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B.LAVANYA ECE Varadhareddy College of Engineering
The credential part of this paper gives the theoretical application of nanodevices in the treatment of cancer. The latest technology for the treatment cancer is the chemotherapic treatment in which drugs of specific composition is given to the patients depending on the biopsy of the tumor from the patient. The main disadvantage of using chemotherapy is that the drug used is not so specific and hence it causes damage to the surrounding healthy cells. It uses MAB, the monoclonal antibodies to locate the affected areas. To make the treatment more specific, we use the nanodevices that use nanosensors to be more specific in application of chemotherapy to the malignant tumors, thereby increasing the safety in usage of chemotherapic drugs. Also the use of biomotors in the nanodevices increases the oxygen content in the surrounding that decreases the hypoxia environment. This is given more importance because the angiogenesis or blood vessel formation for arranges the adenine, guanine, cytosine and thiamine with hydrogen bonds in between them, is self-explanatory for both self-replication and positional assembly.
In 1990, IBM researchers showed that it is possible to manipulate single atoms. They positioned 35 xenon atoms on the surface of a nickel crystal, using an atomic force microscopy instrument. These positioned atoms spelled out the letters "IBM". In 1998, Los Alamos and MIT researchers managed to spread a single qubit across three nuclear spins in each molecule of a liquid solution of alanine or trichloroethylene molecules. Spreading out the qubit made it harder to corrupt, allowing researchers to use embarrassment to study interactions between states as an indirect method for analyzing the quantum information.
WHAT IS CANCER?
The human body is made up of many cellular units that worn out regularly. These worn out cells are removed and new cells replaces the old existing cells by a cellular division referred to as mitosis. Cancerous cells are those cells with boundless dividing capabilities that affect the normal body put up. Cancer begins when there has been a permanent change in the structure of DNA, referred to as the mutation. This change in gene structure takes place in several steps given below.
A. Primary steps: In this case Safety Systems fails. The cells communicate with each other by receptor organs through the chemotherapic process, i.e. through chemical changes. Proto-Oncogenes Become Oncogenes: These messages referred to as the growth factor reaches the adjacent cells and activate the genes known as Proto-Oncogenes, but the case of a mutated gene is referred to as simply Oncogenes which gives message for repeated multiplication of cells, being the main causative of cancerous cell growth. Tumor Suppressor Genes Stop Working: The adjacent cells produce the tumor suppressor activation to inhibit the growth of the cells. At times this might also malfunction. Cell Cycle Clock Malfunctions: The cell nucleus contains a collection of interacting proteins that control cell division, called the cell cycle clock that interprets the health of the cell for further processes. If DNA is found damaged then the tumor suppressor gene destroys the cell. Cells Achieve Immortality: The normal life span of a cell is controlled within limits by the telomeres, a protector of DNA that reduce in amount during each cell division. At a particular point, the DNA is damaged and the cell is destroyed,causing an increase in the life span of the cell adding to the tediousness. B. Secondary steps: This alone is not enough to produce cancer cause it has to survive a number of other safety mechanisms that prevents the excessive cell growth. Tumor Forms: The tumor is a collection of cells without the aid of extracellular matrix for its survival, which maintains a blood vessel network buy angiogenesis and serves as a cancer tissue. Tumors Spread: These malignant tumors spread to the entire region local to it and also affect the nearby regions to form secondary growth or metastases.Thus the cancerous tissue is produced due to mutations in the gene structure causing cancer in the affected regions.
How an anti-cancer drug works: The goal of chemotherapy is to shrink primary tumors, slow the tumor growth, and kill cancer cells that may have spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body from the original, primary tumor. Chemotherapy kills both cancer and healthy cells.Anticancer drugs destroy cancer cells by stopping them from growing .Chemotherapy, or the administration of cancer-fighting drugs, such as taxol, has proven effective in destroying breast cancer cells that have spread to other organs. WHAT IS A MAB? Monoclonal Antibody (MAb), laboratory-produced protein molecule used in medicine to detect pregnancy; diagnose disease, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis, and various kinds of cancer; and treat conditions caused by toxins, or poisonous substances, such as snake venom.They are also used in laboratories to track proteins in experiments.
FIG: MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY
How is a MAb produced? An antibody is a Y-shaped protein produced by a type of white blood cell known as a B cell. B cells are produced in the bone marrow of the body.Mature B cells respond to foreign substances called antigens. They then differentiate into plasma cells, which secrete antibodies. How MAbs work: Antibodies neutralize or mark antigens for destruction with the help of other cells of the immune system the system of organs, tissues, cells, and cell products, including antibodies, responsible for ridding the body of disease-causing organisms or substances. Antibodies perform their work by attaching, or binding, to specific parts of antigens.
A monoclonal antibody is created in the laboratory by fusing, or joining together, a normal B cell, which normally dies within a few weeks, and a cancerous B cell, which lives indefinitely. Normal mouse B cells and mouse myeloma cells were grown together in a laboratory culture. Where MAbs are used: To help diagnose cancers hidden in the body, radioactive substances are attached toMAbs that recognize and target cancer cells. These MAbs are then injected into a patient’s body.A special machine that uses film sensitive to radioactivity is used to take an internal picture of the patient’s body. This image reveals any cells to which the MAbs attached, indicating the presence of cancer.
How hypoxia induces the growth of cancerous cells: In response to a low-oxygen environment, cancer cells send out growth signals that result in increased angiogenesis.It is an established fact that a low-oxygen environment promotes tumor growth. The first step in correcting hypoxia is to guard against anemia. Anemia is common in cancer patients, and the result is that less oxygen is delivered to the tumor, that is, hypoxia. Chemotherapy often induces anemia that then exacerbates hypoxia in the tumor.Since cancer cells thrive in a hypoxic environment, the cancer patient's hematocrit and hemoglobin should be maintained in the upper one-third range of normal prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. What is an ATP? Boyer helped explain the complicated molecular process in which the enzyme, called ATP synthase.When the body processes nutrients from food or sunlight, chemical energy is released. The enzyme ATP synthase absorbs that energy, converts it into the fuel-like ATP.ATP synthase transfers energy to ATP molecules by adding a phosphate
ion to an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule. Bonding phosphate to ADP produces ATP and makes the molecule more stable, increasing its potential energy. Rotary motion of ATP: The structure of an ATP synthase molecule is described as a three-sectioned assembly. The lower section is shaped like a wheel and is attached to the membrane of the cell. The rod like second section connects the wheel to the top section, a ball-shaped sixchambered structure. The top section is fixed in place by a thin filament that reaches down and connects to the cell membrane. The top two sections of the enzyme extend into the cell. Cell respiration releases hydrogen ions into the liquid surrounding the cells.Bottom, cylindrical part of the enzyme is located in the cell membrane, and the top two parts extend into the cell. Function of ATP: ATP increases the oxygen content in the local environment there by decreasing the possibilities of hypoxia and there reducing the spread of cancer tumors and the formation of vascular blood vessels the spread of cancer tumors and the formation of vascular blood vessels.
Nano Motor: Biomolecular nanomotor is to be used for the transportation of chemotherapic drugs in our case. It uses the concept of ATP synthesis that serves for two purposes.F 0 portion that enables proton translocation, and a hydrophilic F1 portion that facilitates ATP synthesis and hydrolysis. As protons flow through F0, the γ-subunit of F1 ATPase rotates clockwise and the ATP is synthesized.
The Nano-sensors: The ability of medical nanodevices to measure both absolute temperature and changes in temperature .Precision thermal sensing is also important within nanoscale devices to provide corrective input for pressure, chemical, and displacement sensors, and to improve the stability of onboard clocks.The area of chemical microsensors is well developed, and there is increasing research interest in nanoscale chemical sensors "chemosensors" and "biosensors”. The most common nanomedical application of chemical sensors will be to measure the concentration of specific molecules and biopolymers in aqueous solvent -- whether in blood serum, interstitial fluid, or cytosol. NANOSENSORS PRODUCTION THRO’ T4 BACTERIOPHAGE: The recent trends in the field of nanotechnology have been recognized by the developed nations in the world.There are a humpty number of projects in the laboratories all over the world for implement this nanotechnology in the field of medical sciences.To develop a nano level sensor it takes much of time and also the efficiency is not good. The present situation has the following ways for treatment of cancer Chemotherapic drugs Immunology Radiotherapy The treatment of cancer using nanotechnology uses the following type of sensors Fluorescence sensor Temperature sensor Pressure sensor Chemical sensor Here we have provided an algorithm for the treatment of the same using the present technological advancements already implemented. The algorithm includes : Use of Monoclonal Antibodies (MAb) for the detection of cancerous areas, the present radiation detection method.
Use of the nanosensor that detects the presence of such radiation in the body parts, the concept of which has to be devised. Administration of drugs in these affected areas that are detected by the nanosensors, through Brownian movements. Removal of these radiation compounds effectively through these nanosensors. If we use some kind of nanotube that has the characteristics of being attracted by the radiation components then the couple of nanotubes being used would be attracted by these compounds .The recent development could be used effectively for the sensor production through Self-evolution process, Darwin’s theory of evolution. Genetically decoding and encoding the T4 bacteriophage to change its characteristics. IMPLEMENTATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER TREATMENT: In this case we could use the nanorobots, specially designed nanodevices that could carry the chemotherapic drugs for the treatment of cancer cells and also to improve the MAb contents in these robots thereby improving the efficiency of the chemotherapy in cancer treatment, which has been a major problem in today’s treatment techniques. Also the use of ATP powered biomotors used for nanodevices create a low hypoxia environment that decreases the danger of spreading of tumor to other regions. The chemotherapic drugs are injected into the patient that along with the MAb are used to identify the affected areas thereby making a localized perception of the cancer tissue.Then the nanosensors used identify the temperature variation in the local environment that detects the specific areas of infection that could be used for application of chemotherapic drugs. The hypoxia is decreased in the local environment, due to the use of bio motors in nano devices that helps in controlling the further spreading of tumor. Thus nanotechnology is implemented in the biomedical field for treatment of cancer. CONCLUSION: The paper is just a theoretical justification. But the recent advancement in the field of nanotechnology gives the hope of the effective use of this technology in medical field. This paper starts by giving an introduction to nanotechnology and its importance as recognized by various other technocrats. This is the beginning of nanoera and we could expect further improvements such as cure to AIDS using nanotechnology.
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