The East Asian World, 1400-1800

China at its height Chinese Society and Culture Tokugawa Japan and Korea

China at its height

Objectives: 1. Summarize how China opened its doors to Europeans but closed those doors when it observed the effect of Western ideas on Chinese society 2. Discuss how Chinese art and culture flourished between 1500 and 1800

The Ming Dynasty
The Mongol dynasty in China was overthrown in 1368—the founder of the new dynasty took the title Ming Hong Wu The *Ming dynasty lasted until 1644 China extended its rule into Mongolia and central Asia and briefly reconquered Vietnam

Ming rulers used a centralized bureaucracy staffed with officials chosen by the civil service examination system nationwide school system New crops were introduced and the Grand Canal was renovated—shipping grain from southern to northern China

The Voyages of Zheng He
Ming Hong Wu (1368-98), founder of the Ming His son Yong Le constructed the Imperial City in Beijing— 1421, he moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing The Imperial City (*Forbidden City) was created to convey power and prestige

Yong Le also sent a series of naval voyages into the Indian Ocean and Africa *Zheng He led seven voyages from 14051433 The largest ship was over 440 feet long (Columbus’ Santa Maria was only 75 ft) The emperor was fascinated by the giraffes and other oddities from Africa

After Yong Le’s death, the voyages were halted because the new emperor adopted an isolationist policy Zheng He’s fleet had the ability to reach the Americas but never did because of new policies from the government

First Contacts with the West
In 1514, a Portuguese fleet arrived off the coast of China. To the emperor, the Europeans were only an unusual form of barbarian The Portuguese were ultimately expelled from most of China except from Macao

Christian missionaries (Jesuits in particular) began to proselytize in China Clocks and other western inventions impressed Chinese officials—making them more receptive to Western ideas Reports from China made European increasingly interested in the culture and region

Fall of the Ming Dynasty

The Ming dynasty gradually declined after weak rulers led a period of government corruption in the 16th century High taxes, low crop yields, and a major epidemic led to peasant unrest All of these events led to peasant revolts led by Li Zicheng In 1644, the rebells occupied the capital of *Beijing—the last Ming emperor committed suicide

The *Manchus, a farming and hunting people who lived northeast of the Great Wall in *Manchuria, took this opportunity and overthrew the Ming dynasty The Manchus declared the creation of a new dynasty called the *Qing, meaning “pure”—they reigned from 1644 to 1911

The Qing Dynasty

The Chinese resisted the new rulers—rebels seized the island of *Taiwan off the coast of China To make the rebels easy to identify, the government ordered all men to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles—shaved foreheads and a braided hair in a pigtail called a *queue “Lose your hair or lose your head” The Qing flourished under a series of strong early rulers

Qing Adaptations

The Qing maintained the Ming political system but faced one major problem: Manchu ethical and cultural difference The Qing tried to preserve their distinct identity within Chinese society Manchus organized into separate military units called *banners The Qing brought Chinese into the imperial administration—80% of lower posts were filled by the Chinese

*Kangxi (1661-1722) He was tolerant of Christians and several hundred officials became Catholics— some 300,000 ordinary Chinese converted as well His successor began to suppress Christian activities throughout China

Reign of Kangxi

Westerners in China
Qianlong (1736 to 1795) fell under the influence of destructive elements at court Growing pressure on the land because of population growth led to economic hardship Unhappy peasants launched a revolt known as the *White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804) which weakened the Qing dynasty

Objectives: 1. Summarize how China opened its doors to Europeans but closed those doors when it observed the effect of Western ideas on Chinese society 2. Discuss how Chinese art and culture flourished between 1500 and 1800

Chinese Society and Culture

Objectives: 1. Describe the rapid increase in population that led to rural land shortages 2. Summarize Chinese society and its organization around the family 3. Relate how architecture, decorative arts, and literature flourished during this period

Economic Changes

Between 1500 and 1800, China remained mostly an agricultural society—85% Increase in population—80 mil in 1390 to 300 million in the 1700s A long period of peace and improvements in food supplies led to this increase— a faster growing species of rice from SE Asia By the 18th century, almost all the land was farmed and shortage of land led to unrest and revolts

A steady growth in manufacturing and increased trade between provinces—expanded their trade in silk, porcelain, and cotton goods China did not develop the kind of *commercial capitalism that emerged in Europe—all trade and manufacturing remained under the firm control

Daily Life
The Chinese Family

Chinese society was organized around the family All family members were expected to sacrifice their individual desires for the benefit of the family as a whole The ideal family unit in Qing China was the extended family —three or four generations The *clan system consisted of dozens, even hundreds, of related families

The Role of Women
Women were considered inferior to men in Chinese society The wife was clearly subordinate to the husband—a wife could not divorce her husband or inherit property A second wife was often taken by those who could afford it

“Lotus Feet”, Footbinding, and fashion Bound feet were a status symbol making a women more attractive and more likely to be married YOUR BOOK IS WRONG— Footbinding did NOT reduce mobility, women could indeed walk, and they did NOT need to be carried Body modification, beauty, and the other Cinderella?

http://www.reuters.com/ video/2007/07/17/chinaslast-foot-binding-survivors? videoId=60839

Other Forms of Body Modifications—why?

Western Examples?

Cultural Developments
The Chinese Novel

This new form of literature developed at this time The Golden Lotus, the first realistic social novel, depicts the corrupt life of a wealthy landlord The Dream of the Red Chamber by *Cao Xuegin tells of the tragic love between two young people caught in the financial and moral disintegration of a powerful Chinese clan

Ming and Qing Art
In architecture, the most outstanding example is the *Imperial City in *Beijing *Emperor Yong Le began construction of the Imperial City in 1406 Blue-and-white *porcelain was quite popular; Europeans admired its beauty and collected it in great quantities

Objectives: 1. Describe the rapid increase in population that led to rural land shortages 2. Summarize Chinese society and its organization around the family 3. Relate how architecture, decorative arts, and literature flourished during this period

Tokugawa Japan and Korea

Objectives: 1. Identify the three powerful political figures who unified Japan 2. Describe how between 1500 and 1800, Japan experienced many peasant uprisings 3. Explain why Korea could not withstand invasions by the Japanese and Manchus

The Three Great Unifiers

At the end of the 15th century, Japan was in chaos The centralized power of the shogunate had collapsed. *Daimyo, heads of noble families, controlled their own lands and warred with their neighbors *Oda Nobunaga seized the imperial capital of *Kyoto and placed the reigning shogun under his control *Toyotomi Hideyoshi, daimyo of *Edo, also made movements to unify Japan

Europeans in Japan
The Portuguese traders landed on the islands of Japan in 1543 The Japanese were fascinated by tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses, and other European goods The Daimyo were interested in buying all types of European weapons—these weapons helped unify Japan

Jesuits were welcome until they started destroying Shinto and Buddhist shrines In reaction, the Tokugawa expelled all missionaries and Japanese Christians Dutch ships were only permitted to dock once a year at Nagasaki

Tokugawa Rule
The state was divided into about 250 territories called *hands, or domains each ruled by a daimyo The shogunate controlled the daimyo by a *hostage system The samurai who had served the daimyo gradually ceased to be a warrior class

Economic and Social Changes
Under the Tokugawa, trade and industry began to flourish as never before Banking flourished, and paper money became the normal medium of exchange in business transactions

The Class System
Social changes also marked the Tokugawa Era. These changes affected the class system and the role of women. Rulers established strict legal distinctions among the four main classes: warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants Below these classes were Japan’s outcasts, the *eta

The Role of Women
Where Confucian values were highly prized, the rights of females were restricted A wife who did not meet the expectations of her husband or his family was likely to be divorced

Tokugawa Culture
Literature Works of Ihara Saikaku —Five Women Who Loved Love tells of a search for love by five women of the merchant class Exquisite poetry was written in the 17th century by Japanese poets *Matsuo Basho

Theater and Art

The theater in Kabuki was established —emphasized action, music, and dramatic gestures The government forbade women to appear on stage—male actors had to impersonate female characters Nobles competed to erect the most magnificent mansions with lavish and beautiful furnishings Japanese art was enriched by ideas from other cultures; The Japanese studied Western medicine, astronomy, language, and even painting styles

Korea: The Hermit Kingdom

The Yi dynasty in *Korea, founded in the 14th century, remained in power during the Tokugawa Era, The Yi patterned their society after the Chinese They practiced isolationism—being called the “Hermit Kingdom” A Japanese force under Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded Korea in the 16th century In the 1630s, a Manchu army invaded northern Korea and forced the Yi dynasty to submit to China

Objectives: 1. Identify the three powerful political figures who unified Japan 2. Describe how between 1500 and 1800, Japan experienced many peasant uprisings 3. Explain why Korea could not withstand invasions by the Japanese and Manchus

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