Wireless Measurement System for CDMA Base

Station Transmit Power
SHI Huipeng
Beijing University of Technology
Beijing, China
pengpeng_0071986@126.com
SAI Jingbo, BAO Chunping
Beijing University of Technology
Beijing, China
saijingbo@bjut.edu.cn
Abstract—This paper presents a wireless way to estimate the
transmit power of CDMA base station . The article contents
simulation of several typical wireless propagation models
and comparison of several models through the measured
datas come from the spectrum analyzer and modem. Finally,
it estimates the transmit power of the base station.This
method has a practical significance for the monitor of base
stations.
Keywords-Propagation mode; Simulation of Matlab; Base
Station Power
I. INTRODUCTION
Currently mobile base station site inspection work
needs power failure of the base station, then the staff
climbs up to test. Because the large number of mobile
communication base stations are not able to measure one
by one, it only takes sampling method. Such working
mode has three problems: the power failure of base station
affects the normal mobile communication; climbing test
for the staff has a very high risk; as sampling testing,
detection of point can not take care of the surface, so there
exists inevitably missed phenomenon.
With this method, the radio management department
no longer use sampling methods, but the implementation
of a comprehensive, fast and safe test. After testing, if
there are suspicious base stations people can carry out a
detailed online testing avioding the possibility of
undetected due to sampling methods. The mobile commu-
nication system can greatly improve the efficiency of base
stations on-site testing.
II. CDMA RELEVANT PRINCIPLES
A. The composition of CDMA forward channel
1) Pilot Channel:
This channel sends the base station pilot signal for base
station and mobile station identification guide the mobile
station network. Pilot channel does not transmit any
information, it keeps launch in the CDMA forward
channel.It is used to make all of the base station coverage
area and switching the mobile station to synchronize. It
uses 0 Walsh function (64 0). It is not information
modulation, orthogonal PN code from the standard form,
each base station on the right after a time offset from the
PN sequence to identify the forward link as a sign.
2) Synchronization channel:
This channel in the base station to send information to
provide the mobile station to establish synchronization
with system timing and synchronization.
3) Paging Channel:
This channel base station to mobile station sends the
paging, instructions, and traffic channel assignment
information.
4) Business Channel:
sending forward communication data and signaling.
B. PN code
Base station sectors distinguished by the PN code. PN
code points long PN and short PN, Also called m-sequence
and the M-sequence corresponded. Which we often say to
used to distinguish the base station sector is the short PN
code. It composes of a continuous 15bit and said the biased
PN.Theoretically, it has a bias power of 2 15,but the
hardware (modemcan) can not reach.Every two PN 2 9
th,that is a multiple of 64, PN 512 also.However, there is
Pilot_INC in the design,often equal to 4, so there has 128
can be used as pilot PN offset
[1]
.
III. CDMAMODEM AND AT COMMAND DESCRIPTION
A. CDMA Modem
CDMA External Wireless Modem provide convenient
and efficient wireless communications for the majority of
freelancers. No matter when and where, they can surf the
internet freely through the hand-held computers. The same
as wired Internet access, it has no restriction from WPA. It
applies to all major operating systems, including
WINDOWS(XP, 2000, NT, 98,95, ME). The exploitation
of the external MODEM based on the wireless high-speed
CDMA network. It has an aluminum look, compactly,
standingby mode consumes only 5 mA and it Uses a
standard RS-232 interface which can be used in the
Taiwan and laptops.
B. AT Commond
AT command is generally used in communication
between the MT and the TE program, the terminal device
and the PC connection and communication between
applications. It defines the size of the transmitting data
packets: the AT commands for sending, in addition to AT
two characters, but can receive up to 1056 characters long
(including the final null character). AT command is AT for
first and end of character string, the success of each
instruction has a corresponding return.
AT+CCED=0,1: This command can be used by the
application to retrieve the parameters of themain cell and
2011 International Conference on Transportation, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering (TMEE)
December 16-18, Changchun, China
978-1-4577-1701-7/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
994
up to six neighboring cells. There are two possible
methods for the external application to ascertain these cell
parameters: on request by the application or automatically
by the product every 5 seconds. Automatic mode is not
supported during communication or registration.It returns
Main Cell : band class, Channel #, SID, NID, Base Station
P Rev, Pilot PN offset, Base Station ID, Slot cycle index,
Raw Ec/Io, Rx power, Tx power, TxAdj.In this paper,this
command is mainly used to get the PN offset
[2]
.
IV. ANRITSU M2721B SPECTRUM ANALYZER
INTRODUCTION
Anritsu MS2721B is for monitoring, measurement, and
signal and spectrum analysis, the typical testing
applications include: in-band signal analysis, in-band
interference analysis, out-band interference analysis.Other
measurement options include: a variety of wireless
communication standard RF, modulation, and air interface
performance analysis. In this paper, the device is mainly
used to get the pilot power.
V. SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND WORKFLOW
A. hardware structure of system
Figure 1. system constucture
B. Workflow of the system as shown in figure 2
Figure 2. System work flow
VI. TYPICAL WIRELESS SIGNAL PROPAGATION MODEL
There are many mathematical models used to calculate
the loss of radio propagation. Some of them are pure
empirical models which base on various measurements.
There are also some semi-empirical models, whose
theoretical analys basis on the measurement of physical
parameters. Applicability of a particular model depends on
its ability to work well for wireless systems actual working
environment.
In the mobile communication system in wireless
network engineering design, we use the wave propagation
loss prediction model to calculate the spread of the
wireless path loss and to determine the cellular service
coverage area.Electromagnetic wave propagation models
are usually very complex.They need to select different
frequencies for different propagation model estimates and
to preliminary forecast coverage area of each base station
launch and the propagation of the field strength, so as to
reach the purpuse of the most provinces network
investment and the minimum interference. Several
common radio wave propagation model.Several common
radio wave propagation model will be introduced in the
below.
A. Okumura-Hata model
Through a large number of radio wave propagation loss
measurement in Japanese cities, Okumura Came to a
learning curve used into the planning and design for
cellular systems. He added a correction factor in the model
to correct the different terrain features, antenna height,
building characteristics, the shape and direction of the
street environment. Then, On the basis of the experience
curve, he fittde a approximate mathematical expression
and reduced it to Hata model.
10 10
10 10
69.55 26.16log 13.82log ( )
(44.9 6.55log )log
t t
t
L f h a h
h d K
= + − − +
− −
(1)
Where one choose:
2
10
( ) 8.29(log 1.54 ) 1.1
r r
a h h = − BigCity 300 f MHz ≤
2
10
( ) 3.2(log 11.75 ) 4.97
r r
a h h = − BigCity 300 f MHz ≥
10
10
( ) (1.1log 0.7)
(1.56log 0.8)
r r
a h f h
f
= − −

Small City
2
10
2[log ( / 28)] 54 K f = + Suburban
2
10 10
4.78(log ) 18.33log 40.94 K f f = − + Open Area
Simulate propagation loss under different propagation
environment with Matlab. Take the following values for
the Parameters:
hr=1.5m;ht=40m
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
Small city suburban path loss
Propagation distance d/km
P
a
t
h

L
o
s
s

L
/
d
B
900MHz
1800MHz
2000MHz
Figure 3. Big city path loss
995
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
Small city suburban path loss
Propagation distance d/km
P
a
t
h

L
o
s
s

L
/
d
B
900MHz
1800MHz
2000MHz
Figure 4. Small city suburban pah loss
B. COST231-Hata Model
During 1.5 ~ 2GHz wireless network planning, We
often find that Hata model often underestimates path loss.
For network planning, as the base station sites density in
thin, it is not easy to achieve the desired network design
specifications.Therefore, the European Research Council
(COST231) amended it based on the Hata model.Usually
we think Cost231-Hata is a valid extension of the Hata
model in the 2GHz band
[3]
. Its empirical formula is:
10 10 10
10
46.33 (44.9 6.55log ) log 33.9log ( )
13.82log
t t
t
L h d f a h
h C
= + − + − −

(2)
­
°
°
®
°
°
¯
3 b`_C`t)C·ut··
0 C`t)
C
!?.?8 Su|u·|uu
??.¯? Couut·):`d·
Simulate propagation loss under different propagation
environment with Matlab. Take the following values for
the Parameters:
hr=1.5m;ht=40m
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
big city dense Path Loss
Propagation Distance d/km
P
a
t
h

L
o
s
s

L
/
d
B
900MHz
1800MHz
2000MHz
Figure 5. Big city dense area
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
Small city Path Loss
Propagation Distance d/km
P
a
t
h

L
o
s
s

L
/
d
B
900MHz
1800MHz
2000MHz
Figure 6. Small city
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
Countryside Path Loss
Propagation Distance d/km
P
a
t
h

L
o
s
s

L
/
d
B
900MHz
1800MHz
2000MHz
Figure 7. Countryside
Simulation results show that different propagation
models get different propagation loss for the same band
and the same propagation model has a different scope,
such as hata model estimates a smaller loss for high-
frequency signals, so it is not suitable for 2000M-band
signal.
VII. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
A. Select the base stations
We choose some actual base stations to vertify the
mothod. The base station information is shown as table:
TABLE I. BASE STATION INFORMATION
Power/dBm Height/m
Antenna
Gain/dBi
Feeder
Loss/dB
Downtilt
A 49 18 17 5 3
B 49 28 17 5 2
C 49 34 15 5 5
B. Filter Data
• Remove the poinst that have not the GPS
information.
• Remove the points which are too close to the base
station.
Figure 9 shows the relationship of between power and
distance of parts of the data.
[5]
90
80
¯0
b0
¯0
+0
30
?0
!0
0
0 !00 ?00 300 +00 ¯00
D`:tuu··m
l
`
'
o
t

l
o
»
·
·

d
b
m
Figure 8. Power and distance
We can see that the points that near the base station
fluctuate apparently.
C. Results by the propagation model
By the feature of the antenna pattern, we can choose a
quadratic function to simulate the attenuation
characteristics, Simulation formula is as follows:
2
-0.000119243x 0.014309226x 0.570723218 y = + + (3)
996
Use this formula to weight the pilot power at different
radiation of the sector.
TABLE II. CALCULATE RESULTS
Base station
A B C
Hata Loss/dB 115.2 95.46 116
BS Power/dBm 48.68 33.15 44
COST231
Loss/dB
124.63 104.89 125
BS Power/dBm 58.11 41.58 56
Modified
BS Power/dBm
47.8 48.66 46.5
The results indicate that:
• Cost231 Loss is larger than Hata Loss.
• For the small downtilt base station,the points near
the base station will create great deviation.
• According to the measured pilot power and
channel power ratio,the results should increase
7dB because Pilot power accounted for one-fifth
of the channel power.
• The points in the direction of maximum radiation
and half-power angle should have different
weights.
REFERENCES
[1] DOU Zhonghao, LEI Xiang. CDMA, “Wireless Communication
Theory”, Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2004
[2] WAVECOM, “CDMA AT Commands Interface Specification”,
2003
[3] YANG Dacheng, etc. “Mobile communication environment”,
Beijing: Machinery Industry Press, 2003
[4] WANG Yafang etc. “MATLAB simulation and application of
electronic information”, Beijing: People's Posts and Telecommuni-
cations Press 2011
[5] SUN Xubao, GUO Yinjing “Microwave and antenna technology” ,
Beijing: Machinery Industry Press, 2010
997

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