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INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH ESTIMATION OF LOCATION OF RADIO DEVICES USING TIME DIFFERENCE OF ARRIVAL AND DOPPLER SHIFTS
BY NIVETHITHA JAYARAJ EE-SYSTEMS UC IRVINE UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF KASPER BONNE RASMUSSEN 12/14/2012
No 1 2(a) 2(b) 3 3(a) 3(b) 4 5 6 7 INDEX Title Motivation for this project Traditional Tracking Methods Comparison of Tracking Methods Proposed System TDOA Hyperboles Doppler Velocity Estimation of Doppler Velocity in Actual Radio systems/Devices Algorithm in Detail Assumptions in This method Result Pg.No 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 14 14 .2 S.
there are some scenarios that serve as the motivation for this project. In such case this is ideal because the radio device gets no knowledge that it is being tracked. they do not have a network. Traditional Tracking Methods for Radio Devices . and say that it is actually within the approved geographic location. This method will serve as a process where the network can verify for itself.3 1.1. A malicious radio device that knows this might fake it's location when queried by the network. 2. (b) Verification of location of radio device from the transmitter side There might be scenarios where the resources of a network should be accessed only withing certain geographic area.MOTIVATION FOR THIS PROJECT Though GPS gives an accurate location of radio devices. (a) Location during Emergency calls only for Mobile Devices When mobiles make emergency calls. (c) Tracking of non-Co operative devices In many scenarios we might need to track suspect radio devices that will not co-operate.(a)TRADITIONAL TRACKING METHODS Fig. Thus we need to locate them without any knowledge form the network side.
This method needs all the receivers and the radio device to be synchronous with each other. The device need not be synchronous with the rest of the system. A line pertaining to the angle of arrival of the signal is calculated. 2.2. Intersection of two such hyperboles leads to the location of the device. The intersection of these lines gives the location of the device. (b) Propagation time: The actual round trip time for a packet between the transmitter and each of the radio devices leads to propagation time for each receiver.4 (a) Cell of Origin: Here base stations look at the cell mobile are in. This is apt for targets that do not cooperate. Thus it cannot be used for non co-operative targets. (c)Time difference of arrival: Here pairwise difference in arrival times of same message at various receiver sis calculated and this gives a hyperbole as the possible locations of the radio device. we need minimum N+1 receivers in all these methods. (d)Angle of arrival: This method requires antenna arrays at the receiver. The intersection of three such circles gives the location of the device.(b) COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL TRACKING METHODS Fig. Comparison of Tracking Methods .based on the PN sequence they are using. We should note that for finding N points. Then circles are drawn that show the possible locations of the radio device.
(a) TDOA Hyperboles Fig.3. We have knowledge of location of both receivers. We also know the doppler velocities of the device for each receiver. They are at a distance d apart form each other. . we place both the receivers on the y axis.5 From the above picture it is clear that after GPS. that are separated by distance d on the y axis. provided we can extract the doppler velocity of the devices. we have come up with a system that can locate a radio device using just two receivers. Time difference of Arrival geometry For convenience. 3. Since we need only two receivers to be in synchronization the accuracy becomes better. TDOA methods are the most effective.PROPOSED SYSTEM In this project. 3.
The time difference of arrival can be calculated fomr these. 3. These are R1 and R2.ESTIMATION OF DOPPLER VELOCITIES IN ACTUAL RADIO DEVICES/SYSTEMS (a) WiMax and iDEN The data collected by the Ericsson WiMax and iDEN networks did not have any pertinent information. modulations being used. Then we calculate ΔR that is the difference in distance traveled by message between the two receivers. obtained by using the distance formula. Given velocity and ΔR. . Doppler velocity can be calculated using the following equation Where f=apparent frequency c=speed of light vr=radial velocity of receiver vs=radial velocity of source f0=actual frequency of transmission 4. we can easily calculate time difference of arrival Δt. (b) CDMA The Ericsson CDMA network has information of use. This gives rise to doppler velocity. Solution of the equation for ΔR gives y in terms of x. and data rates. This is termed as the doppler effect. Traditionally base stations are programmed to overcome these Doppler shift of frequencies and do not store the frequencies. However it will be possible to obtain the frequencies after some changes in the code of the base stations. It can give the absolute time of arrival of a message at two base stations. Also it is possible to obtain the frequencies that appear at the base stations after Doppler shifting.Y) is the location of the radio device we need to calculate the distance between radio device and each receiver. an apparent shift in frequency can be observed.(b) Doppler Velocity When the emitter or observer are moving relative to each other.6 Given (X. All the data was about the number of devices present(MAC ID). The apparent shift in frequencies depends on the radial velocities of the receiver and the transmitter.
HSPA. and they tend to drift with temperature.LTE. This is obtained as the error from the Phase locked loop(PLL).HSPA+.GSM. Of these the most commonly used ones for mobile phones are Qualcomm's QxDM . It stands for Qualcomm Extensible Diagnostic Monitor.GPRS. Taking distances from -2000 m to 2000 m along the x axis. This can be run with any commercial RF front end. The supported technologies include CDMA. However care must be taken because most oscillators in the PLL are of cheap quality. As with Qualcomm many other companies like Kyocera. One arm of the hyperbola is plotted. . The licenses are expensive. All such DSP have error log that notes the Doppler shift directly.ALGORITHM IN DETAIL Step 1:Plotting of hyperbole for first packet The first step in the algorithm is to calculate the initial hyperbola corresponding to the first message. the accuracy decreases based on the cosine of the angle between them. this seems the most promising. sampling every 1 m the corresponding y coordinates are calculated. and the software installed then we can start collecting diagnostic logs. provided we find a way to enable the 'Diag' interface of the device. They need to be purchased from the companies before they can be used. to extract Doppler information from the DSP logs. Diag stands for diagnostic.WCDMA.EDGE. This leads to the cosine effect. Proprietary software needs to be purchased and then a code can be written to suit our needs. Also as the receiver moves away from line of sight form the transmitter. We use the equation in section (3)(a) that gives us Y in terms of X. Skyworks have their own software.7 (c)RF Front Ends most companies have their own proprietary software for diagnostics and debugging of RF front end devices. 5. but these directly give us the information we need. Once this has been enabled. From all the possibilities looked into. IT allows collection of on air 3G data and device data for better characterization.
8 Fig. Hyperbole of first message plotted based on TDOA Step 2:Calculation of Doppler velocities The next step is to calculate the actual velocity. Fig. Polar to Cartesian conversion of vectors . For each receiver.5. The velocities are calculated from the observed frequencies using equation in section (3)(b). there is an observed frequency. which in turn gives a velocity corresponding to each receiver.4.based on the doppler shifts.
Fig.taken in anti clockwise direction. Thus adding them up will give us the actual velocity at a point on the hyperbole.ɵ) gives a complete and full representation of the vector. 6.Y2) this is done by using the formula ɵ=tan inverse((Y2-Y1)/(X2-X1)) This leaves us with two velocity magnitudes and directions for each point. This vector can be represented entirely in terms of x and y coordinates. we have both the resultants. Since we have the coordinates of the receiver(X1. As is obvious from the figure above. Thus v=(r. polar and caretsian.9 Every vector can be expressed in two form. x=r cos ɵ y=r sin ɵ Velocities observed at the receivers are nothing but the projections of actual velocity along the direction between the line joining the receiver and the point on the hyperbola. It is shown below and self explanatory. . This is carried out by simple vector addition using triangle law. Addition of vectors based on triangle law We take a point on the hyperbole and calculate the direction between that point and the receiver. Now it is mere vector addition. and the point on the hyperbole(X2. In our case.Y1). In polar form it is expressed in terms of it's magnitude(r) and the angle( ɵ) it forms with the x axis.
Distance between receivers is 10m. In the following plots. we calculate the time between the first packet and the second packet. ∆T. given the observed frequencies at the two receivers. we calculated the velocity. We plot these ∆D.25) starting from the first picture respectively . The magnitudes of the velocities were kept constant but their signs changed. Thus.(+25. we calculate the resultant velocity at that point.v1=25m/s and v2=30m/s. Given velocity and time. Given below is some of the curves obtained for various combinations of inputs.-30). TDOA is 1ns.-30) and (25.(-25.+30). Step 3: Calculating 'Displaced' Hyperbole In the previous step.10 Thus for every point on the hyperbole. The order of velocities is (+25. multiplication yields displacement ∆D. Each receiver will have knowledge of when it receives the messages/packets.
Displaced Hyperboles for various scenarios What we have done is to simply plot the location of each point on the initial hyperbole.given the resultant velocity and direction at that point. This gives rise to the 'displaced' hyperbole. .11 Fig. 7.
of data points we use.Y2i) . The index of the zeros is noted. So an alternate simpler method is used to calculate the intersection. This is due to the symmetric nature of the hyperbole. Step 7:End . This implies their difference is zero. Else the neighbors are added and wherever the zero crossing occurs. Now we can simply do ∆Yi=Y2-Y1i. However as can be observed from the above pictures. coming up with a close form expression for the displaced hyperbole is not simple. First we scan for zeros.Y1i) points on the displaced hyperbole.12 Step 4: Plotting hyperbole corresponding to second message This step is merely a repetition of the first step. Thus we need points where ∆Y is zero.where i=no. then that leads to a zero entry ((+1)=(-1)). So a simpler method can be used where a signum function is done on every entry of ∆Y. Going ahead with a Newton-Rhapson method of convergence given X values is the straightforward approach. This can be done because we have the expression for y given x for second hyperbole. If present the indices are noted. Given resolution of 1m. At the point of intersection. Step 5: Calculation of point of intersection The location of the transmitter/radio device is clearly the intersection points between the 'displaced' hyperbole and the second hyperbole. It all depends on the resolution between points. Given (Xi. That leaves us with a +1 for positive entries.5 m using this method Step 6: Plot and display points of intersection We get two points that include possible location of radio transmitter/device. the worst case error was 0. actual points on the second curve corresponding to the indices are looked up. it is easy to calculate points on the second hyperbole (Xi. but we will be wasting time and space as this is a method where convergence is affected by initial choice of point on the x-axis. both are equal. We can average or give these points directly as the answer. The actual point lies between this point and the next data entry point. Now that the indices are available.-1 for negative entries and 0 for zero values.
9.8.13 Fig. Image showing points of intersection Fig. Output in MATLAB window .
RESULT: Successful positioning of radio devices was done using time difference of arrival and Doppler velocities. In practical commercial systems this is actually not true. Further practical ways to estimate Doppler velocities were investigated and one prospective method identified.14 6. 7. We also assume the receivers are able to resolve non line of sight paths. . This is the only major source of error in this method.ASSUMPTIONS IN THIS METHOD: The receivers need to be synchronized upto order of nano seconds for this method to be very accurate.
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