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Latin Etymologies Author(s): J. B. Greenough Reviewed work(s): Source: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 4 (1893), pp. 143-149 Published by: Department of the Classics, Harvard University Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/310404 . Accessed: 08/01/2013 05:31
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h. ' he that brings about the existence of any object or promotes the increase or prosperity of it. As a fact.LATIN BY ETYMOLOGIES. slang is the only example we have of the real growth of words. and even the regular name of police. we read under auctor. or by his efforts gives greater permanence or continuance to it. but they do not correspond in any tangible direct sense. Many etymological notions resting on associations of ideas that fit very well with the essence of things are erroneous. J. you may be sure it is not the right one. we have. 'unessential. But we can hardly suppose the ideas expressed by the word can all come directly from the verbal idea of increase. 8 Jan 2013 05:31:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . gignit ac producit. Not that the two sets of ideas are inconsistent or far removed from each other. Auctor. In Lewis and Short's (Harper's) Dictionary. abstractly considered. In the great revision of Forcellini by De Vit. HE ordinarily received course of development of auctor from augeo has always seemed to me contrary to what we know of the methods by which words are formed. one which appeals to the sense of the true inwardness of things. I. but it is evidently intended to suggest a course of etymology from augeo which cannot be right. The names of Peelers and Bobbies applied to policemen. This is a very good description of the meanings of the word.e. to be variously translated. whether he first originates it. The word-making process moves in lines of thought often frivolous. -really the name for the sanitary 143 This content downloaded on Tue. such as is necessary for the development of a word so old as auctor. When you find an abstruse and profound connection of thought between two words. GREENOUGH.' but always obvious and immediately apprehensible. in like manner: proprie signiicat qui auget. superficial. both derived from Sir Robert Peel's constabulary reforms in Ireland.' etc. B.
39. and in some uses one who puts his money on a card.transient.as suck.are preciselythe methods by whichwords are not made. would make words. was the originalone. Is there. for instance. he continued to nod while the auctioneerraised the price. 141. then.. who'llgive thirty?' In ancient times the biddingwas regularlymade by a sign.often in vogue nowadays. where Caligulaplayed a joke on Aponius Saturninusby causing a worthless lot of property to be knocked off to him. 27. from being an 'enhancement' (of the price)..but there are manyindicationsthat the opposite method. 2. 3.when the originof the words is so remote that the actual associationshave been forgotten. If any one nods or makes any intelligible sign. 8 Jan 2013 05:31:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and probablyin manycases is used with that idea.with its multifarious meanings. in the case of this word.so as to agree with the verb of the set? The suggestion is found in the kindred word auctio. as in Verr. auctor.can come from augeo? Now.'Twenty-five. I.144 y. See also the story in Suet. and tolleredigitum.seems at first sight to be immediatelyconnected with the idea of some one behindas a supporter.for every philosopher is a mere man far more than he is a philosopher.Ibid.auctio. but in fact it comes throughone or two much less abstractassociationsof ideas.and twist words into meanings which are very far from the originaletymon.indicate the kind of associations by which new words are formedand developed. If auc'o. In what palpable and natural sense could auctaor originallyhave meant an increaser. See digitoliceri. Cal. And it is just the popular. 2. because. we have a complete set of the t-formations. In such a proceedingwho would be the enhancer ? Who enhances the price at an auction? We think at once of the buyer. B. These associationsare constantlydistortedin popularlanguage.and superficialassociationsthat must be followed in the tracing of the etymologies of words. auctus. being asleep at an auction.' auctor may well be the agent of the same action. cleaningof cities and armies. meaning in some uses originallythe endorser or man who ' backs' (writes his name on the back of) a note. This content downloaded on Tue. any way in which auctor. The word backerin English. ' Shall I have twenty-five?' the auctioneersays. comes to mean an 'auction sale. The methods by which a philosopher. These two streams have united in the word. Greenougl. the auctioneercontinues.
price. Here an immunity has been purchased by the Mamertines from Verres.Latin Etymologies. the auctor would be originally the seller at auction. So the idea of guarantor in reference to title becomes attached to the word. Age licemini. 432). 56. Italiam petiit fatis auctoribus (Aen. from which the This content downloaded on Tue. above). 19. If this view be correct. auctor fundi. Cic. I. from this use comes the very general use of the word in all connections as an authority. This auction was apparently managed by the seller himself (cf. as so often in other cases in Virgil. . I93: Haec verba subigunt me uti mores barbaros Discam atque ut faciam praeconis compendium. mores barbaros. the seller asks for a price. the original meaning shines through. The first step in the wider development would be the use of such expressions as. Cf. bonus auctor. io. P. a good authority. so that the two words auctor (seller) and auctio (sale) would be a natural pair. again. and also Quaero an pila quae ab auctore domui coniuncta erat ad emptorem quoque iure emptionis pertineat (Dig. quoted from Scaevola). Quis cena poscit? Ecqui poscit prandio? That is. cf. And in fact auctor is regularly used in juristic language for vendor. est enim illis (mercenariis) ipsa merces auctoramentum servitutis. 145 So. 8 Jan 2013 05:31:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Closely akin are certissimus auctor (Geo. V. Itaque auctionempraedicemipse ut uenditem. with the distinct meaning of sell. he comes down. but the usual custom doubtless was to raise the price. Verr. strongly confirm vendor as the original meaning of the word. XI. 339). Cf. non fiuttilis auctor (Aen. In fact. in the locus classicus. de Off. Caec. I. 5. Of course if the price is not offered. where. used in a figurative sense. and the purchase is not secured to them. gravis auctor. II. 67). See. which was the common method of selling at Rome. Caesennius. X. the commonest meaning of the word. (221) Logos ridiculos uendo. a reliable guarantor. I7). he immediately raises it. turn illi intellexerunt se id quod a malo auctore emissent diutius obtinere non posse. non si mihifuppiter auctor spondeat (Aen. as in this case. Stichus. and its derivative auctoramentum. and if that is offered. 150o. The derivative auctoro. 52.
I.Plaut.with a special religious sense.in which case we may compare Sanskrit apas and apas. Rud.Ae. 7. jgo. Thus. The meaning of originatorand the like naturallycomes through auctor legis. 8 Jan 2013 05:31:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the voucher for it before the people. So operari est deos refigioseet curn sznmmavenerationesacriftciis litare. where really there is no clear idea of a responsible party.. abstract auctoritas gets its meaning. This tendency suggeststhat the word may have once had a quite different meaning. Geo. either very early developed. and opera. 523. originallyan action preceding the offer of a measure for the popular vote. equidemtibi bona oftavi omnia. used of the senate. Closely akin. so that if it had occurred to anybodyto read the article in Harper's Dictionary. 1038. Di tibi omnessemper Di tibi dent quaequomque optes. With this official use belongs auctoresfieri. Cat. 978. 2. and others.146 7. Ad. in other words. in Festus) is akin to ops. I. In this mannerof developmentall the various uses attach themselves to the original idea without any forcing. 158. 339- This content downloaded on Tue. he backwards. 639 (this follows a 15. 2. bly II. B. at any rate. would have had the whole historyof the word admiraset forth. Ofjto. 9.which means properlythe proposer. Very commonlyit gives the sense of the English hopeand pray. that the primitive topio (see praedojiont. Greenoug/.that is. 14. stantlysuch expressionsas a dis immortalibus Plaut. omniaoptataofferant. IV. It seems not unlikely.as is the case with facio. So also: Ter.and meant serve.for instance. we find conoptabo. the aut/horily of a bill. Cupimus optamusque.Cic. It is curious enough that the ordinary grouping of meanings under the word exactly reversesthis naturaldevelopment. Virg. opus. We may compare the technical use of operor as worsh/ip. praeoptant. or else later acquired. Dari votis optat aprum. though perhaps assisted by the use in the next stage. is the meaningadviser. both meaningreligiousceremony. jocose adjuration). Every one must have noticed the tendency that Latin writershave to use optoin a religiousor semi-religioussense. Cic.Mil. Cf. Phil. Non.
94. which are of course really alternative prayers granted by some superior power. laborers. some solution may be found. often has this same sense. Sat. i. as in si veneror stultus nihil horum. service. 3. III. like the English help. The development of the ordinary meaning of exercitus has generally. 8 Jan 2013 05:31:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . does not give any natural analysis in reference to the sequence and relationship of its various aspects. in the increased attention to early religious ideas and rites.e. as is seen from the personification of the notion as a divinity. is the most puzzling in its various meanings. Off. Perhaps in time. as we see by optio. So also opera. Cic. Exercitus. it seems to me. 6. The use of operae. Theseo cum tris optationes Neptunus dedisset. as Nil opus est. There are many phrases with opus where it is parallel with the English word use. and often elsewhere in the same sense. The idea of service. but it is certainly highly colored with various other religious ideas. Exerceo. 51 (entirely equivalent to expediat). is of the same character. atque iaud sciam an ne opus sit quidem nihil unquam omnino deesse amicis. it is impossible to analyze the associations that belong to it in its common use. The primitive topio must have very early become specialized in the meaning of choose. 14. though obviously thus connected. This content downloaded on Tue. however. She may have been a corn-demon. II. 25. Thus operam dare is almost render service. as we see by the acquired force of veneror. certainly runs through all the members. The idea of service is apparent enough. been wrongly traced. properly services. Lael. But without more knowledge of the religious usages connected with the word. 8.Latin Etymologies. taken in connection with the obscure rites by which the divinity was worshipped and the various identifications which she underwent. The simplest representative of the common root. 147 The transfer from serve to pray is natural enough. or a personification of worship or of some other primitive idea or act. The derivative operor runs in the same groove. The whole group. ojs. Hor. This development might naturally come from some such association as is found in the three wishes of fairy lore. it's of no use. whatever its exact relation to opus. or perhaps better. non operae est often means it isn't worth while. assumed. it's of no use. Cf.
' keep in or off? A suggestion is given by the peculiar use of and the Greek EKTrOVEv '~KrovcirOat. The group of words to which it belongs has a very clear fundamental conception. "A traini-bazdcaptain eke was he Of famous London town. Lateinische Elymologien. Cicero says: summam esse in eo corporis siccitatem (Lael. The words siccus and siccitas are regularly used of men 'in good condition' or 'in training. 8 Jan 2013 05:31:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The idea of 'setting a barrier. 34). AtTXpOv To '9VGUl METTOV1 To 7TVELtV T a7rToVoFL a cpclvetoaLtKat atoXpov OaVtE oKai The same association of dryness with physical strength and endurance existed also among the Romans. 52. We happen to have in English words which suggest a more natural association of ideas for the word.' i. as in arceo and arx. Greenough.' as the modern athletes say. exercitus as the abstract of exerceo might well mean 'the training. So the 'May training' of New England was the meeting of the militia for military exercise. An example from the Education of Cyrus (Cyr. see Keller. as it appears in coerceo.is plain. I. The underlying notion of exerceo is however less obvious.' for instance. 2. and cites Varro as This content downloaded on Tue. Thus. though the notion is not easily expressed in English.148 '. 16) shows the notion that the Greeks attached to these words: E[ Kai vvv &ETL Kat ta&ql arcVTWV TO /LapTrvpla Kat rv ALETcplVagL LEEVEL JEVy/p rETL vvv EGTL T0?V Kat IIpoaLv Kal EK7rovELGOaL &arav. the army of the city assembled for military exercise. gives a concrete sense to an abstract word. meaning ' exercise.e. or from inside out. or perhaps both ways. But what can exerceo.' Following this analogy. train. In my childhood I only knew soldiers as 'traziners. B. So Nonius explains siccum by exercitum." means that John Gilpin was a captain of militia. p. This view in a somewhat different form has also been held by others. as in English 'a numerous following.' either from outside in. as in areca. in describing the robust old age of Masinissa.
in other words. i. cumn studio in gymnnasio duplici corpus siccassenz ila. of which our word humor preserves a souvenir.' The use of the word in the later sense becomes more natural when we consider the ease with which the object of a verb used in a special phrase is dropped. The word defendere has undergone a change precisely similar. as we say. the idea is a very old medical one. facere (rem divinam). I don't play (the piano) in public. exercise. The borrowing of a Greek word like ao(TKW seems very unlikely when we consider the rest of the compounds of arceo and its kindred nouns. 34. At first sight it seems an objection that exercere is not merely used absolutely but takes a personal object (exercere se. Cf. 19. siccare corpus. In fact the change from defendere iniuriam to defendere vitanz is on the whole greater than that from exercere umorem to exercere se. So also Lucilius in the same passage is represented as saying. One might hear a New England girl say.Latin Etymologies. Corpora graciliora siccioraque. but I take (lessons) of Professor A. 149 saying. Plin. 26). in which we have putayte (rationes). Persae exercitationes pueriles modicas earn sunt consecuti prop•er corporis siccitatenmut neque spuerent neque emungerentur (Non.e. But nothing is more common than such a shifting of the relation between a verb and its object. evidently in allusion to the Greek passage quoted above. From meaning ward off it has come to be used very naturally as defend. This explanation seems a more natural one than that given by Keller in the discussion cited above. and I practise (playing?) a great deal. a change of the same kind and in the same direction as the one supposed in exercere." Nor need we go farther than the Latin. The thing that was kept off was the 'peccant humors of the blood. exercere tironem). The general currency of this idea suggests that exercere was originally exercere umorem. " No. 4. 8 Jan 2013 05:31:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In fact. 15. and numerous other verbs used absolutely. This content downloaded on Tue.