ∪ ∩ ∪ ∩
(vi) ( ) ( ) ( ) A B C A B C A B C ∩ ∩ ∪ ∩ ∩ ∪ ∩ ∩
(vii) ( ) ( ) ( ) A B C A B C A B C ∩ ∩ ∪ ∩ ∩ ∪ ∩ ∩
(viii) ( A B C A B C ∩ ∩ = ∪ ∪
(ix) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3( ) A B B C A C A B C ∩ ∪ ∩ ∪ ∩ − ∩ ∩
TYPE OF EVENTS
All events associated to a random experiment are divided into different types on the basis of their nature of
occurrence. In this section, we shall discuss those types.
MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE EVENTS: Two or more events associated to a random experiment are
mutually exclusive if the occurrence of one of them prevents or denies the occurrence all others. .
It follows from the above definition that two or more events associated to a random experiment are mutually
exclusive, if there is no elementary event which is favrourable to all the events.
Thus, if two events A and B are mutually exclusive, then ( ) 0 P A B ∩ =
Similarly, if A, B and C are mutually exclusive events, then ( ) 0 P A B C ∩ ∩ = .
EXHAUSTIVE EVENTS Two or more events associated to a random experiment are exhaustive if their
union is the sample space. i.e. events A
1
, A
2
,…., A
n
associated to a random experiment with sample space S
are exhaustive if
1 2
...
n
A A A S ∪ ∪ = .
INDEPENDENT EVENTS Two event A and B associated to a random experiment are independent if the
probability of occurrence or non occurrence of A is not affected by the occurrence or non-occurrence of B.
THEOREM 1 (Addition Theorem for two events) If A and B are two events associated with a random
experiment, then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B P A P B P A B ∪ = + − ∩
COROLLARY If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then there fore
( ) 0, ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B P A B P A P B ∩ = ∪ = + This is the addition theorem for mutually exclusive events.
THEOREM 2 (addition Theorem for three events). If A, B, C are three events associated with a random
experiment, then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B C P A P B P C P A B P B C ∪ ∪ = + + − ∩ − ∩ ( ) ( ) P A C P A B C − ∩ + ∩ ∩
COROLLARY If A, B, C are mutually exclusive events, then ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B P B C P A C ∩ = ∩ = ∩ =
( ) 0 P A B C ∩ ∩ = .
∴ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B C P A P B P C ∪ ∪ = + +
THEOREM 3 Let A and B be two events associated to a random experiment. Then,
(i) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B P B P A B ∩ = − ∩ (ii) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B P A P A B ∩ = − ∩
(iii) (( ) ( )) P A B A B ∩ ∪ ∩ = P(A)+P(B)-2P(A∩B)
THEOREM 4 For any two events A and B, prove that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). P A B P A P A B P A p B ∩ ≤ ≤ ∪ ≤ +
THEOREM 4 For any two events A and B, Prove that the probability that exactly one of A, B occurs is
given by
( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) P A P B P A B P A B P A B + − ∪ = ∪ − ∩
THEOREM 5 If A, B, C are three events, then prove that
(i) P(At least two of A, B, C occur)
= ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) P A B P B C P C A P A B C ∩ + ∩ + ∩ − ∩ ∩
(ii) P (exactly two of A, B, C occur)
= ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 ( ) P A B P B C P A C P A B C ∩ + ∩ + ∩ − ∩ ∩
(iii) P (Exactly one of A, B, C occurs)
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) P A P B P C P A B P B C + + − ∩ − ∩ - 2 ( ) 3 ( ) P A C P A B C ∩ + ∩ ∩
Example. A die is loaded so that the probability of face I is proportional to i, i =1,2,….6. What is the
probability of an even number occurring when the die is rolled?
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY
Let A and B be two events associated with a random experiment. Then, the probability
of occurrence of event A under the condition that B has already occurred and P(B) ≠ 0,
is called the conditional probability and it is denoted by P(A/B). Thus, we have
P(A/B)= Probability of occurrence of A given that B has already occurred.
Similarly, P(B/A) when P(A) ≠ 0 is defined as the probability of occurrence of event B
when A has already occurred.
ILLUSTRATION 1: Let there be a bag containing 5 white and 4 red balls. Two balls
are drawn from the bag one after the other without replacement. Consider the following
events
A = Drawing a white ball in the first draw,
B = Drawing a red ball in the second draw.
Now,
P(B/A) = Probability of drawing a red ball in second draw given that a white ball has
already been drawn in the first draw
= Probability of drawing a red ball from a bag containing 4 white and 4 red
balls.
ILLUSTRATION 2: Two integers are selected at random from integers 1 to 11. If the sum is even, find the
probability that both the numbers are odd.
MULTIPLICATION THEOREMS ON PROBABILITY
In this section, we shall discuss some theorems which are helpful in computing the probabilities of
simultaneous occurrences of two or more events associated with a random experiment.
THEOREM 1 If A and B are two events associated with a random experiment, then
( ) ( ) ( / ), P A B P A P B A ∩ = if P(A) ≠ 0
( ) ( ) ( / ), P A B P B P A B ∩ = if P(B) ≠ 0.
THEOREM 2 (Extension of multiplication theorem) if A
1
, A
2
,….,A
n
are n events associated with a
random experiment, then
1 2 3
( .... )
n
P A A A A ∩ ∩ ∩ =
1 2 1 3 1 2
( ) ( / ) ( / ) P A P A A P A A A ∩
1 2 1
...... ( / .... ),
n n
P A A A A

∩ ∩ ∩ where
1 2 1
( / .... )
i i
P A A A A

∩ ∩ represents the conditional probability of
the occurrence of event A
i,
given that the events A
1
, A
2…
.A
i-1
have already occurred.
1. Suppose n persons are asked a question successively in a random order and exactly 3 of the n persons
know the answer.
(i) If n > 6, find the probability that the first four of those asked do not know the answer.
(ii) Show that the probability that the rth person asked is the fist to know the answer is
3( ) ( 1)
( 1)( 2)
n r n r
n n n
− − −
− −
where 1 2 r n ≤ ≤ −
2. A die loaded so that the probability of throwing the number is proportional to i. Find the probability that
the number 2 has occurred, given that when the die is recalled an even number has turned up.
MORE ON INDEPENDENT EVENTS
In section 40.6, we have defined independent events and we have seen that two events
and B are independent if P(B/A)=P(B) and P(A/B)=P(A).
Also, ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B P A P B ∩ = if A and B are independent events.
In this section, we shall discuss about pair wise independence and mutual independence
of events.
PAIRWISE INDEPENDENT EVENTS: Let A
1
, A
2
, …., A
n
be n events associated to
a random experiment. These events are said to be pair wise independent if
1
( ) ( ) ( )
j i j
P A A P A P A ∩ = for ; , 1, 2..., i j i j n ≠ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ),
i j k i j k
P A A A P A P A P A ∩ ∩ = for ; i j k ≠ ≠ j, k = 1,2,….,n

1 2 1 2
( ..... ) ( ) ( ).... ( )
n n
P A A A P A P A P A ∩ ∩ =
ILLUSTRATION 1 A lot contains 50 defective and 50 non-defective bulbs. Two bulbs
are drawn at random, one at a time, with replacement. The events A, B, C are defined as
A : “the first bulb is defective”,
B : “the second bulb is non-defective”,
C : “the second bulb is non-defective”,
Determine whether (i) A, B, C are pair wise independent,
(ii) A, B, C are mutually independent.
THEOREM If A and B are independent events associated with a random experiment,
then prove that
(i) A and B are independent events (ii) A and B are independent events
(iii) A and B are also independent events
1. For three independent events A, B and C, the probability to A to occur is a, the probability that A, B and
C will not occur is b, and the probability that at last one of thee three events will not occur is c. If p
denotes the probability that c occurs but neither A nor B occurs, prove that p is a root of the equation
ap
2
+ {ab +(1-a)(1-a-c)} p+b(1-a)(1-c)=0 and deduces that
2
(1 )
1
a ab
c
a
− +
>

2. An urn contains five balls alike in every respect except colour. If three of these balls are white and two
are black and we draw two balls at random from this urn without replacing them. If A is the event that
the first ball drawn is white and B the event that the second ball drawn is black, are A and B
independent?
THE LAW OF TOTAL PROBABILITY
THEOREM (Law of total probability) Let S be the sample space and let E
1
, E
2
,….,E
n
be n mutually exclusive and exhaustive events associated with a random experiment. If
A is any event which occurs with E
1
or E
2
or ….or E
n
, then
P(A) = P(E
1
) P(A/E
1
) + P(E
2
) P(A/E
2
) +…..P(E
n
) P(A/E
n
)
1
( ) ( / ).
n
r r
r
P E P A E
=
=

1. Urn contains m white and n black balls. A ball is drawn at random and is put back into the urn along
with k additional balls of the same colour as that of the ball drawn. A ball is again drawn at random.
What is the probability that the ball drawn is now white?
2. An employer sends a letter to his employee but he does not receive the reply (It is certain that the
employee would have replied if he did receive the letter). It is known that one out n letters does not
reach its destination. Find the probability that the employee does not receive the letter.
BAYE’S RULE
THEOREM (Baye’s Theorem) Let S be the sample space and let E
1
, E
2
…, E
n
be n mutually exclusive and
exhaustive events associated with a random experiment. If A is any event which occurs with E
1
or E
2
or….or
E
n
, then
k k
k n
i i
i 1
P(A/ E ).P(E )
P(E / A)
P(A/ E ).P(E )
=
=

1. A company has two plants to manufacture scooters. Plant 1 manufactures 70% of the scooters and Plant
II manufactures 30%. At Plant I, 80% of the scooters are rated as of standard quality and at Plant II,
90% of the scooters are rated as of standard quality A scooter is chosen at random and is found to be of
standard quality. What is the probability that it has come from Plant II?
RANDOM VARIABLE AND ITS PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
DEFINITION Let S be the sample space associated with a given random experiment.
Then a real valued function X which assigns to each even w S ∈ to a unique real
number X (w) is called a random variable. .
In other words, a random variable is a real valued function having domain as the
sample space associated with a random experiment.
MEAN AND VARIANCE OF A RANDOM VARIABLE
MAEN If X is discrete random variable which assumes values x
1
, x
2
, x
3
,….,x
n
with
respective probabilities p
1
, p
2
, p
3
,….,p
n
, then the mean X of X is defined as
X = p
1
x
1
+ p
2
x
2
+…..+p
n
x
n
or,
1
n
i i
i
X p x
=
=

VARIANCE If X is a discrete random variable which assumes values x
1
, x
2
, x
3
,…, x
n
With the respective probabilities p
1
, p
2
, ….,p
n
, then variance of X is defined as
Var (X) =
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) .... ( )
n n
p x X p x X p x X − + − + + − ……
2
( )
n n
p x X + −
2
1
( ) ,
n
i i
i
p x X
=
= −

Where
1
n
i i
i
X p x
=
=

is the mean of X.
Now,
2
2
1
n
i i
i
p x X
=
= −

BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION A random variable X which takes values 0. 1, 2,.., n is said to follow
binomial distribution if its probability distribution function is given by
P(X = r) = , 0,1, 2,.... ,
n r n r
r
C p q r n

= where p, q > 0 such that p + q = 1
1. An urn contains 25 balls of which 10 balls bear a mark ‘A’ and the remaining 15 balls bear a mark ‘B’.
A ball is drawn at random from the urn, its mark is noted down and it is replaced. If 6 balls are drawn in
this way, find the probability that
(i) all will bear ‘A’ marked
(ii) not more than 2 will bear ‘B’ mark
(iii) then number of balls with ‘A’ mark and ‘B’ mark will be equal
(iv) at least one ball will bear ‘B’ mark
2. Numbers are selected at random one at a time, from the numbers 00, 01, 02,…, 99 with replacement. An
event A occurs if the product of the two digits of the selected number is 18. If four numbers are
selected, find the probability that A occurs at lest 3 time.
Areas of Bounded Regions
THEOREM Let f(x) be a continuous function defined on [a, b]. Then, the area bounded by the curve
y=f(x), the x-axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b is given by
( ) ,
b
a
b
f x dx or y dx
a


The area bounded by the curve x = f(y), the y axis and the abscissae y = c and y = d is given by
( ) ,
d
c
d
f y dy or x dy
c


(1) Let f(x) = maximum {x
2
, (1-x)
2
, 2x(1-x)}. Determine the area of the region bounded by the curve
y=f(x), x-axis, x = 0 and x = 1.
(2) Let f(x) be defined by f(x) = max (4sinx, 4-2 sinx), 0≤x≤2π . Draw a sketch of y=f(x) and compute
the area bounded by the curves y=f(x), the y-axis, the x-axis and the ordinate at x = 2π .
(3) Find the area lying on the same side of the axis of x, as the positive part of the axis of y and which is
contained by y
2
= 4ax, x
2
+ y
2
= 2ax and x=y + 2a..
Complex Numbers
COMPLEX NUMBER:
If a, b are two real numbers, then a number of the form a+ib is called a complex number.
A complex number z is purely real if its imaginary part is zero i.e. Im(z)=0 and purely imaginary if
its real part is zero i.e. Re (z) = 0.
SET OF COMPLEX NUMBERS: The set of all complex numbers is denoted by C
I.e. C = {a + ib | a, b ∈ R}.
Since a real number ‘a’ can be written as a+0 i, therefore every real number is a complex number.
Hence, ⊂ » », where » is the set of all real numbers.
DEFINITION: Two complex numbers z
1
= a
1
+ ib
1
and z
2
= a
2
+ ib
2
are equal if a
1
= a
2
and b
1
= b
2
i.e.
Re (z
1
) = Re (z
2
) and Im(z
1
) = Im(z
2
).
POLAR FORM OF z = x + iy FOR DIFFERENT SIGNS OF x and y.
Let | z | = r and be the acute angle given by
1
tan
y
x

 
 
 
. Let θ be the argument of z.
CASE I Polar form of z = x + iy when x > 0 and y > 0 : In this case, we have θ α = . So, the polar form of
z = x + iy is r(cosα + isinα ).
CASE II Polar form of z = x + iy when x < 0 and y > 0 : In this case, we have θ π α = − . So the polar form
of z=x+iy is [cos( ) sin( ) r i π α π α − + − or, ( cos sin ) r i α α − +
CASE III Polar form of z = x +iy when x < 0 and y < 0 : In this case, we have ( ). θ π α = − − So, the polar
form of z is [cos( ) sin( ( ))] r i π α π α − + − − or [ cos sin ) r i α α − −
CASE IV Polar form of z=x+iy when x > 0 and y<0 : In this case, we have θ α = − So, the polar form of z
is [cos( ) sin( )] r i α α − + − or, [cos sin ] r i α α −
ILLUSTRATION1 Write the following complex numbers in the polar form:
(i) 3 2 3 2i − + (ii) 1 + i (iii) -1 - i (iv) 1 - i
EXAMPLE 1: If z
1
z
1
and z
2
are complex numbers, prove that:
(i) arg ( ) z = - arg(z). In general, arg ( ) z =2 arg( ) n z π −
(ii) arg (z
1
z
2
) = arg(z
1
)+arg(z
2
) (iii) arg
1 2
( ) z z =arg(z
1
)-arg(z
2
)
(iv) arg
1
1 2
2
arg( ) arg( )
z
z z
z
 
= −
 
 
EXAMPLE 3:
(i) If z
1
and z
2
are two computers such both of them satisfy the relation
1
2
z
z
⇔ and arg(z
1
-z
2
) = , then
4
π
find the imaginary part of (z
1
+ z
2
).
(ii) If z is a complex number satisfying |z-1|=1, then prove that
2
tan{arg( )}
z
i z
z

=
(iii) If z is a complex number such that
2
arg ,
2 4
z
a
z
π −  
=
 
+
 
then prove that |z-2i|= 2 2
(iv) Number such that
1
2
4
z z
z z
π   −
=
 
+
 
arg, then prove that |z-7-9i|=3 2
THEOREM 1: If z
1
, z
2
, z
3
are the affixes of the points A, B, and C in the Arg and plane, then
(i)
3 1
2 1
arg
z z
BAC
z z
  −
∠ =
 

 
(ii)
3 1 3 1
2 1 2 1
| |
| |
z z z z
z z z z
− −
=
− −
where BAC α = ∠
THEOREM 2: If z
1
, z
2
, z
3
and z
4
are the affixes of the points A, B, C and D respectively in the Arg and
plane. Then, AB is inclined to CD at the angle.
arg
2 1
4 3
z z
z z
  −
 

 
(i) Prove that the triangle whose vertices are the points z
1
, z
2
, z
3
on the Argand plane is an equilateral
triangle if and only if
2 3 3 1 1 2
1 1 1
0
z z z z z z
+ + =
− − −
(ii) Let z
1
, z
2
, z
3
be three distinct complex numbers satisfying |z
1
-1| = |z
2
-1| = |z
3
-1|. Let A, B and C
be the points in the Arg and plane representing z
1
, z
2
and z
3
respectively. Prove that z
1
+ z
2
+ z
3
= 3 if and
only if ABC ∆ is an equilateral triangle.
THEOREM : The equation of a circle described on a line segment joining A(z
1
) and B(z
2
) as diameter is
1 2 2 1
( )( ) ( )( ) 0 z z z z z z z z − − + − − =
EXAMPLE 3
(i) A point z moves in the Arg and plane such that arg(z-2-i)=
4
π
. Find the path traced
by
1
.
z
(ii) Let z
1
= 10 + 6i and z
2
= 4+2i be two complex numbers and z be a complex numbers such that arg
1
2
.
4
z z
z z
π   −
=
 

 
Find the centre and radius of the locus of complex number z.
De’ MOIVERE’S THEOREM
STATEMENT:
(i) If n Z ∈ (the set of integers), then (cosθ +isinθ )
n
=cosnθ +isinnθ
(ii) If n Q ∈ (the set of rational numbers), then cosnθ +isinnθ is one of the values of (cosθ +isinθ )
n
.
(1) If z=x+iy is a complex number with rational x and y and |z|=1, show that |z
2n
-1| is a rational number
for everyn N ∈ .
(2) Form an equation whose roots are
2 2 2
2 3 2
sin , sin , sin ,..., sin
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
n
n n n n
π π π π
+ + + +
ROOTS OF A COMPLEX NUMBER
let z = a + ib be a complex number, and let r (cos+isin) be the polar form of z. Then by De moivere’s
theorem
1/
cos sin
n
r i
n n
θ θ      
+
     
     
is one of the values of z
1/n
. Here, we shall show that z
1/n
has n distinct
values. We know that cos sin cos(2 ) sin(2 ), i m i m θ θ π θ π θ + = + + +
m=0, 1, 2, .... So,
1/ 1/ 1/
[cos(2 ) sin(2 ]
n n n
z r m i m π θ π θ = + + + =
1/
2 2
cos sin
n
m m
r i
n n
π θ π θ + +  
+
 
 
Now by giving m the values 0, 1, 2, ..., (n - 1); we shall obtain distinct values of z
1/n
.
For the values m = n, n+1, ...., the valuesof z
1/n
will repeat for example, if m=n,then
1/ 1/
2 2
cos sin
n n
n n
z r i
n n
π θ π θ + +  
= +
 
 
1/
cos sin
n
r i
n n
θ θ  
= +
 
 
which is same as the value obtained by taking m=0. On taking m=n+1, the value comes out to be
identical with corresponding to m=1, Hence, z
1/n
has n distinct values.
(i)
3 5 1
cos cos cos
7 7 7 8
π π π
= − (ii)
3 5 7
cos cos cos
4 14 14 8
π π π
=
ROOTS OF UNITY
In this section, we shall obtain various order roots of unity by using De’ Moivere’s theorem. We
shall also learn about some poperties of these roots.
nth ROOTS OF UNITY : Let z = 1
1/n
. Then, z = (cos0
o
+ isin0
o
0
1/n

1/
(cos 2 sin 2 ) ,
n
z r i r Z π π = + ∈
2 2
cos sin , 0,1, 2,..., ( 1)
r r
z i r n
n n
π π
= + = −
[Using De’ Moivere’s
2 1
1, , ,...., ,
n
α α α

where
2 /
2 2
cos sin
i n
e i
n n
π
π π
α = = +
PROPERTIES OF nTH ROOTS OF UNITY
(i) nth roots of unity form a G.P. With common ratio
2 / i n
e
π
(ii) Sum of nth roots of unity is always zero
(iii) Sum of pth power of nth roots of unity is zero, if P is not a multiple of n.
(iv) Sum of pth powers of nth roots of unity is n, if p is a multiple of n.
(v) Product of nth roots of unity is (-1)
n-1

(vi) nth roots of unity lie on the unit circle | z | = 1 and divide its circumference into n equal parts.
EXAMPLE 1
(i) If
1
1 2
1, , ,....,
n
α α α

are the nth roots of unity then prove that
(i)
1 2 1
(1 )(1 )....(1 ) 1,
n
α α α

+ + + = if n is an odd natural number
(ii)
1 2 1
(1 )(1 )....(1 ) 0,
n
α α α

+ + + = if n is an even natural number.
(ii) If
1 2 3 4
1, , , , α α α α are the roots of the equation x
5
-1=0, then prove that
1 2
2 2
1 2
, .
ω α ω α
ω α ω α
− −
− −
3 4
2 2
3 4
,
ω α ω α
ω
ω α ω α
− −
=
− −
Continuity and Differentiability
CONTINUITY AT A POINT
A function f(x) is said to be continuous at a point x = a of its domain, if lim ( ) ( ) f x f a
x a
=

CONTINUITY ON AN OPEN INTERVAL
A function f(x) is said to be continuous on an open interval (a, b) if it is continuous at every point on the
interval (a, b).
CONTINUITY ON A CLOSED INTERVAL:
A function f(x) is said to be continuous on a closed interval [a, b] if
(i) f is continuous on the open interval (a, b)
(ii) lim ( ) ( ) f x f a
x a
+
=

(and) (iii) lim ( ) ( ) f x f b
x b

=

In other words, f(x) is continuous on [a, b] if it is continuous on (a, b) and it is continuous at a from
the right and at b from the left.
PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
(I) If f, g are two continuous functions at a point a of their common domain D, then f ± g, fg are
continuous at a and if g(a) ≠ 0, then f/g is also continuous at a.
(II) If f is continuous at a and f(a) ≠ 0, then there exists an open interval
(a-δ , a+δ ) such that for all ( , ), ( ) x a a f x δ δ ∈ − + has the same sign as f (a)
(III) If a function f is continuous on a closed interval [a, b], then it is bounded on
[a, b] i.e there exist real numbers k and K such that ( ) k f x K ≤ ≤ for all [ , ]. x a b ∈
(IV) If f is a continuous function defined on [a, b] such that f (a) and f(b) are of opposite signs, then there
exists at least one solution of the equation f(x) = 0 in the open interval (a, b)
(V) If f is continuous on [a, b], then f assumes atleast once, every value between its minimum and
maximum values i.e. if K is any real number between minimum and maximum values of f(x), then
there exists at least one solution of the equation f(x) = K in the open interval (a, b).
(VI) If f is continuous on [a, b] and maps [a, b] into [a, b], then for some [ , ] x a b ∈ we have f(x) = x.
(VII) If g is continuous at a and f is continuous at g(a), the fog is continuous at a.
(1) A function is defined as follows
1
sin , 0
( )
0, 0
m
x x
f x x
x
¦ | |

¦
]
=
\ ¹ ´
¦
=
¹
What condition should be imposed on m so
that f(x) may be continuous at x = 0 ?
(2) If f(x) = min {|x|, |x-2, 2-|x-1|}, draw the graph of f(x) and discuss its continuity and differentiability.
(3) If f(x) = x
2
– 2 |x| and
{ ( ) : 2 , 2 0}
( )
{ ( ) : 0 , 0 3}
Min f t t x x
g x
Max f t t x x
− ≤ ≤ − < 

≤ ≤ ≤ ≤

(i) Draw the graph of f(x) and discuss its continuity and differentiability.
(ii) Find and draw the graph of g(x). Also, discuss the continuity and
differentiability of g(x).
(4) If
1
3
cos3
cos ,
cos
x
y
x

= then show that
3
cos cos3
dy
dx x x
=
Differential Equations
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: An equation containing an independent variable, dependent variable and
differential coefficients of dependent variable with respect to independent variable is called a differential
equation.
GENERAL SOLUTION: The solution which contains as many as arbitary constants as the order of the
differential equation is called the general solution of the differential equation.
PARTICULAR SOLUTION: Solution obtained by giving particular values to the arbitrary constants in the
general solution of a differential equation is called a particular r solution.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
(1) Obtain the differential equation of all circles of radius r.
(2) find the differential equation of all the circles in the first quadrant which touch the coordinate axes.
(3) Find the differential equation of all conics whose center lies at the origin.
Solve the following differential equations by inspection method
(4)
3
( ) cos ( )
x
ydx xdy xy xdy ydx
y
 
− = +
 
 
(5)
2 2 2
3
cos ( ) xdx ydy x x y
ydx xdy y
+ +
=

(6) xdy-ydx = (x
2
+ y
2
) dx
LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE FORM
dx
Rx S
dy
+ =
Sometimes a linear differential equation can be put in the form
,
dx
Rx S
dy
+ =
Where R and S are functions of y or constants.
Note that y is independent variable and x is a dependent variable
The following algorithm is used to solve these types of equations
ALGORITHM
STEP I Write the differential equation in the form
dx
Rx S
dy
+ = and obtain R and S.
STEP II Find I.F by using I.F. =
e
∫ R dy
STEP III Multiply both sides of the differential equation in step I by I. F.
STEP IV Integrate both sides of the equation obtained is step III w.r.t y to obtain the solution given by
x(I.F.) = ∫ S(I.F) dy + C
Where C is the constant of integration. Following examples illustrate the procedure.
(1) Solve y dx – (x + 2y
2
)dy = 0
(2) If y
1
and y
2
are the solutions of the differential equation
dy
Py Q
dx
+ = , where P and Q are functions
of x alone and y
2
= y
1
z, then prove that z = 1 + C
1
Q
e dx
y

∫ , where C is an arbitrary constant.
(3) Let u(x) and v(x) satisfy the differential equation ( ).
da
P x
dx
+ u=f(x) and
dv
dx
+p(x). v=g(x)
respectively where p(x), f(x) and g(x) are continuous functions. If u(x
1
) > v(x
1
) for some x
1
and f(x)
> g(x) for all x > x
1
, prove that any point (x, y), where
x > x
1
, does not satisfy the equation y=u(x) and y = v(x).
EQUATIONS REDUCIBLE TO LINEA FORM BERNOULLI’S DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
The equations of the form
n
dy
Py Qy
dx
+ = Where P and Q are constants or functions of x alone and n
is a non-zero constant other than unity, are known as Bernoulli’s equations.
(1) Solve
dy
dx
+xsin2y = x
3
cos
2
y (2) Solve
2
2
log (log )
dy y y
y y
dx x x
+ =
Solve each of the following differential equations:
(3)
3
dy y
y
dx x
+ (4) 2
dy
y
dx
− secx = y
3
tanx
(5)
2 x
dy y
xe y
dx x
+ = (6)
3
2 1/ 2
( ) 0
x
xy e dx x y dy − − =
EQUATIONS SOLVABLE FOR Y
If the given differential equation is expressible in the form ( , ) y f x p = then we say that it is solvable for y.
Differentiating (i) with respect to x, we get , , ,
dy dp dp
f x p or p f x p
dx dx dx
   
= =
   
   
This equation contain two variables x and p. Solving this equation, we obtain
( , , ) 0 x p c φ =
The solution of differential equation (i) is obtained by eliminating p
between (i) and (iii).
Following examples will illustrate the above procedure.
(1) Solve the differential equation y=(1+p)x+ap
2
, where P=
dy
dx
.
(2) Solve the differential equation x
2
p
2
+ xyp – 6y
2
= 0
(3) A right circular cone with radius R and height H contains a liquid which evaporates at a rate
proportional to its surface area in contact with air (proportionally constant = k > 0).
Functions
INTERVALS:
Let a and b two given real numbers such that a < b. Then the set of all real numbers x such that a x b ≤ ≤ is
called a closed interval and is denoted by [a, b].
i.e. [a, b] = {x ∈ r |a ≤ x≤b}
For example, [1, 2] = {x ∈ R| 1 ≤ x ≤ 2} i.e., the set of all real numbers lying between 1 and 2, including
the end points.
OPEN INTERVAL: Let a and b be two given real numbers such that a < b. Then the set of all real numbers
x such that a ≤ x b is called a closed interval and is denoted by (a, b).
i.e (a, b) = {x ≤ R | a ≤ x ≤ b}
REAL FUNCTION:
If the domain and co-domain of a function are subsets R9st of all real numbers). It is called a real valued
function or in short a real function.
EXAMPLES:
(i) If for non-zero x, a f(x) +b f
1
x
 
 
 
=
1
x
-5, where a b ≠ then find f(x).
(ii) Let g : R R → be given by g(x) = 4x + 3. If ( ) .... ( ),
n
n times
g x gogog og x

= show that
g
n
(x) = 4
n
x + (4
n
-1).
If g
-n
(x) denotes the inverse of g
n
(x), prove that ( ) 4 (4 1)
n n n
g x x
− − −
= + −
for all x ∈R.
DOMAIN: Generally real functions in calculus are described by some formula and their domains are not
explicitly stated. In such cases to find the domain of a function f (say) we use the fact that domain is the set
of all real numbers x for which f (x) is a real number.
In other words, determining the domain of a function f means finding all real numbers x for which
f(x) is real. For example, if f(x) = 2 , x − then f(x) is real for all
x ≤ 2. For x > 2, f(x) is not real. So, domain of f(x) is the set of all real numbers less than or equal to 2 i.e. (-
∞, 2]
EXAMPLE: Find the domain and range of function
1
( )
2 cos3
f x
x
=

.
SOME STANDARD REAL FUNCTIONS
CONSTANT FUNCTION: Let k be a fixed real number. Then a function f(x) given by f(x) =k for all
x R ∈ is called a constant function.
GREATEST INTEGER FUNCTION: For any real number x, we denote [x], the greatest integer less than
or equal to x.
PROPERTIES OF GREATEST INTEGER FUNCTION:
If n is an integer and x is any real number between n and n+1, then the greatest integer function has the
following properties :
(i) [-n] = -[n] (ii) [x + n] = [x] + n (iii) [-x] =-[x]-1
(iv) [x]=[-x]=
1,
0 ,
if x Z
if x Z
− ∉ 



(v)
2[ ] ,
2[ ] 1,
x if x Z
x if x Z
∈ 

+ ∉

(vi) [x] ≥ n ⇒ x≥n, where n ∈ Z (vii) [x] ≤n ⇒ x < n + 1, n∈Z
(viii) [x] > n ⇒ x ≥n + 1, n∈Z (ix) [x] < n ⇒x < n, n∈Z
(x) [x+y] = [x] + [y=X-[X]] for all x, y ∈ R.
(xi) [x] +
1 2 1
....
n
x x x
n n n
−      
+ + + + + +
     
     
=[nx], n ∈ N
(1) If [x] and [x] denote respectively the fractional and integral parts of a real number
x. Solve the equation 4[x] = x+[x]
(2) I f[x] and [x] denote the fractional and integral parts of x and (x) is defined as
follows
2[ ] [ ], 0
( )
[ ] 3[ ], 0
x x x
x
x x x
− < 

+ ≥

then solve the equation : (x) = x + {x}
SIGNUMFUNCTION:
The function defined by f(x) =
| |
, 0
0 , 0
x
x
x
x





=

(Or) f(x) =
1, 0
0 , 0
0 , 0
x
x
x
> 

=


=

is called signum function.
RECIPROCAL FUNCTION: The function that associates each nonzero real number x to its reciprocal 1/x
is called the reciprocal function.
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION: If ‘a’ is a positive real number, then the function that associates every
positive real number to log
a
x i.e. f(x) = log
a
x is called the logarithmic function.
EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION: If a is positive real number, then the function which associates every real
number x to a
x
i.e. f(x) = a
x
is called the exponential function.
SQUARE ROOT FUNCTION: The function that associates every positive real number x to + x is called
the square root function, i.e., f(x) = + x .
POLYNOMIAL FUNCTION: A function of the form f(x) = a
o
x
n
+a
1
x
n-1
+…+a
n-1
x+a
n
, where a
o
, a
1
, a
2
,
…..a
n
are real numbers, a
o
≠ 0 and n N ∈ , is called polynomial function of degree n.
The domain of a polynomial function is always R.
RATIONAL FUNCTION: A function of the form f(x) =
( )
,
( )
P x
q x
where p(x) and q(x) are polynomials and
q(x) ≠ 0, is called a rational function.
SUM Let f and g be two real functions with domain D
1
and D
2
respectively. Then, we define their sum f + g
as that function from D
1
∩ D
2
to R which associates each
1 2
x D D ∈ ∩ to the number f(x) + g(x).
Thus, f+g: D1 ∩ D
2
→ R such that (f+g) (x) =f(x) + g(x) for all
1 2
x D D ∈ ∩ .
Similarly, we define the difference, product and quotient as follows:
DIFFERENCE f-g : D
1
∩ D
2
→ R such that (f-g) 9x) = f(x) –g(x) for all x ∈ D
1
∩ D
2
PRODUCT
1 2
: fg D D R ∩ → such that (fg) (x)=f9x0 g(x) for all
1 2
x D D ∈ ∩
QUOTIENT
1 2
: { | ( ) 0}
f
D D x g x R
g
∩ − = → such that
( )
( )
( )
f f x
x
g g x
 
=
 
 
for all
1 2
{ | ( ) 0}. x D D x g x ∈ ∩ − =
SCALAR MULTIPLE for any real number c, the function cf is defined by
(cf) (x) = c.f(x) for all x ∈ D
1
.
REMARK Note that the above operations are defined here are true only for real functions. For general
functions from one set to another, these do not make sense.
COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONS: Let f and g be two functions with domain D
1
and D
2
respectively. If
range (f) ⊂ domain g (g), we define gof by the rule
(gof) (x) = g(f(x)) for all x ∈D
1.
Also, if range (g) ⊂domain (f), we define fog by the rule (fog) (x) = f(g(x)) for all
2
x D ∈
It follows from the above discussion that if f(x) and g(x) are two real functions with domains D
1
and
D
2
respectively. Then
(i) Domain of
1 2
( ) f g D D ± = ∩ (ii) Domain of
1 2
( ) fg D D = ∩
(iii) Domain of
1 2
{ | 9 ) 0}
f
D D x g x
g
 
= ∩ − =
 
 
(1) For what real values of ‘a’ does the range of the function
2
1
( )
1
x
f x
a x

=
− +
not contain any values
belonging to the interval [-1, -1/3] ?
(2) For what real values of ‘a’ does the range of the function f(x) =
2
1
1
x
x a

− −
not attain any value from the
interval [-1, 1]?
Fin the domains of definition of the following functions:
PERIODIC FUNCTIONS:
PERIOD If f(x) is a periodic function, then the smallest positive real number T is called the period or
fundamental period of function f(x) if.
F(x+T) = f(x) for all . x R ∈
(1) Prove that the function (x) = x-[x] is a periodic function. Also find its period.
(2) Let f(x) be a real valued function with domain R such that
f(x + p) = 1+[2-3 f(x) + 3 (f(x))
2
– (f(x))
3
]
1/3
hold good for all . x R ∈ and some positive constant p, then
prove that f(x) is a periodic function.
SOME USEFUL RESULTS ON PERIODIC FUNCTIONS
RESULT 1 If f(x) is a periodic function with periodic. T and a, b, ∈ R such that 0 a ≠ , then af(x) + b is
periodic with period T.
RESULT 2 If f(x) is a periodic function with period T and a, b ∈ R such that a ≠ 0, then f(ax+b0 is periodic
with period T |a|.
RESULT 3 Let f(x) and g(x) be two periodic functions such that :
Period of f(x) = ,
m
n
where m, n ∈ N and m, n are co-prime.
and,
Period of g(x) =
r
s
, where r N ∈ and s N ∈ are coprime 3
Then, (f+g) (x) is periodic with period T given by T =
( , )
,
( , )
LCM of m r
HCF of n s
provided that there does not
exist a positive number k < T for which f(k+x) = g (x) and g(k=x)=f(x), else k will be the period of (f+g)
(x).
EXAMPLE Prove that f(x) = sin
-1
(sinx) is a periodic function
EVEN FUNCTIONS A function f(x) is said to be an even function if f(-x) = f(x)
for all x.
ODD FUNCTION A function f(x) is said to be an odd function if (-x) = -f(x) for all x.
(1) If f is an even function defined on the interval [-5, 5], then find the real values of
x satisfying the equation f(x) = f
1
2
x
x
+  
 
+
 
.
(2) Extend f(x) = x
2
+ x defined in [0, 3] onto the interval [-3, 3] so that f(x)
(i) even (ii) odd.