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Table of Contents
Academic Calendar 2009-2010 Writing Assignment Overview and Schedule MMW Style Sheet Writing a Successful Research Paper: A Simple Approach, by Prof. Stanley Chodorow Research Question & Annotated Bibliography (RQAB)—Assignment Sheet Model RQAB Levels of Arguability Worksheet Checklist for Approval of Research Question Submissions Criteria for Evaluating Web Sources Prospectus—Assignment Sheet Model Prospectus Prospectus Worksheet (1) Prospectus Worksheet (2) Checklist for Assessing the Prospectus Prospectus Grading Guidelines Significance Exercise Final Paper—Assignment Sheet Turnitin.com Instructions Final Paper Grading Checklist Final Paper Grading Guidelines Research Guide Library Resources Evaluating Web Sources Avoiding Plagiarism & Other Academic Misconduct Helpful Advice for Avoiding Plagiarism 1 2-3 4-6 7-54 55 56-61 62 63-65 66-67 68-69 70-73 74 75-76 77-79 80 81-82 83-84 85 86-88 89 90-91 93-94 95-98
Making of the Modern World Program Eleanor Roosevelt College Administration Bldg., Room 202 (858) 534-4935
Email: email@example.com Website: http://roosevelt.usd.edu/mmw/courses/index.html
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO 2009-2010 ACADEMIC AND ADMINISTRATIVE CALENDAR
FALL QUARTER 2009 Fall Quarter Begins............................................................................................Monday, September 21 Instruction Begins...............................................................................................Thursday, Se ptember 24 Veteran’s Day Holiday.......................................................................................Wednesday, November 11 Thanksgiving Holiday........................................................................................Thursday - Friday, November 26-27 Instruction Ends..................................................................................................Friday, Dec ember 4 Final Exams........................................................................................................Mond ay - Saturday, December 7-12 Fall Quarter Ends................................................................................................Saturday, De cember 12 Christmas Holiday..............................................................................................Thursday - Friday, December 24-25 New Year Holiday..............................................................................................Thursday - Friday, December 31January 1 49 Days of Instruction 60 Days in Quarter
WINTER QUARTER 2010 Winter Quarter Begins........................................................................................Friday, January 1 Instruction Begins...............................................................................................Monday, January 4 Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday.........................................................................Monday, January 18 President's Day Holiday.....................................................................................Monday, February 15 Instruction Ends..................................................................................................Friday, Mar ch 12 Final Exams........................................................................................................Monday - Saturday, March 15-20 Winter Quarter Ends...........................................................................................Saturday, March 20 48 Days of Instruction 56 Days in Quarter
SPRING QUARTER 2010 Spring Quarter Begins........................................................................................Thursday, March 25 Cesar Chavez Holiday........................................................................................Friday, March 26 Instruction Begins...............................................................................................Monday, March 29 Memorial Day Observance.................................................................................Monday, May 31 Instruction Ends..................................................................................................Friday, June 4 Final Exams........................................................................................................Monday - Friday, June 7-11 Spring Quarter Ends...........................................................................................Friday, June 11 Commencement..................................................................................................Saturday-Monday, June 12-14 49 Days of Instruction 57 Days in Quarter
Independence Day..............................................................................................Monday, July 5, 2010 Labor Day...........................................................................................................Monday, September 6, 2010
MMW 4-6: Writing Assignment Overview
The Writing Assignment for MMW 4-6 repeats (in abbreviated form) the research and writing learned in MMW 3. Each quarter you will: a. b. c. d. devise a debatable, open-ended level-three question about your research topic identify and discuss a scholarly debate about your question; propose an answer to your question and support it with an argument based on evidence. discuss the significance of your topic and of your thesis (in better understanding your topic).
The MMW Writing Assignment will be completed in three stages according to the schedule below: Each part of the MMW Writing Assignment must be completed and submitted in order to pass the course: 1. Research Question and Annotated Bibliography (RQAB):
5% of course grade 3-5 pages Due at the beginning of section during Week 3 (Consult the MMW Style Sheet for Late Paper Policy that applies to all assignments). The last day that a RQAB will be accepted for grading and commenting is in section of Week 5. After this, the prospectus will be considered ―not completed‖ and, because all components of the writing assignment are required in MMW courses, will result in failing the course. Any exception to this deadline must be approved with specific and legitimate documentation in advance by your TA.
10% of course grade 3-4 pages (not including Works Cited Page) Due at the beginning of section during Week 6. The last day that a prospectus will be accepted for grading and commenting is in section of Week 8. After this, the prospectus will be considered ―not completed‖ and will result in automatically failing the course. Any exception to this deadline must be approved in advance by your TA. Submit your graded RQAB with your Prospectus.
20% of course grade 8-10 pages (not including Works Cited Page) Due at the beginning of section during Week 10 Your final paper will only be graded after the RQAB and Prospectus have been completed and graded by your TA. Moreover, you must re-submit all previously graded assignments along with each new assignment (for instance, your graded RQAB with your Prospectus; your graded RQAB and Prospectus with your Final Paper). Save all of your graded work.
novels. book reviews. including: at least one (1) primary source at least five (5) secondary sources. but you should consult your TA if you are not sure. ROGER (and any academic library) or via JSTOR Some academic articles from academic web sites (i. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. and other reference work 3 . or Project Muse (see your TA for exceptions to this list). buildings Secondary Sources.Acceptable Sources for a MMW paper: Your Final Paper will include work from a minimum of six (6) sources. Primary Sources. official records CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry. clothing. What academic sources WILL be accepted in the minimum required for the MMW paper? Academic (non-fiction) books or chapters from those books. Fiction books Newspaper articles or articles found in popular magazines Encyclopedias. and most introductions to fictional works Textbooks Books accessed via GOOGLE Books. If you are not sure. Academic journals or quarterlies (found through the MMW Library Research Tool. art RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery. These books are typically published by university presses (University of California Press.e. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event. drama. and should be cited. those related to universities’ sites . publications that have subjected the author’s work to scrutiny by experts in his/her field. A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. news film footage. autobiographies. JSTOR. The aim of GoogleBooks is to help you discover books and learn where to borrow them. Louisiana State University Press. Some types of primary sources include: ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries. Articles (not abstract or reviews) from EBSCO. You cannot download or print photocopies in a reliable manner. furniture.). interviews. GoogleBooks is a Search service that leads to sources that vary considerable in level of access and completeness. you must have a minimum of five secondary written by scholars in peer-reviewed publications. music. that is. In the MMW paper. not to read them online for purposes of your research paper.edu‖ in it.) Any readings assigned in the course Abstracts. A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. but will not count toward the minimum. manuscripts. speeches. ask your TA. Oxford University Press. etc. one (1) of which must be a scholarly journal article. The URL should contain ―. letters. Anthologies What sources WILL NOT be accepted in the minimum required for the MMW paper? (These sources may be used. dictionaries.
MMW 4-6 Style Sheet for Writing Assignments
The following criteria apply to all papers written for MMW, including prospectuses, rough drafts, and other short writing assignments.
General submission criteria:
• All papers must have a complete heading that includes your name, your section number, the assignment number or title, and the date. • All papers must be typed and double-spaced. • All papers longer than one page must be stapled together. • The pages of all papers longer than one page must be numbered. • All papers must have 1" margins on all four sides. • All papers must use MLA documentation to credit all sources, including lecture and internet material. See Ann Raimes’ Keys for Writers (KW) for documentation format. • All final drafts must have a title. Before you turn in any piece of writing, make sure that it adheres to all of the above criteria. You will lose one-third of a letter grade for each criterion you fail to meet; in the case of MLA documentation errors, you will lose one-third of a letter grade for each type of error you make consistently. The maximum credit you will lose for MLA formatting errors is one full letter grade, but please note that you can lose additional credit for heading and other errors. These penalties can add up quickly and lower your grade to subterranean regions. When this happens, you will not like it, so please make sure that it doesn’t happen.
With both your prospectus and your final paper, you must also submit a photocopy or printout of each page cited in your work. On each page, highlight or underline the portion of the referenced work.
Late paper policy:
All papers must be turned in to your TA, during section, lecture, or office hours. You may not turn in papers to the MMW office, nor may you put them in your TA’s mailbox. Papers that are left with the MMW Office or in a mailbox will not be graded. You will lose one-third of a letter grade for each day that a paper is late. Ask your TA whether a paper due in section may be turned in without penalty later in the day. If you will be unable to attend section or lecture on the day that your paper is due, it is your responsibility to make other arrangements for getting your paper to your TA. Remember that a weekend counts as three days; if your paper is due on a Friday and you don’t turn it in until Monday that will not be good.
Turnitin.com All students will be required to submit an electronic version of their final paper to runitin.com within 24 hours of submitting your final paper in section on the due date. The late paper policy will be applied to late submissions to turnitin.com. In certain cases, students may be required to submit their prospectuses to turnitin.com as well. Spelling:
Make sure that you proofread your papers carefully, as you will lose credit if you make numerous spelling errors. The policy for spelling-error penalties is as follows: You will be allowed one un-penalized error per
one to two pages of text; after that, you will lose one-third of a letter grade for every three spelling errors that you make. For example, a 1- to 2-page paper with three spelling errors would not be penalized, but a 1- to 2page paper with four spelling errors would lose one-third of a letter grade. Similarly, a 3- to 4-page paper with four spelling errors would not be penalized, but the same length paper with five errors would lose onethird of a letter grade. Remember that the spell-checker is a useful device but that it will not save you from writing ―it’s‖ when you mean ―its,‖ or ―their‖ when you should write ―there.‖ If your inability to spell seems to be congenital and permanent, find a friend who can proofread your papers for you—but bear in mind that proofreading for spelling will allow you to catch a number of other errors and awkward phrases that would otherwise get past you.
Plagiarism and other academic misconduct (If in MMW 4-6, see Keys for Writers pp. 51-55; if in
MMW 4T, see Pocket Keys for Writers pp. 50-62) MMW requires each writing assignment to be the product of individual work. While we encourage you to discuss your ideas—and to share your sources of information—with others, we expect the words you submit for a grade to be yours. It is your responsibility to comply with the University’s rules concerning academic integrity. There are a number of forms of academic misconduct that you must be careful to avoid. One of these is plagiarism, which consists of using an author’s words, ideas, or facts, or of copying the sentence or paragraph structure of an author’s work, without acknowledging that author as your source. A similar form of misconduct is for two or more students to turn in copies of the same paper, or for one student to copy material written by another student. It is also a violation of University rules to submit substantially the same material in more than one course without prior authorization of all instructors involved. Fabrication of a reference—that is, taking material from one source but crediting that material to another or of making up a source citation—also violates University rules. (For more information regarding the rules governing academic misconduct, see the UCSD Student Conduct Code, available online at <http://ugr8.ucsd.edu/judicial/22_00.html>.) The University considers plagiarism and other academic misconduct to be serious academic offenses. Anyone whose paper appears to contain a plagiarized passage or to otherwise violate the rules on academic integrity will have his or her work reviewed by MMW’s Academic Coordinators and the professor. If the violation is found to be serious enough, the student could receive an ―F‖ on the assignment or an ―F‖ for the course (the academic sanction is determined by the professor) and the student’s file will be forwarded to the ERC Dean of Student Affairs. If the Dean determines that there is, indeed, academic misconduct she will impose a conduct sanction, the severity of which will depend on the extent of the misconduct. It is important to note that even a first offense can result in a quarter’s suspension and that the standard sanction for a second offense is suspension or permanent dismissal from the university. Any instance of academic misconduct can be recorded in a student’s file. Such a record might interfere with a student’s acceptance into law, medical, or graduate school, or might make that student ineligible for positions requiring a security clearance, such as a government internship. It is your responsibility to ensure that nothing in any of your papers is plagiarized; a decision to be careless about your research notes and not check your citations is a decision that can lead to a charge of plagiarism. Be careful to avoid unintentional plagiarism. For example, if you include a direct quotation in your paper—even one that’s only a few words long—you must be sure both to enclose it in quotation marks and to acknowledge your source with a parenthetical citation. Even sources with anonymous authors, such as many websites, must be credited in this way. Consult a writing handbook (like Keys for Writers) or talk with one of your instructors if you are unsure of exactly what is and what is not considered to be plagiarism, or if
you are unclear about the rules for the correct citation of sources. Make sure that you give credit to all authors and speakers whose work you use, and enclose all quoted material in quotation marks. As a rule, it is better to give too much credit than too little—so when in doubt, cite. We hope that you will never feel the need to plagiarize out of fear that your own work isn’t good enough. We expect students to write like students, not like professionals. What matters most is for you to demonstrate that you’ve thought about the material and that you’ve learned something from it. You don’t need someone else’s words to do that. Revised 8/3/09
Chodorow 2008 [NOT FOR CITATION OR QUOTATION WITHOUT PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR] 7 .Writing a Successful Research Paper A Simple Approach Stanley Chodorow Copyright © S.
It is a multidisciplinary course taught by faculty members and graduate students from nearly all the departments in the humanities and social sciences. and she has made numerous contributions. I came to view the program in Eleanor Roosevelt College as the best one in the university. so the grade for the research paper is a composite grade. and in its hands-on. San Diego. In the later stages of writing. and I am deeply grateful to her. the Director of MMW. This pamphlet presents the way we teach our students to write the research papers. who has for many years been the coordinator of the intensive writing program in MMW 2 and 3. The first term of the writing program (incorporated into MMW 2) aims to teach students to write expository essays. I have consulted her often. MMW is a six-quarter (two-year) core sequence that covers world history and civilizations from the evolution of human beings to the present. During the seven years we worked in the program together. I came to believe that the program should be made available to students in other colleges of UCSD and beyond. including providing me with the Prospectus Worksheet. and their suggestions for improving the pamphlet have been very helpful. who is responsible for managing the second-year of the sequence. They write ten-page research papers in MMW 3 through 6. When I fully understood the program’s approach and methods. They must work with their discussion leaders and faculty to formulate a research question. which is the kind of assignment students will get in upper-division courses. Its superiority consists both in its emphasis on writing research papers. an important element in determining what kinds of questions are suitable for research papers. Students in MMW 3 do not just receive an assignment and some advice about how to carry it out. one of the six undergraduate colleges of the University of California. I played a role in founding the college and MMW in the late 1980s. When I was Dean of Arts and Humanities and Associate Vice Chancellor at UCSD. They receive a substantial response to and a grade for each of these products of the process. but her many commitments made it impossible for her to take responsibility for co-writing it. Nonetheless. and Heidi Keller-Lapp. step-by-step approach to teaching. The second term of the writing program (incorporated into MMW 3) aims to teach them how to write research papers. I have relied on Matthew Herbst. and I have been teaching in the program for many years. 8 . Jackie and I started working on the guide together. Since its early days. I was responsible for overseeing the writing programs of all the undergraduate colleges – then five in number – and I often represented UCSD in university-wide meetings on the writing programs. came from her. Jackie gave me an understanding of its structure and goals. The idea of the levels of arguability of questions. and then submit research logs. from 1983 to 1994. The pamphlet could not have been written without her help. a prospectus for the paper. which the discussion leader must approve. In its second and third terms. Matthew and Heidi have broad experience in MMW. I could not have written this guide without the support and contributions of Jackie Giordano.Preface This pamphlet summarizes the approach to teaching writing of the Making of the Modern World (MMW) program of Eleanor Roosevelt College. the sequence incorporates an intensive two-term writing program. and a rough draft before handing in the final version. the directors and faculty of the program have developed and refined the writing program. especially the segment that teaches students to write research papers.
I couldn’t do much without her. Finally. She knows how to deliver a strong critique and encouragement at the same time. and. my wife Peggy read a draft of the pamphlet. 2008 9 . as she did when she read my dissertation decades ago. as they say. brought her outsider’s sensibility to bear on the academic curlicues of my prose and on the organization of my presentation. it’s magic.My son Adam. read a draft of the pamphlet and made valuable suggestions. turnabout is fair play. SC La Jolla. a professor of law who has heard my opinion of his writings too long and too often.
Formulating an Open-ended Research Question Good questions Why a narrow question? Formulating your question Levels of arguability Question types Working with a research question: Keeping track of evidence Chapter 4.Table of Contents Introduction: Writing Research Papers: An Overview Synopsis of the Program and Timetable Chapter 1. Answering your question and constructing your argument Sorting notes and texts Write a working thesis Organize the information you’ve found Argument chart Chapter 6. The Cycle of Reading: Gathering the information you need to answer your question Your goals in doing research Reflecting on your research question as you proceed Chapter 5. Shaping the Paper: Writing a Rough Draft Using a rough draft worksheet 10 . Reading and Taking Notes Reading critically The mechanics of reading critically Note-taking Annotating The problems with highlighting Recording the necessary bibliographic information Working towards a research question Chapter 3. Using Evidence Effectively Determining what counts as valid evidence Using the work of others: Crediting your sources Deciding how much evidence is enough Chapter 7. Finding a Research Area Getting started – Choosing a general topic Finding your paper topic within the general topic Finding sources Primary and secondary sources Evaluating the credibility of sources Chapter 2.
Revising the Rough Draft Organizing the paper Chapter 9. Copyediting and Final Revisions Final revisions Last suggestions Final revision checklist Conclusion 11 .Chapter 8.
You answer a question and support it with an argument based on evidence that you have found through research.‖ ―We had to take my sister to emergency room. These skills will serve you in any course you take in the university. So he cried. 12 .Introduction Students often regard the assignment to write a research paper as a daunting task. ―He took my ball. In fact. like your teachers. little by little.‖ You do something similar in a research paper. but the basic intellectual process is the same. Humanists and social scientists do research in libraries or through surveys and interviews to answer questions. you will be able to do the assignment well. You want your reader to accept your answer as right or at least plausible and interesting. And.‖ ―I thought there were two out. as you gather evidence. if you break down the process of finding a topic. you do research to answer a question. your mind organizes it into categories. The myth seems to suggest that when the light suddenly goes on the whole paper will be laid out before you. coach or other authority figure – that your answer to a question is good and sufficient. So. at that point you might see a clear path to an answer to your question that you can support with an argument about the evidence you’ve collected and organized. then you sit back and survey what you’ve found. So. Scientists do experiments or make observations to answer questions. This pamphlet aims to show you that. and writing the paper. teacher. Any experienced student. You have to come up with an argument supported by evidence to persuade the one putting you on the spot that you are guiltless or what you did was excusable. Writing a research paper is actually pretty straightforward and simple. the understanding you now have rests on all the work you’ve done collecting evidence and thinking about the question and its possible answers. you do research to gather evidence to answer the question. so getting the guy at first would end the inning. doing research on it. Those skills include making an argument based on evidence to persuade someone –a parent. you will be able to write it as if you were on automatic pilot. One of the myths about research papers is that to write a good one you have to get an inspiration or an epiphany. In all fields of knowledge. resulting. an approach to writing a research paper that rests on the notion that research aims at answering questions is an approach suitable to nearly all intellectual disciplines. You are answering a research question. this pamphlet will help you translate the skills you already have into the ones needed to complete an assignment to write a research paper. will tell you that ―sudden understanding‖ comes only after you’ve done a lot of work. so I couldn’t get my homework done. it involves intellectual skills that nearly everyone has been using since they were children. then in a good grade. ―Why is your brother or sister crying?‖ ―Why don’t you have your homework?‖ ―What were you thinking when you threw the ball to first base instead of home?‖ are questions that require fast thinking and slick talk. you may feel that a light has gone on. and I took it back. The techniques and settings for the research may differ from one academic discipline to another and one project to another. When the pieces fall into place. if not in exoneration.
you sit back and try to put things together for an answer to your question. The plan in this pamphlet breaks down this job into a number of steps that can be fitted to a timeline leading from the day you get the assignment to the day you have to turn in the paper. (When teachers give you the question. When you receive a paper assignment. the quality of the writing. Like any job this one requires work to get it done. You have an assignment with a due date. Chapter 7 gives you a rough draft worksheet and advice about this first stage of writing. writing a research paper is just another job. What are the characteristics of a good research paper? The quality of a paper depends on many characteristics—the quality of the question addressed. and the care taken in making the text presentable (spelling. To do this. You’ll see that the work of writing a research paper can be done well by anyone with the skills needed to succeed in a college preparatory or a college program. and you have a fixed amount to time in which to do the research and to write it. you are ready to write a first draft of the paper. As you proceed with this work. You have to write a paper of a certain length. It also gives you advice about taking notes on what you read.) Above the introductory level. not a paper assignment. they are in effect giving you an exam. After choosing a general research topic.So. In introductory courses. and it can be great fun. you write a tentative answer to your question (a working thesis) and start to construct an argument and line up the evidence behind it. your research becomes focused on finding the evidence needed to answer the question and on scholarly works in which the authors tried to answer the question or part of the question. you begin reading relevant scholarly works. Chapter 5 guides you through this stage of the work. Chapter 6 deals with the questions. Then. you have a task to complete. the quality and amount of research done to find evidence that will support the argument. This guide assumes that you have to define a topic yourself. It guides you through the process of doing that and then shows you how to formulate a research question. covered in Chapter 3. the quality of the argument made to support a thesis (the answer to the question). You cannot do the work in a few days. An excellent paper has a sound thesis and demonstrates that you have done a substantial amount of work. You narrow the focus of your topic to the appropriate scope by looking for a specific topic in a general one. you know the scope of the job you have to do. punctuation etc. The work plan for writing a research paper starts with a broadly defined research area or topic from which you will select a specific subject that interests you and that meets the requirements of the assignment. the persuasive use of the evidence. The work is not difficult. but they rarely tell you what question to ask and answer about that topic. The process leads to the formulation of a research question. and on constructing an argument. Reading critically is crucial to defining a topic. you need to start early and to follow a schedule. Chapter 4 deals with this process of refinement. Once you’ve reached this stage. you just have a lot of time to complete your answer. on organizing what you discover through research. you look for a topic suitable to the length of the paper you have to write and to the amount of time you have to do it.). In a process described in Chapter 1. This pamphlet gives you a plan. you supply the discipline. teachers often give you the topic of your paper. ―What’s the best way to use evidence?‖ and ―When do you have enough evidence?‖ When you have constructed your argument. assignments usually require you to find your own topic. Doing the work requires a plan of action and the discipline to carry it out. Chapter 2 gives you some guidance in that set of skills. you will usually revise your question in response to what you discover. 13 . specifying only that it be suitable or relevant to the subject of the course.
A perusal of the whole guide will give you an overview of what you have to do. you can refer to individual chapters as you proceed both to remind you of your tasks and to keep you aware of where you are in the process. You write term papers under time pressure.Chapters 8 and 9 take you through the processes of revising the rough draft and then polishing the paper for submission. 14 . Then. Read through this short guide before you start your work on your assignment. we hope that this guide helps you keep on time and do each task in as orderly a way as possible in the usually messy and chaotic environment of an academic term.
You continue to read. As you read. Stop and consider what you have found. When you have put your evidence in order. including your summaries. reflecting. Formulate an open-ended question. (Chapter 4) Three weeks before the paper is due 5. (Chapter 1) 2. commentaries. Stop and Reflect: When you have learned enough about your topic that you start to feel burdened by the weight of information. Write down a tentative answer to your research question. Write a complete rough draft. Start reading books and articles on this topic. photocopies. and sharpening your question is a cycle that is repeated for as long as you have to do it. with complete citation information. Make sure to note all potential answers to your research question. including a works cited page (or pages). You will see several possible topics. and so forth by sub-topic or category of evidence. reflect. This question will focus your work. Start with a broad topic within which you will expect to find the narrow topic for your paper. When you have settled on a topic. Arrange the categories in the order that will be most effective for arguing your thesis. photocopy them or print them out. This time. stop and reflect on what you have found out. Your tentative answer is your working thesis. you have the skeleton of your argument. As before. Find a research topic. Record the complete citation information for each text. When you find texts relevant to your topic. Look over all of the texts and notes that you have accumulated. Annotate the relevant parts of each text.Synopsis of the Program and Timetable As soon as you receive the writing assignment 1. which now aims to answer the question. Assess whether you have enough evidence to support your argument. Revise your question if you find that your research does not lead to an answer to your original question. photocopy (or save electronically) all relevant texts. (Chapter 3) 4. Sort all of your notes. Take notes as you read. This process of reading. 15 . (Chapters 5-6) 6. formulate a question that you would like to answer in your research paper. Return to reading. Write some pages of notes and commentary on your ideas. choose one or two to read on further. (Chapter 2) Six weeks before the paper is due 3. focus on texts that provide information directly relevant to your research question. note (in writing) the topics that particularly intrigue you and all questions that occur to you about those topics. and sharpen your question until you need to move on to the writing of a rough draft. that answers your research question by integrating all the results of your research.
Make sure that you have cited all of your sources and that your ―works cited‖ page is complete. clarity. make sure to incorporate or at least deal with their suggestions as you revise the draft. which makes you aware of awkward sentences and misused words. Give it one last reading to make sure that everything is correct. if you are required to do so). Revise your rough draft. thoroughly revise the draft for organization. (It often helps to read the paper aloud. Where necessary. You could lose grade points if you do not follow the specified style.) (Chapter 7) Two weeks before the paper is due 7. and other sentence-level concerns. (Note: if you have not already studied the style sheet that many programs provide as part of the paper assignment. punctuation. Print out your rough draft and put it away for a while (or turn it in. set your margins etc. do so before you start writing your first draft. do more research and provide more support for the weaker parts of your argument. Note where you need to add more evidence or explanation. (Chapter 9) Congratulations: you have just successfully written a research paper. Delete unnecessary sections.) Print out the paper. grammar. (Chapter 8) One to two days before the paper is due 8. and explanation of evidence.notes. Note also that spell-checkers in computer programs will not highlight words that are in the dictionary but are the wrong words in context. The style sheet specifies how you should cite references. After several days. present your bibliography. 16 . Copyediting and final revision: Revise your paper for spelling. If your instructor or peers have commented on your rough draft. and reflections.
Chapter 1 Finding a Research Topic Getting started – Choosing a general topic Many students see the choice of a topic as a big obstacle. look in the library’s subject catalog for titles that seem relevant and interesting. you maximize your chance of finding something interesting. So. you could use it to start your search for a topic. When you have a general idea of what might interest you. but you might be able to persuade the faculty member that a paper on modern French studies on some aspect of ancient Greek culture would be acceptable. Peruse the chapter and sub-chapter headings. start looking for a topic by considering the subjects that interest you. Are you interested in biology? The history of diseases or the state of knowledge of biology and disease might provide a good topic. the opportunity to pursue your particular disciplinary interests is there. you can’t write on modern France. literature. and anthropology courses. The topic should be pretty broad so that you can read a variety of interesting materials. and substantial to work on. you have the opportunity to write on a fairly wide range of subjects. They have to write a paper in a field that is not their major interest and don’t know how to start. When you find something that interests you. So. If the topic is too narrow. possible. even in the way a literary author portrays or uses economics in a story. I have more to say on using the library later in this chapter. start to look for a topic by thinking about your own interests. Examples of general topics: Women in 18th-century China Social class and race in American (or European) cities Adult literacy Church communities and social class Music in Classical India The short stories of Joyce Carol Oates 17 . read it and see if the author’s bibliography gives you leads to other works that would get you deeper into the subject. you might not find much written about it. If you are taking a course on ancient Greece. a region. If you are using a textbook in the course. sociology. Students often pick a topic that interests them but on which very little scholarship has been done or on which the existing scholarship is in a language they do not know. In history. Are you interested in economics? There are often paper topics that deal with the economics of a period. When the teacher has left it to you to find a topic. and in many other fields. By choosing a broad topic.
visual art. The thing most likely to snag your attention is a question about a subject. A big topic is composed of many small topics. You will find that questions occur to you at critical points in a scholar’s work – points where the author explicitly disagrees with another scholar (which indicates that the point is controversial). The author will have organized the material into a coherent narrative or analysis from which you can get a grasp of the subject as a whole. or something the author writes does not quite make sense. Finding your paper topic within the general topic When you have an idea about what general topic you wish to work on.Short stories published in The Atlantic Monthly during the 1930s Food customs in Amazonian culture Voting patterns in cities and their suburbs Economic expansion in T’ang Dynasty China Remember: You are looking for a topic that interests you and meets the criteria that the faculty member set in the assignment. However. you want to know more. First. For example. scholarly articles. the author’s footnotes will be full of references to books. and the author will have done a lot of scholarly work for you. which will not give you the kind of broad overview you need. engineering. but just using the Web will often give you a fragmented body of information of uncertain accuracy or value. law etc. many people start looking for information on the Web. Today. perhaps. When a question occurs to you or you get an urge to know more. (Moreover. First. places where the author changes direction (usually 18 . who did them etc. Just reading the titles of the works the author used will provide you with leads to where to look next. There were artists in nineteenth-century Japan and many questions about what influenced their style and techniques or about the tastes of their patrons and audiences. The civilizations of ancient Mesoamerica had technology. literature. in what order. starting on the Web might get you some very basic information about some aspects of your topic. you should begin gathering information on it. The footnotes add a great deal to what the bibliography will have taught you. The author will write something that does not satisfy you. and the articles often contain wrong or partial information. Wikipedia articles tend to be brief and focused on specific subjects. Your job at this stage is to find a specific topic within the general one that interests you. web sites tied to the particular points he or she makes that you may want to do some more work on. you have an opening to a potential topic for your paper. – and consider what general topics relating to your interests fit the course you are taking.) Thus. Start from your disciplinary or subject-area interests – science. you don’t know the identity of the author. most of the information on the Web is in short articles. the Web has drawbacks as a source. his or her bibliography will be a trove of resources for your project. and there are many good questions to investigate relating to it. Finding a recent general book on the topic is the best strategy for getting started. and as you read you should be looking for a few subtopics that catch your eye. Second. You will do your best work when you work on topics that reflect your interests. and. The book will give you an overview and a slew of facts about your subject – when things happened.
Some will be relevant. librarians also add web sites to the library collection by creating links between their library web pages and the sites of organizations – such as scholarly associations or government agencies – that screen the content of their sites in a way similar to the way good publishers screen manuscripts. In the electronic catalog. and so forth. to why he thought it important for him to go to Gettysburg to deliver the speech. in many fields of knowledge. but most will not. you do not know that yet. Librarians vet what they purchase. So. If the search term was reasonably specific. to what we know about how and when Lincoln wrote it. and places where you think the evidence cited to support a point doesn’t really do so. Library collections also have a formal organization created by librarians and represented in the catalog. They have developed the list of subjects over more than a century of cataloging.by using words like ―however. On this topic. you’ll find a great deal of scholarly work and many different opinions.‖ ―but. and subject. you can answer it by looking in an encyclopedia. This kind of open-ended question is perfect for a research paper. They go for materials from publishers or sources that have established and respected processes for screening what they put out. title. but the basic point is that you are looking for a question that you can’t answer by simply looking in a reference book or Wikipedia. Librarians catalog books by author. You may be interested in a topic and want to read about it. In contrast. such as ―What did Lincoln hope to accomplish in the Gettysburg Address?‖ That question will take you to the text of the Address itself. you can look up books by author and title. not just a topic.‖ and ―although‖). You do research not just to collect information but to advance a position or thesis. but they typically acquire the works that matter to the academic disciplines. ―When was Abraham Lincoln elected to the Illinois Legislature?‖ is of no use. 19 . including nearly all of the kinds of subjects one deals with in research papers. You type a search term into a search engine and then sift the hundreds or thousands of responses you get. to questions about why he made it so short when his contemporaries were in the habit of giving speeches that lasted more than an hour. which is the answer to a question. libraries contain materials chosen to represent the best information on a wide range of subjects. but. Finding sources You probably know how to search the Web. Today. you impose order on what is actually a chaotic environment and increase the likelihood that you will find relevant information quickly. it is not even close to comprehensive and useful. which is now an electronic catalog in almost every large library. By defining your search terms. but those search modes only work if you already know what you are looking for. and its subtopics. When you start the research for a paper. Libraries purchase only a small percentage of what is published each year. You are looking for a question about your topic. but you do not have the basis for a research paper until you have a question you want to answer. you are looking for a question that cannot be answered so simply. The Web’s content is vast. the items that come up at the top of the list are likely to be the most relevant to your interests. A question such as. Chapter 3 will introduce you to different types of questions.
In addition to the traditional subject title search.When you look at a catalog entry. you do not have to put the exact subject title into the library’s search engine. A keyword search has the advantage of freeing you from established list of subjects in the cataloging system. As with the search engines used to find things on the Web. you should look over the whole list. you see a list of the subject areas that the cataloger thought the book fit under. This kind of search gives you a mixed blessing. It can accept approximations. You may have to enter several variant names for the subject you have in mind to be sure that you’ve found everything there is to find. the more certain you will be that you’ll find all the resources the library has on that subject. In most cases.‖ but the closer you are to the ―official‖ subject titles. you should expect to find the most relevant and important materials for your subject at the top of the list.S. then the search engine will actually search the entire text for the keyword. But. the books or articles that contain your search phrase in the title or those listed in a category from the subject catalog will be listed first. In that kind of search. If the library has a digitized copy of a work. Typically. followed by works in which the phrase occurs many times in the text and then by those in which it occurs only a few times etc. the electronic catalog allows you to do a keyword search. the book would have come up as one of your search results. 20 . If you had searched by one of those subjects. The catalog entry of every book inthe library contains these kinds of subject identifiers. such as ―U. library catalog search engines list the search results in order of relevancy. Before you start running around the stacks to find items your local library has. a well-defined term could produce a very complete and good list of everything relevant to your library. the computer lists all works that contain the keyword in their titles or subject categories.‖ Had you searched the subject catalog under ―Southern States.‖ this book would have appeared among your results. Yet. Here is an example (from the UCSD library): The cataloger has put this book under the subjects ―Southern States – History 1865-‖ and Southern States --Social Conditions. South‖ for ―Southern States. as judged by the built-in rules that govern the engine’s operation. because a general search term can turn up thousands of items.
Many works of anthropology or sociology rely on observations.) produced in the time and place that you are studying. You assume that the collection was selected by people who know how to judge the credibility of sources. documents. at least implicitly review the quality of the earlier studies. Scholarly reviews. Many of you do most of your research on the Internet. The notes on the observations. if you are working on the experience of slaves in the African slave trade. literary scholars. remember that serious works of scholarship can be seriously flawed.Primary and secondary sources In many fields. So. surveys. machines. household utensils. primary sources would include writings from the period when it was done (ninth or tenth century through the early twentieth century). But in these disciplines the writer of the secondary source is often a participant in the creation of the ―primary‖ sources. and others cite primary sources to support their arguments. A history of foot-binding is a secondary source. On some topics. When you are working in a field that relies on participant-observer techniques. Historians. surveyor. and used by the author. examples of shoes used in binding. Scholars sometimes have axes to grind and use their sources to prove the point they want to make. who know good scholarship from bad. Later studies may undermine or overturn early ones. if you are reading about foot-binding in China. assembled. you make certain assumptions about what you will find there. However. the raw data representing the answers of respondents. and so forth. It is always wise to read reviews of scholarly books or to find articles that respond to or build on earlier works and. contemporary medical texts dealing with the consequences of binding. and who choose the good and reject the bad. while the interpretation offered by the observer. and the transcripts of the interviews could be called primary sources. the campus library is no longer the only or even the principal source of information for a research project. and on the way it was collected. scholars distinguish between primary and secondary sources. You will find a great deal of primary material in secondary sources. you might have to rely for primary sources on historians who have gathered and translated those sources in their works. provide critical appraisals of books. or interviewer could be considered secondary sources. or artifacts (paintings. The distinction between primary and secondary sources may not be useful in some social science disciplines. you will find most of the primary sources you need only in secondary sources. usually published in scholarly journals such as the American Historical Review or the American Journal of Sociology. Evaluating the credibility of sources When you walk into a campus library. Primary sources are writings. 21 . The reviewers give you an idea about what the book covers and then tell you how the book relates to earlier scholarship on the subject and finally appraise the quality of the author’s argument and the use of evidence. For example. and interviews. you have to focus on the data presented. therefore. Secondary sources are scholarly works on your topic. You can use the materials you find in the library of a good academic institution with a lot of confidence that your instructor and others will regard the sources as serious works of scholarship. the survey instruments. Of course. selective and reliable as it is. etc.
so you know how they got it and what it represents.S. By reading critically. The site gives you the provenance of each document. Because of copyright restrictions. but when you arrive at most sites you cannot assume that you will find credible information there. judgment of the credibility of sources proceeds from the question. Knowing that will allow you to get an idea of what an author was saying and then. Every site has an address. the addresses of some sites give you a clue to their credibility.gov). by government institutes or agencies (. you will develop a different kind of judgment of scholarship. and by well-known scientific societies (such as the American Psychological Association or the American Political Science Association. The Constitution Society has a web site that contains documents and writings pertinent to the history of constitutions. Does the site tell you who created it and who sponsors it? What can you find out about these people or institutions? When was the site last updated? Does the site tell you how the information was collected? For example. So. which are usually in the . ask some basic questions.org domain contains a lot of sites to be wary of. You are reasonably safe if you stick with such sites. and more sites are being added every day. constitution. to search for a more recent translation in the library.edu domain). though the . The Internet is a great city with millions of sites in it. If you want to use other sites but do not know whether they are reliable. you have to be vastly more cautious when dealing with Web resources. 22 .org domain) can be taken to be credible with the same confidence – and the same caveats – as the works found in an academic library. how can you cite it so that the reader of your paper can find the particular data you used? As you read works on your topic. ―Should I read this?‖ to ―Do I think this source is reliable or relevant?‖ to ―Do I agree with this author’s selection and interpretation of the primary sources or evidence?‖ The characteristics of critical reading are the topic of Chapter 2. How is this information on the site managed? Is it kept up to date? If it offers a database that continually changes. you will sift the information and opinions on your topic and begin to form your own opinion about which primary sources are most credible and which secondary authors most persuasive. especially the U. If you must be cautious when assessing books in the library. However. if you wish to cite the work. Sites sponsored by universities or their libraries (which are in the . such sites will often digitize an old translation of a work.where the credibility of sources is very uncertain.
You’ll also find that the treatment an author gives a subject is often subtly influenced by his or her political views.S. You start with questions already in mind. you will also want to look for differences of opinion about the topic. do the authors differ in the emphasis they place on one part of the body of evidence or another? If they come to different conclusions – that is. – might interpret the same evidence from China as showing that poor boys only rarely broke the bounds of their poverty to rise into the ranks of the elite. you have an advantage in understanding what you are reading. In the late 1930s. The same evidence interpreted in opposite ways because of the different points of view of the authors. Every scholar has a point of view. Reading critically To read critically is to engage the text actively. What is the author trying to prove or argue? What kind of sources did the author use? What is the author’s point of view? How does the author make his or her argument? Is it persuasive? As you read the works you have collected. Ronald Syme reconsidered the sources and painted a much darker picture 23 . such as a way of reading texts or a preconception about what certain words and phrases mean. you will have to read those sources critically. You’ll find that many authors who write about religious subjects – even historians – come to their subject with beliefs that determine how they interpret the sources.Chapter 2 Reading and Taking Notes Once you have collected sources for your research project. ask yourself: ―What are the author’s main points?‖ ―What is the author’s point of view?‖ Try to find out something about the author and publisher of the work. An author who believes that most people are trapped by circumstances and need help to break out of those circumstances – a view usually associated with liberal politics in the U. looking for material that you might be able to use in writing your paper. Here’s another example. To do so effectively. An author who believes that people ought to be able to rise above their circumstances to achieve success in society – a view usually associated with conservative politics in the United States – may interpret evidence about the bureaucracy’s examination system in eleventh-century China as showing that the sons of poor farmers could rise to the top of society and that Chinese society in that period was open to talent. you will have to read through all of them. if you understand that history. Every field of scholarship has a history. Do they have political or other biases that you should look out for as you read? Pay attention to the date of publication. In the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century. scholars tended to see the emperor Augustus as a restorer of order in Rome after 14 years of civil war and his reign as the foundation for the success of the imperial regime that followed. propose different theses – why? What arguments lead the various authors to different conclusions? The main tasks of critical reading are: Identify main ideas: For each new text. He or she may adhere to a particular tradition in the field. Do the authors you read agree about what question needs to be answered about the topic? Do they use the same kind of evidence? When you compare them.
Hexter’s observation gave readers a new understanding of what the sixteenth-century author meant to say in his classic work of political theory. In literary research. you can look for meaningful connections between events and developments in the period in which an author wrote and the content of that author’s work. protected.H. themes that are repeated by a variety of scholars (such as the interpretations of Augustus noted above). Take note of patterns: In historical. the state was a thing to be seized. Syme’s approach was influenced by his observation of contemporary Germany. For example. while his contemporaries were founding the Royal Society in London. lost etc. Pavlov’s famous experiments with conditioning dogs by rewarding certain behaviors led to hypotheses about the environmental factors that affect human behavior. characteristics common to peoples of different times. Metaphors.) In addition. or cultures (such as the treatment of minority or immigrant groups or the representation of certain themes in art). Do people respond to questions differently in a messy space as opposed to an orderly one? Experiments show that they do. the ways love affects relationships over time. For Machiavelli. and his effective use of propaganda to create the rosy picture that previous historians had accepted as true. and they interpreted Augustus as a reformer trying to restore Roman society while they recognized that he subverted Rome’s republican traditions. such as ―crown‖ for ―the king and his council‖). and hypocrisy – and for the language authors use to express or represent those themes. look for: the nature of the data used and the theories or models on which the author’s interpretation rests. and other figures of speech convey the way the author wants you to understand the story. where the Nazis were doing many of things Augustus had done. Was there a connection? Did the new movement in what was then called ―natural philosophy‖ have an effect on Hobbes? In research on psychology or economics. (J. built-up. Thomas Hobbes wrote a ―scientific‖ treatise on the origins and nature of political communities. similes. complicated machines. sociological. To what stimuli 24 . historians might have had Bismarck in mind when they considered Augustus. look both for themes – such as the desire for power. metonymy (the use of the name of a characteristic part of a thing to represent the thing itself. In psychology. and it would raise the question. In disciplines like these. Hexter provided a great example of the importance of language when he showed that in The Prince. emphasizing his suppression of political opposition. his restrictive and puritanical social program. classes.of Augustus’ reign. Machiavelli almost always put ―the state‖ in the position of an object of a verb. scholars do experiments on animals and people to test hypotheses about personality types and how people learn or make judgments. and anthropological research. Economies are vast. what influences affected the way earlier historians had treated Augustus?‖ Earlier historians did not have the example of Nazi Germany (and they regarded Germany as paragon of civilization). A critical reading of Syme’s book would note his disagreement with his predecessors and the different way he read the sources. Authors use language to represent as well as to tell a story. look for: recurring phenomena (such as the boom/bust cycle in market economies or the way people answer questions about their families). scholars often start with models or theoretical frameworks that affect both the way they select evidence and the conclusions they draw. Before Syme. ―If Syme was influenced by his observations of contemporary Germany. and economists collect and analyze data to test models about how it works.
so it’s important to assess the quality of information that each source provides. you may find that most scholars writing on the topic regard the work as seriously flawed. You can follow a trail of scholarship from a recent work to earlier works and from works that are central to the topic you are currently reading about to works that touch on that subject tangentially but that may become important for you as you define your topic and shift your focus. because they will help him or her understand and take an independent view of the scholarship. Making notes is a vehicle for your engagement with the texts. When reading a scholarly work. For an article. and then rebut. look for the ways in which the author constructs his or her arguments. and chosen for inclusion in a good research library.do people respond when they spend or save or invest their money? The economist starts with a theory or model of stimuli and response and looks at data about how people behave in various conditions to test it. The mechanics of reading critically Note-taking By taking notes as you read you will keep up with what you are reading. If you find that a 25 . summarize the text’s main ideas. published by a good academic press. record the author’s key argument and the main points of that argument. arguments arising from other points of view? Any problems or contradictions that you find can alert you to potential problems with the author’s research and lead you to topics or directions for your own research. Be alert to the judgments that scholars make about each other’s works and the reasons they give for their opinions. Here’s some advice about doing it: Avoid merely summarizing the content of the text. Take advantage of what they’ve done. For a book. Later. Instead. As noted in Chapter 1. the scholars you read have done a great deal of work for you and recorded it in their footnotes and bibliographies. You start your research by working with the subject catalog of your library or the search engine of an online library. Does he provide sufficient evidence to convince you of his thesis? Do her assertions follow logically from the evidence she provides? What is the author’s disciplinary perspective. Pay attention to the treatment of a work by other scholars: When you first read it. you may take a work seriously. Look for problems or contradictions: Scholarly works will provide you with much of the information on which you will base your own argument. because it was written by an apparently credible author. but you pursue your research by following the trail blazed by earlier scholars. and how does it affect his or her argument? Does the author consider. When you take notes. A critical reader looks for those underlying schemes. Pay close attention to the works that the authors cite in their footnotes (or endnotes) and bibliographies. you have to think about what the authors are saying and about your response to their work. summarize the main idea of each chapter (it’s useful to note the chapter titles) and how each of the chapters relates to the overall argument of the book. Follow the trail of scholarship: No search of the library catalog will identify everything you need or should read for your project.
highlighting is a bad practice. 26 . as noted below. and phenomena. These will provide the factual or evidentiary basis for your research paper. then it’s better to photocopy and to annotate key pages.source contains so many useful pieces of information or so many tantalizing ideas that you want to copy large parts of it into your notes.) Note key people. dates.) Record your responses to the text. When you use primary sources that have been incorporated into scholarly works. make sure to cite both the original document (the primary source) and the secondary source from which you took it. To annotate is to make notes on the text in the margins. taking notes on it. Annotate in pencil or in light-colored ink that doesn’t obscure the printed text. terms. (More on citing your sources later. you will find many primary sources cited in secondary studies.) How does the author argue that the thesis is right? What evidence does the author provide to support the argument? Who is the author’s intended audience? For what purpose was the text written? How does the author shape the argument to persuade his or her audience and achieve his or her purpose? How might the author’s purpose have affected how he or she selected and used evidence? Which alternative arguments does the author address and how does he or she rebut them? How persuasive is the author’s argument? Questions about the text: What questions does the text raise and which ones does it answer? Why is the text important to your research? How does the material connect with what you already know or have already read? Does it support or contradict what you have learned so far? Does it raise new issues? Which ideas do you find interesting—and why do they interest you? Annotating As noted.) Mark the sentence that a marginal note relates to. consider the following questions: Questions about the author: What is the author’s research question? What is the author’s answer to the question? (The answer is the author’s thesis. events. because the authors will cite those primary sources as evidence. or in addition to. When you do. there are times when it is useful to annotate a photocopied text instead of. but here is a place where you might use a highlighter. (Note: Generally. (More on annotation later. As noted earlier.
You’ve presented the findings and ideas of others but not your own thinking. Doing research is a sustained act of criticism. what you are really doing is saying to yourself ―I don’t know what this means. then when you review what you’ve read you won’t know what those blocks were about or why you thought they were important unless you read them over again. but it looks important‖ or ―I’ll read this over again more carefully later on. Recording necessary bibliographic information One of the biggest problems in doing research is keeping track of what you have read. When you highlight. When you highlight passages throughout the works you read. and every scholar can give you a list of his or her own experience with incomplete notes. When that happens. They make you think you are reading critically when you are not. you have to spend hours going through what 27 . A paper composed of a string of quotations is a very bad paper.‖ whereas to read critically is to engage the text as you read it. In essence. Research requires a great deal of clerical work. for example. it undermines your entire effort. makes the process of review inefficient. or highlighting main claims (and noting. If all you’ve done is highlight blocks of text. evidence. Using highlighters reduces the likelihood that you will interact critically with the text. you have to make notes about what you regard as significant about each text you read. bracketing. To the extent that highlighting interferes with that intellectual process. then it will be difficult for you to identify the key ideas. ―th‖ for ―theme‖ or ―arg‖ for ―argument‖ in the margin) The Problem with Highlighting Highlighters are handy. To overcome what highlighting produces. If all you do is highlight. you may end up writing a paper that is just a collection of readings. defers critical reading. you might have to do your reading all over again. You are just marking up the text. increases the possibility that you will use too many quotations in your paper. Take the time to record the complete bibliographical information on every work you read. of finding and assessing information and arguments as you develop your own ideas. but use of them tends to get out of hand.Useful annotation techniques include: Underlining. highlighting forces you to read everything at least twice: once when you highlight it and again when you have to go back and find particular pieces of information or ideas. and arguments of the text when you are reviewing what you have discovered through research. especially when annotating. There is nothing quite as frustrating as remembering that you read the perfect quotation to clinch your argument but forgetting where you read it. Highlighting doesn’t allow you to distinguish between a main idea and a detail. At some point.
Keeping accurate records of what you read and attaching the bibliographic information to your notes and to pages copied from sources will not only save you time and perhaps save your argument but also prevent you from committing plagiarism. complete title. the information includes the author(s). place of publication. you must keep the best records you have ever managed to keep. Plagiarism consists in using someone else’s work without acknowledging it. Unfortunately. students often say that they must have just copied text from their notes into their paper. for example. constantly in flux. Everyone who has done research can recount the costs of sloppiness in recording bibliographic information. Remember that many web sites are dynamic. and date of publication. noting the date and the exact location at the time you used it. If you do not know the source of your notes. For Web resources.you’ve already done in hopes of finding the source or you have to give up the quotation. complete title. the cost has included accusations of plagiarism. year. For some. Those costs include spending hours searching for the information while a footnote waits to be completed or having to rewrite an argument because you cannot find the source of information or of a quotation crucial to solidifying a part of the argument. In general. When you are doing research. It can be intentional or unintentional. Working towards a research question 28 . the URL. For articles in journals or magazines. whatever pathways a reader would need to find the material you are using. The latter may be less culpable than the former. No plagiarism intended. date of the volume or issue. because the piece you sort of remember is crucial to making the argument work. you’ll have to revise your argument. err on the side of completeness. name of the journal or magazine. or removed by the time your reader goes looking for it. In many cases. If you are worried that the information you are taking from a site will have been altered. it includes author(s). issue number. 1 was published in 1906). you will spend the hours. and perhaps your conclusion. desperate to complete the work – as students facing a deadline often are – the writer just includes the material without proper citation. being able to provide your teacher with a printout that has full information might save you from a lot of trouble. then print it out. volume number. moved. Specific volumes of journals and magazines are usually numbered by year – so. and page number. name f publisher. the author or authority that produced the site. and page numbers. For a paper written for a course. Here is the sort of information you need to record for everything you read: For books. but both intentional and unintentional plagiarism will lead to charges being filed and to a penalty that might be severe. or when they paraphrase another’s words or use others’ ideas without citation. that’s also no excuse. When they are caught using others’ words without quotation marks or citation. the American Political Science Review for 2008 is volume number 102 (vol. so you might need to note who or what organization maintains the site. fail to find the source. The common practice is to refer to journals by volume. how often it is updated etc. and then have to forego use of the material. In the worst cases. you can’t use them. when.
and to ask questions about what you are reading. 29 . These paragraphs are unlikely to make it into your paper. expect to read through a great deal of stuff. For the first weeks of your research.During the early stages of working on a research paper. but they will help you find and develop a topic suitable to the length of the paper you have to write. Getting to the library early and reading widely will help you find a topic that really engages you. It is only after you have accumulated a great deal of information that you can start to organize your work into a coherent topic that will produce a good paper. A coherent topic is a good research question. your main activities will be: to read widely. to take notes on and respond to what you are reading. answering the question is the objective of the research you will do once you have it. For the first few weeks. Formulating a research question is the subject of Chapter 3. So. to take a lot of notes. and you just happen to find a book or a topic that fascinates you. don’t worry if your topic changes several times. The best research always seems to be ―accidental‖: you’re in the library or online looking for something. and to write a large number of exploratory paragraphs that lay out ideas for the paper. to make many photocopies and annotate copiously. the question determines what kind of and how much research you have to do.
In a report. That is the definition of an openended question. you set out the information you’ve found and perhaps make some comments on the way scholars have gathered or treated that information. A research paper is not a report. The answer to an open-ended question can be strong or weak. they advance claims that are still open to debate. In a research paper. the sort done by your faculty. You will report on what scholars have said about aspects of the question. supporting those claims with evidence and argument. and the academic fields in which they would be posed: What benefit do male birds of paradise derive from having such elaborate and colorful plumage? (Evolutionary Biology) Why do people continue to smoke even though they’ve been warned about the dangers cigarettes pose to their health? (Neurophysiology. you set out to answer a question of your own devising. If you have been reading critically. You want to avoid writing a report. you show that you’ve read and understood a body of material. A great deal of professional scholarship. one narrow. from all of the potential research questions you have accumulated. Good research papers go beyond merely reporting information about which scholars already agree. The thesis of your paper will be your answer to the question. does the same thing. At that point. You will need to choose a research question that will lead you to do research that will produce a good argument. Now. supported by a strong or a weak argument. open-ended question. You will propose an answer to such a question and make a case for it. Here are some examples of open-ended questions. That question will provide the basis for your research paper. A good argument persuades because the evidence supports it. A good thesis is one supported by a good argument. you select. you will have a list of questions in your notes. In a report. What sort of question is that? Good questions You want a question that can be answered but not definitively. but you will be using their work and the work you do with primary sources to make a case for a thesis. you have to bring some order to what you have been reading and thinking. answer questions that have been or might be answered in more than one way. Psychology. your argument will make a persuasive case that your answer is right or at least better than other possible answers. Sociology) What was the primary cause of the American Civil War? (History) How can James Joyce’s short story ―The Dead‖ be interpreted? (Literature) 30 .Chapter 3 Formulating an Open-ended Research Question You reach a crucial stage six weeks before the paper is due.
Using the following criteria will help you decide which questions are most likely to be productive. so that your research becomes a process of discovery and persuasion that has some suspense to it. Can you find evidence to support the answer to the question you would like to give? Can you convince your readers to accept your answer? Second. Some of those questions will lead to good research projects.E. Basing your research project on an open-ended question thus provides two benefits. it gives you something interesting to figure out. Others can be dealt with in short papers or articles. is really not very much space in which to make a compelling argument. the degree to which you can make arguments supporting answers to them—as follows: Level 1: Questions that can be answered with knowledge you have right now Level 2: Questions that can be definitively answered with scholarly research 31 . others will be less productive. You will need to narrow the scope of your topic and question in order to ensure that you can adequately explain your answer in the permissible number of pages. but each of them has several plausible answers that can be supported with evidence and argument. You have eight to twelve weeks to produce a ten-to-fifteenpage paper. which is your principal work when writing a research paper. What. Why a narrow question? Ten to fifteen pages. advancing and supporting an answer to any of the questions—to any open-ended question—necessarily means making an argument. then. Research questions come in all sizes. Some good research questions need a book-length answer based on years of research in out-of-the-way archives or months of work in a laboratory. In other words. it enables you to write a strong research paper that advances a compelling argument. First.? Better: How did Julius Caesar and Marc Antony affect Cleopatra’s governance of Egypt? Even better: How did Marc Antony affect Cleopatra’s governance of Egypt? Formulating your question Part of the process of reading critically is to record all of the questions that occur to you during your research. For example. You will need a question suitable to that task. would be a sufficiently narrow research question for you to pursue in a ten.None of these questions can be answered definitively.to fifteen-page research paper? Much too broad: How did Rome maintain control over its empire? Still too broad: How did Rome maintain control over Egypt? Still too broad: How did Rome maintain control over Egypt in the first century B.C. Levels of arguability You can rank types of questions in order of increasing arguability—that is. although it might seem endless to you. you might be interested in how the rulers of the Roman Empire succeeded in establishing hegemony over conquered states.
Answering a level-1 or a level-2 question (such as ―What types of weapons did Julius Caesar’s troops use?‖) will only produce a report. If you want to produce a strong.C. The level at which you frame your question will determine the success of your research project. definition.? How can we reduce the number of single parents in American society? (Was the execution of Socrates justified?) What was the political significance of Sophocles’s Antigone? What is the meaning of ―separation of powers‖ in the U. One useful scheme distinguishes among five main types of questions: of fact. The general characteristics of these question types are: TYPE Fact GENERAL FORMAT Did it happen? Is it true? EXAMPLE Did Archimedes show the people of Syracuse how to burn the Athenian fleet by focusing the rays of the sun with mirrors? Was Athenian democracy more ―fair‖ or egalitarian than other systems of government operating during the fifth century B. since scholars no longer disagree about the answer to that question. Answering a level-4 question (such as ―Did the majority of Roman citizens really believe that the emperor Augustus was a god?‖) will only produce speculation. what are its effects? 32 . because the answers to such questions rest not on observable. policy. Other level-4 questions (such as ―Was the emperor Augustus a god?‖) cannot be answered with research.E. you must start with a level-3 question. there are a number of ways to categorize questions. Constitution? What events led to the way Madison phrased the First Amendment to the Constitution? Value Is it good or bad? Which criteria do we use to decide? Policy Definition What should we do about it? What should be our future course of action? (Historical version: What should have been done about it? How should they have acted?) What is it? How shall we interpret it? Causation What caused it? Or. value. and causation.S. because suitable evidence (such as diaries or other records of citizens’ opinions) does not exist. interesting research paper. testable evidence but on beliefs.Level 3: Questions to which an answer can be proposed based on scholarly research but that cannot be answered definitively Level 4: Questions that cannot be addressed with scholarly research either because of a lack of evidence or because they ask something that cannot be answered by citing evidence You want to find a level-3 question—an open-ended question—on which to base your research. Question types Apart from question level.
More important.Note that you could argue for an answer to any of the above questions. if you are finding it difficult to formulate a clear question. A historian must argue for a date based on the available evidence. after you have formulated a question you can focus your research by considering the kinds of evidence that most effectively support an answer to the type of question you are asking. Categorizing questions according to type has several benefits. Even a claim of fact isn’t necessarily ―true‖. rather. the simple question. about the actors. it may be a claim that must be supported with evidence and argument. The following chart summarizes what you will need to learn in order to give a plausible or persuasive answer to each type of question. about the institutions and so forth that might help us interpret the evidence for the event itself? • How have scholars used the evidence in arguing that X happened or did not happen and why do they differ on the issue? • If you are asking ―Is X good?‖ you will need to know: • Factual information about X • An understanding of the criteria scholars use to judge the value of things like X • The way scholars use the criteria to judge whether a thing like X is good or bad • Existing scholarly opinions about the value of X Value Is it good or bad? Which criteria do we use to decide? Policy What should we do about it? What should be our future course of action? (Historical version: What should have been done about it? How should they have acted?) If you are asking ―what should have been done about X‖? you will need to know: • Factual information about X • Other scenarios for what could plausibly have been done about X • The criteria scholars use to judge the efficacy of policies like those proposed to solve the problem of X • What positions scholars and others (such as policy makers) have taken on X 33 . which is far from conclusive. level-3 question. ―When was Socrates born?‖ cannot be answered by reading his birth certificate. (For example. what other things do we know about the period. you might find it helpful to format your query in terms of a general type. First. they are all arguable.) Thus. any of the above question types could be framed as an openended. TYPE Fact GENERAL FORMAT Did it happen? Is it true? NECESSARY EVIDENCE If you are asking ―Did X happen?‖ you will need to know: • What evidence do we have that X happened? Because the evidence is likely to be unclear.
and comments. along with your annotations. By the time you get to the stage where you have to make a choice. you might ask. if you are asking. and how. X affected Y Note that every topic has many different aspects. Each of these approaches to the question will require different kinds of theoretical models. 34 . you’ll have a lot of possibilities to choose from. and record or photocopy all of the evidence you find that might help you to answer the question. Likewise. if your topic is European technological achievements in the eighteenth century. technological. what are its effects? If you are asking ―How shall we interpret X?‖ you will need to know: • Factual information about X • Relevant scholarly criteria for interpreting phenomena such as X • Existing scholarly opinions about the meaning of X If you are asking ―How did X affect Y?‖ you will need to know: • Factual information about both X and Y • What Y was like before X occurred • What Y was like after X occurred • What factors other than X might have affected Y • Existing scholarly opinions about whether or not. or cultural development in Europe and other major civilizations of the period. ―What effect did technological development have on the European family?‖ or on the success of colonization or on economic development or on the growth of science or on cultural attitudes (think of Marx’s claim that the growth of manufacturing deprived the people of their personal relationship to the production of goods). ―Why did Europeans become dominant in the world in the early nineteenth century?‖ you might frame an answer by comparing economic. and different bodies of scholarship. Keep a separate file for each one. different kinds of evidence. notes. Working with a research question: keeping track of evidence One good way to get to a research question that will serve your needs is to start early trying to identify questions. Write down each research question that occurs to you as you get into the research process. For example.Definition What is it? How shall we interpret it? Causation What caused it? Or.
keep an open mind. Then. However. you will probably have some idea about how you want to answer the question – that is. which leads you to a demonstration that another thing is true. the highest in the land because the king headed them. One claim could be that the kings created Parliament as a political body to help them govern. If your question is. You should structure your argument – that is. in effect. Here is an example. Another claim could be that communities in England – counties and towns – had acquired such economic power that they forced the kings to call Parliaments to hear their views on national issues. Each demonstration involves making a claim and then arguing that it is true or at least likely. leading eventually to the answer to the question. The argument you make to support each claim consists of citations of evidence and reasoning. ―What was the original purpose of the Parliament in England?‖ you will start with a claim about when the institution was created. you will be able to focus your further reading. As you go back to reading.Chapter 4 The Cycle of Reading: Gathering the information you need to answer your question Once you have a good question. you must make a claim about what the evidence produced by and about the early Parliaments shows about its purposes or function. the principal business of the early Parliaments was the hearing of petitions and law cases that members brought to the meetings. the Parliaments were not so much political bodies as courts. you need to argue for or against these claims or hypotheses. You demonstrate that something is true. a series of demonstrations. You now will read primary and secondary sources that you think will help you answer your question. As you work towards an answer to your question. You will find it amazing what you see in previously read texts once you’ve got the focus that a research question provides. 35 . presenting the evidence that supports or contradicts each of them. So. You will also be able to review what you read earlier with the question in mind. Yet another claim might be that whatever the kings had in mind. You will build the argument for your thesis from claims and the demonstrations of their truth or likelihood. the order in which you treat the claims – to make it flow logically toward the conclusion you have drawn from your research. Your goals in doing research The answer to a research question rests on an argument that is. You may discover that your first impressions about how the project will turn out are wrong and that you arrive at a different conclusion after doing your research. what your thesis will be – and that will help you choose what to read. citing evidence that shows when that happened and referring to the work of scholars who have written about it.
for example. literary works – that tells us something about the plague in Florence and what the Florentines knew about its causes and progress What these different sources said about the Florentines’ response to the plague. The rejected claims or hypotheses are counter-arguments. and you try to support or knock down each of the hypotheses you consider. 36 . ―Oh really? What about these documents that show that…‖ If you have considered counter-arguments. you have shown or at least argued that those documents don’t undermine your answer to the question.This example shows that an argument is not necessarily completely positive. you should try to organize your notes and write some paragraphs or pages setting down your view of what it all means. What background material will you need to cover? What kind of claims will you have to make or deal with? and What points will you need to make? If. The claims are hypotheses. you should look at your research question again. both when they were anticipating it and when it finally hit them. How do the materials you’ve collected and the thoughts you’ve had help you answer the question? Do you have to revise the question? You can only answer a question if you find relevant information. Sometimes. and they strengthen your main argument by showing that you have considered other possible answers and by dealing with evidence that you have decided is not significant but that a reader might point to if you didn’t. responded to the great plague of 1348.) Your question guides you in figuring out what you need to know to answer it. such as Florence. a good argument deals with claims – representing possible answers to your question or the sub-questions it raises – that you want to reject as well as those you think are supportable. you may revise your research question several times. At these stopping points. Then. you build an argument only of claims that you think the evidence and sound reasoning support. You may find that you cannot gather what you think is the right kind of background information. You may recognize that your question is too big. you wanted to address a question about how a European city. (Imagine your reader saying. and how the authors’ goals and points of view affected the way they portrayed the response What scholars have written about the response of the Florentines to the plague Reflecting on your question as you proceed As you continue reading. You may find that you cannot give a plausible explanation. of one of the points you thought you would have to make to answer the question as you formulated it. histories. Most often. with supporting evidence. Whenever you feel that you’ve got a mass of undigested material – information that you know is relevant to your topic but that you do not feel in control of – stop and reassess where you are. but that is not common. The focused reading that you do at this stage of your work will take you into the heart of the argument that will support a satisfactory answer to your question. you would need to consider: The general history of the plague The kind of evidence we have – records. you would need too much time and too many pages to answer it.
These stops for ordering and reflection will speed your research and make it better. So. you might have found evidence of religious responses – church attendance. you have to pay close attention to what you need to answer your question. and you have to stop occasionally to sort your findings and think about the results of your research. It will do you no good if you find material to answer one part of the question but not another. Thus. and you will not spend time reading texts that do not serve your purpose. if not compelling. 37 . if you were working on Florence and the plague. You also need enough information. While you are doing your focused reading.You know that you have relevant information if you can use it to argue that an answer to the question is at least plausible. You will not get off course. processions in the streets. the government’s appeals to the saints – but not much evidence about what the physicians were telling people or the way the hospitals functioned. you would have to revise your question to focus on the religious response to the disease.
Chapter 5 Answering Your Question and Constructing Your Argument
About three weeks before your paper is due (or about two weeks before you have to submit a rough draft) you will have to transform all of your notes and ideas into a coherent draft. You can accomplish this task by working through the following steps.
Sort notes and texts Gather together all of the material you’ve generated in the course of your research: notes, copies of pages from primary and secondary sources, and pictures. Sort the material into piles representing different aspects of your topic. You might have one pile for introductory information and one for each part of your argument. Each batch of materials might include notes on the primary and secondary sources, copies of pages you judged significant when you read them, and notes recording your own thoughts as you did your reading. Sorting your research materials accomplishes a number of goals. First, it allows you to review all of the information you’ve gathered, alerting you to any gaps in your research and reminding you of some things you might have forgotten. Second, it reveals the way you now think you will argue the case that your thesis is sound. Third, it constitutes a first step in putting together a rough draft. The order into which you organize your piles of information will become the order in which you present that information in your draft.
Write a working thesis As often noted, the thesis of your paper will be the answer to your research question. You might already have formulated a thesis as you did your research; if not, you will most likely find that it comes to you as you organize your notes. Write down your working thesis, stating it in a few declarative sentences. For example, here is a plausible working thesis that responds to the question of Florentines’ religious response to the plague of 1348: Florentines regarded the plague as a divine punishment not only of themselves but also of the established church. So, they stayed away from the churches and paid no heed to the bishop and his priests. Instead, they joined informal, intensely religious groups that practiced new rituals and held views that the church regarded as heretical. Note the specificity of this thesis; it goes beyond a broad response – ―The Florentines became more religious as a result of the plague‖ – to elaborate how they became more religious. The more specific you can make your working thesis, the easier it will be to write your rough draft and the more focused and coherent that draft will be. Note also that this thesis tells you a lot about what you have to argue in your paper. You have to explain, at least briefly, traditional religious practice and the organization of the church in Florence.
Then, you have to show that the citizens began to engage in all sorts of new practices and rituals and held unorthodox beliefs (perhaps promulgated by lay preachers wandering around the city during the plague). Finally, you have to show that the bishop and his hierarchy of officials considered these practices and beliefs heretical. Note, finally, that this statement is a working thesis; it is only a provisional thesis, one that you might change as you think through your research material during the course of writing your draft. Use your working thesis as a guide but don’t be afraid to change it if further reflection convinces you that you’ve found a better answer to your question. Organize the information you’ve found Once you’ve formulated a working thesis you can refine the organization of the material you’ve collected. As you put your information in order you will create the outline of your paper: the train of information and explanation that leads readers from your research question through the main points of your argument to your conclusion or answer to the question.
The structure of the paper Just as your argument should flow logically from point to point – that is, it should have a logical structure – so your paper as a whole should have a structure. If you write an outline of your argument, you should be able to see the structure easily, and it should have a shape. In fact, you can think of your paper as a building. The roof (thesis) cannot stand without supporting columns (an argument based on evidence). The whole rests on a foundation (the research question). As you organize your paper, keep in mind that every bit of information—every fact or claim that something is a fact—and every argument must contribute to supporting the thesis (roof).
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As in real architecture, some elements of your structure might serve more than one purpose. One piece of evidence might support two or more different aspects of your argument. For example, if you are writing about the Ottoman adoption of gunpowder technology, you might use a document to show when that happened and then go on to argue that the Ottomans got the technology from the Swedes. In making that argument, assuming that you do not have direct evidence (such as a document from the Swedish ministry of war saying that they had provided cannons to the Ottomans), you would have to show that there was a plausible mechanism (a spy network, the capture of an artillery unit etc.) through which the transfer of technology could have taken place. In making the case for the plausibility of your version of what happened, you would almost certainly find that some of your evidence, such as the documents you use to argue about the date of the technology transfer, could also be used to support an argument about how the transfer took placeSo, your paper should have a formal structure. Here are the components of that structure: The Introduction: Introduce the topic – what is it, why is it interesting? Provide background information (orient your readers, assuming a general audience) State the research question (implicitly or explicitly but clearly; your reader should know what the question is) Allude to the controversy over the question (Why would anyone ask the question in the first place? What difference would one answer make as opposed to another answer? Why don’t scholars or people agree on an answer? What are some of the different answers that have been offered and what arguments have been advanced to support those answers?) What’s the significance of the question? State your thesis
The Body of the paper: Make your argument. The argument will be made up of parts that follow from one another (if I’ve shown X to be true or highly likely, then we can see that Y is also true or highly likely). Each element of your argument should be backed up by evidence and discussion As noted in the last chapter, you may summarize one or more other arguments that have been offered to answer your question followed by your rebuttal. If you discuss other arguments, deal with the way the evidence is used in them. You may anticipate and refute possible criticisms of your argument. (Doing this supplies counter-arguments when other writers have not done it for you. However, do not make up a weak or outlandish counter-argument. That is a called a ―straw man,‖ and it weakens rather than strengthens your own argument, because it makes the reader think that your thesis cannot stand up to a real challenge.) \ Note that you should occasionally remind the reader why your question is significant, why he or she should care what the answer is.
new rituals. Evidence/Data Claim Explanation and supporting sources Counterargument and supporting sources (optional) People were just crazed by fear Rebuttal and supporting sources (optional) Descriptions of religious behavior New behavior. and new ideas.The Conclusion: No new points or evidence! Tie together your argument Expand on the significance of your argument (the ―so what?‖): how does your argument help readers to understand your topic better? Argument chart Here is a useful bookkeeping tool for organizing your paper: Question: What was the Florentines’ religious response to the plague of 1348? Working thesis: They disregarded the established church and created new religious groups. new rituals People thought the church was corrupt and God was punishing the people for their adherence to it Literary writers reflected the views of their audience Bishop and clergy would not have been concerned if they regarded the people merely as crazed with fear Literature written during and after the plague Can be interpreted as explanation of popular attitudes Shows that they were concerned with what the people were doing and their rejection of the church Different interpretations of the literary texts Sermons by the bishop and clergy Reports of sermons by lay preachers The new People no longer religious groups followed the were unorthodox dictates of the traditional clergy 41 .
usually in a footnote or endnote. you would have to argue that the records do refer to cannon and can be dated to about 1445. is valid evidence for a claim you are making. You must cite that source precisely. How could one determine when the Ottomans actually learned of the technology and began experimenting with it? The records of the Sultanate might have entries. while another piece of evidence does not. You will use the work of others in several ways: You will borrow passages from others’ work—that is. You give reasons why this piece of evidence supports your answer to the question you are considering. So. then you have to approach the question obliquely. ―When did the Ottomans acquire gunpowder?‖ An account by a chronicler writing in 1453 (when we know that they had cannons. You’ll find as you read scholarly works that much scholarship concerns questions of which evidence is relevant and that the way a scholar answers these questions of relevance determines the answer the scholar gives to the research question he or she is trying to answer. you will quote them or paraphrase their words. that could be interpreted as commissions to ironworks to produce prototypes of cannon. dating from the mid-1440s. Consider again the question. a story told by a contemporary. the 42 . If you are asking about the date of an event and no primary source gives it to you. the place of publication (if a journal article. so you must give credit to all of those whose work you have used. You can use a good deal of space in a research paper arguing that a document. Using the work of others: crediting your sources In all research projects you will gather the findings and opinions of others who have gone before you. what constitutes a proper use of evidence? Determining what counts as valid evidence Some evidence is obviously relevant. But. use quotation marks.Chapter 6 Using Evidence Effectively The proper use of evidence is the key to writing a good research paper. If you take the proper approach to the evidence.) The citation should include the name of the author. Other dated documents might give you information that shows that the event had to have taken place after they were written. a picture. the records might not be clear enough to clinch the case. because they used them against Constantinople that year) might mention a battle in 1449 in which the Ottomans used cannon. other evidence requires a demonstration or argument to show that it is relevant. A dated document that refers to the event gives you a date before which the event must have occurred. and so forth. You could argue from that text that the Ottomans had the technology by 1449. the title of the work from which the passage comes. (If you are quoting. you will almost automatically create a coherent argument that moves towards the answer to your research question. As you would want to be given credit for your discoveries and ideas. So.
name of the journal). citing the place where he or she published it or cited it in the same way as you would cite a quotation from the scholar. Then. you are unlikely to remember. when you finally get around to using the information in your paper. a scholar makes a claim and cites a document to support it. First. and date). You must acknowledge that you learned of these sources from such and such a scholar. To credit the authors you have read properly. He did not use the evidence fairly. You will use sources used by others or brought to your attention by others. publisher. and that you are making an independent contribution to the subject. To prevent yourself from inadvertently using another’s words. You lose nothing by citing the work of others properly. the name of the publisher. place where it was published. you must keep excellent bibliographic records as you do your research. You must cite the author from whom you got the idea. If you just copy the sentences or phrases into your notes. Always start by recording complete information about the publication – author. the page on which the passage can be found. but you probably won’t have to worry that you are inadvertently quoting someone without proper attribution. volume number. a proper citation will have not only a plain citation to the book or article and page number(s) where the scholar expressed the idea but also an explanation of the way the author used the idea. record the page number of every note you take from that source. consider some examples. If you keep good records. Indeed. 43 . before you make your note on it. do not copy text from your sources directly into your notes without marking the passage clearly – usually with quotation marks – as a quotation. for journal articles. If you put the book or article you are reading aside. You must still note the bibliographic data identifying where you got the information. Deciding how much evidence is enough To make it clear what this decision is about. The explanation can be especially useful if you are using the idea in a way different from the way its originator did. that you understand that scholarship. Often. or turn it over. you ensure that the information you are recording from it passes through your mind on the way to the page. title. you will minimize the possibility that you will use another’s work without attribution. by doing so you show that you are part of the tradition of scholarship in your subject. You will not have to go back to the library to look for the source of quotations or comments that you want to use. You will borrow ideas or arguments from others. Readers look up the cited text and discover that he did not cite the whole relevant passage. Then. your careful citation will help your reader distinguish your ideas and contributions from those of your sources and help your reader give you credit for what you’ve done. that they were not your words. the title of the journal. the date of publication. and date (or. One good way to avoid using another’s words without attribution is to avoid copying text verbatim into your notes. and you will save a great deal of time when you sit down to write your paper. By honoring those whose work you have used. you honor your own work.
An argument that cites too much evidence wobbles at least and often obscures the points you are trying to make. In her published study. and it is fairly treated. In political campaigns. To say that you need just enough evidence to be convincing or to make your case is not much guidance. A repetitive or digressive argument is not an effective argument. There is no other evidence to cite. If you think you have used the evidence fairly. a scholar may make a claim and cite a single sentence from a primary source to support it. that the particular interviews she cites in making her argument are representative of the whole survey. explains the way the questions were asked. They did all that work and want to show it off. If her peers think that she interviewed a sufficient number of people and that she has provided enough information about the overall results of her interviews. If your answer to your question has become more important to you than the evidence you’ve found regarding it. leading into discussions that have nothing to do with the thesis being argued. it becomes unpersuasive because the superfluous evidence creates the impression of special pleading. However. There is enough of it. you need to persuade your reader that you have not used the evidence just to make your argument come out the way you wish. Or. a scholar does hundreds of interviews for a study. and it is used fairly – that is. Third. Such an explanation will consist in arguing that what you’ve selected is representative of the material you did not cite as well as that it proves your argument. In general. she reviews the interview process. you have not left out information that would support a thesis different from yours and have not taken quotations or ―facts‖ out of context. explicitly or implicitly. it is not too much or too little. thereby distorting their meaning. then you probably have. and then asserts. try to put yourself in your reader’s position and imagine what sort of and how much evidence would persuade you that your argument is sound. Such an explanation is an argument that you have used the right amount of evidence in the right way. Scholars occasionally do something similar to shore up a weak argument – quoting part of a text while leaving out the part that shows that the quoted text does not really say what the scholar wishes it did. The explanation of how you have used the evidence is also an argument that you’ve used the evidence fairly and that there is no other evidence out there that either is relevant or would alter the answer to your question. Readers may judge that there is not enough evidence to support the scholar’s claim. then they are likely to accept that she has used her evidence properly. So. you have to explain to the reader why you think the evidence you’ve selected is sufficient. An argument that ignores some of the evidence will fall and bring you and your ideas down with it. However. By asking how much evidence is enough you will keep in mind the need to explain the evidence and your principles of selection. so that your reader does not second-guess you. then you probably have not used the evidence fairly or persuasively. as often happens with politicians.Second. because it diverts the reader’s attention to the repetitiveness or digressions and away from the case being made. if you are selecting evidence from a large mass of material that you’ve discovered. gives statistics on the interviews. There is no bright-line rule to guide you in deciding when you’ve made your argument and need say no more. 44 . You want to construct a persuasive argument. Young writers often want to cite every bit of information they found during their research. candidates often take quotations from their opponents or from government reports out of context. an argument loaded with a superfluity of evidence becomes digressive.
get rid of extraneous material. assure that the argument flows logically. which is more than practice for the final version of the paper. The advantage of writing a prospectus. The rough draft is the basis for the paper you will turn in. your final paper will not be very good. you will be required to write a prospectus before you create the rough draft and sometimes you will find it useful to write a prospectus as a way to prepare yourself for writing the rough draft. except that you write out your question. Sometimes. Your rough draft should be longer than the target length of the final paper. The reason you want to write a long rough draft is that when you revise it to produce your second draft. then you’ve gone back to the first stage of your writing and have to start the revision process over again. Some of it has been honed and improved over the rough draft. If you just go on without starting over. improve your use of evidence. You approach both a prospectus and a rough draft in the same way. uncertain about how to proceed. what you really have is a mixed draft. It is at the point writing a draft that many writers bog down. not adding new material. The worksheet at the end of this chapter will help you get started. if your assignment asks you to provide one or if you think it would be useful to you as a starting point for writing your draft As an aid in solidifying your argument. you will have to write a rough draft. and so forth. so I will treat them together. is that when you try to write out your arguments. you often find that you need to hone the way you are making them. some of it is just as rough as what you started with. thesis. if not all. a prospectus is almost like an outline. New material added when you write a second draft is rough-draft writing. A rough draft is a first attempt at actually writing the paper. helping you to see what its ―moving parts‖ are As a guide for structuring your rough draft As a tool for evaluating your rough draft during substantive revision A prospectus is a very brief summary of your paper. of the material you have found through your research. You can use it in any of the following ways: As a template for writing a prospectus. A prospectus is practice for the rough draft. If you have added significant new material while revising your rough draft. 45 . you want to be paring it down. If you have a second draft that contains significant new material. as opposed to an outline. The point of writing a rough draft and then editing it is to hone your argument – tighten it. and arguments in full sentences.Chapter 7 Shaping the Paper: Writing a Prospectus and a Rough Draft Once you’ve organized your materials. Thus. which means you should put into it most.
and statement of the thesis – corresponds to a paper’s introduction. advancing the different parts of your argument. One way to think about a prospectus is as part of an application for grant support. Use the completed worksheet as a rough outline for writing your prospectus. The final section. whether you were using the right kind of evidence.to 2page summary of your paper. A prospectus is usually a 1. whether your working thesis was plausible. or yourself. and whether you could finish the project in the time you had. each part accompanied by supporting evidence. teaching assistant. In the context of a university course. They would want to know your question. alternative arguments. and explanation. could support your thesis. As an evaluative tool during revision: After you have written a complete rough draft. The next section constitutes the body of the paper. For some people. on the significance of your thesis. If you were asking a granting agency to support your project. you would have to tell its reviews what you proposed to do with the grant. take it as a signal that your argument has some weak spots. writing a prospectus is a good first step towards writing a rough draft. Go back to your notes or do additional research to fill in the gaps and to strengthen underdeveloped areas. outline your argument and at least the main counter-arguments. the prospectus gives that kind of information to your reader – your professor. If there are any blanks that you cannot fill. scholarly opinion. The first part of the worksheet – the topic. constitutes a crucial part of the conclusion. rebuttal. As a guide for structuring your rough draft: The worksheet’s elements are arranged in the order in which they might typically appear in a research paper. whether it looked like your argument. As a guide to solidifying your argument: Fill in as many blanks on the worksheet as you can. the outline of your argument. and indicate what kind of evidence you have to support your argument. your working thesis. Review your notes or do more research until you can complete the worksheet. 46 . if you made it. make sure that it contains at least some material that corresponds to each element in the worksheet. and the kind of evidence you expect to use.Using a rough draft worksheet As a prospectus template: Fill in all of the blanks on the worksheet. Their judgment would rest on whether they thought your question was worth investigating. question. In it you set out your question and thesis.
scholars such as ____________________ and ______________ have claimed that _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ It is also possible to argue that _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ [add more if necessary] While the above answers are plausible. For example. These weaknesses include: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ My own answer to the question (my thesis) is as follows: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 47 . they have several weaknesses.The Rough Draft/Prospectus Worksheet In my research on the topic of: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ I have learned the following: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ These observations lead me to pose the following question: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ This question has several plausible answers.
My thesis is supported by the following piece of evidence: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ (Reference: ___________________________________________________________________________ My thesis is also supported by: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ (Reference: ___________________________________________________________________________ My thesis is further supported by: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ (Reference: ___________________________________________________________________________ [add more if necessary] My thesis is significant because it modifies and/or adds to current thinking on this topic in the following way: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 48 .
second. If you find that you cannot easily summarize a paragraph. focusing on grammar and word choice will make it more difficult for you to see where you need to make more significant substantive or structural changes. you should aim for substantive changes – improvements in organization. and the use of evidence. At this stage in the process. you should do the following: Make sure that each of your paragraphs has only one main idea. your goals will be to: organize the main sections of your paper to make your argument as persuasive as possible. On a separate sheet of paper. make a numbered list in which you write one brief sentence summarizing the main point of each of your paragraphs.) If necessary. that is. the logical flow of the argument.‖ each paragraph should present one point of your argument. You should therefore save sentence-level revision for your last revision. make sure that the main point of your conclusion is the same as the point of the thesis you advance in your introduction make sure that you have cited your sources properly Organizing the paper Number the paragraphs of your rough draft. Analyzing the list will help you improve the organization and flow of your paper. the argument should march through the paper strengthen the organization within each of your paragraphs delete redundant passages note where you need to do additional research make sure that your paper has an explicitly stated thesis and that each paragraph contributes to the argument that the thesis is right make sure your paragraphs step logically from one to the next make sure that your conclusion and your thesis match up. (Just like the rule ―one idea to a sentence. In particular. divide paragraphs into two or more shorter paragraphs.Chapter 8 Revising the Rough Draft When you revise a rough draft for the first time. you should spend as little time as possible on sentence-level editing for two reasons: first. 49 . During that first revision. it probably makes more than one point. reworking sentences that you might ultimately decide to amend or delete will waste time.
Remember that whatever comes last in your paper will have the strongest effect. your next strongest point first. Your argument will be most persuasive if you place your strongest point last. you can refer to an earlier discussion or remind your reader that you have already argued a point.• Eliminate redundancy. Move paragraphs around if necessary. Treat each topic completely and then move on to the next topic. If necessary. combine that information into one paragraph or a smaller number of paragraphs. but you should not divide your discussion of a topic. Don’t discuss a topic in two different parts of a paper. moving them if necessary. If two or more paragraphs address the same topic or main idea. If you find that two or more paragraphs contain the same information. • Look at where you have placed counterarguments and rebuttals. 50 . Counterarguments and rebuttals are more effectively placed after the introduction or within the body of the paper. make sure that they are in the same part of the paper. make sure that counterarguments are not in either the last or next-to-last paragraph. • Make sure that all the material related to a single point is in the same place. for that reason. and all other points in the middle of your paper. • Look at where you have placed each of your main points. as appropriate.
a recognition).‖ and so forth) Before: ―Jesus was publicly predicting the destruction of the Roman Empire by God. In fact. and effective use of evidence – by the time you need to copyedit your paper. you will have already completed your substantive revision – for organization. Jr. White. a grumble. presentation.‖ ―are.‖ After: ―Jesus publicly predicted God’s destruction of the Roman Empire. Good writers know the rules of grammar and style.‖ ―were. the author of Charlotte’s Web and many other beloved works.1 It will be a much better guide that the one provided here. The Elements of Style. He revised and enlarged the book. New York. 51 . and they break them when doing so will produce clarity or a desirable effect in the reader (a smile. Remind yourself that you cannot rewrite your entire paper in that amount of time. but following them will improve your writing and make you aware of your tendencies as a writer.B. and its effect on me was so great that I often quote it without being aware of it.‖ ―was. If you have stuck to a strict writing schedule. None of the suggestions here is meant to be a hard and fast rule. White. had been Strunk’s student.Chapter 9 Copyediting and Final Revision Experienced writers know that there is no limit to the number of times one can revise a piece of writing. it’s done. The Elements of Style. What follows is a very brief and incomplete list of problems to look for in your writing as you go through the paper for the last time. and your teacher has probably required you to buy one. the one and only rule of limitation in revising a paper is: When it’s due. The ways in which you can improve the clarity of your writing include: Avoiding overuse of “to be” verbs (―is. Strunk wrote this little book for his composition students at Cornell University.‖ ―have been. the book was Strunk and White. no matter how many flaws you think you have found in it or how much new evidence you have just discovered. and E. Macmillan. William Strunk. 1959. Final Revisions Final revision takes place in the last day or two before your paper is due. There are many guides to good writing.‖ --------------------------------------------------------------------1 When I was a first-year student.
The Islamic conquests brought Muslims scientific and technological knowledge from the many cultures incorporated into their empire.‖ ―those.‖ (26 words) In general. 52 . It was a source of escapism .The masterpieces of women’s literature from the era poignantly remind us that women then had to escape from the hardships of their lives. These remarkable masterpieces left from this era are poignant reminders of how women looked to escape from the hardships of life.‖ After: ―The message of empowerment projected by the nineteenth-century literature written by women supposedly encouraged other women.‖ and clarifying your references. This was characteristic of Muslims. you should try to write as tersely as you can. Always seek to tighten up your writing. Before: ―The messages that these women projected through their literature supposedly encouraged other women to do the same. As a result. Yet.‖ ―these. Omitting needless words (be ruthless in your editing):2 Before: ―This shows how important it was for Muslims to acquire knowledge.‖ or ―they. Yet this is not the case. Always look for words and phrases that can be deleted. . ----------------------------2 One of Strunk and White’s rules. . .Using the active voice rather than the passive voice Before: ―The animosity between medieval Muslims and Jews is underestimated. By doing that. . For women.‖ (58 words) After: ―The above verse demonstrates the Muslim love of learning. contemporary women did not write diaries as a form of empowerment but as an escape from the burdens and constraints of their lives. . .‖ ―it. Substituting concrete nouns for pronouns such as ―this.‖ Note that using the active voice allows you to specify who the actors are: that is. Throughout their conquests in various regions of the world.‖ After: ―Modern historians underestimate the animosity between medieval Muslims and Jews. no matter where they had to look for it.‖ Note that the original passage suffered not only from the use of vague pronouns but also from passive constructions. they adopted scientific and technological knowledge from their neighbors. you will move your argument and your reader along. the Muslims acquired different forms of knowledge from various cultures and civilizations. writing diaries was not a form of empowerment. to do their own writing. their readers. who (in the example) have underestimated the animosity.
Many verbs that end in ―ize. In general. trendy. not-quite-clear words. One of the best things you can do is to read your paper aloud. Others are new formations and will not look right to readers. Some of these verbs. In the last example.‖ you set up an equation. note ―cultures and civilizations.‖ ―In Beijing‖ –almost always belong at the beginning of the sentence. concentrate on one (or maybe two) aspects of revising on each read-through. ―Priority‖ means the first thing. revising is a repetitive process. you might highlight all the ―to be‖ verbs‖ and then try to transform most of them into active verbs. concentrating on one writing issue after another. Words and phrases indicating the direction of your thought or placing what you have to say in time or place – ―In the 19th century. ―prioritize‖ usually means putting a group of things in order. Avoiding verbs made from nouns. when one noun or adjective would suffice. you can often hear the awkwardness of sentences that seem fine when you read them silently.‖ Choose one of these terms. Instead. Each of these passes through the paper should go quickly. however. (Note: sometimes ―to be‖ is the correct verb.‖ such as ―prioritize. ―The V-8 engine is. You go through your paper several times. They may also not have a completely settled meaning.‖ that you might use as a transition from one part of your argument to another. since your ear is less tolerant than your eye. double-check for spelling errors that the spell-check software won’t catch (that is.‖ are made from nouns (―priority‖). Last suggestions As you go through your paper. a gas guzzler‖ is not as good as ―However.Cutting pairs of nouns and pairs of adjectives. For example. So. you do not want your reader to focus on your choice of words but on your choice of meaning. don’t try to do everything at once. When you use a form of ―to be. Putting connective words at the beginning of sentences. the V-8 engine is a gas guzzler. such as ―legitimize. ―x is y. any typographical error that is a real word but the wrong word for the sentence) 53 . They qualify or condition whatever the sentence says.‖ Putting the connective in the middle of the sentence misleads the reader. who doesn’t know that come not to praise the V-8 but to bury it. Final revision checklist Revise for clarity Revise for subject-pronoun agreement and subject-verb agreement Use your computer’s spell-check On a hard copy. Don’t trip up the reader with new.) Or you might locate all instances of the passive voice and revise those sentences into the active voice.‖ have been fully absorbed into the language and are fine. but that meaning is not consistent with the noun it came from.
you’ll learn and practice intellectual skills that will serve you in everything you do in school and after you’ve left school. Projects like the one outlined in this pamphlet will turn that potential into high achievement and the ability to succeed in your chosen work.Make sure that each of the authors you cite in the body of the paper is included in your ―works cited‖ page and that each of the authors listed under ―works cited‖ has at least one reference in the body of your paper Conclusion If you get through the process described in this pamphlet. 54 . You are getting a university education because you want to make your way in the world using your intellect. to learn what facts are and how they can e put to use in forming and supporting ideas. You are here to learn how to use facts – that is. you will produce a paper you can be proud of. In addition. You are not in school merely to pick up a ton of facts. you have learned the most important skills a university can teach you. to do research to answer it. The essence of intellectual work is using knowledge to find things out and to persuade others that your conclusions about a topic or question are correct. You came to the university with intellectual potential. And. and to construct an argument to support your answer. When you’ve learned how to formulate a research question. You learn to use knowledge by doing research papers. you’ll do superior work in school and in whatever profession you enter.
at least one (1) source must be an academic journal article (see Writing Assignment Overview for Acceptable Sources). 33-49 Prof. labeled with the sources’ titles and authors. 96-124 Ann Raimes. READ. remember to include necessary citations. Pocket Keys for Writers. pay attention to and record your observations/discoveries that lead you to pose the question: o what you find really interesting o what is important to you o what you would like to understand better o what you think others should know. you will not only fail the assignment. Annotated Bibliography: Submit a bibliography.Research Question and Annotated Bibliography (RQAB) (5% of course grade) Due: Length: Beginning of section during Week 3 3-5 pages Your RQAB must be completed and submitted to your TA by section of Week 5 in order to receive credit. Your annotated bibliography should: include at least five (5) academic sources (related to your question) that you have read. (Note: Save your graded RQAB to turn in with your Prospectus during Week 6) Research Question: In one or two paragraphs. of the sources from which your observations come. If you fail to submit your RQAB by Week 5. because all elements of the writing assignment are required. Stanley Chodorow’s. READ. or understand better Craft a level-three question: a question that can be researched and supported with scholarly research.* To develop a research question. but that cannot be definitively answered. If. (*) More help for choosing a topic. but. you will fail the course. conducting research. and arguments drawn from sources you have read.edu) Introduction-Chapter 4 55 . No primary source is required with this assignment. in MLA format. Keys for Writers. you introduce facts. As you read. ―Writing a Successful Research Paper‖ (see MMW website http://roosevelt. list the observations or discoveries you found in that source demonstrate how each source provides (an) answer(s) to your question Photocopies: Submit photocopies of the sources of your observations.ucsd. state the topic of your paper and the precise research question that your paper will answer. find important. ideas. in your exposition of your topic and research question. and formulating a question is available in: Ann Raimes. Print out the page(s) on which you made the observation. READ about a topic of interest to you. Highlight the place(s) where the information is located and label each page with the source’s title and author information.
Quarter/Year] [Day Month Year] [Title] Stereotype and Ideology in Hungarian Anti-Semitism [Introduction to the topic] Around 1900. or did it represent a new. which had a large. as some analysts have maintained. Responding to the new prominence of Jews. populist "transformation of nationalism" (Lukacs 190)? 56 . Budapest. the intensification of anti-Semitism in Hungary around the turn of the century should properly be traced to traditional elements in Hungarian society or whether the phenomenon represents instead something primarily new and different in Hungarian society. Hungarian society experienced an upsurge of anti-Semitism that was most acute in the capital. radical. one which had begun to assimilate into the influential circles dominated by the country's ethnic Magyar elites. and powerful Jewish population. However.[Student Last Name] 1 [Student Name] [Section Number. we might wonder whether. [Question] Confronted with these developments. wealthy. anti-Semitism had deep roots in Hungary. some ethnic Magyars developed strong anti-Semitic attitudes (Romsics 57-59). TA Name] Research Question and Annotated Bibliography: [MMW__ . Did the upwelling of anti-Semitism represent an outgrowth of traditional noble prejudices and Catholic clerical conservatism. despite important philo-Semitic traditions and the usefulness of Jews to the Magyars' struggle with the Germans who dominated the Habsburg Empire.
they are designed to help you identify important elements of the assignment.[Note: The bracketed notations in the model above are for your reference only. and remember that your TA’s permission is required to use a web site. Also. while the subject of this paper (Hungarian anti-Semitism around 1900) is only appropriate for MMW5. Note too that this model does not include a primary source. which you will need. You may find it helpful to use these notations in your own work as you draft the prospectus and annotated bibliography. but do not include them in the version you submit. the format is applicable to MMW4 and MMW6] 57 .
ranks as one of the most prominent experts on the cultural history of the region. formed by the leading strata of society. 1982. He discusses. Elite Jews had to choose between Budapest-Hungarian or Viennese-German identity. and that it was against this traditional image. Princeton: Princeton UP. the self-image of ethnic Magyars in Hungary was determined primarily by the tradition-bound self-image of the country's nobility. Janos. Andrew C. A program of ‖Magyarization‖ led German-oriented Hungarians (especially Jews) away from the countryside (identified with Budapest) toward the cities. treats Magyar-Jewish relations as part of a larger analysis of Hungary's "backwardness. The Garden and the Workshop: Essays on the Cultural History of Vienna and Budapest. Magyar-Jewish relations during the period under consideration. Péter. [Observations] Hanák argues that over the course of the nineteenth century.Annotated Bibliography Hanák. that a corresponding. its failure to embrace or implement fully the agenda of liberalism and other key elements of the political and social progress of the West during the century leading up to the socialist period. He pays particular attention to the imperfect 58 . the emergence of a new Right that emerged from the old conservative elites who were increasingly anti-Semitic. largely negative. a Berkeley political scientist." that is. [Overview of the source:] Hanák. for instance. who was a professor at the Central European University in Budapest. This collection of essays includes a sensitive assessment of Hungarian anti-Semitism and. The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary. Princeton: Princeton UP. like Vienna. 1825-1945. but nonetheless complex and sometimes contradictory image of Jews was formed. Janos. more broadly. 1998.
New York: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. Lukacs. social structure. László. Instead. and political life at the crucial period around the turn of the century. 1999. Janos cautions against locating the sources of anti-Semitism too narrowly within any one class or social group. religious. and political lines. Millennium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary. he argues that the motivations for anti-Semitic movements were complex and that the phenomenon came from varying social strata. ethnic. Lukacs.Magyarization of the country's Jews--the ways in which they were allowed to become only partially "Hungarian" through various acts of assimilation. Kontler is an intellectual historian and university professor in Budapest whose book provides a broad sweep of Hungarian history. offers here a wide-ranging study of the Hungarian capital's culture. Budapest 1900: A Historical Portrait of a City and Its Culture. and to the effort to secure the dominance of Magyars within multi-ethnic Hungary by co-opting Jews into the country's elites. The work urges a multi-causal analysis of Magyar antagonism towards Jews. 1988. Budapest: Atlantisz. John. a historian and Hungarian émigré to the United States. The work provides a useful overview of the ways in which the society was divided along class. raising questions that guide and shape the research and refine the questions addressed in the paper. Kontler. He pays careful attention to the key role played by Magyar-Jewish relations in the life of the city (and the country as a whole) and to the intensification of anti-Semitism during this 59 . The analysis offered here tends to reinforce the conclusion that antiSemitism in Hungary around 1900 was promoted to a substantial extent by members of the country's traditional elite groups.
George.htm>. He has published extensively on the history and political life of the region. Lukacs maintains that during this period. Ignác. in Hungarian 'A napfény ize'. Trans. now under threat.ac." n. he argues. University College London. 2002 <http://www. this break was not. the treatment appears to support an interpretation of turn-of-the-century anti-Semitism as a phenomenon closely connected to traditional elites and their attachment to particular. The book is sensitive to the changes that Hungarian society was undergoing at the time. romanticized vision of Hungary's grand past. Tim Wilkinson. the result of a traditionalist reaction. Budapest: Corvina. who enjoyed increasing prosperity and prominence in Hungarian society. anti-Semitism as experienced in Budapest was decidedly modern: derived from new sources. but in the main. Romsics focuses on the conflict between Jews.ucl.d. and the Christian gentry. Romsics is a specialist in 20th-century Hungarian history and a professor at one of Hungary's most prominent liberal arts universities. "A review of István Szabó's film 'Sunshine'. who were worried over their declining influence in national affairs and the erosion of their traditional privileges. Schöpflin is professor in the School of Slavonic and East European Studies and a specialist in the politics of Central and South-Eastern Europe. 60 . Centre for Democracy & Society.uk/cds/gsbr1. However. Schöpflin. The introductory sections of this book offer useful characterizations of the social and political context in which Magyars and Hungarian Jews found themselves at the turn of the century. 1999. the prior pattern of Magyar-Jewish relations (an "extraordinary symbiosis") was disrupted. rather. targeted to new elements of the population.period. and based on new ideas. 1 Feb. Hungary in the Twentieth Century. Romsics.
including a number of analyses of Hungarian society. in part. their inheritance of attitudes and values grounded in the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation." 61 . Schöpflin addresses certain broader aspects of "the Jewish question" in Hungary. because of the Magyars' "legacy from the pre-modern" past. i. brought the Magyars into occasional conflict with the country's Jews. This cultural inheritance. He argues that the conflict between Jews and Magyars arose.e. who shared a rather different cultural "residue. Schöpflin argues.. a review of a film by a prominent Hungarian director which examines one Jewish family's encounter with the dominant Magyar population across three generations. In this essay.
From where did AIDS originate. Who developed the internet? 13. How did Ghandi reveal the truth about the human condition? 3. Which religion is more violent: Christianity or Islam? 15. Does medicine play a religious or scientific role in Islamic society? 20. Questions that can be definitively answered with scholarly research. Questions that cannot be addressed with scholarly research. What was the role of architecture in imperial Japan? 6. What was the difference between German and Italian fascism? 5. Why do Islamic and Christian cultures clash so violently? 17. Why has immigration been such a problem in modern Europe? 19. What is the significance of the Virgin of Guadeloupe in modern Mexican society? 16. How much freedom do Islamic women possess in the household? 8. What was the role of women in African society? 18. (Write 1. Was Stalin the main reason for the fall of the Soviet Union? 4.) _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 1. How and why did the women’s liberation movement evolve during the 1960s? 7.Research Questions: Levels of Arguability Worksheet Level 1: Level 2: Level 3: Level 4: Questions that can be answered with knowledge you have right now. How did the practice of Buddhism develop in the modern West? What distinct characteristics make it different from Eastern Buddhism? 14. 2. Directions: Read the following questions and indicate the level of arguability of each. What role did art play in expressing the anxieties of interwar France? 9. or 4. 3. How do Asian philosophies shape and inform modern Western medical practices and methodologies? 12. Why was existentialism an appealing philosophy in postwar Europe? 10. When was Germany re-unified? 2. and how did it become a world health crisis? 62 . either because of a lack of evidence or because they ask something that cannot be answered by citing evidence. Open-ended questions to which an answer can be proposed based on scholarly research but that cannot be answered definitively. What strategies and war technologies did the Third Reich use in order to make their conquest more effective? 11.
ideas.‖ then you should re-formulate your Research Question in a way that will satisfy each of the requirements of the Writing Assignment.. please talk with me as soon as possible about the question. with careful exposition of both the argument and at least one counter-argument. (*) Remember that papers written on topics not approved in writing will not be accepted. 3. To do that. 4. and arguments drawn from other sources) YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO If the answer to ANY of the above is ―NO.g. You must have your topic approved quickly so that you can prepare the Prospectus. and the writing assignment must be completed and accepted in its entirety to receive credit for the course. 7. Your topic is: APPROVED DISAPPROVED Annotated Bibliography (check appropriate category): □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments: No bibliography Bibliography without annotations Minimal attempt to provide annotated bibliography Substantial annotated bibliography with some deficiencies Thorough annotated bibliography with few deficiencies Superior annotated bibliography with negligible deficiencies 63 . Submission states the topic of the paper and the precise Research Question that the paper will answer RQ addresses topic appropriate to the assignment prompt (*) Topic/RQ covers events during the period covered by the course (*) RQ will lead to an argument that answers a debatable question RQ is narrow enough to permit you to answer the question thoroughly. when you introduce facts. 2.Checklist for Assessing the RQAB MMW 4-6 Students: Does your Research Question (RQ) satisfy each of the following requirements stated in the Writing Assignment? (TAs: Circle an answer for each item) 1. 5. 6. in 8-10 pages RQAB is typed and otherwise complies with all requirements of the MMW Style Sheet RQAB includes citations where necessary (e.
and the writing assignment must be completed and accepted in its entirety to receive credit for the course. in 8-10 pages RQAB is typed and otherwise complies with all requirements of the MMW Style Sheet RQAB includes citations where necessary (e. 2. Your topic is: APPROVED DISAPPROVED Annotated Bibliography (check appropriate category): □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments: No bibliography Bibliography without annotations Minimal attempt to provide annotated bibliography Substantial annotated bibliography with some deficiencies Thorough annotated bibliography with few deficiencies Superior annotated bibliography with negligible deficiencies 64 . Submission states the topic of the paper and the precise Research Question that the paper will answer RQ addresses topic appropriate to the assignment prompt (*) Topic/RQ covers events during the period covered by the course (*) RQ will lead to an argument that answers a debatable question RQ is narrow enough to permit you to answer the question thoroughly. ideas.. You must have your topic approved quickly so that you can prepare the Prospectus.Checklist for Assessing the RQAB MMW 4-6 Students: Does your Research Question (RQ) satisfy each of the following requirements stated in the Writing Assignment? (TAs: Circle an answer for each item) 1." then you should re-formulate your Research Question in a way that will satisfy each of the requirements of the Writing Assignment. please talk with me as soon as possible about the question. and arguments drawn from other sources) YES YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO NO If the answer to ANY of the above is "NO. 3. with careful exposition of both the argument and at least one counter-argument. (*) Remember that papers written on topics not approved in writing will not be accepted. To do that. 5.g. 7. 6. 4. when you introduce facts.
3." then you should re-formulate your Research Question in a way that will satisfy each of the requirements of the Writing Assignment. 4. Submission states the topic of the paper and the precise Research Question that the paper will answer RQ addresses topic appropriate to the assignment prompt (*) Topic/RQ covers events during the period covered by the course (*) RQ will lead to an argument that answers a debatable question RQ is narrow enough to permit you to answer the question thoroughly. 5. To do that. in 8-10 pages RQAB is typed and otherwise complies with all requirements of the MMW Style Sheet RQAB includes citations where necessary (e.g. (*) Remember that papers written on topics not approved in writing will not be accepted. when you introduce facts. You must have your topic approved quickly so that you can prepare the Prospectus. and arguments drawn from other sources) YES YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO NO If the answer to ANY of the above is "NO. 6.Checklist for Assessing the RQAB MMW 4-6 Students: Does your Research Question (RQ) satisfy each of the following requirements stated in the Writing Assignment? (TAs: Circle an answer for each item) 1. Your topic is: APPROVED DISAPPROVED Annotated Bibliography (check appropriate category): □ □ □ □ □ □ Comments: No bibliography Bibliography without annotations Minimal attempt to provide annotated bibliography Substantial annotated bibliography with some deficiencies Thorough annotated bibliography with few deficiencies Superior annotated bibliography with negligible deficiencies 65 . with careful exposition of both the argument and at least one counter-argument.. ideas. 7. please talk with me as soon as possible about the question. 2. and the writing assignment must be completed and accepted in its entirety to receive credit for the course.
Authority/Credibility ___ A scholar. Documents can easily be copied and falsified or copied with omissions and errors – intentional and accidental. ___ The purpose of the text is to inform and explain. museum. When using the Web for serious academic research. 66 . or academic organization is responsible for the intellectual content of the web page or the page is affiliated or sponsored by a university or publically funded research institution. raise money. independent scholars). university. Your TA will comment on its viability for this assignment. cheap.* To determine and demonstrate the credibility. garner support for a privately funded institution or agenda.gov.org) ___ The author has a PhD or other appropriate credentials and/or is affiliated with an accredited research institution. sell a point of a view or a product.edu. Accuracy ___ The author provides supporting evidence from credible sources. either the document itself or the scholar has been published elsewhere. ___ Other scholars have cited this author’s work. faculty. more copies can be downloaded from MMW website) Name: _______________________ Title of Web Source: ________________________________________ Putting documents on the web is easy. complete the following exercise. ___ Aside from this webpage. ___ The page does not contain many grammar or spelling errors. or other academic agency. In this assignment. and does not have other suspicious information or organization. the burden is on you – the scholar – to establish the validity. unregulated. (hint: the URL has . ___ The author provides contact information. you are restricted to using sources (print or Web-based) produced by scholars or by reputable academic institutions. not to advertise or persuade? The page should not express opinions. but rather documented facts. accuracy. timeliness. and integrity of the source you are proposing to use. There should be no advertisements on the pages. . . Therein lies the rationale for evaluating carefully whatever you find on the Web. ___ The content of this page is peer reviewed – that is.Criteria for Evaluating Web Pages (submit with every on-line source you propose to use. ___ The author’s goals and objectives are not to lobby. and unmonitored. and submit this with your assignment along with photocopies of the web-page itself. authorship. it is subject to the review of fellow scholars or experts in this field and is accountable to these reviewers for correct information Audience/Agenda ___ The text was written for a scholarly audience (undergraduate or graduate students. and integrity of what you find. sign the statement below.
___ The webpage was produced or updated within the last five years. the information in the document is not outdated and was published within the last 20 years. ―I have evaluated this proposed web-source and determined that it is an appropriate and credible scholarly source.Currency ___ If it is a secondary source. ___ If it is a reproduction of a primary document it properly cites the original document.‖ Student Signature: _____________________________________________ Date: ______________ 67 . ___ The sites other links are active and demonstrate use by a scholarly audience.
and rebuttal. and submitted for every web source you are proposing to use Formatting Please consult the Model Prospectus. Keys for Writers for specific MLA and formatting requirements. by Week 8 in order to be accepted as a ―completed‖ assignment. 18-22 and 54-57. Sources: Your Prospectus must utilize and cite each of the minimum six (6) required sources (not assigned in the course). PKW 5-23. 62-66. consult Chodorow. portion of the writing assignment. PKW 5-23. and you must highlight the words/phrases you are citing. but not for a new grade. 68 . Your Prospectus should include: An introduction to your topic and the historical context of your research subject (KW 36-38) An explanation of the problem/question you are addressing (explicitly state your research question) A summary of each of the scholarly arguments you are considering (argument. Chodorow. and Raimes’.MMW4-6: Prospectus (10% of course grade) Due: Length: Beginning of section during Week 6(*) 3-4 pages (not including Works Cited page) What is a Prospectus? The prospectus is the plan for your final paper and contains. You must label each page with the author’s name and page number. 51-53. Its purpose is to begin organizing your research into the proper format. Chapters 5. Chapters 5-6) Conclusion and explanation of the significance of your topic and your thesis (KW 39) Works Cited Page (no annotations) Photocopies of each page of text from which you cite and a photocopy of the title page of each source you list in your Works Cited page (do not include whole articles). including: o at least 1 primary source o at least 1 scholarly journal article o Criteria for Evaluating Web Pages Sheet must be completed. This can also be an explanation about why you find one (set of) argument(s) most convincing over others. It is probably the most important. Remember. counterargument(s)/alternative hypotheses) and evidence used to support it (KW. to begin formulating your thesis. that if you do change your topic after you have turned in your prospectus. in paragraph form. counter/alternative argument(s). too. all of the elements of the final paper. and to begin planning how you will use your sources to supply evidence along the way. you will be required to produce a new prospectus (that must be submitted. Chodorow. (KW 61-66 and 121-122) Your working thesis and a description of the evidence that supports it (KW. Chapters 5-6) Rebuttal(s) or weakness of the above argument(s). 57-59. the MMW Style Sheet. Changing Topics Once you have turned in your prospectus. (For more help in writing a strong prospectus. It is to your advantage to formulate your prospectus very carefully before you turn it in. signed. Deductions will apply to all MLA and formatting errors. and often the most difficult. you will be able to change your topic only if you have your TAs permission.7)**.
Chodorow. http://roosevelt. Keys for Writers = KW Ann Raimes.edu 69 .ucsd. Save your graded Prospectus (and graded RQAB) to turn in with your Final Paper during Week 10) (**) Writing handbooks/guides referenced above: Ann Raimes. Because all components of the writing assignment are required to pass the course. you will fail the course if your prospectus is not submitted by this time. Pocket Keys for Writers = PKW MMW Prof.(*) Your prospectus will not be accepted after Week 8. ―Writing a Successful Research Paper‖ = Chodorow (found on MMW website.
The bracketed notations in the model are for your reference only. consult with your TA as soon as possible. by changing the order in which arguments and counterarguments are presented. but you should also be aware that it is not the only possible model. you should follow the MMW Style Sheet and the MLA rules set forth in your writing manual. you need to be absolutely certain to address carefully each of the required elements of the assignment set forth on the handouts. Nevertheless. Be wary of copying the format of this document too slavishly. this approach is difficult to do well. Do not take the thesis of this prospectus as an exact model for your own work. This document is intended primarily as a model for the substance and organization of the prospectus. but do not include them in the version you submit. e. while some flexibility may well be appropriate.. they are designed to help you identify important elements of the assignment – they are the ―parts‖ that the assignment absolutely requires. you might be able to vary the structure somewhat. Given the logic of your particular problem.g. While the thesis here charts a middle course between two extreme positions held by other scholars. and it is even more desirable to argue for a thesis that is more independent of other scholars’ positions. You may find it helpful to use these notations in your own work as you draft the prospectus. Revised October 2007 70 .Model Prospectus MMW4/5/6 A Few Words of Caution about this Model: You should treat this sample as a sufficiently reliable model for the kind of presentation you need to produce. If you have questions about how to prepare the prospectus.
Hungarian society experienced a noticeable upsurge of antiSemitism. despite important philo-Semitic traditions and the usefulness of Jews to the Magyars' struggle with the Germans who dominated the Habsburg Empire. the intensification of anti-Semitism in Hungary around the turn of the century should properly be traced to traditional elements in Hungarian society or whether the phenomenon represents instead something primarily new and different in Hungarian society. some ethnic Magyars developed strong anti-Semitic attitudes. TA Name] Model Prospectus: [MMWx -.x term 200x] [Day Month Year] [Title] Old Stereotypes and New Ideologies: The Complexities of Hungarian Anti-Semitism [Introduction to the topic] Around 1900. we might wonder whether. radical. Responding to the new prominence of Jews. as some analysts have maintained. Magyars shared in a broader European pattern of anti-Jewish sentiment that became more severe around 1900. 71 . one which had begun to assimilate into the influential circles dominated by the country's ethnic Magyar elites (Romsics 57-59). and powerful Jewish population. populist "transformation of nationalism" (Lukacs 190)? [Thesis] Having examined anti-Semitism in Hungary and the interpretations of these developments put forward by a number of scholars specializing in Hungarian affairs. However. Budapest. I have concluded that a thorough explanation of anti-Semitism in Hungary around 1900 must understand the phenomenon as the confluence of both traditional and modern elements and must recognize the extent to which anti-Semitism developed among a variety of social groups. or did it represent a new. wealthy. The problem was perhaps most acute in the capital. [Problem/Question] Confronted with these developments. anti-Semitism had deep roots in Hungary.[Student Last Name] 1 [Student Name] [Section Number. This rapidly modernizing city had a large. Did the upwelling of anti-Semitism represent an outgrowth of traditional noble prejudices and Catholic clerical conservatism.
A more satisfying interpretation is one which acknowledges the 72 . not fully assimilable. 55-62). for example.[Scholarly interpretations] It has been fairly common to interpret Hungarian anti-Semitism during this period as something that is primarily traditional. 52-53. George Schöpflin. John Lukacs offers a different interpretation. which placed heavy weight on the legitimacy of hierarchy. argues that Magyar-Jewish relations have been determined to a significant extent by "a legacy from the pre-modern past that mingles with the modern modes that the society . They tended to link each of these developments with the social advancement enjoyed by Jews. and non-Magyar (48-49. He portrays Magyar-Jewish relations as friendly and maintains that the rupture which occurred after 1900 was the result of new political ideas. Ignác Romsics's history of twentieth-century Hungary. [Rebuttal / Weaknesses in the above arguments] The analyses presented above have considerable merit. a Jewish tradition of skepticism and resistance to authority could not be fully reconciled with the dominant Catholic. . . He argues proponents of anti-Semitism were not the traditional Magyar elites but rather "populist and democratic‖ forces (188). adopted" (Schöpflin). Counter-Reformation legacy of the ethnic Magyar elites. describes anti-Semitism in terms of the conflict between Jews and the Christian lesser nobility. who glorified themselves as the defenders of all things Hungarian (52) and became proponents of the typically negative image of Jews as alien. A number of other interpretations of the problem similarly stress the the key role of the traditional elite Magyar groups in generating and sustaining anti-Semitic attitudes. which intensified their anti-Semitism (Romsics 57-59). A related analysis is found in the work of historian Péter Hanák. the self-image that prevailed among ethnic Magyars in Hungary was determined primarily by the tradition-bound self-image of the "backward-looking" nobility. According to Schöpflin. showing that anti-Semitism in Budapest after 1900 was a modern phenomenon (186). but they err in seeing Hungarian anti-Semitism as too closely linked to either tradition or modernity and too much the product of a particular segment of society. Members of the gentry at the time were especially troubled by their uncertain economic futures and by a reduction of influence in national affairs. for example. who argues using primary documents that over the course of the nineteenth century. [Counterargument] Against the views offered in studies like these which see turn-of-the-century antiSemitism as the product of Magyar tradition.
producing a dangerous mix of "new" mass political mobilization with "old" concerns for the integrity of the Magyar nation. that the motivations for modern anti-Semitic movements arose from different strata of society. by Catholics and Protestants (141-42). [Conclusion/explanation of significance:] A profitable approach can be found in an analysis like that by political scientist Andrew Janos.considerable complexity and variety of anti-Semitism at the time. and in particular the shift toward the use of a populist anti-Semitism in mass politics. but Hanák. Interpretations are commonly focused on forwarding single determinate causes at the expense of the very complicated historical reality. Varieties of anti-Semitism were embraced by the gentry. and Schöpflin are also correct in emphasizing the continuing vitality of the genteel Christian Magyar ideal. Romsics. by the urban middle class (180). 73 . but also by the peasantry (141). whose study suggests that we should not locate the sources of anti-Semitism too narrowly within any one class or social group. and by political radicals (181). It seems significant to take those complications into account. Lukacs is right to point to what was new. Modern antiSemitic thought that emerged around 1900 built upon traditional stereotypes. properly I believe. Janos insists.
about how "on the topic of X. for example. Your prospectus should go well beyond this bare-bones approach."). you may use a different structure as long as you address each of the required elements set forth below. come up with your own careful phrasing to express the ideas set forth below. You should not simply copy the language of the sheet and "fill in the blanks. the question of Y arises. These include: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ I believe the correct answer to this question is as follows:__________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The answer I propose is preferable because: ____________________________________________________________________ My answer addresses the weaknesses identified in above in the following ways:________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ My thesis is supported by the following item of evidence:__________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ (Reference:____________________________) My thesis is also supported by:_______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ (Reference: __________________________) My thesis is further supported by:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ (Reference:___________________________) [Add more.) argue persuasively that ___________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ [Add more discussion of contrary interpretations. (In other words. this is just a worksheet for outlining your arguments. some scholars such as __________ and ___________ (etc. as necessary] While the above answers are plausible.) have claimed that ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Other scholars such as _______ and _______ (etc." Instead.MMW4-6 – Prospectus Worksheet (1) **Remember. they have several weaknesses. If your argument logically might call for a different way of organizing your presentation. do not write. as required] My paper is significant because it modifies and/or adds to current thinking on this topic in the following way(s): _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 74 . On the topic of: _________________________________________________________________________________________ I have asked the following question: __________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ This question has several plausible answers. For example.
MMW4-6 .Prospectus Worksheet (2) Name: Topic: Research subject: Historical period: Geographical region: Context: Question: Thesis: Alternative Hypothesis: 75 .
Evidence for the Thesis: 1) 1) Evidence for the Alternative Hypothesis: 2) 2) ______ 3) 3) (Add more if necessary) (Add more if necessary) Significance: _____________ Checklist for Assessing the Prospectus – MMW 4-6 BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF THE ASSIGNMENT: 76 .
uses at least one primary source. but no longer than 4 pages Uses at least six published sources of scholarly merit (not assigned in the course) Does not include dictionary and encyclopedia entries in the minimum of six sources Of the six minimum sources. produced within the time period of the course (not assigned in the course) Includes completed Web Source Criteria sheet for all online proposed Includes a photocopy or printout of all pages cited & title pages of works cited Photocopies/printouts are labeled with author's name. not substantial blocks of quoted material COMMENTS: YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Checklist for Assessing the Prospectus – MMW 4-6 BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF THE ASSIGNMENT: 77 . form Explains the topic and the problem that is addressed in the paper States the tentative thesis Offers a clear overview of the evidence used to argue that the thesis is persuasive Identifies the evidence that supports the thesis Indicates at least one tentative counter/alternative argument and identifies the evidence that supports it Rebuts counter/alternative argument Offers citations for sources used in the argument and counter/alternative argument Explains why the thesis is significant Uses only limited quotations. not outline. uses at least one article from an academic journal Of the six minimum sources.Prospectus is at least 3 pages long. with appropriate highlighting or underlining Addresses a research question that satisfies all requirements of the Research Question assignment (see the checklist for that assignment) Presents an argument that answers a debatable question Conforms to all the requirements of the MMW Style Sheet Converted the Annotated Bibliography into a Works Cited Is in paragraph.
but no longer than 4 pages Uses at least six published sources of scholarly merit (not assigned in the course) Does not include dictionary and encyclopedia entries in the minimum of six sources Of the six minimum sources. not outline. not substantial blocks of quoted material COMMENTS: YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Checklist for Assessing the Prospectus – MMW 4-6 78 . form Explains the topic and the problem that is addressed in the paper States the tentative thesis Offers a clear overview of the evidence used to argue that the thesis is persuasive Identifies the evidence that supports the thesis Indicates at least one tentative counter/alternative argument and identifies the evidence that supports it Rebuts counter/alternative argument Offers citations for sources used in the argument and counter/alternative argument Explains why the thesis is significant Uses only limited quotations. uses at least one article from an academic journal Of the six minimum sources.Prospectus is at least 3 pages long. uses at least one primary source. with appropriate highlighting or underlining Addresses a research question that satisfies all requirements of the Research Question assignment (see the checklist for that assignment) Presents an argument that answers a debatable question Conforms to all the requirements of the MMW Style Sheet Converted the Annotated Bibliography into a Works Cited Is in paragraph. produced within the time period of the course (not assigned in the course) Includes completed Web Source Criteria sheet for all online proposed Includes a photocopy or printout of all pages cited & title pages of works cited Photocopies/printouts are labeled with author's name.
not outline. but no longer than 4 pages Uses at least six published sources of scholarly merit (not assigned in the course) Does not include dictionary and encyclopedia entries in the minimum of six sources Of the six minimum sources. uses at least one primary source. with appropriate highlighting or underlining Addresses a research question that satisfies all requirements of the Research Question assignment (see the checklist for that assignment) Presents an argument that answers a debatable question Conforms to all the requirements of the MMW Style Sheet Converted the Annotated Bibliography into a Works Cited Is in paragraph. form Explains the topic and the problem that is addressed in the paper States the tentative thesis Offers a clear overview of the evidence used to argue that the thesis is persuasive Identifies the evidence that supports the thesis Indicates at least one tentative counter/alternative argument and identifies the evidence that supports it Rebuts counter/alternative argument Offers citations for sources used in the argument and counter/alternative argument Explains why the thesis is significant Uses only limited quotations.BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF THE ASSIGNMENT: Prospectus is at least 3 pages long. not substantial blocks of quoted material COMMENTS: MMW 4-6 Prospectus Grading Guidelines F: Inappropriate topic/paper topic not approved Mechanical errors serious enough to impede comprehensibility YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 79 . produced within the time period of the course (not assigned in the course) Includes completed Web Source Criteria sheet for all online proposed Includes a photocopy or printout of all pages cited & title pages of works cited Photocopies/printouts are labeled with author's name. uses at least one article from an academic journal Of the six minimum sources.
organization. attempt to explain relevance of evidence Plausible counter-argument or alternative hypothesis presented Sound. but perhaps problematic integration of primary source Sound. but based on accurate information Some sound evidence. sophisticated thesis Superior breadth of valid. valid and relevant to the thesis Thorough. writing relatively clear Arguable thesis (can be problematic). sound thesis Most evidence valid and relevant to the thesis Substantial effort to explain relevance of evidence Plausible counter-argument or alternative theory reasonably rebutted using evidence cited Sound integration of primary source Sound explanation of signficance Writing relatively clear Arguable. sound. but perhaps problematic.D: No arguable thesis. if perhaps still problematic. strong thesis All evidence valid and relevant to the thesis Plausible counter-argument or alternative hypothesis reasonably rebutted Relevance of most evidence explained clearly Sound integration of primary source Sound explanation of significance Writing relatively clear Arguable. well-explained evidence Superior exploration and rebuttal of plausible counter-argument or alternative hypothesis Superior integration of primary source Superior explanation of significance Clear and sophisticated writing C-: C: C+: B-: B: B+: A-/A: “Significance” Exercise & Worksheet 80 . but lacks primary source or journal article Minimal attempt to: state an arguable thesis provide relevant evidence and explain how it supports the thesis provide counter-argument or alternative hypothesis with supporting evidence provide explanation of significance integrate analysis of primary source into the paper Poor construction/organization Minimal attempt at an argument and other required elements of the paper (as above for a ―C‖) Structure. or arguable thesis based on inaccurate information No relevant evidence No counter-argument or alternative hypothesis Numerous mechanical errors Paper significantly too short Paper lacks sufficient number of sources No arguable thesis Inappropriate counter-argument or alternative hypothesis Minimal relevant evidence No explanation of significance Some mechanical errors Paper is correct length Paper has sufficient number of sources. relevant. explanation of significance Writing can be problematic Arguable.
we don’t fill this omission we risk ________. 5. New Outlook 3.‖ or. ―how your particular argument modifies or contributes to current thinking on the topic. We define the ―significance‖ of your argument as ―the reason for writing this paper. While [scholar’s name] _________ argues that ______________. Thus. 4. no scholars (as far as my own research has determined) have argued that________________. For your homework assignment. thus I will argue that ___________________. My research suggests that both of these answers are correct. other scholars argue that the answer is _______________. From my research. PART 2: Summarize and Explain 81 . but in this paper I plan to combine pieces of different scholars’ arguments in a new way. In order to find out what you are contributing to the academic debate. not the significance of your overall topic). I want to ask a question about the assumption these scholars are making by asking the following: __________________ [you can take this same approach but instead make it so that your argument disagrees with information or historical ― facts‖]. more specifically. which is unfortunate because my thesis makes an important contribution to the debate because it________________________. Regarding the question of ______________I have noticed that while some scholars argue ___________. While some scholars argue that the answer to the question is _______________. 1. Omission/Gap 2. I think filling in this omission is important because ____________. and if. for PART 1. scholarship on this issue is lacking or problematic because ________. I have observed that current scholarship on the issue of __________(particular issue you are asking about) is lacking. though one of these answers is slightly more influential/plausible/etc/ than the other. and other scholars argue that _________________. or incomplete in the sense that__________________. it appears that the particular combination of theories that I have put together have not been argued before.MMW requires that you explain the significance of your argument in your final paper. In my approach to the question. PART 1 – Types of Research Approaches Regarding the question _____________________. and showing that one side is more significant/influential/etc. decide which one of the following approaches applies to your question and argument (everyone should be able to find one approach that (at least somewhat) resembles your own). I am adding to the scholarly debate by combining two sides of the scholarly debate. Thus. showing that both sides are plausible. This is important to do because __________.” (Note that we are asking you to determine the significance of your argument to a better understanding of your topic. Then answer the questions for PART 2. as scholars. Hybrid Degree Approach Many scholars have attempted to answer the question ______________. New Combination Approach Many scholars have attempted to answer the question of _______________. it seems that both [scholar’s name] ____ and [scholar’s name] ____ are both assuming _________ to be true. Dispels Assumption or Corrects False Info Approach Regarding the topic of _____________. than the other. Re-type the approach and fill in and include the information appropriate to your topic (you may need to modify the wording to fit your particular situation). I want to provide this new outlook on the question because I think it is important to explore/show that ____________. I am combining [scholar’s name] ______’s theory about ____________ with [scholar’s name] _____’s theory about _______________. but in my research I have noticed that scholars’ approaches to this topic are somewhat polarized. I think this is a problematic assumption because ______________________. By failing to show ____. they have both failed to recognize that ______________________. and [scholar’s name] ____________ argues that ___________________. However. flawed. and observe that the implications of continuing to assume ________ is problematic because _____________.
4. **NOTE** . This is because the significance portion is your reason for writing the entire paper. In your final paper you may want to put PART I in your introduction and PART II in your conclusion. culture.It usually makes sense to allude to the significance portion of your paper in the introduction of your essay (and throughout your paper). what are you contributing to the academic debate with your thesis? 2. etc.1. or phenomenon that you are investigating? Why is your particular argument (your answer to the research question) important? That is. (See above for ―Types of Research Approaches‖). What is the approach of your question? Are you asking and trying to make an argument about an omission in scholarly research? A new outlook? Expanding on already existing scholarly arguments?. *This exercise was developed by MMW TA Allison Winston (2007-08) 82 . conflict. 3. Why is your question important to ask? And what are the costs or implications or not knowing or misunderstanding your question? How does understanding your particular question help us understand more about the problem.
You are expected to include and analyze examples of the evidence used by the scholars in your paper. including: at least 1 primary source at least 1 scholarly journal article Your must submit the Criteria for Evaluating Web Sources for every online source you use. 18-22 and 54-57. 62-66). PKW 5-23. (KW 61-66. You will do this by analyzing the evidence used by scholars to reach their conclusions or by analyzing their conclusions directly. You must attach your graded RQAB and Prospectus and submit it with your Final Paper. Typed and signed Statement of Academic Integrity. describes at least two scholarly approaches to that question. Chapters 5-6) Paragraphs dedicated to the thorough explanation of each scholarly interpretations you included (argument. and advances your claim with a clear thesis statement (either your own original claim or the argument that is more convincing than the other(s). (KW. Chodorow. Chodorow. or b) demonstrating the superiority of the argument you are advancing. 38-39) Works Cited Page (no annotations) Signed Academic Integrity Statement (see below) Photocopies of each page of text from which you cite and a photocopy of the title page of each source you list in your Works Cited page. The Final Paper should include**: An introduction to your topic (KW 36-38) An explanation of the problem/question you are addressing (explicitly state your research question) Your thesis and evidence used to support it. Your thesis should be stated clearly and be easy for your TA to find. (KW. You should include (a) citation(s) (either direct quotations or proper paraphrases) from each of your sources listed in the Works Cited page. evaluates the evidence and approaches of other scholars to that question. Sources Your Final Paper must cite and utilize each of the minimum six (6) required sources. counter-argument(s)/alternative argument(s)) and the evidence used by scholars to support these arguments. and you must highlight the words/phrases you are citing. (KW. 57-59. Chapters 5-6) Rebuttal(s) or weakness of the above argument(s). 83 . 121-122) Conclusion and explanation of the significance of your topic/research. This can also be an explanation about why you find one (set of) argument(s) most convincing over others. PKW 5-23. You must label each page with the author’s name and page number.MMW4-6 –Final Paper (20% of course grade) Due: Length: Beginning of section during Week 10* 8-10 pages Your Final Paper You will submit a research paper that poses a Level-3 research question. You will advance your thesis by: a) rebutting counter/alternative arguments or pointing out their weaknesses. Previous Work. 51-53.
you must write (by hand) the EXACT text below and sign (by hand) and date this statement. For MMW’s policy on what constitutes plagiarism and other forms of academic misconduct. 127-129 and 143-145. Keys for Writers (66-68) and Prof. you must put it in quotation marks and cite it. ―Writing a Successful Research Paper‖ = Chodorow (found on MMW website. you will fail the course. you must cite it – whether or not you are quoting the author directly or paraphrasing his/her work.edu 84 . because all components of the MMW writing assignment are required to pass the course. Formatting Issues Please consult the Model Prospectus. I have cited this material according to the guidelines stated in the MMW Style Sheet and Raimes. see the MMW Style Sheet and Prof. and Raimes’. Patrick Patterson’s ―Helpful Advice for Avoiding Plagiarism and Other Academic Misconduct. paper organization.‖ and. good writing style and mechanics (*) Important: Your Final Paper will only be graded after your topic has been approved and the RQAB and Prospectus have been completed and graded by your TA: the RQAB and Prospectus must be turned in by section of Week 8 or they will be considered ―not completed. Deductions will apply to all MLA and formatting errors. Every time you use an author’s exact words. Chodorow Chapter 6). the MMW Style Sheet. or sentence structure. ―I attest that I am submitting my own original work in this assignment. Your paper will NOT be accepted until this is completed. Keys for Writers = KW Ann Raimes.ucsd. Keys for Writers/Pocket Keys for Writers. (**) Writing handbooks/guides referenced above: Ann Raimes. (Chapter 7-9) paragraph construction. Pay strict attention to proper MLA documentation (see Raimes or other MLA documentation manuals) Review the MMW Style Sheet handed out with the initial assignment or on-line See Raimes. (KW. PKW 49-62. http://roosevelt.‖ ______________________________________ Signature _______________ Date (over) Plagiarism Anytime and every time you use an author’s words.‖ both printed in this Workbook. Pocket Keys for Writers = PKW MMW Prof.At the end of your Works Cited Page. ideas. Chodorow’s ―Writing a Successful Research Paper‖ for help with making revisions. Keys for Writers for specific MLA and formatting requirements. Where I have included the words or ideas of others’. Chodorow. You are expected to have read and retained this information.
rebooting your computer and trying again.com system.com website about the due date of the paper). If all else fails." 6. or copy and paste the file (you do not need to include your Works Cited). Whichever you choose. reestablishing the connection. 85 . TAs will only grant extensions for good cause. Enter Class ID (see MMW website) and Enrollment Password (see MMW website). please contact your TA. and/or contacting your TA. logging in using the codes of one of your TA’s other sections (email your TA so s/he knows what you did).com.com home page). You will now be on your "Class Portfolio‖ page. follow the instructions for new users. Within 24 hours of the time the paper is due. please contact the MMW offices at (858) 534-4935 or Academic Coordinator Heidi Keller-Lapp at hkellerlapp@ucsd. 10. After you are finished setting up your user profile. (Make sure the version that you upload is your final version). 9. you must also submit an exact electronic copy of your paper on-line to turnitin. Go to www. Print or save the receipt page. Click on the icon under the ―Submit‖ column." 5. Click "enroll in a class. 7. Note: If you are a new user of the system. (b) then.‖ 3. connecting on another computer. and (c) click the ―submit‖ button.Instructions for Students -. 4. asking a friend to help. using the "create a user profile" link at the top of the home page. make sure you: (a) first type in the title of your paper in the ―submission title‖ box. You have two choices in submitting your paper. although it will be e-mailed to you as well. Fill in your e-mail address and turnitin.Turnitin. as described below. click on ―start class enrollment wizard‖ (or just log in from the Turnitin. If you've forgotten your password. This will take you to the student homepage ("All classes" screen). Late penalty is one-third of a letter grade per day. either upload or copy and paste. but if it is part of the file.com password. All necessary passwords and codes will be listed on the MMW Website. Log out at the top of the page. 8. try: waiting a little while.com on the internet. go ahead and upload the entire file including the Works Cited). If you are have technical difficulties. 1.com Service – MMW 4-6 The final version of your paper is due in Week 10 at the start of section as indicated in the Writing Assignment. either: browse and select the file to upload (Works Cited is not necessary. Click "submit. or if you have any questions about how to use the turnitin. click ―password help.turnitin. 2. If you believe an extension is justified.edu or (858) 822-2283. (Disregard any contradictory information found on the turnitin.
relevant evidence. relevant evidence and some explanation of how it supports the thesis Adequate relevant evidence and substantial effort to explain how it supports the thesis Thorough presentation of relevant evidence and clear explanation of how it supports the thesis Superior use of valid. non-web. non-dictionary sources □ lacks a primary source (produced during the course time period) □ lacks at least one scholarly journal article □ Relies on sufficient sources Sources: 86 . approved research question □ Significantly too short □ Significantly too long □ Appropriate length □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ No arguable thesis Minimal attempt to state an arguable thesis Arguable but problematic thesis Arguable.final paper must be on an approved question in order to pass the course! □ Appropriate. sound thesis Arguable. sophisticated thesis No relevant evidence or explanation of how evidence supports the thesis Minimal attempt to provide relevant evidence and explain how it supports the thesis Some valid. sophisticated explanation of how it supports the thesis No counter-argument Inappropriate counter-argument Minimal attempt at appropriate counter-argument or alternative theory with minimal evidence Substantial attempt at implausible counter-argument or alternative theory with some evidence Plausible counter-argument or alternative theory reasonably rebutted using evidence cited Superior exploration and rebuttal of plausible counter-argument or alternative theory No explanation of the significance of the topic Minimal explanation of significance of the topic Substantial explanation of significance Sound if problematic explanation of significance Clear explanation of significance Superior explanation of significance Mechanical/grammatical errors serious enough to impede comprehensibility Numerous mechanical/grammatical errors Some mechanical/grammatical errors Few mechanical/grammatical errors Negligible mechanical/grammatical errors Writing very problematic and/or awkward Writing somewhat problematic and/or awkward Writing relatively clear Clear and sophisticated writing Thesis: Use of evidence: Counter-argument: Significance: Mechanics/grammar: Writing style/clarity: Organization: □ Poor construction/organization □ Structure and organization relatively clear and sensible □ Clear and sensible structure and organization □ Lacks sufficient sources (citation in text and Works Cited list at end): □ lacks at least five scholarly. non-encyclopedia.MMW4-6 Final Paper Grading Checklist Research Question: Length: □ Inappropriate -.
relevant evidence and some explanation of how it supports the thesis Adequate relevant evidence and substantial effort to explain how it supports the thesis Thorough presentation of relevant evidence and clear explanation of how it supports the thesis Superior use of valid. non-web.MMW4-6 Final Paper Grading Checklist Research Question: Length: □ Inappropriate -. sophisticated thesis No relevant evidence or explanation of how evidence supports the thesis Minimal attempt to provide relevant evidence and explain how it supports the thesis Some valid. non-dictionary sources □ lacks a primary source (produced during the course time period) □ lacks at least one scholarly journal article □ Relies on sufficient sources Sources: 87 . relevant evidence. non-encyclopedia. sound thesis Arguable. sophisticated explanation of how it supports the thesis No counter-argument Inappropriate counter-argument Minimal attempt at appropriate counter-argument or alternative theory with minimal evidence Substantial attempt at implausible counter-argument or alternative theory with some evidence Plausible counter-argument or alternative theory reasonably rebutted using evidence cited Superior exploration and rebuttal of plausible counter-argument or alternative theory No explanation of the significance of the topic Minimal explanation of significance of the topic Substantial explanation of significance Sound if problematic explanation of significance Clear explanation of significance Superior explanation of significance Mechanical/grammatical errors serious enough to impede comprehensibility Numerous mechanical/grammatical errors Some mechanical/grammatical errors Few mechanical/grammatical errors Negligible mechanical/grammatical errors Writing very problematic and/or awkward Writing somewhat problematic and/or awkward Writing relatively clear Clear and sophisticated writing Thesis: Use of evidence: Counter-argument: Significance: Mechanics/grammar: Writing style/clarity: Organization: □ Poor construction/organization □ Structure and organization relatively clear and sensible □ Clear and sensible structure and organization □ Lacks sufficient sources (citation in text and Works Cited list at end): □ lacks at least five scholarly. approved research question □ Significantly too short □ Significantly too long □ Appropriate length □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ No arguable thesis Minimal attempt to state an arguable thesis Arguable but problematic thesis Arguable.final paper must be on an approved question in order to pass the course! □ Appropriate.
non-encyclopedia. sophisticated thesis No relevant evidence or explanation of how evidence supports the thesis Minimal attempt to provide relevant evidence and explain how it supports the thesis Some valid. sophisticated explanation of how it supports the thesis No counter-argument Inappropriate counter-argument Minimal attempt at appropriate counter-argument or alternative theory with minimal evidence Substantial attempt at implausible counter-argument or alternative theory with some evidence Plausible counter-argument or alternative theory reasonably rebutted using evidence cited Superior exploration and rebuttal of plausible counter-argument or alternative theory No explanation of the significance of the topic Minimal explanation of significance of the topic Substantial explanation of significance Sound if problematic explanation of significance Clear explanation of significance Superior explanation of significance Mechanical/grammatical errors serious enough to impede comprehensibility Numerous mechanical/grammatical errors Some mechanical/grammatical errors Few mechanical/grammatical errors Negligible mechanical/grammatical errors Writing very problematic and/or awkward Writing somewhat problematic and/or awkward Writing relatively clear Clear and sophisticated writing Thesis: Use of evidence: Counter-argument: Significance: Mechanics/grammar: Writing style/clarity: Organization: □ Poor construction/organization □ Structure and organization relatively clear and sensible □ Clear and sensible structure and organization □ Lacks sufficient sources (citation in text and Works Cited list at end): □ lacks at least five scholarly.MMW4-6 Final Paper Grading Checklist Research Question: Length: □ Inappropriate -. approved research question □ Significantly too short □ Significantly too long □ Appropriate length □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ No arguable thesis Minimal attempt to state an arguable thesis Arguable but problematic thesis Arguable. relevant evidence.final paper must be on an approved question in order to pass the course! □ Appropriate. non-web. sound thesis Arguable. relevant evidence and some explanation of how it supports the thesis Adequate relevant evidence and substantial effort to explain how it supports the thesis Thorough presentation of relevant evidence and clear explanation of how it supports the thesis Superior use of valid. non-dictionary sources □ lacks a primary source (produced during the course time period) □ lacks at least one scholarly journal article □ Relies on sufficient sources Sources: 88 .
organization.Final Paper Grading Guidelines F: D: Inappropriate topic/paper topic not approved Mechanical errors serious enough to impede comprehensibility No arguable thesis No relevant evidence No counter-argument Numerous mechanical errors Paper significantly too short Paper lacks sufficient sources No arguable thesis Inappropriate counter-argument Minimal relevant evidence No explanation of significance Some mechanical errors Paper is correct length Paper has sufficient sources Minimal attempt to: state an arguable thesis provide relevant evidence and explain how it supports the thesis provide counter-argument or alternative theory with supporting evidence provide explanation of significance Poor construction/organization Minimal attempt at an argument and other required elements of the paper (as above for a ―C‖) Structure. relevant. sound thesis Most evidence valid and relevant to the thesis Thorough. sound. attempt to explain relevance of evidence Plausible counter-argument or alternative theory reasonably rebutted using evidence cited Sound but perhaps problematic explanation of significance Writing relatively clear Arguable. if perhaps still problematic. sophisticated thesis Superior breadth of valid. strong thesis All evidence valid and relevant to the thesis Plausible counter-argument or alternative theory reasonably rebutted Relevance of most evidence explained clearly Clear explanation of significance Writing relatively clear Arguable. valid and relevant to the thesis Substantial effort to explain relevance of evidence Plausible counter-argument or alternative theory presented Substantial effort to explain significance Writing can be problematic Arguable. writing relatively clear Arguable thesis (can be problematic) Substantial evidence. well-explained evidence Superior exploration and rebuttal of plausible counter-argument or alternative theory Superior explanation of significance Clear and sophisticated writing C-: C: C+: B-: B: B+: A-/A: 89 .
11-11:45 or 1-1:45 or 2-2:45 or 3-3:45 CLICS Instruction. librarians. including its four libraries.edu/instruction/mmw You'll use the CLICS MMW Instruction page when your sections come into CLICS for instruction. 2PM Getting started with MMW research ucsdmmw. 10AM A01 A02 Thursday 10/9.com/page/MMW4+High+Use+Table A good place to start your research is at the High Use Table at Geisel. 9AM A04 Tuesday 10/7. computing tools.edu or Marlo Young at Geisel.edu / IM: libmarlo MMW4T Tours Meet at Geisel Library's main entrance for special MMW4T tours that will show you where everything is in Geisel. It links to the most useful databases for finding articles and books. 3-3:45 Thursday. study spaces. 3PM A05 A06 Tuesday 10/7. fellow students. This area has books that will help you select or narrow a topic and find useful information. September 30. and ERC writing assignment info.ucsd. October 9 will also come in on Tuesday. When you're in Geisel.com/ Try the MMW Library Research Tool for research help online 24/7. Finding articles and books (and more) on your topic clics. You can also ask at the CLICS front desk. October 7 will also come in on Thursday. For more help. You’ll find step-by-step research resources and more. The tours emphasize resources for MMW and transfer students. 90 .Welcome to the Library! The UC San Diego Libraries are here to help you.wetpaint. Dates/Times: Tuesday. October 9. contact Duffy Tweedy at CLICS. Week 2 All MMW4T sections will meet in CLICS in addition to their usual meeting time in Week 2. and research help. October 1. right next to the Reference Desk. and sections meeting on Thursday. and other materials. primary sources. October 7: CLICS Meeting Schedule A03 Tuesday 10/7. be sure to ask at the Information Desk or Social Sciences & Humanities Reference Desk if you have questions or need help getting started.wetpaint. Connect with TAs. 2PM Thursday 10/9. October 2. 1PM Tuesday 10/7. ucsdmmw. 858 822-4803 / m2young@ucsd. 858 822-4810 / dtweedy@ucsd. 1-1:45 or 3-3:45 or 4-4:45 Wednesday. Sections meeting on Tuesday.
Primary Sources ucsdmmw. Books Roger roger. Once you find books on your topic. Instructions on how to get to the online journals and databases from off-campus are at libraries. 91 .ucsd. try just "footbinding" and look in those broader books for info on the Manchus. and hundreds of others. Be flexible and creative. and it links to all the electronic resources available to students. click on My Library Account/Renew Items and set up your library account. if "muslim trade" doesn't get what you need.ucsd.edu The Circuit is a San Diego-wide catalog of libraries. including books. This is useful in Roger and essential in borrowing books from Circuit. click on their subject headings (at the bottom of each book description) to find similar books. Use broader terms than your specific topic. Articles You can find the databases below. so try the same tips and subject headings. If "manchu and footbinding" is too narrow and gets zero. On Roger's main screen.wetpaint. including a short video and links to MMW4-specific primary sources.sdsu. linked from the CLICS instruction website and the Library Research Tool described on the flip side of this page.com/page/MMW4+Primary+Sources This section of the MMW Library Research Tool has information on understanding and finding primary sources. Circuit circuit. try "arab commerce". Circuit looks different than Roger but works the same way.edu Roger is UC San Diego's online catalog. and return them to any UC San Diego library. It lists everything owned and physically stored in all the campus libraries. Start by using keywords that describe your topic. You can find books in Circuit and have them delivered to UC San Diego in a day or two.edu/proxy.
and also includes some medieval sources. To narrow a search change the menu from Full-Text to Article Titles. essays. Historical Abstracts (HA) HA covers non-US history from 1450 to the present. and other materials on all aspects of religious study. Click Expand Record to see article details. the Middle East. 92 . and the Muslim world. JSTOR This is a full-text archive of scholarly articles in all subject areas. theses. or select precise subject areas below the search boxes. Index Islamicus Index of European-language publications on Islam. UCSD is more likely to have the articles than the other items.ATLA religion database Indexes thousands of journals.
corporate title. or phone number for the author.gov‖ domains. you should avoid ―. look for the copyright credit or link to an organization.‖ ―. You can generally rely on ―. etc. Look for biographical information or the author’s affiliations (university department.org. evaluated. and corrected by peers in the field). You may not use sources authored by anyone else. organization. With the exception of jstor.org.Evaluating Web Pages Research university libraries across the country advise students to consider the following in evaluating whether or not to use a web page for your research project. MMW requires that you use ONLY academic sources – those that are authored by scholars affiliated with a college or university and those published/distributed in a peer-reviewed medium (―peer reviewed‖ means that is has been read. 93 .net. A responsible author should give you the means to contact him/her.com‖ sites. think-tank websites. as this usually identifies a personal directory on a web site.edu‖ domains and occasionally ―. If you can’t find a name. and you may not use sources that are authored by a scholar. Consider the following criteria to evaluate web page credibility: Authority of authorship Purpose/Intended Audience Currency Objectivity Support Authority Criteria & Questions to Consider: Who wrote the page? It must be a scholar affiliated with a college/university What are the author’s credentials‖ Can you verify the author’s credentials? Could the credentials be made up? Did the author include contact information? Whose web site is this? What organization is sponsoring the web page? Is it affiliated with a college or university? Tips & Ideas Look for the author’s name and affiliation near the top or the bottom of the page. but are not ―peer reviewed‖ – these include faculty blogs. To verify a site’s organizational sponsorship: o Look at the domain. o Be careful of a web page that has a tilde (~) in the URL. address.‖ and ―. Purpose/Intended Audience Criteria & Questions to Consider What is the purpose of the page? Why did the author create it? Who is the target audience? It should be students or other scholars.) Anyone who has visited a chat room knows that people don’t always identify themselves accurately Look for an email link.
scholarship. entertainment.‖ but you must take bias into account when interpreting or using the information given. Oxford University Press. advocacy. etc. and more. you should be suspicious.Tips & Ideas The purpose of the page could be advertising. To identify the target audience: o Look at the reading level of the page: is it easy to read or challenging? Does it assume some previous knowledge of the subject (better). Objectivity & Support Criteria & Questions to Consider Is the author being blatantly objective or biased? Is the use of evidence sufficient and credible enough to support claims? Tips & Ideas Biased information is not inherently ―bad. etc. You may only use web pages that are written for the purpose of scholarship. Academic websites include bibliographies with sources that were published with university presses (Cornell University Press. The content might be years out of date even if the date given is recent. University of California – Berkeley. participants in a support groups. University of South Carolina – Beaufort. balanced. or is it more encyclopedic (not as good)? o Consider the design of the web page: are there banner ads and animated GIFs (not a good sign). opinion.) If a web page makes it hard for you to check the support. or does the page present a lot of text with little decoration (better)? o Possible audiences include: academic researchers and college students(this is what you’re looking for). or extreme? Does he/she rely more on emotion than evidence to make his/her claims? Look for links or citations to sources. University of California Press. sensational. news. You may NOT use sites that target an audience of children (students K-12). You must only use sources where scholars supply evidence for the claims that are made. social. Currency Criteria & Questions to Consider Is there a date at the bottom or top of the page? Is the information up-to-date? Tips & Ideas A recent date doesn’t necessarily mean the information is current. *The material has been adapted from websites from the following research university libraries: Duke University. satire. 94 . and Cornell University Olin Library. political. or is the author overly emotional. and moderate in his/her views. Are the facts accurately and completely cited? Is the author fair. or religious activists.
YOU MIGHT NOT KNOW THAT THIS IS PLAGIARISM Sources not cited Turning in another’s work. where Queen Isabella defied her husband's advisers and funded Columbus' expedition. 5. you try to pass off the paraphrased material as your own analysis of the cited material. FOUND IN ANOTHER AUTHOR'S WORK Consider the following original source text from Heritage of World Civilizations. Although you might retain the essential content of the source. ANALYTICAL STRUCTURE. ETC. you alter the paper’s appearance slightly by changing key words or phrases. Properly citing all sources. II. in fact.AND HOW NOT TO BORROW!!! --THE WORDS. word-for-word. ARGUMENTS. Columbus presented his plan for a westward journey to the Portuguese Crown. HOW TO BORROW -. but paraphrasing other arguments from those sources without citation. the constant development and refinement of maritime skill and ship design that enabled Christopher Columbus to embark on his first voyage of New World discovery in 1492. 491: "It was. but neglecting to put in quotation marks text that has been copied word-forword. Paraphrasing most of the paper from other sources and making it all fit together. Patrick Patterson (MMW 4. as your own. instead of spending the same effort on original work." Now consider the following hypothetical student submissions based on the original source text: Which student submissions give proper acknowledgement to the work of other authors? Which constitute plagiarism in violation of UCSD rules? 95 . Rejected. FACTS. the Santa Maria. Sources cited (but still plagiarized!) Providing inaccurate information regarding the sources. Craig et al. Intentional or not. violating policies concerning the expectation of originality adopted by most academic institutions.Helpful Advice for Avoiding Plagiarism and Other Academic Misconduct by Prof. This way. Properly citing a source. Her patronage included the outfitting of two square-rigged caravels. The catch? The paper contains almost no original work! Properly quoting and citing sources in some places. Aware of the nautical innovations of his time. Trying to disguise plagiarism by copying from several different sources. you are falsely claiming original presentation and interpretation of the information. and 6 professor) I. or close to it. paraphrasing and using quotations appropriately.. tweaking the sentences to make them fit together while retaining most of the original phrasing. IDEAS. making it impossible to find them. the Niña and the Pinta. and the large cargo vessel. Copying significant portions of text straight from a single source without alteration and without proper citation. ―Borrowing‖ generously from your previous work. Columbus turned for support to Spain. but these citations make up the majority of your paper. p.
on the constant development and refinement of maritime skill and shipbuilding techniques. The European expeditions of exploration and discovery depended. 491: "It was. 491). from the beginning. The constant development and refinement of maritime skill and ship design allowed Christopher Columbus to embark on his first voyage of discovery to the Americas in 1492 (Craig et al. from the beginning. The European expeditions of exploration and discovery depended. Plagiarism? Yes No Why/why not?:_____________________________________________________ 2. p. 491). the constant development and refinement of maritime skill and ship design that enabled Christopher Columbus to embark on his first voyage of New World discovery in 1492. 491) Plagiarism? Yes No Why/why not?: _____________________________________________________ 5. al. the constant development and refinement of maritime skill and ship design that enabled Christopher Columbus to embark on his first voyage of New World discovery in 1492. Plagiarism? Yes No Why/why not?: ____________________________________________________ 3. from the beginning. from the beginning. Plagiarism? Yes No Why/why not?: ____________________________________________________ 7. 96 . in fact. from the beginning. THE PROBLEM OF "COMMON KNOWLEDGE Consider the following text from Heritage of World Civilizations. Plagiarism? Yes No Why/why not?: _____________________________________________________ 4. on continuing evolution of and improvements in navigational expertise and the construction of oceangoing vessels. Plagiarism? Yes No Why/why not?: ____________________________________________________ 6. The European expeditions of exploration and discovery depended. The European expeditions of exploration and discovery depended.. Craig et al. It was. 491) Plagiarism? Yes No Why/why not?: ____________________________________________________ III. al. on the continuing evolution of and improvements in navigational expertise and the construction of oceangoing vessels (Craig et al. on the constant development and refinement of maritime skill and shipbuilding techniques (Craig et.1. on the ―constant development and refinement of maritime skill and ship design‖ (Craig et. The European expeditions of exploration and discovery depended. in fact.
and the large cargo vessel. although many students offer that excuse during the disciplinary process. For course work in MMW." If you have any questions about what "substantially the same material" means. and a large cargo vessel.to build on the knowledge you've already acquired. you should not be recycling more than a few (very few!) sentences from prior work. fall back on the fundamental rule: when in doubt. Need to be cited?: Yes No Why/why not?: ____________________________________________________ Some sound advice about "common knowledge": "The belief that an idea or fact may be ―common knowledge‖ is no reason not to cite your source. the Niña. Her patronage included the outfitting of two square-rigged caravels. Columbus presented his plan for a westward journey to the Portuguese Crown. where Queen Isabella defied her husband's advisers and funded Columbus' expedition. the Pinta.princeton. or work you’ve done for other classes. taking material from one source but crediting it to another. Fabricated citations or other forms of dishonesty or misrepresentation Fabrication of a citation (e. Need to be cited?: Yes No Why/why not?: ___________________________________________________ 3. Rejected. If you don’t have that opportunity.g. Need to be cited:? Yes No Why/why not?: ____________________________________________________ 2. even! -.Aware of the nautical innovations of his time. It is too risky to make assumptions about what is expected or permissible. OTHER IMPOTANT UCSD RULES ON ACADEMIC INTEGRITY Multiple submissions without approval of ALL instructors involved The Code of Student Conduct states: "No student shall submit substantially the same material in more than one course without prior authorization. Keeping in mind that your professor is the primary audience for your work.html) IV. the square-rigged caravels known as the Niña and the Pinta. Columbus turned for support to Spain. and the Santa Maria. It is permissible -. ask your instructor. 1. cite.edu/pr/pub/integrity/pages/notcommon. the Niña and the Pinta.encouraged. Christopher Columbus began his first transatlantic voyage in 1492 with three ships outfitted by the patronage of Queen Isabella. perhaps to cover up that the material really came from a web page or that you didn't really read the book cited) 97 . but you need to engage in a new process of writing and analysis each time you take a new course." (http://www.. the Santa Maria. Christopher Columbus began his first transatlantic voyage in 1492 with the financial support of Queen Isabella and three ships. in which the writing assignment each term is a separate and distinct task. the Santa Maria. Christopher Columbus began his first transatlantic voyage in 1492. you should ask your professor for guidance if you are uncertain. It is certainly not a defense against the charge of plagiarism.
98 . your professors or your TAs! Remember: YOU are responsible for seeing to it that everything you turn in at UCSD.g. we want to teach you good practices that will keep you out of trouble in this class and all your others at UCSD and in your future work. facts.10) Intentional or knowing plagiarism is extremely serious and will likely lead to failure for the entire course. if you can't get the paper done in time without cutting corners and including plagiarized material. by all means turn it in late so you can go back and fix the problem! The minor grade reduction you will get (one-third of a letter grade per day on an assignment worth no more than 20% of the course grade) pales in comparison to the consequences of handing in a paper with plagiarism. (Code of Student Conduct. but even negligent plagiarism (e.13. the MMW Style Sheet (with requirements for ALL writing assignments in MMW) 2.is a form of intentional dishonesty. For further guidance on plagiarism and other academic integrity issues see: 1. 22. "I just wasn't paying attention" or "it was late and I just didn't notice") is STILL plagiarism and can have very unwelcome consequences for your grade and your permanent disciplinary record!! When in doubt. everything else is my original work. sec. be sure to ask me or your TAs. pp. Raimes. Finally.edu/pr/pub/integrity/index. and like all forms of intentional or knowing misconduct. as always.princeton..21. in any course. is in full compliance with the university rules on academic integrity. 128-145 or Pocket Keys for Writers. in effect: "The ideas.html 4. When you turn in an assignment." UCSD rules provide that any breach of academic integrity may lead to a grade of F for the entire course. arguments. etc. that I have taken from others are credited as such. cite!! And if you have any questions. you are saying. will have extremely serious consequences. words. Our mission is to help you avoid these problems. http://www. pp. Keys for Writers . 50-62 3.
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