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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Tonnage Factor Basic Principles of Ore Reserve Calculation Sample Weighting Mining Dilution Calculation by Polygons Cutoff Grade Calculation

Tonnage Factor The tonnage factor provides the mechanism for the conversion from volume of ore to weight of ore. In the English system, the tonnage factor is normally expressed as cubic feet per ton of ore. In the metric system, the tonnage factor is the specific gravity of the ore. Probably the most accurate method of determining specific gravity of an ore is to calculate an average specific gravity using the specific gravities of individual minerals (Table 4), provided the relative percentages of ore minerals present are accurately known. For example, if a massive sulfide ore is 10% galena, 35% sphalerite, and 55% pyrite, the specific gravity would be: 7.6 * 0.10 = 0.76 4.1 * 0.35 = 1.44 5.0 * 0.55 = 2.75 4.95 = sp gr of ore

If the ore volume has been computed in cubic meters, the volume multiplied by the specific gravity is the tonnage in metric tons directly.

Basic Principles of Ore Reserve Calculation All methods for the calculation of ore reserves make use of two basic principles: 1) Samples taken close to each other are likely to have the same value. 2) Average grades are calculated using some form of a weighted average:

Sample Weighting

Average grade =

= 7.2 % Pb

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Mining Dilution

Using the previous example, assume that the minimum mining width is 3 ft. in order to accommodate the mines extraction equipment. Assume that the density of vein material is 9 ft3/ton and the density of the wallrock is 12 ft3/ton. Table 3 shows the pertinent calculations, for determining dilution under these conditions.

Table 3. Calculation of dilution from mining width. Sample SI S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 L 6.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 10.0 5.0 Wo 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.3 2.0 2.6 Ww 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.7 1.0 0.4 LxWo 18.00 18.75 30.00 28.75 20.00 13.00 LxWw 0.00 3.75 0.00 8.75 10.00 2.00

Weight of vein material per vertical foot: 128.5 ft2 * 1 ft * 1 ton/ 9 ft3= 14.28 tons Weight of dilution per vertical foot: 24.5 ft2 * 1 ft * 1 ton/12 ft3 = 2.04 tons Weight of combined material: 14.28 + 2.04 = 16.32 tons per vertical ft. mined at 3.0 wide Lead grade = (%Pbi * tonsi)/ tonsi = [(7.2% Pb * 14.28)+(0.0% Pb * 2.04)]/16.32 = 6.3 % Pb Some operators would consider the dilution to be 2.04 tons waste / 14.28 ton vein material = 14.3% While others would consider it to be 2.04 tons waste / 16.32 tons product = 12.5%

Calculation by Polygons

Original definitions were related to vein type deposits: Proved: Blocked out (sampled) on four sides by mine workings and surface exposures. Probable: Blocked out on two or three sides

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Handbook for Small Mining Enterprises, Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology, 1976, PG. 36

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Cutoff Grade Calculation Break-even grade the grade at which the mineral resource can no longer be mined and processed at a profit. Cutoff grade similar to break-even grade but for some reason may be set at a point other than the break-even grade. Mineralization below cutoff grade is not considered ore. For most practical purposes the cutoff grade and the break-even grade are the same.

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The operating costs for a gold mine are 55 $/ton. The recovery at the mill is 90%. At a gold price of $400/oz, what is the break- even cutoff grade in oz Au/ton? The cost per ton is given as $55/ton. The mill will recover 90% of the contained Au. Therefore, 1 ton of ore yields G*0.9 oz Au, where G is the ore grade in oz Au/ton. At a gold price of $400/oz, the revenue per ton is $400 * G * 0.9. The cutoff grade G can now be calculated from the equation: Revenue/ton = cost/ton $400/oz Au * G * 0.9 = $55/ton, G = 0.15 oz Au /ton

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The operating costs for a gold mine are 55 $/ton. The recovery at the mill is 90% and the mining dilution is 10%. At a gold price of $400/oz, what is the break-even cutoff grade in oz Au/ton? One ton of run-of-mine ore at 10% dilution contains 0.9 tons of ore and 0.1 tons of waste. The mill will recover 90% of the contained Au. Therefore, 1 ton yields G*0.9*0.9 oz Au. The cutoff grade G can be calculated from the equation: Revenue/ton = cost/ton $400/oz Au * G * 0.9 *0.9 = $55/ton, G = 0.17 oz Au /ton

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Cutoff Grade Calculation, Example 3 The operating costs for a gold mine are 55 $/ton. The recovery at the mill is 90%. The smelting and refining costs are $10/ oz Au. At a gold price of $400/oz, what is the break-even cutoff grade in oz Au/ton? The mill will recover 90% of the contained Au. Therefore, 1 ton of ore yields G*0.9 oz Au, where G is the ore grade in oz Au/ton. The refining cost is $10/oz Au. At a gold price of $400/oz, the revenue per ton is ($400-$10)oz Au * G * 0.9.

The cutoff grade G can be calculated from the equation: Revenue/ton = cost/ton ($400/oz Au -$10/oz Au) * G * 0.9 = $55/ton, G = 0.16 oz Au /ton

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