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1.4
What you should learn
GOAL 1 Use angle postulates.

Angles and Their Measures
GOAL 1 USING ANGLE POSTULATES
C vertex sides A

Classify angles as acute, right, obtuse, or straight.
GOAL 2

An angle consists of two different rays that have the same initial point. The rays are the sides of the angle. The initial point is the vertex of the angle. The angle that has sides AB and AC is denoted by ™BAC, ™CAB, or ™A. The point A is the vertex of the angle.
Æ ˘ Æ ˘

Why you should learn it
To solve real-life problems about angles, such as the field of vision of a horse wearing blinkers in Example 2. AL LI
F FE
RE

B

EXAMPLE 1

Naming Angles

Name the angles in the figure.
SOLUTION
P q S R

There are three different angles.

• • •

™PQS or ™SQP ™SQR or ™RQS ™PQR or ™RQP

You should not name any of these angles as ™Q because all three angles have Q as their vertex. The name ™Q would not distinguish one angle from the others. .......... The measure of ™A is denoted by m™A. The measure of an angle can be approximated with a protractor, using units called degrees (°). For instance, ™BAC has a measure of 50°, which can be written as m™BAC = 50°.
80 90 100 11 01 70 80 7 60 110 100 0 6 20 1 30 0 0 120 5 0 13

70 180 60 1 0 1 0 10 0 15 2 0 0 14 0 3 4

0 10 20 180 170 1 3 60 1 0 50 40 14 0

B

1

2

3

4

5

6

A

C

Angles that have the same measure are called congruent angles. For instance, ™BAC and ™DEF each have a measure of 50°, so they are congruent.
50
MEASURES ARE EQUAL. ANGLES ARE CONGRUENT.

D

E

F

m™BAC = m™DEF “is equal to”
26 Chapter 1 Basics of Geometry

™BAC £ ™DEF “is congruent to”

the vision for the left eye alone measures 40°. The rays of the form OA can be matched one to one with the real numbers from 0 to 180. VISION Each eye of a horse wearing blinkers has an angle of vision that measures 100°. The measure of ™AOB is equal to the absolute value of the difference between the real Æ ˘ Æ ˘ numbers for OA and OB . 70 180 60 1 0 1 0 10 0 15 2 0 0 14 0 3 4 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 O B A point is in the interior of an angle if it is between points that lie on each side of the angle. The angle of vision that is seen by both eyes measures 60°. then m™RSP + m™PST = m™RST. A point is in the exterior of an angle if it is not on the angle or in its interior.Page 2 of 7 P O S T U L AT E POSTULATE 3 Protractor Postulate 80 90 100 11 01 70 80 7 60 110 100 0 6 20 1 3 0 0 120 5 0 50 0 13 Logical Reasoning 0 10 20 180 170 1 3 60 1 0 50 40 14 0 Consider a point A on one side of ¯ ˘ Æ ˘ OB . exterior D interior A E P O S T U L AT E POSTULATE 4 Angle Addition Postulate S måRST R P If P is in the interior of ™RST. Subtract m™2 from each side.4 Angles and Their Measures 27 FE 1 2 3 . Substitute 60° for m™2. So. T P O S T U L AT E måRSP måPST EXAMPLE 2 STUDENT HELP RE L AL I Calculating Angle Measures Study Tip As shown in Example 2. 1. m™2 + m™3 = 100° m™3 = 100° º m™2 m™3 = 100° º 60° m™3 = 40° Total vision for left eye is 100°. SOLUTION region seen by both eyes You can use the Angle Addition Postulate. Subtract. Find the angle of vision seen by the left eye alone. it is sometimes easier to label angles with numbers instead of letters.

a. right. and P(2. Angles have measures greater than 0° and less than or equal to 180°. m™LMP = 180° c. 28 25 0 180 0 180 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 R S R S Chapter 1 Basics of Geometry . obtuse. M(º1. 35 STUDENT HELP INT NE ER T b. Angles are classified as acute. ™LMP c. ™NMQ d. which has four right angles.. P (2. obtuse.. m™LMQ = 135° right angle straight angle acute angle obtuse angle L ( 4. Then use a protractor to measure each angle. Q(4. 4) 1) .com for extra examples. 80 90 100 110 70 12 01 60 30 0 5 65 80 90 100 110 70 12 01 60 30 0 5 T 65 0 10 2 0 40 P 14 40 0 10 2 0 3 0 30 14 1 50 01 1 50 01 HOMEWORK HELP P 1 2 3 4 5 T 60 1 7 60 1 7 Visit our Web site www. º4). according to their measures. right. ™LMQ Begin by plotting the points... Two angles are adjacent angles if they share a common vertex and side. º1). or straight. 2) N (2. N(2. Then measure and classify the following angles as acute. and straight.. A Acute angle 0° < m™A < 90° A Right angle m™A = 90° A Obtuse angle 90° < m™A < 180° A Straight angle m™A = 180° EXAMPLE 3 Classifying Angles in a Coordinate Plane Plot the points L(º4. 2). 2). 2) x M ( 1..Page 3 of 7 GOAL 2 STUDENT HELP CLASSIFYING ANGLES Study Tip The mark used to indicate a right angle resembles the corner of a square. 1) œ (4.mcdougallittell.. EXAMPLE 4 Drawing Adjacent Angles Use a protractor to draw two adjacent acute angles ™RSP and ™PST so that ™RST is (a) acute and (b) obtuse. MEASURE CLASSIFICATION y a. ™LMN SOLUTION b. m™NMQ = 45° d.. SOLUTION a. but have no common interior points. º1). m™LMN = 90° b.

4 Angles and Their Measures 29 . L M N 11. A B. 17–22 Exs.Page 4 of 7 GUIDED PRACTICE Vocabulary Check  Match the angle with its classification. 9. E U D T A HOMEWORK HELP 21. 23–34 Exs. C B A C. 39 B C 22. Example 1: Example 2: Example 3: Example 4: Exs. A D. H 12. K N E 19. 35–43 Exs. m™C = 100° 14. 18. Is ™DEG £ ™HEG? 7. Is ™DEF £ ™FEG? 6. or straight. right. R S q STUDENT HELP NAMING ANGLES Write two names for the angle. acute 1. obtuse 2. Then estimate its measure. 13. P S 1. 38. m™D = 45° PRACTICE AND APPLICATIONS STUDENT HELP NAMING PARTS Name the vertex and sides of the angle. Are ™DEF and ™FEH adjacent? 8. 20. Are ™GED and ™DEF adjacent? D F 45 E H 45 G Skill Check  Name the vertex and sides of the angle. straight 4. 17. obtuse. Explain your answers. m™B = 90° 16. D F E 10. m™A = 180° 15. 803 and 804. A. X T F Extra Practice to help you master skills is on pp. J K R S T Classify the angle as acute. 5. right 3. C B A B C B C Concept Check  Use the diagram at the right to answer the questions.

1) B(5. ™DBA is a right angle. plot the points and sketch ™ABC. 39. ™DBE is a straight angle. º4) Chapter 1 Basics of Geometry B(3. E is in the interior of ™DAF. º1) B(º2. A. m™ADC + m™CDE = 120°. H K 37. N D F G M L LOGICAL REASONING Draw five points. Find m™FAB. Find m™BAE. and use a protractor to measure it to the nearest degree. m™ABC = ? RE L AL I 27. º4) B(3. Find m™FAD. D is in the interior of ™BAE. or straight.mcdougallittell. INT NE ER T www. obtuse. Then estimate its measure. º1) 43. º2) C(4. E 36. A(3. º2) C(0. m™BAC = 130° m™EAC = 100° m™BAD = m™EAF = m™FAC 31. 23. º1) 42. 26. D. A 24. extend its sides. 30. which can measure angles to the nearest 1/3600 of a degree.com 30 FE A 45 60 B D 60 C D 120 E F R CAREER LINK LOGICAL REASONING Draw a sketch that uses all of the following information. right. A(5. F Z B C X D E ANGLE ADDITION Use the Angle Addition Postulate to find the measure of the unknown angle. and E so that all three statements are true. A(5. CLASSIFYING ANGLES State whether the angle appears to be acute. ™ABC is a straight angle. 40. 35. m™DEF = ? 28. m™PQR = ? q S 20 160 P SURVEYOR Surveyors use a tool called a theodolite. A(º3.Page 5 of 7 FOCUS ON CAREERS MEASURING ANGLES Copy the angle. xy USING ALGEBRA In a coordinate plane. 32. Find m™DAE. º1) C(4. Y 25. Classify the angle. º2) 41. C. 4) . F is in the interior of ™EAC. 29. 33. ™CDB is a straight angle. C is in the interior of ™ADE. 34. 2) C(º1. Find m™BAD. Find m™FAC. B. Write the coordinates of a point that lies in the interior of the angle and the coordinates of a point that lies in the exterior of the angle. 38.

AO = 4 in. NWT 120 90 60 Clyde River. A H G F O E D B C a. Name eight right angles. The score of a toss is indicated by numbers around 135 the board. Yukon Territory Tuktoyaktuk. Angmagssalik. m™BOA = 90°. Canada 0 B 48. AO = 3 in. Greenland 49. Name eight congruent acute angles. and A is the city. Greenland Old Crow. 51. c. Clyde River. Old Crow. 171 63 5 20 1 1 8 12 A 117 99 81 45 9 4 27 9 B 13 6 50. Name two adjacent angles that combine to form a straight angle.Page 6 of 7 GEOGRAPHY For each city on the polar map. 1. AO = 6. m™BOA = 35°. m™BOA = 160°. Tuktoyaktuk. NWT PLAYING DARTS In Exercises 50–53. Canada 180 46. AO = 5 in. Fairbanks.4 Angles and Their Measures 31 . Reykjavik. Only the top half of the dart board is shown. use the following information to find the score for the indicated dart toss landing at point A. Iceland 150 Fairbanks. 52. Name eight congruent obtuse angles. The score is doubled if a dart lands in the double ring and tripled if 153 it lands in the triple ring. where B is on the Prime Meridian (0° longitude). Canada 45. Iceland North Pole O Reykjavik. MULTI-STEP PROBLEM Use a piece of paper folded in half three times and labeled as shown. Alaska 30 Angmagssalik. m™BOA = 60°. 9 no score double ring triple ring O 5 8 31 8 3 8 21 8 3 8 23 8 Test Preparation 54. 1 14 A dartboard is 18 inches across. 53. It is divided into twenty wedges of equal size. Alaska 47.5 in. 44. d. estimate the measure of ™BOA. b. O is the North Pole.

º2). º3).5) 74. Find the measure of ™2. 67. 9) 79. 3 36 www. H(0.com MIXED REVIEW STUDENT HELP xy USING ALGEBRA Solve for x. 69. x+4 = º4 2 º9 + x = º7 2 x + (º3) = º4 2 EVALUATING STATEMENTS Decide whether the statement is true or false.mcdougallittell.2) 70. F(4. You can think of bearings between 180° and 360° as angles that are “bigger” than a straight angle. 72. T. 61. Because a full circle contains 360°. 64. p. N W S E 15 18 HOMEWORK HELP Bearings are measured around a circle. 66. B(º2. for 1.3 for 1. L(0. 5+x =5 2 x+7 = º10 2 8+x = º1 2 63. C(0. 0) 32 Chapter 1 Basics of Geometry . use the diagram of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and the information about runway numbering on page 1. see p. An airport runway is named by dividing its bearing (the angle measured clockwise from due north) by 10. Find the measure of ™1. 59. E(º3. 10). 71. EXTRA CHALLENGE Writing Explain why the difference between the numbers at the opposite ends of a runway is always 18. (Skills Review.790. Q. and P are coplanar. S. (Review 1.5) Skills Review For help solving equations. K(7. D(º8. S. runway numbers range from 1 to 36. 55. 56. A(3. so they can have values larger than 180°. º2) 76. M(º3. SR and TS are opposite rays. 57. 8). What is the number of the unlabeled 1 ? 4 3 33 2 runway in the diagram? 60. 65. 58. 68. UQ and PT intersect. 3) 77.Page 7 of 7 5 Challenge STUDENT HELP AIRPORT RUNWAYS In Exercises 55–60. 790. 7). x+3 =3 2 º8 + x = 12 2 x + (º1) =7 2 62. Æ ˘ Æ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ U R q S T P DISTANCE FORMULA Find the distance between the two points. and Q are collinear. 4) 78. Find the measure of ™4. U. 5) 75. Find the measure of ™3. J(5. 11). 73. (Review 1. G(10.