ACCORDING TO BPUT SYLLABUS

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

20 views

ACCORDING TO BPUT SYLLABUS

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Functional Dependencies
- CISC 630 - HW2.pdf
- Basic Principles of Database Normalization
- Short Notes DBMS
- Management Information Systemmiss
- MELJUN CORTES CS123S1 File Processing and DatabaseSystem Updated Hours
- Computer Science MCQs
- DBMS Lesson Plan
- Basic Database Concepts
- JBLFMU-Arevalo IT Best Practices
- Lab Programs Dbms
- Practical on RDBMS
- Data base
- Fundamentals of Database Systems - Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answers
- Difference Between DBMS and RDBMS
- System Requirements Specification Final
- 8th Database
- Case Study 1 University Database Application Till Exp 3
- DBMS Technical Publications Chapter 2
- 07_BI in Finance (Dbms)

You are on page 1of 23

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

(FOR BOTH CSE-4

TH

-SEM/MECH-3

RD

SEM

DEPARTMENT)

MODULE-II

Query Language in which user requests information from the database.

Categories of languages

1. Procedural language.

2. Nonprocedural language.

Procedural Language: in procedural language the user interface the system

to perform a sequence of operation on the database to compute the

desired result. Example: Relational Algebra.

Non-Procedural Language: in non-procedural language the user describe

information desired without giving a specific procedure for obtaining that

information. Example Tuple & Domain calculus.

Relational Algebra:

-It is a Procedural language.

- it consist of a set of operation that take one or two relation as input and

produce a new output.

-Six basic operators are used in procedural language.

1. select:

2. project:

3. union:

4. set difference:

5. Cartesian product: x

6. rename:

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

The operators take one or two relations as inputs and produce a new

relation as a result.

1. Selection Operation:

- it is unary operations.

- it is represented by the lower Greek letter sigma. ( ) )) )

- Syntax: <selection-condition>(<Relation>)

-Notation: p(r)

-p is called the selection predicate

- Defined as:p(r) = {t | t r and p(t)}

Where p is a formula in propositional calculus consisting of terms

Connected by: (and), (or), (not)

Each term is one of: <attribute> op <attribute> or <constant>

Where op is one of: =, , >, . <.

-Example of selection:

branch_name=Perryridge(account)

2. Project Operation

-Notation: where A1, A2 are attribute names and r is a relation name.n the

result is defined as the relation of k columns obtained by erasing the

columns that are not listed

-Duplicate rows removed from result, since relations are sets

-Example: To eliminate the branch_name attribute of account

account_number, balance (account)

3. Union Operation

Notation: r s

-Defined as:r s = {t | t r or t s}

-For r s to be valid.

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

2. The attribute domains must be compatible (example: 2nd column

of r deals with the same type of values as does the 2nd

column of s)

-Example: to find all customers with either an account or a loan

customer_name (depositor) customer_name (borrower)

Union Operation Example

Relations r, s:

4. Set Difference Operation

-Notation r s

- Defined as:

r s = {t | t r and t s}

- Set differences must be taken between compatible relations.

-r and s must have the same arity

- Attribute domains of r and s must be compatible

Set Difference Operation Example

Relations r, s:

r-s

5. Cartesian Product

Operation:

-Notation r x s

- Defined as: r x s = {t q | t r and q s}

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

- Assume that attributes of r(R) and s(S) are disjoint. (That is, R S = ).

- If attributes of r(R) and s(S) are not disjoint, then renaming must be used.

Cartesian product Operation Example

Relations r, s:

rXs

Example Queries:

Q1.Find all loans of over $1200

Ans: amount > 1200 (loan)

Q2.Find the loan number for each loan of an amount greater than $1200

amount > 1200 (loan)

ns: loan_number (amount > 1200 (loan))

Q3.Find the names of all customers who have a loan, an account, or both,

from the bank

ns: customer_name (borrower) customer_name (depositor)

Q4. Find the names of all customers who have a loan at the Perryridge

Branch

Ans: customer_name (branch_name=Perryridge

(borrower.loan_number = loan.loan_number(borrower x loan)))

Q5. Find the names of all customers who have a loan at the

Perryridge branch but do not have an account at any branch of

the bank.

Ans: customer_name (branch_name = Perryridge

(borrower.loan_number = loan.loan_number(borrower x loan)))

customer_name(depositor)

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Q6. Find the names of all customers who have a loan at the Perryridge

branch.

Ans: customer_name (branch_name = Perryridge (

borrower.loan_number = loan.loan_number (borrower x loan)))

Formal Definition:

A basic expression in the relational algebra consists of either one of the

following:

-A relation in the database

-A constant relation

- Let E1 and E2 be relational algebra expressions; the following are all

relational algebra expressions:

-E1 E2

-E1 E2

-E1 x E2

-p (E1), P is a predicate on attributes in E1

-s (E1), S is a list consisting of some of the attributes in E1

- x (E1), x is the new name for the result of E1

Additional Operations

We define additional operations that do not add any power to the

Relational algebra, but that simplifies common queries.

-Set intersection

- Natural join

- Division

- Assignment

Set Intersection Operation:

Notation: r s

Defined as: r s = { t | t r and t s }

Assume: r, s have the same arty attributes of r and s are compatible

Note: r s = r (r s)

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Relation r, s:

rs

Natural Join Operation:

-Let r and s be relations on schemas R and S respectively.

Then, r s is a relation on schema R S obtained as follows:

-Consider each pair of tuples tr from r and ts from s.

-If tr and ts have the same value on each of the attributes in R S, add a

tuple t to the result, where

t has the same value as tr on r

t has the same value as ts on s

- Example:

R = (A, B, C, D)

S = (E, B, D)

-Result schema = (A, B, C, D, E)

-r s is defined as:

Natural Join Operation Example

Relations r, s:

Lossless Design: Outer Join

An extension of the join operation that avoids loss of information.

-Computes the join and then adds tuples form one relation that does not

match tuples in the other relation to the result of the join.

- Uses null values:

-null signifies that the value is unknown or does not exist

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

definition.

Outer Join Example

Relation loan

Relation borrower

Outer Join Example:

Left Outer Join: take all the tuples from left relation and match with right

relation, which didnt match with all the attributes.

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Right Outer Join: take all the tuples from right relation and match with left

relation, which didnt match with all the attributes with left relation.

Relational Calculus Languages:

-Tuple Relational Calculus

-Domain Relational Calculus

-QuerybyExample (QBE)

Tuple Rellational Calculus:

-A nonprocedural query language, where each query is of the form

{t | P (t ) }

- It is the set of all tuples t such that predicate P is true for t

- t is a tuple variable, t [A ] denotes the value of tuple t on attribute A

- t r denotes that tuple t is in relation r

- P is a formula similar to that of the predicate calculus.

Banking Example

Branch (branch_name, branch_city, assets )

Customer (customer_name, customer_street, customer_city )

Account (account_number, branch_name, balance )

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Depositor (customer_name, account_number )

Borrower (customer_name, loan_number )

Example Queries

-Q1.Find the loan_number, branch_name, and amount for loans of over

$1200

Ans: {t | t loan t [amount ] > 1200}

-Q2.Find the loan number for each loan of an amount greater than $1200

Ans: {t | s loan (t [loan_number ] = s [loan_number ] s [amount ]

> 1200)}.Notice that a relation on schema [loan_number ] is implicitly

defined by the query.

Q3.Find the names of all customers having a loan, an account, or both at

the bank

Ans: {t | s borrower ( t [customer_name ] = s [customer_name ])

u depositor ( t [customer_name ] = u [customer_name] )

Q4.Find the names of all customers who have a loan and an account

at the bank

Ans: {t | s borrower ( t [customer_name ] = s [customer_name ])

u depositor ( t [customer_name ] = u [customer_name ])

Q5.Find the names of all customers having a loan at the Perryridge branch

Ans: {t | s borrower (t [customer_name ] = s [customer_name ]

u loan (u [branch_name ] = Perryridge u [loan_number ] = s

[loan_number ]))

Q6. Find the names of all customers who have a loan at the

Perryridge branch, but no account at any branch of the bank

Ans: {t | s borrower (t [customer_name ] = s [customer_name ]

u loan (u [branch_name ] = Perryridge

u [loan_number ] = s [loan_number ])) not v depositor

(v [customer_name ] =t [customer_name ])} }

Domain Relational Calculus:

-A nonprocedural query language equivalent in power to the tuple

relational calculus

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

{ < x1, x2, , xn > | P (x1, x2, , xn)}

-x1, x2, , xn represent domain variables,

-P represents a formula similar to that of the predicate calculus.

Example Queries

Q1.Find the loan_number, branch_name, and amount for loans of over

$1200

Ans: {< l, b, a > | < l, b, a > loan a > 1200}

Q2.Find the names of all customers who have a loan from the Perryridge

branch and the loan amount:

Ans: {< c > | l, b, a (< c, l > borrower < l, b, a > loan a > 1200)}

Q3. Find the names of all customers who have a loan from the Perryridge

branch and the loan amount:

Ans: {< c, a > | l (< c, l > borrower b (< l, b, a > loan b =

Perryridge))}

{< c, a > | l (< c, l > borrower < l, Perryridge, a > loan)}

{< c > | l, b, a (< c, l > borrower < l, b, a > loan a > 1200)}

Q.Find the names of all customers who have a loan of over $1200

{< l, b, a > | < l, b, a > loan a > 1200}

Database Design Life Cycle:

Data base design means to design the logical and physical

structure of data stored in a database to meet the required

information needed for different applications.

- In DDLC held the following phase for design the database.

Requiring Collection and analysis:

- It is the first step in the database design.

- During this step database design the detailed requirement by

interacting with potential users to identify their particular

needs based on the problems.

Conceptual database design:

- It is the second step in the database design.

- In this step to create a conceptual scheme for the database

that is independent of a specific database management

system(DBMS)

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

user and entity types, relationship and constraints.

- It provides a concept to the high level model such as entity

Relationship model.

Data Model mapping:

- It is also called logical database design.

- During this phase the transformation of the conceptual

scheme into the actual implementation of the database is

done.

- This may be carried out as DBMS package such as ORACLE,

MY SQL, and SQLSERVER.

Physical database Design:

- In this phase we design the specification for sorting database

in term of physical storage structure, access path and file

organizations.

- The design corresponds to designing the internal scheme of

the three level DBMS architecture.

Functional Dependency:

- Functional dependencies are constraints on the set of legal

relations.

- It plays important role in database design.

- The functional dependencies is denoted by , between

two set of attributes ,

- Let R is a relation scheme and C and then the

functional dependencies holds on R. if in any legal

relation r(R) for all pairs of tuples t1 in t2 such that.

- t1[]=t2[] and their must be t1[]=t2[]

- Fd represents an interrelationship among attributes of an

entity represented by a relation.

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Armstrong Axioms

- Let F be a set of functional dependency the closure of F is the

set of all functional dependencies logically implied by F.

- We denoted the closure of F by F+.

- We can find the F+ given by F by using following rule.

- A) Reflexive rule

- B)Augmentation rule

- C) Transitive Rule

- These three rule are sound because do not generate any

incorrect functional dependency.

- The three rules are complete because for a given set F of FD

and they allowed generate all F+.

- These three rules is known as Armstrong Rules.

I. Reflexive Rule:

- if are the set of attributes and then is FD.

- Proof: let t1 and t2 be the two tuples of relations R such that

t1[]=t2[]

It means that all the attributes of t1 and t2 are same.

Then is another set of set attributes which is subset of .

so t1[]=t2[]

So is FD.

II. Augmentation Rule:

If is a FD and r is set of attributes the rr is FD.

Proof: let t1, t2 be the two tuples of relation R.

Let us assume that the FD r->r is not FD in a relation R.

Since -> is satisfied on R so we get t1 [] =t2 [] -------- (1)

t1[]=t2[] ------------(2)

since rr does not hold on Relation R

t1[r]=t2[r]---------------(3)

t1[r]=t2[r]----------------(4)

from equ(1) and (3)

we get t1[r]->t2[r]--------(5)

from equ(2) and (5)

t1[r]=t2[r]---------------(6)

from equ(3) and (6) we get r->r (proved)

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

If -> and ->r are FD then ->r is FD.

Proof: let t1 and t2 are two tuples of relation R

Since -> is satisfied on R

so we get t1 [] =t2 [] -------- (1)

t1[]=t2[] ------------(2)

since -> satisfy on R

we get t1[]=t2[]------------------(3)

t1[r]=t2[r]-------------------(4)

from equ (1) and (4) we get

->r which holds the relation R (proved)

Closure of attributes sets:

Let R be v=the relation schema with set of functional dependency F.

let be the set of attributes, the closure of attributes set under a

set of FD and is denoted by +.

Compute the candidate Key:

1) Determine each set of attributes X for which left-hand side of

FD in F must be a subset of X.

2) Compute X+ under given set of FD in F.

3) If X+={R} then X is a candidate key R.

Example: let us consider r= {A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I}

And set of FD {AB->C, A->DE, B->F, F->GH,D->IJ}

Find out candidate key of R.

Ans: A+ under F= {A, D, E, I, J}

B+ under F= {B, F, G, H}

D+ under F= {D, I, J}

F+ under F= {F, G, H}

AB+ under f F={A,B,C,D,E,F,H,I,J}={R}

Hence AB is the candidate key of R.

Prime Attributes & Non-Prime Attributes:

An attributes A in a relation schema is a prime attributes. If A is

part of any candidate key of relation R is known prime attributes.

If A is not part of any candidate key of R A is called non-prime

attributes.

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Database normalization

Normalization is the process of efficiently organizing data in a

database. There are two goals of the normalization process:

eliminating redundant data (for example, storing the same data in

more than one table) and ensuring data dependencies make sense

(only storing related data in a table). Both of these are worthy goals

as they reduce the amount of space a database consumes and

ensure that data is logically stored.

First Normal Form - 1NF:

First normal form (1NF) sets the very basic rules for an organized

database:

Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.

Create separate tables for each group of related data and identify

each row with a unique column or set of columns (the primary

key).

The first normal form only says that the table should only include

atomic values, i.e. one value per box. For example, we cannot in

Table 1 below put in both Volvo and SAAB in the same box even if

we buy cars from both suppliers. We must use to different rows for

storing that. In most RDBMSs it is not allowed to assign more than

one value to each box that result in that all tables are in first

normal form.

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

The second normal form says that a table, despite being in 1NF, is

not allowed to contain any full functional dependencies on

components of the primary key.

- A relation schema R is 2NF if every nonprime attributes A in R

is fully functional dependency on P.K of R.

- Fully Functional Dependency: functional dependency is

constraints on the set of legal relations.

- It plays important role in database design.

- The functional dependency is denoted by ->, between two

set of attributes , .

- Let R is a relation scheme and < and < then the

functional dependency -> hold on R. if in any legal relation

r(R) for all pairs of tuples t1 and t2 in r such that

t1[1]->t2[2] and their must be t1[1]->t2[2]

- FD represent on interrelationship among attributes of an

entity represented by a relation.

- A better definition of 2NF: To fulfill 2NF a table should fulfill

1NF and in addition every non-key attribute should be FFD of

every candidate key.

Third Normal Form - 3NF

A table is said to be third normal form, if all the non key field of the

table are independent of other non-key field of the table.

- 3

rd

NF is based on the concept of transitive dependency.

- A functional dependency X->Y in a relation schema R is

transitive dependency. If there is set of attributes Z that is

neither a candidate key nor a subset of key and both X->Z and

Z->Y is hold.

- When a non key attributes depends on other non key

attributes is called a transitive dependency.

Sl.NO ORIGIN DESTINATION DISTANCE

Here non key attributes Distance dependent on other non

key attributes Origin and Destination.

Origin, Destination-Distance is transitive dependency.

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Every non-trivial functional dependency in the table is a

dependency on a super key.

- Trivial functional dependency:

A trivial functional dependency is a functional dependency of

an attribute on a superset of itself. {Employee ID, Employee

Address} {Employee Address} is trivial, as is {Employee

Address} {Employee Address}.

- BCNF is simple form of 3NF.but it is much strict then 3NF.it

means that every BCNF relation is also 3

Rd

NF, but a relation

in 3

RD

NF is not a BCNF.

- A relation schema R is in BCNF with respect to a set of FD, if

for all FD in F+ of the form -- where < and < at least

one of the following rule hold.

- A) - is trival functional dependency that <

- B) is super key of schema R.

PID C_NAME PLOT_NO AREA PRICE TAX_RATE

FD1

FD2

FD4 FD3

FD5

The plot schema is not 3

Rd

NF, since the FD3 and FD4 violates the

3NF. Hence it is decomposed into BCNF as follow.

Area---------Price

C_Name---------Tax_Rate

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

FD1

FD2

FD3

Area Price C_Name Tax_Rate

R1 R2

In the relation R is in 3

RD

Nf but it is not BCNF. since Area-

C_name violates the BCNF because Area is not super key.

So R3 is decomposed R31, R32.hence the PID is super key.

The BCNF relations are:

R1(Area,Price)

R2(C_Name,Tax_Rate)

R3(Area,C_Name)

R4(PId,Plolt_no,Area)

Fourth Normal Form - 4NF: A relation schema R is in 4NF with

respect to a set D of Functional dependency and multivalve

dependencies in D+ of the form ---- where R and R at

least one of the following rule hold.

1) ----- is multi-value dependency

2) is a super key of R(Schema)

if ---- is a multi-valuee dependency on schema R, so

---- is trival if or U=R

Table: loan_info

Loan_no Cust_Name Street City

110 Ram G.Nagar B.Patana

110 Ram I.Nagar B.Patana

120 Hari K.Nagar Rkl

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

cust_name is not super key of R. we replace the loan_info into two

schema. Borrower

Cust_name Loan_no

Ram 110

Hari 120

Customer

Cust_Name Strret City

Ram G.Nagar B.Patana

Ram I.Nagar B.Patana

Hari K.Nagar Rkl

Fifth Normal Form - 5NF: it is based on join dependency calllled

project join dependency.

- A relation schema R is in PJNF w.r.t D of functional

dependency,multi-value dependency. If for all join dependency

in D+ of the form *(R1, R2, R3..Rn) where RiR and

R= R1UR2UR3uR4Urn at least one of the following rule

hold.

1) *(R1, R2, R3..Rn) is a trival join dependency.

2) Every Ri is super key of R.

Join dependency: A table T is subject to a join dependency if T can

always be recreated by joining multiple tables each having a subset

of the attributes of T.

If r=R1UR2UR3.Rn, we say that relation r(R) satisfy

the join dependency *(R1, R2, R3.Rn).this dependency

require for all legal r( R)= R1(r) XR2 (r).Rn (r)

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Important Points

Functional dependency

In a given table, an attribute Y is said to have a functional

dependency on a set of attributes X (written X Y) if and only if

each X value is associated with precisely one Y value. For example,

in an "Employee" table that includes the attributes "Employee ID"

and "Employee Date of Birth", the functional dependency {Employee

ID} {Employee Date of Birth} would hold. It follows from the

previous two sentences that each {Employee ID} is associated with

precisely one {Employee Date of Birth}.

Trivial functional dependency

- Let R is a relation and FD -- is trival dependency if

- A Fd is said to be trival functional dependency they are

satisfied all relations.

- AA,ABA

A trivial functional dependency is a functional dependency of an

attribute on a superset of itself. {Employee ID, Employee Address}

{Employee Address} is trivial, as is {Employee Address} {Employee

Address}.

Full functional dependency

An attribute is fully functionally dependent on a set of attributes X

if it is:

functionally dependent on X, and

not functionally dependent on any proper subset of X.

{Employee Address} has a functional dependency on

{Employee ID, Skill}, but not a full functional dependency,

because it is also dependent on {Employee ID}.

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Transitive dependency

A transitive dependency is an indirect functional dependency, one

in which XZ only by virtue of XY and YZ.

Multivalued dependency

A multivalued dependency is a constraint according to which the

presence of certain rows in a table implies the presence of certain

other rows.

Join dependency

A table T is subject to a join dependency if T can always be

recreated by joining multiple tables each having a subset of the

attributes of T.

Superkey

A superkey is a combination of attributes that can be used to

uniquely identify a database record. A table might have many

superkeys.

Candidate key

A candidate key is a special subset of superkeys that do not have

any extraneous

Non-prime attribute

A non-prime attribute is an attribute that does not occur in any

candidate key. Employee Address would be a non-prime attribute in

the "Employees' Skills" table.

Prime attribute:A prime attribute, conversely, is an attribute that

does occur in some candidate key.

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Primary key

Most DBMSs require a table to be defined as having a single unique

key, rather than a number of possible unique keys. A primary key is

a key which the database designer has designated for this purpose.

Query Processing

Query processing refer to no of activity involved in retrieve or

extracting data from database.

- Transfer query in High level language (SQL) into Low level

language (Relational algebra)

- Execute to retrieve of data.

Query Optimization: query optimizer is the process of selecting the

most efficient query among many strategies, i.e. usually possible for

processing.

- Query optimization reduces the execution time of query.

- Scanner, Parser, and validator

Internal representation of query

Plan

Generation

Cost

Estimation

Execute query

Query code generator

Code execute in query

Run-time database

processor.

Result query

System catalogue

manager

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

scanned, parsed and validated.

- Scanner: identify the language taken such as sql ,keyboard,

attribute name and relational schema name.

- Parser: Parser check the query syntax to determine whether it

is formulated according to syntax rule or not.

- Validator: checking all the attributes and relation names are

valid and semantically meaningful name exist in database or

not.

- Internal representation of query: it is usually as tree data

structure called query tree. it can also represented query

graph

- Query Optimizer: is responsible for identifying an efficient

execution plan for evaluating query.

- I) optimizer generates alternate plan and choose plan with

least estimated cost.

- II) To estimate cost of plan, optimizer uses the system

catalog/data dictionary.

- Code generator: it generates the code to execute the plan,

chosen by query optimizer.

- Runtime Time Database: the processor has the task of

running the query code to produce the query result.

****************************End of Module II*********************

Possible Questions: (2 Marks)

Difference between natural join and inner join:

- It is a binary operation that allows us to combine certain

selection and a Cartesian product into one operation.

- It is denoted as

- It generates a Cartesian product of its two arguments and

performs a selection forcing equality on those attributes that

appear in both relations.

GANDnI INS1I1U1L ICk LDUC1AICN & 1LCnNCLCG

DLAk1MLN1 CI CCMU1Lk SCILNCL

kLAkLD 8 Asst.rof.SAN1CSn kUMAk kA1n

Inner Join:

- it is binary operation

- it is represented by command inner join

- it generates new relation that contain tuples are common in

both relation with conditions.

- It cannot remove the duplicate attributes.

Update anomalies:

- The redundancy causes problems with storage, retrieval, and

updating of data.

- The redundancy can lead to update anomalies such as

inserting, modifying, and deleting data may cause

inconsistency.

Multivalued dependency

- A multivalued dependency is a constraint according to which

the presence of certain rows in a table implies the presence of

certain other rows.

- Let R be the relation schema and ( Subset) and

(subset). The multivalue dependency ---- in R.

Semi less join:

- It reduce the number of tuples in arelation before transferring

to another relation.

- It follows that the resulting relation will have two attributes

with non identical values in every tuples.

- If one of the these attributes is projected away and the other

renamed(if necessary)

- After applying semi less join , the resulting relation has exactly

the same set of tuples, but a difference name and a difference

schema.

- Functional DependenciesUploaded byMichael Salazar
- CISC 630 - HW2.pdfUploaded byUSVet96
- Basic Principles of Database NormalizationUploaded byRajesh Lakshmikanthan
- Short Notes DBMSUploaded byarupratan1
- Management Information SystemmissUploaded byprincesengar37
- MELJUN CORTES CS123S1 File Processing and DatabaseSystem Updated HoursUploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- Computer Science MCQsUploaded byMuhammad Sikandar Dar
- DBMS Lesson PlanUploaded byGautam Dematti
- Basic Database ConceptsUploaded byUsama Ali
- JBLFMU-Arevalo IT Best PracticesUploaded byIvan Ballesteros Lim
- Lab Programs DbmsUploaded byvtestv30
- Practical on RDBMSUploaded byPankaj Dadhich
- Data baseUploaded byMahrukh Hanif Malik
- Fundamentals of Database Systems - Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answersUploaded byBrainKart Com
- Difference Between DBMS and RDBMSUploaded byRachita Khandelwal
- System Requirements Specification FinalUploaded byPuneet Kushwah
- 8th DatabaseUploaded byUmar Arshad
- Case Study 1 University Database Application Till Exp 3Uploaded bysendtoshekar
- DBMS Technical Publications Chapter 2Uploaded bykishore5783
- 07_BI in Finance (Dbms)Uploaded bySaba Nasir
- Dacon Asset Integrity PresentationUploaded byMohammed Ilyas Mohiuddin
- DBMS 3Uploaded byVikas Singh
- 6.+Relational+database+design+algorithms.pdfUploaded byArXlan Xahir
- Muse_Mapping Understanding and DeSignUploaded byvthung
- Basics HardwareUploaded byElizabeth Dibanadane
- 07a3ec22 Data Base Management SystemsUploaded bySatish Kumar
- P1 dbUploaded byAshwath Narayanan
- Enforcement of Autonomous Authorizations in Collaborative Distributed Query Evaluation.pdfUploaded byIEEEPROJECTSCHENNAI
- Title Defense in CapstoneUploaded byAL V IN
- Query ProcessingUploaded bybaluchandrashekar2008

- MC0077 Advanced Database SystemsUploaded byGaurav Singh Jantwal
- Advance Database SystemUploaded byManjunath Bj
- Using Netezza Query PlanUploaded byleonardo russo
- twp-optimizer-with-oracledb-12c-1963236.pdfUploaded bysbabuind
- SEAS2009 Query Optimization FinalUploaded bySerkan Kiracı
- Query Processing in Distributed DatabaseUploaded bybtama
- 10g-11g-SQL.Tuning.pdfUploaded bySL
- Oracle SQL Tuning.pdfUploaded bySunitha9
- ADBMS-TypicalQueryOptimizerUploaded byGaurav Kispotta
- Mysql optimizationUploaded bymuniinb4u
- Teradata SQL Query Optimization or Performance TuningUploaded bykirankumar1728
- Database Management Systems - Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answersUploaded byBrainKart Com
- SQLServer Execution Plans G FritcheyUploaded byriya099308
- 1009 Faulhaber PDFUploaded byAnonymous 7GIRvhvHI
- IJEMS_V4(3)2013-8Uploaded byAnh T
- SQL Server SkripsiUploaded byGibranda Randa
- Query HintsUploaded bydrrkumar
- Oracle Database 11g Performance Tuning DBA Release 2_D50317GC20_1080544_USUploaded byJinendraabhi
- Query OptimizationUploaded byndev84
- HP Vertica 7.1.x BestPracticesforOEMCustomersUploaded byRahul Vishwakarma
- 06-Unit6Uploaded byInder Dialani
- IBM InfoSphere Federation Server - Administration Guide for Federated SystemsUploaded bybupbechanh
- 7-Query Processing and OptimizationUploaded byWy Teay
- Query ProcessingUploaded bymusikmania
- One Pass Distinct SamplingUploaded byAmit Poddar
- c Store VerticaUploaded byShitiz Taneja
- Inside the SQL Server Query OptimizerUploaded bymyb8993
- Information Technology Engineering - Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answersUploaded byBrainKart Com
- DB2BP Query Tuning 0508IUploaded byfallenlord
- Postgresql OptimizerUploaded byAlexandre Macedo