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Pronouns

Pronoun is a word that stands for a noun and does the function of a noun. It is used instead of a noun. The noun it refers to is called an antecedent. Ex: (1) Raju did not go to the office because he was ill. Antecedent Pronoun

(2) The boys are playing. They will be the winners. Antecedent Pronoun

There are nine types of pronouns. They are 1. Personal Pronoun 6. Interrogative Pronoun 2. Reflexive Pronoun 7. Distributive Pronoun 3. Emphatic Pronoun 8. Reciprocal Pronoun 4. Demonstrative Pronoun 9. Relative Pronoun 5. Indefinite Pronoun

1. Personal Pronouns
Personal pronoun refers to the pronouns that come under the three persons in grammar. First person stands for the speaker. Second person stands for the person spoken to. Third person stands for the person spoken of. Function Nominative case (subject) Objective case (object) Genitive case Possessive Adjective Possessive pronoun Reflexive Pronoun First person Singular Plural I We Me Us Second person Singular Plural You You You You Third person Singular Plural He, She, It They Him, Her, It Them

My Mine Myself

Our Your Ours Yours Ourselves Yourself

Your His, Her, Its Yours Hers Yourselves Himself, Herself, Itself

Their Theirs Theirselves

Possessive Adjectives my, our, your, his, her, its and there are used before a noun. They never stand alone.

Ex: 1. Their father has arrived. 2. Her husband is not at the office. Possessive pronouns mine, ours, yours, hers and theirs are usually used after a noun. They can stand all alone. So they are used as a subject of a sentence, object of a verb, object of a preposition and the subject of an infinitive. Ex: Subject of a sentence: 1. His dog is small. Yours is very big. 2. My hair is grey. Hers is dark. Object of a verb: 1. He lost his pen and so I lent him mine. 2. I can give his money first and then theirs. Object of preposition: 1. I prefer your company to theirs. 2. We got no letter except yours. Subject of an Infinitive: 1. My brothers son has gone to the states, but I dont want mine to go. 2. Raju got his car painted. We want our too.

The forms yours, ours, hers, its and theirs have no apostrophe. But when it is, it has are contracted we use its. When two singular nouns are connected by and, but refer to the same person the pronoun should be singular. But when they represent different persons, the pronoun should be in the plural. Ex: 1. My uncle and my guardian have reached the station at the right time. 2. The secretary and the treasurer were asked to submit their report at their own expense. 3. The collector and the District Magistrate sent in their resignations. (All the above three sentences have plural pronouns)

1. My uncle and guardian gave his permission to my plan. 2. The secretary and treasurer has submitted her report. 3. The collector and District Magistrate was Mr. Sasthri. (All the above three sentences have singular pronouns) When two singular nouns are connected by and, preceded by each or every the pronoun must be singular. Ex: 1. Each man and each boy cast his vote for his party. 2. Every General and every Admiral did his duty well.

When two singular nouns are joined by either or, neithernor the following pronouns should be singular. But when a singular noun and a plural noun are joined by eitheror, neithernor the pronoun should be in the plural. Ex: 1. Hari or Govind may bring his book. 2. Either Rani or rohini will write her letter. 3. Neither Raju nor Ram took his food today. (Pronoun is in the singular) 4. Neither the manager nor his assistants completed their work. 5. Either the Minister or his sons have to visit their areas. (Pronoun is plural) Usually object pronouns me, him, her, them etc are used after than, when there is no verb.; Ex: 1. Raju is older than me. 2. I dont work as hard as them.

But when there is a verb the subject pronoun can be used. Ex: 1. George ran faster than I. (ran) 2. Raju is older than I. (am) 3. I dont work hard as they. (do)

The pronoun following than must be in the same case as the noun or pronoun preceeding it. It should not be ambiguous. Ex: 1. George likes her better than I. (like her) 2. George likes her better than me. (better than he likes me) (The meaning of the above sentences changes drastically). Good manners require that I should come last in expressions. Ex: 1. George, Haris and I. 2. You, George, He and I.

2. Reflexive Pronoun
A reflexive pronoun is a word that refers back to the subject. It is possible only when the subject and object refer to the same person. It is formed by the addition of suffix- self to the object pronoun. It can be called compound personal pronoun. Ex: 1. He often talks to himself. 2. Dont kill yourself in laughing.

Singular Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Oneself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves

Plural

Reflexive pronouns are also used for emphasis. Ex: 1. I myself posted the letter. 2. I posted the letter myself.

The expression by + a reflexive pronoun means alone. Ex: 1. My sister lives by herself. 2. Some people like doing everything by themselves.

3. Emphatic pronoun
Reflexive pronoun used for emphasis is called emphatic pronoun. Ex: 1. I saw the Minister myself. 2. The house itself is good.

They are used usually placed immediately after the noun or pronoun which they emphasize.

4. Demonstrative Pronoun It is a pronoun that points out a particular person, place or thing. This and That are singular. These and Those are plural. Such and yonder are common. Ex: 1. This is my book, Those are yours. 2. That is her pen and These are her friends. 3. My words might have wounded him, but such was not my intention. Demonstrative pronoun are subtly different from demonstrative adjectives. Demonstrative adjectives are immediately followed by nouns, but demonstrative pronouns stand for only nouns and do the function of nouns. Ex: 1. These mangoes are quite ripe. 2. I dont like this picture. 3. I cant bear with such people.

The above three sentences are demonstrative adjectives because they qualify the nouns and do the function of a noun. 5. Indefinite Pronoun A pronoun that refers to a general indication to any person or thing is indefinite pronoun. One, None, Nobody, Nothing, Some, Something, few, all, any, many, anybody, everybody are called indefinite pronouns. Ex: 1. One should not behave rudely before the elders. 2. Nobody knows his native place. 3. None of his friends came to help him. (none means not one) 4. Nothing more was given to him. 5. Many were killed in the accident. 6. Anybody can answer the question. 7. Few escaped unhurt. Indefinite pronoun too are different from Indefinite adjective. Ex: 1. One girl was selected for the team. 2. Raju was given another responsibility. 3. All people cannot be trusted. 4. She has many friends.

6. Interrogative Pronoun Interrogative pronouns are those which introduce questions.The common interrogative pronouns are who, what, which. Who has different forms for the different cases? Who (nominative) Whose(possessive) Whom(Objective) What and Which remain unchanged in all cases. Who is only used to refer to persons. What is mostly used only for things. Which is used for both persons and things. Example: 1) Who goes there? 2) Which is your room? 3) Which of the two is your friend? 4) What does he speak? What is he refers to a persons profession. Who is he refers to a persons name?

Example: 1) What is your father? My father is an advocate. 2) Who is your father? My father is Mr. Ben. Interrogative pronouns What and Which are called interrogative adjectives when they are followed immediately by the nouns. Example: 1. What points can you give for the statement? 2. Which book would you like to select? 7. Distributive pronoun: They are referring to persons or things taken one at a time or an individual of a class. They do not refer to the class collectively. So they are usually singular and are followed by singular verbs. Each and every refer to every one of the many persons and things taken separately. Either and neither can be used only when we speak about two persons or things. Either means one or other of the two neither means not one nor the other of the two. Example: 1. Either of the boys submitted the thesis. 2. Neither of the students was present. When we speak about more than two persons or things any, no one , none can be used. Example: 1. I dont like any of the books 2. No one came forward to help him. 3. None but that boy could speak the truth. Each and every are normally used with singular count nouns. Example: Each or every man has received the token Each and every are interchangeable in many occasions, but there are differences. Each can be used when the group has only 2 members. Example: The husband has slapped her on each cheek. Each may refer to two or more, but every implies a large number. Each may be followed immediately by of, but every does not take off. Example: 1. Each boy was given a chance to act. 2. Everyone can take the opportunity. 3. Each of the books has some stories.

Every cannot occur without a noun, but everyone comes without a noun. Everyone of+ objective pronoun is a common usage. Every is normally used before a singular noun, but it is used before a plural noun to denote intervals. Example: 1. I visit my grandpa every three or two weeks. 2. We have to take the medicines every five hours. Each can have different positions in a sentence. Eg : 1. Each of the families was given a token. 2. The families were each given a token. 3. The families were given a token each. Everyone as a single word is used only before persons or people but everyone as separate words can be used about both people. Eg: 1. Everyone is good by birth. 2. Every one of the applicant or application has to be seen before the appointment. Everyone, every one, everybody do not usually take not after them. Instead we use no one and not everyone. Eg: 1. Everyone here is a student. 2. No one there is a student. Either means one or the other of the two. It is used with a singular noun. It can also be used without a noun. Either of can take a singular or a plural verb. The pronoun used for either can also be singular or plural. Eg: 1. Either book /either of the books is useful. 2. There are novels or plays you can take either. 3. Either of these books is / are useful. 4. When either of the boys comes to make a complaint tell him or her / them to meet me first. Neither means not one nor the other of the two. Neither of can be followed by a singular or plural verb. Neither can also occur alone. Eg: 1. When can you come to meet her Monday or Tuesday? Neither day is convenient. 2. What would you prefer chicken or mutton? Neither I prefer. 8. Reciprocal pronoun: Each other, one another are called reciprocal pronouns, because they express mutual or reciprocal action or relation. They are normally considered as single unit or compound pronouns. Their possessives are formed bys.

Eg: 1. They loved/ embraced/ kissed/ abused each other. 2. They meet regularly at each others house. 3. They wear each others dress. The reciprocal pronouns are not used as subjects but they may serve as objects or propositions. Eg: 1. They keep away from each other. 2. They wont talk to one another. Modern grammar ignore the rule that each other is used with two nouns and one another is used with more than two nouns. 9. Relative pronoun: Relative pronouns are those which introduce relative classes or adjective classes. Who, whose, whom, which, what, that are relative pronouns. That is a common pronoun, which is used for both persons and things. Eg: 1. I saw a man who was deaf. 2. This is the book that you were searching for. Who, whose, whom are generally used for persons; but occasionally for some animals and some inanimate things. Eg: 1. A boy who cannot read well will never be a good writer. 2. This is the boy whose father was killed in an accident. 3. I have an Alsatian whose name is Teddy. Which is used for animals and inanimate things . Eg: 1. Fruits which are over-ripe should not be used. 2. The tree which gave beautiful flowers was cut down. 3. The dog which chased the thief was shut down. That is a common related pronoun which is used for persons, animals and things. That is used only in adjectival classes that restrict or remit or define antecedent. One cannot substitute that for whom, whose or which. Eg: 1. This is the monument that was built by the king. 2. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. When the relative pronoun is a subject of a clause it cannot be omitted, but when it is the object of a verb or a preposition it cannot be omitted. Eg: 1. This is the book (that/ which) you are looking for. 2. The man (whom) I invited was one of the politicians.

3. I am the monarch of all (that) I survey. The relative pronoun must be of the same number and person as its antecedent. Hence the verb which follows the relative pronoun must agree with the antecedent. Eg: 1. I, who am a teacher, can give the details about it. 2. They, who were caught, were hanged. 3. He, who is so strong, cannot control himself. 4. This is one of the best pictures that have been released this year.