 Pronoun is a word that stands for a noun and does the function of a noun. It is used instead of a noun. The noun it refers to is called an antecedent. Ex: (1) Raju did not go to the office because he was ill. Antecedent Pronoun

(2) The boys are playing. They will be the winners. Antecedent Pronoun

 There are nine types of pronouns. They are 1. Personal Pronoun 6. Interrogative Pronoun 2. Reflexive Pronoun 7. Distributive Pronoun 3. Emphatic Pronoun 8. Reciprocal Pronoun 4. Demonstrative Pronoun 9. Relative Pronoun 5. Indefinite Pronoun

1. Personal Pronouns
Personal pronoun refers to the pronouns that come under the three persons in grammar. First person stands for the speaker. Second person stands for the person spoken to. Third person stands for the person spoken of. Function Nominative case (subject) Objective case (object) Genitive case Possessive Adjective Possessive pronoun Reflexive Pronoun First person Singular Plural I We Me Us Second person Singular Plural You You You You Third person Singular Plural He, She, It They Him, Her, It Them

My Mine Myself

Our Your Ours Yours Ourselves Yourself

Your His, Her, Its Yours Hers Yourselves Himself, Herself, Itself

Their Theirs Theirselves

 Possessive Adjectives my, our, your, his, her, its and there are used before a noun. They never stand alone.

. Hers is dark. The collector and District Magistrate was Mr. Raju got his car painted. Sasthri. My uncle and my guardian have reached the station at the right time. object of a preposition and the subject of an infinitive. 3. They can stand all alone. I can give his money first and then theirs. I prefer your company to theirs. Their father has arrived. ours. The secretary and treasurer has submitted her report. Ex: Subject of a sentence: 1. So they are used as a subject of a sentence. but refer to the same person the pronoun should be singular. hers.  The forms yours. Ex: 1. object of a verb. but I don’t want mine to go. 2. (All the above three sentences have singular pronouns)  When two singular nouns are connected by and. hers and theirs are usually used after a noun. 2. His dog is small. My uncle and guardian gave his permission to my plan. 2. Ex: 1. The secretary and the treasurer were asked to submit their report at their own expense. My hair is grey. (All the above three sentences have plural pronouns) 1. The collector and the District Magistrate sent in their resignations. yours. But when they represent different persons. 3. 2. preceded by each or every the pronoun must be singular. its and theirs have no apostrophe. 2. the pronoun should be in the plural. But when ‘it is’. We got no letter except yours. We want our too. My brother’s son has gone to the states. Object of preposition: 1. ‘it has’ are contracted we use it’s. He lost his pen and so I lent him mine. 2.  When two singular nouns are connected by and. 2. Object of a verb: 1. 2. Yours is very big. Subject of an Infinitive: 1. ours. Each man and each boy cast his vote for his party.Ex: 1. Every General and every Admiral did his duty well.  Possessive pronouns mine. Her husband is not at the office.

2. It is possible only when the subject and object refer to the same person. Ex: 1.‘self’ to the object pronoun. 5. Don’t kill yourself in laughing. him. I don’t work as hard as them. (Pronoun is plural)  Usually object pronouns me. Hari or Govind may bring his book. 2. her. I don’t work hard as they. George ran faster than I. Haris and I. George. (like her) 2. But when a singular noun and a plural noun are joined by either…or. Ex: 1. when there is no verb. (do)  The pronoun following ‘than’ must be in the same case as the noun or pronoun preceeding it..  Good manners require that I should come last in expressions. 2.  But when there is a verb the subject pronoun can be used. (am) 3. He often talks to himself. Neither the manager nor his assistants completed their work. Either the Minister or his sons have to visit their areas. Raju is older than I. Reflexive Pronoun A reflexive pronoun is a word that refers back to the subject. Raju is older than me. 3. (ran) 2. (Pronoun is in the singular) 4. 2. It is formed by the addition of suffix. Ex: 1. neither…nor the following pronouns should be singular. It can be called compound personal pronoun. (better than he likes me) (The meaning of the above sentences changes drastically). Ex: 1. When two singular nouns are joined by either… or. Ex: 1. neither…nor the pronoun should be in the plural. Ex: 1. 2. Neither Raju nor Ram took his food today. . George likes her better than I. It should not be ambiguous. George likes her better than me. He and I. George. Either Rani or rohini will write her letter. You. them etc are used after ‘than’.

My words might have wounded him. These mangoes are quite ripe. Ex: 1.Singular Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Oneself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves Plural  Reflexive pronouns are also used for emphasis. 4. 2. but demonstrative pronouns stand for only nouns and do the function of nouns. This is my book. 2. . The house itself is good. Demonstrative adjectives are immediately followed by nouns. Emphatic pronoun Reflexive pronoun used for emphasis is called emphatic pronoun. I don’t like this picture. but such was not my intention. Ex: 1. Ex: 1. I saw the Minister myself. I posted the letter myself. 3. 2. That is her pen and These are her friends. My sister lives by herself.  They are used usually placed immediately after the noun or pronoun which they emphasize.  This and That are singular. Such and yonder are common. These and Those are plural. 3. place or thing. I can’t bear with such people. I myself posted the letter. 2. Those are yours.  Demonstrative pronoun are subtly different from demonstrative adjectives. Demonstrative Pronoun It is a pronoun that points out a particular person.  The expression by + a reflexive pronoun means alone. 2. Ex: 1. Some people like doing everything by themselves. Ex: 1. 3.

any. Ex: 1. Nobody.The common interrogative pronouns are who. One girl was selected for the team. what.  Who has different forms for the different cases? Who (nominative) Whose(possessive) Whom(Objective) What and Which remain unchanged in all cases. Many were killed in the accident. 3. Nothing. many. everybody are called indefinite pronouns. Indefinite Pronoun A pronoun that refers to a general indication to any person or thing is indefinite pronoun.  Indefinite pronoun too are different from Indefinite adjective. 6. 2. 5. all. Anybody can answer the question. 4. Interrogative Pronoun Interrogative pronouns are those which introduce questions. 7. Who is he refers to a persons name? . None. Nobody knows his native place. Something. What is mostly used only for things.  One. Some. which. Raju was given another responsibility. Example: 1) Who goes there? 2) Which is your room? 3) Which of the two is your friend? 4) What does he speak?  What is he refers to a persons profession. (none means not one) 4. Few escaped unhurt. 2. Which is used for both persons and things.The above three sentences are demonstrative adjectives because they qualify the nouns and do the function of a noun. 3. anybody. Ex: 1. One should not behave rudely before the elders. 6. She has many friends. None of his friends came to help him. 5.  Who is only used to refer to persons. few. All people cannot be trusted. Nothing more was given to him.

Each boy was given a chance to act. Each of the books has some stories. Example: The husband has slapped her on each cheek.  Either and neither can be used only when we speak about two persons or things. none can be used. Distributive pronoun: They are referring to persons or things taken one at a time or an individual of a class. They do not refer to the class collectively. Neither of the students was present. I don’t like any of the books 2. Example: 1. Example: Each or every man has received the token  Each and every are interchangeable in many occasions. but every does not take off. So they are usually singular and are followed by singular verbs. Each can be used when the group has only 2 members. but every implies a large number.  Each and every are normally used with singular count nouns. 2.  Each may refer to two or more. 2) Who is your father? My father is Mr. . Example: 1. Either means one or other of the two neither means not one nor the other of the two. What points can you give for the statement? 2.  Each and every refer to every one of the many persons and things taken separately.  When we speak about more than two persons or things any. No one came forward to help him. 3.Example: 1) What is your father? My father is an advocate.  Interrogative pronouns What and Which are called interrogative adjectives when they are followed immediately by the nouns. but there are differences. Everyone can take the opportunity. Either of the boys submitted the thesis. Example: 1. Each may be followed immediately by of. 2. Ben. 3. Example: 1. no one . None but that boy could speak the truth. Which book would you like to select? 7.

 Everyone as a single word is used only before persons or people but everyone as separate words can be used about both people. 2. The families were each given a token. Everyone here is a student. The pronoun used for either can also be singular or plural. 2. I visit my grandpa every three or two weeks. Their possessives are formed by’s’. Either of these books is / are useful. Each of the families was given a token. Reciprocal pronoun:  Each other. Eg: 1. We have to take the medicines every five hours.  Each can have different positions in a sentence. What would you prefer chicken or mutton? Neither I prefer. Everyone is good by birth. 3. 2. Neither can also occur alone. 3. Every one of the applicant or application has to be seen before the appointment. but it is used before a plural noun to denote intervals. Every is normally used before a singular noun. 2. Either book /either of the books is useful. every one. Neither of can be followed by a singular or plural verb. 4. There are novels or plays you can take either. 8. Eg : 1. 2. When either of the boys comes to make a complaint tell him or her / them to meet me first. Eg: 1. No one there is a student. Everyone of+ objective pronoun is a common usage. It can also be used without a noun.  Neither means not one nor the other of the two. Eg: 1. but ‘everyone’ comes without a noun. . because they express mutual or reciprocal action or relation. everybody do not usually take ‘not’ after them. They are normally considered as single unit or compound pronouns.  Either means ‘one or the other of the two’. It is used with a singular noun.  Everyone. Instead we use ‘no one’ and ‘not everyone’. Example: 1. ‘Every’ cannot occur without a noun. Either of can take a singular or a plural verb. 2. one another are called reciprocal pronouns. Eg: 1. When can you come to meet her Monday or Tuesday? Neither day is convenient. The families were given a token each.

Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. Eg: 1.  Which is used for animals and inanimate things . This is the book that you were searching for. Eg: 1. They keep away from each other. 2. The dog which chased the thief was shut down. Eg: 1. 2. 2. but occasionally for some animals and some inanimate things. which is used for both persons and things. They won’t talk to one another. Relative pronoun: Relative pronouns are those which introduce relative classes or adjective classes. Eg: 1. Eg: 1.  That is a common related pronoun which is used for persons. but when it is the object of a verb or a preposition it cannot be omitted. Who. I have an Alsatian whose name is Teddy.  When the relative pronoun is a subject of a clause it cannot be omitted. whom are generally used for persons.Eg: 1. This is the monument that was built by the king. whose. This is the book (that/ which) you are looking for. 2. which. 9. 2. what. that are relative pronouns.  Modern grammar ignore the rule that each other is used with two nouns and one another is used with more than two nouns. I saw a man who was deaf. Eg: 1. whose or which. 3. 2. They meet regularly at each other’s house. Fruits which are over-ripe should not be used. 2. A boy who cannot read well will never be a good writer. 3. The man (whom) I invited was one of the politicians. whom.  The reciprocal pronouns are not used as subjects but they may serve as objects or propositions.  Who. whose. They loved/ embraced/ kissed/ abused each other. The tree which gave beautiful flowers was cut down. They wear each other’s dress. animals and things. That is used only in adjectival classes that restrict or remit or define antecedent.  ‘That’ is a common pronoun. . This is the boy whose father was killed in an accident. One cannot substitute that for whom. 3.

Hence the verb which follows the relative pronoun must agree with the antecedent. who were caught. cannot control himself. They. 2. .  The relative pronoun must be of the same number and person as its antecedent.3. I am the monarch of all (that) I survey. This is one of the best pictures that have been released this year. 3. were hanged. who is so strong. Eg: 1. He. 4. I. who am a teacher. can give the details about it.

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