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Protection, Substation Automation, Power Quality and Measurement

6.2 Protection Systems

Adaptive relaying Numerical relays now offer reliable, convenient and comprehensive matching to changing conditions. Matching may be initiated either by the relays own intelligence or from other systems via contacts or serial telegrams. Modern numerical relays contain a number of parameter sets that can be pretested during commissioning of the scheme. One set is normally operative. Transfer to the other sets can be controlled via binary inputs or a serial data link (g. 6.2-28). There are a number of applications for which multiple setting groups can upgrade the scheme performance, for example: For use as a voltage-dependent control of overcurrent-time relay pickup values to overcome alternator fault current decrement to below normal load current when the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is not in automatic operation For maintaining short operation times with lower fault currents, e.g., automatic change of settings if one supply transformer is taken out of service For switch-onto-fault protection to provide shorter time settings when energizing a circuit after maintenance so that normal settings can be restored automatically after a time delay For auto-reclosure programs, that is, instantaneous operation for rst trip and delayed operation after unsuccessful reclosure For cold load pickup problems where high starting currents may cause relay operation For ring open or ring closed operation. Implemented functions SIPROTEC relays are available with a variety of protective functions (please refer to section 6.2.6). The high processing power of modern numerical units allows further integration of non-protective add-on functions. The question as to whether separate or combined relays should be used for protection and control cannot be unambiguously answered. In transmission-type substations, separation into independent hardware units is still preferred, whereas a trend toward higher function integration can be observed on the distribution level. Here, the use of combined feeder / line relays for protection, monitoring and control is becoming more common (g. 6.2-29). Relays with protection functions only and relays with combined protection and control functions are being offered. SIPROTEC 4 relays offer combined protection and control functions. SIPROTEC 4 relays support the one relay one feeder principle, and thus contribute to a considerable reduction in space and wiring requirements. With the well-proven SIPROTEC 4 family, Siemens supports both stand-alone and combined solutions on the basis of a single hardware and software platform. The user can decide within wide limits on the conguration of the control and protection, and the reliability of the protection functions (g. 6.2-30).

1000 1100 . . 1200 . . 1500 . . 2800 . . 3900

Parameter 1000 D Line data 1100 . Parameter 1000 . Line data O/C C 1100 1200 Phase settings . Parameter . 1000 . . B Line data O/C Phase settings 1100 1200 1500 O/C Earth settings . . Parameter . . . A . Line data 1200 O/C Phase settings settings 1500 O/C Earth Fault recording 2800 . . . . . . O/C Phase settings 1500 O/C Earth settings 2800 Fault recording Breaker failure 3900 . . . . O/C Earth settings 2800 Fault recording Breaker failure 3900 . . Fault recording 3900 Breaker failure Breaker failure

Fig. 6.2-28: Alternate parameter groups

Fig. 6.2-29: Left: switchgear with numerical relay (7SJ62) and traditional control; right: switchgear with combined protection and control relay (7SJ64)

The following solutions are available within one relay family: Separate control and protection relays Feeder protection and remote control of the line circuit-breaker via the serial communication link Combined relays for protection, monitoring and control.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.0