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Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement For the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology In Electronics & Communication Engineering From KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA Guided By: Miss. Priyanka Garg (Lecturer,ECE) Submitted To: Mr. Jagtar Singh Ms. Rajni Meelu Submitted By: Krishan Malik(1507245) Sumit Kumar(1507246) Anil Kumar (1508823)

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. N. C. College of Engineering Israna (Panipat) (July-Dec. 2010)


This is to certify that Project associates Mr. Krishan Malik(1507245), Mr. Sumit Kumar(1507245) and Mr. Anil Kumar(1508823) of B.Tech. of VII semester, Electronics & Communication Engineering,N.C college of engg., Israna(Panipat) have successfully completed the minor project AUTOMATIC PHASE CHANGER under my guidance. They have worked sincerely with full dedication towards the successful completion of the project.Wish them good luck for their bright future. Dr. K.E. Hole ( HOD, ECE ) N.C.C.E. Israna, Panipat Ms. Priyanka Garg (Lecturer, ECE Dept.) N.C.C.E. Israna, Panipat

We are very happy on the completion of the Minor Project AUTOMATIC PHASE CHANGER. For this we would like to thank our Project guide Ms. Priyanka Garg under whose visionary enlightenment we were able to complete this project. We would also like to acknowledge the help and support by Ms. Priyanka Garg who spend his precious time.

Krishan Malik(1507245) Sumit Kumar(1507246) Anil Kumar(1508823)


Power instability in developing countries creates a need for automation of electrical power generation or alternative sources of power to back up the utility supply. This automation is required as the rate of power outage becomes predominantly high. Most industrial and commercial processes are dependent on power supply and if the processes of change-over are manual, serious time is not only wasted but also creates device or machine damage from human error during the change-over connections, which could bring massive losses. The starting of the generator is done by a relay which switches the battery voltage to ignition coil of the generator while the main power relay switches the load to either public supply or generator. Fig 1 shows the general-ized block diagram of the system. The approach used in this work is the modular approach where the overall design was first broken into functional block diagrams, where each block in the diagram represents a section of the circuit that carries out a specific function. The functional block diagram of Fig. 1 also shows the interconnection between these blocks. Each section of the block is analyzed below. A manual change-over switch consists of a manual change-over switch box, switch gear box and cut-out fuse or the connector fuse as described by Rocks and Mazur (1993). This change-over switch box separate the source between the generator and public supply, when there is power supply outage from public supply, someone has to go and change the line to generator. Thus when power supply is restored, someone has to put OFF the generator and then change the source line from generator to public supply. In view of the above manual change-over switch system that involves manpower by using ones energy in starting the generator and switching over from public supply to generator and vice-versa when the supply is restored. The importance attached to cases of operation in hospitals and air ports in order to save life from generator as fast as possible makes it important for

the design and construction of an automatic change-over switch which would solve the problem of manpower and the danger likely to be encountered changeover. The electronic control monitors the incoming public supply voltage and detects when the voltage drops below a level that electrical or electronics gadgets can function depending on the utility.

Component list
Component name Step down transformer(220V-12V 300 mA) Fuse(F1-F3=5A) IC(IC1-IC3=741) Transistor(T1,T2,T3=BC557) Relay(RL1-RL3=12V,1C/O RELAY) Zener diode(ZDI-ZD3=5.1V) Variable resistance(VR1-VR3=10K) quantity 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Resistance(R1,R2,R4,R5,R7,R8=3.3K, 9 R3,R6,R9=10K) Diode 9 Capacitor(C1-C4=1000Uf 25v,C5C7=470Uf 35v) Wires 7 Acc. To requirement


The IC 741 i.e. the operational amplifier is used as a comparator in the circuit given above. As shown in the figure the IC 741 is a 8 pin IC in which the pin no. 2 is known as the inverting terminal of the IC 741 because it is connected to the negative potential. The pin no. 3 is known as the non inverting terminal of the IC 741. The pin no. 2 is connected to the reference voltage. The reference voltage is the voltage which we set as a standard voltage in the circuit. The pin no. 2 is connected to the input voltage. Now if we applied the input voltage to the IC

741 then it will compare the input voltage to the reference voltage and if the input voltage goes low then the output of the comparator is goes low. And if the input voltage is equal to the reference voltage then the output of the comparator is high.

A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage Breakdown voltage The breakdown voltage of an Insulator is the minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive. The breakdown voltage of a diode is the minimum reverse voltage to make the diode conduct in reverse...

known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage". The device was named after Clarence Zener

Clarence Zener Clarence Melvin Zener was the American physicist who first described the electrical property exploited by the Zener diode, which Bell Labs then named after him... , who discovered this electrical property.

A conventional solid-state diode

Diode In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. The term usually refers to a semiconductor diode, the most common type today. This is a crystalline block of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals... will not allow significant current if it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded, a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. Unless this current is limited by circuitry, the diode will be permanently damaged. In case of large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow), the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction built-in voltage

and internal resistance. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations. A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties, except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage, the so-called Zener voltage. By contrast with the conventional device, a reversebiased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener voltage. For example, a diode with a Zener breakdown voltage of 3.2 V will exhibit a voltage drop of 3.2 V if reverse bias voltage applied across it is more than its Zener voltage. The Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage (e.g. for an amplifier Amplifier Generally, an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes, usually increases, the amplitude of a signal. The relationship of the input to the output of an amplifierusually expressed as a function of the input frequencyis called the transfer function of the amplifier, and the magnitude of... stage, or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications. The Zener diode's operation depends on the heavy doping Doping (semiconductor) In semiconductor production, doping is the process of intentionally introducing impurities into an extremely pure semiconductor to change its electrical properties. The impurities are dependent upon the type of semiconductor. Lightly and moderately doped semiconductors are referred to as extrinsic...of its p-n junction

P-n junction
A pn junction is formed by joining p-type and n-type semiconductors together in very close contact. The term junction refers to the boundary interface where the two regions of the semiconductor meet...allowing electron

The electron is a subatomic particle carrying a negative electric charge. It has no known components or substructure, and therefore is believed to be an elementary particle. An electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. The intrinsic angular momentum of the electron is as to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band

of the n-type material. In the atomic scale, this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction band states; as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of dopings on both sides. The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. While tolerances within 0.05% are available, the most widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%. Breakdown voltage for commonly available zener diodes can vary widely from 1.2 volts to 200 volts. Another mechanism that produces a similar effect is the avalanche effect as in the avalanche diode Avalanche diode An avalanche diode is a diode that is designed to go through avalanche breakdown at a specified reverse bias voltage and conduct as a type of voltage reference..... The two types of diode are in fact constructed the same way and both effects are present in diodes of this type. In silicon diodes up to about 5.6 volts, the Zener effect is the predominant effect and shows a marked negative temperature coefficient . Above 5.6 volts, the avalanche effect

Avalanche breakdown
Avalanche breakdown - is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials. It is a form of electric current multiplication that can allow very large currents to flow within materials which are otherwise good insulators. It is a type of electron avalanche.- Explanation... becomes predominant and exhibits a positive temperature coefficient. In a 5.6 V diode, the two effects occur together and their temperature coefficients neatly cancel each other out, thus the 5.6 V diode is the component of choice in temperature-critical applications. Modern manufacturing techniques have produced devices with voltages lower than 5.6 V with negligible temperature coefficients, but as higher voltage devices are encountered, the temperature coefficient rises dramatically. A 75 V diode has 10 times the coefficient of a 12 V diode. All such diodes, regardless of breakdown voltage, are usually marketed under the umbrella term of "Zener diode".


Diode Function
Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow. Diodes are the electrical version of a valve and early diodes were actually called valves.

Forward Voltage Drop

Electricity uses up a little energy pushing its way through the diode, rather like a person pushing through a door with a spring. This means that there is a small voltage across a conducting diode, it is called the forward voltage drop and is about 0.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon. The forward voltage drop of a diode is almost constant whatever the current passing through the diode so they have a very steep characteristic (currentvoltage graph).

Reverse Voltage
When a reverse voltage is applied a perfect diode does not conduct, but all real diodes leak a very tiny current of a few A or less. This can be ignored in most circuits because it will be very much smaller than the current flowing in the forward direction. However, all diodes have a maximum reverse voltage (usually 50V or more) and if this is exceeded the diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction, this is called breakdown.

Diode Construction
The physical construction of a diode with a diffusion junction is shown in the figure below. When a diode is reverse biased ie. a positive voltage is applied to the cathode with respect to the anode, an electric field is formed between the cathode and anode specifically across the depletion region. The diode is 'reverse biased' and cannot conduct except for small leakage currents. However, if the electric field becomes too strong 'avalanche breakdown' occurs and the diode will become a short circuit and often be damaged. To counteract this the physical distance between the anode and cathode is increased by increasing the size of the bulk region and changing impurity atom doping

levels. In the construction process, N type silicon substrate heated to ~1000oC in presence of vapour containing positive charged impurity atoms. P region diffused into N region. The resultant effect is to cause more charge carriers to be present within the diode when it is conducting. For the diode to switch OFF, the charge carriers must either recombine (minority) or be removed, the latter mechanism appearing as a reverse current (reverse recovery) flowing in the diode as it turns OFF. Put simply, diodes with higher voltage ratings have larger bulk regions, require more time to remove internal charges at turn OFF and are thus slower switching.

Standard Rectifiers
Rectifiers are electronic high voltage diodes, which allow current to flow in only one direction. Essentially, they act as one-way valves, and are used to convert AC current to DC current. The performance of high voltage diodes is determined by a number of voltage, current and time coefficients: VRRM: Maximum Reverse Voltage, which is the maximum reverse voltage of the diode. VF: Forward Voltage, which is the voltage across the diode terminals resulting from the flow of current in the forward direction. IR: Reverse Current flows when reverse bias is applied to a semiconductor junction.

trr: Reverse Recovery Time is the time required for the current to reach a specified reverse current (IR) after instantaneous switching from a specified forward condition (IF). IF: Forward Current is the current flowing through the diode in the direction of lower resistance. Tj: Junction Operating Temperature is the range of temperatures in which the high voltage diodes are designed to operate.

Fast Rectifiers
Figure 3a and b show typical styles of reverse recovery. The area within the negative portion of each curve, , is the total reverse recovery charge Qrr and represents the charge removal from the junction and the bulk regions of the diode and is effectively independent of the forward current in the diode. The recovery time t2 - t1 is dependant on the size of the bulk region thus high di/dt currents can be obtained when using fast diodes. If the di/dt of the snap recovery is too high and stray inductance exists in the circuit then extremely high and possibly damaging voltage spikes can be induced. (Note: ). Qrr can be found from manufacturers specifications thus the maximum reverse recovery current Irr is given by:

If ta is very small compared to ta then ta trr and knowing the rate of decrease of current di/dt = Irr/ta Irr/trr leads to:

Figure 3: (a) Reverse recovery of a general purpose diode, (b) fast diode. Reverse recovery time trr = t2 - t0.

The effect of reverse recovery on the output voltage of a rectifier feeding a resistive load is shown in figure 4. Figure 4: Bridge rectifier output voltage showing diode reverse recovery effects.

Ultra Fast Rectifiers

ABSTRACT: International Rectifier's new series of Ultra-fast recovery diodes are aimed specifically at the 12/24/48V SMPS output stage, and extend the company's current product range of Ultra-fast recovery diodes with industry standard part number products. The new product series has been developed to meet today's requirement of high frequency operation and power ratings, using a technology platform flexible enough to match the performance improvement curve of the market requirements in the years to come. The new IR Ultra-fast recovery diode series (200-400V) adopts platinum diffusion in order to overcome the limitation of gold diffusion and the electron irradiation technology. With this approach, the best trade off for leakage current, forward voltage drop and reverse recovery, has been achieved with a maximum operating junction temperature of 175 degrees Celsius and a reverse recovery time as low as 15-20ns. With this type of performance, the maximum allowable switching frequency for this Ultrafast diode family would be up to 500-750kHz. This assumption is verified

by the diode loss calculation used for the IR MUR1620 operating in a typical output rectification in a forward converter.

There are really only two fundamentally different operating principles: (1) electromagnetic attraction, and (2) electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic attraction relays operate by virtue of a plunger being drawn into a solenoid, or an armature being attracted to the poles of an electromagnet. Such relays may be actuated by d-c or by a-c quantities. Electromagnetic-induction relays use the principle of the induction motor whereby torque is developed by induction in a rotor; this operating principle applies only to relays actuated by alternating current, and in dealing with those relays we shall call them simply "induction-type" relays.

Mechanical movement of the operating mechanism is imparted to a contact structure to close or to open contacts. When we say that a relay "operates," we mean that it either closes or opens its contacts-whichever is the required action under the circumstances. Most relays have a "control spring," or are restrained by gravity, so that they assume a given position when completely de-energized; a contact that is closed under this condition is called a "closed" contact, and one that is open is called and "open" contact. This is standardized nomenclature, but it can be quite confusing and awkward to use. A much better nomenclature in rather extensive use is the designation a for an "open" contact, and b for a "closed" contact. This nomenclature will be

used in this book. The present standard method for showing "a" and b contacts on connection diagrams is illustrated in Fig. 1. Even though an a contact may be closed under normal operating conditions, it should be shown open as in Fig. 1; and similarly, even though a b contact may normally be open, it should be shown closed. When a relay operates to open a b contact or to close an a contact, we say that it "picks up," and the smallest value of the actuating quantity that will cause such operation, as the quantity is slowly increased from zero, is called the "pickup" value. When a relay operates to close a b contact, or to move to a stop in place of a b contact, we say that it "resets"; and the largest value of the actuating quantity at which this occurs, as the quantity is slowly

decreased from above the pickup value, is called the "reset" value. When a relay operates to open its a contact, but does not reset, we say that it "drops out," and the largest value of the actuating quantity at which this occurs is called the "drop-out" value.


A transformer consists of two coils (often called 'windings') linked by an iron core, as shown in figure 1. There is no electrical connection between the coils, instead they are linked by a magnetic field created in the core.

Transformers are used to convert electricity from one voltage to another with minimal loss of power. They only work with AC (alternating current) because they require a changing magnetic field to be created in their core.

Transformers can increase voltage (step-up) as well as reduce voltage (stepdown). Alternating current flowing in the primary (input) coil creates a continually changing magnetic field in the iron core. This field also passes through the secondary (output) coil and the changing strength of the magnetic field induces an alternating voltage in the secondary coil. If the secondary coil is connected to a load the induced voltage will make an induced current flow. The correct term for the induced voltage is 'induced electromotive force' which is usually abbreviated to induced e.m.f. The iron core is laminated to prevent 'eddy currents' flowing in the core. These are currents produced by the alternating magnetic field inducing a small voltage in the core, just like that induced in the secondary coil. Eddy currents waste power by needlessly heating up the core but they are reduced to a negligible amount by laminating the iron because this increases the electrical resistance of the core without affecting its magnetic properties. Transformers have two great advantages over other methods of changing voltage: 1. They provide total electrical isolation between the input and output, so they can be safely used to reduce the high voltage of the mains supply. 2. Almost no power is wasted in a transformer. They have a high efficiency (power out / power in) of 95% or more.

Mains transformers are the most common type. They are designed to reduce the AC mains supply voltage (230-240V in the UK or 115-120V in some countries) to a safer low voltage. The standard mains supply voltages are officially 115V and 230V, but 120V and 240V are the values usually quoted and the difference is of no significance in most cases.

To allow for the two supply voltages mains transformers usually have two separate primary coils (windings) labelled 0-120V and 0-120V. The two coils are connected in series for 240V (figure 2a) and in parallel for 120V (figure 2b). They must be wired the correct way round as shown in the diagrams because the coils must be connected in the correct sense (direction):

Most mains transformers have two separate secondary coils (e.g. labelled 09V, 0-9V) which may be used separately to give two independent supplies, or connected in series to create a centre-tapped coil (see below) or one coil with double the voltage. Some mains transformers have a centre-tap halfway through the secondary coil and they are labelled 9-0-9V for example. They can be used to produce full-wave rectified DC with just two diodes, unlike a standard secondary coil which requires four diodes to produce full-wave rectified DC. A mains transformer is specified by:
1. Its secondary (output) voltages Vs.

2. Its maximum power, Pmax, which the transformer can pass, quoted in

VA (volt-amp). This determines the maximum output (secondary) current, Imax...

...where Vs is the secondary voltage. If there are two secondary coils the maximum power should be halved to give the maximum for each coil. 3. Its construction - it may be PCB-mounting, chassis mounting (with solder tag connections) or toroidal (a high quality design).


If the first coil has more turns that the second coil, the secondary voltage is smaller than the primary voltage: This is called a step-down transformer. If the second coil has half as many turns as the first coil, the secondary voltage will be half the size of the

primary voltage; if the second coil has one tenth as many turns, it has one tenth the voltage. In general: Secondary voltage Primary voltage = Number of turns in secondary Number of turns in primary The current is transformed the opposite wayincreased in sizein a stepdown transformer: Secondary current Primary current = Number of turns in primary Number of turns in secondary So a step-down transformer with 100 coils in the primary and 10 coils in the secondary will reduce the voltage by a factor of 10 but multiply the current by a factor of 10 at the same time. The power in an electric current is equal to the current times the voltage (watts = volts x amps is one way to remember this), so you can see the power in the secondary coil is theoretically the same as the power in the primary coil. (In reality, there is some loss of power between the primary and the secondary because some of the "magnetic flux" leaks out of the core, some energy is lost because the core heats up, and so on.)



This bulletin describes the basic characteristics of KEMET capacitors. Before examining all the details relating to KEMET products, here are some of the basics of all capacitors and then of the major types sold under the KEMET brands: solid tantalum and monolithic ceramic. For all practical purposes, consider only the parallel-plate capacitor: two conductors or electrodes separated by a dielectric material of uniform thickness. The conductors can be any material which will conduct electricity easily. The dielectric material must be a poor conductor an insulator.

The symbol for a capacitor used in schematic diagrams of electronic circuits looks very much like a parallel-plate model.

Here is a sample circuit which contains all the components normally called passive, plus a battery. The battery is an active component because it can add energy to the circuit. Passive components may store energy momentarily, but cannot add energy on a continuous basis. The three main passive devices are resistors, capacitors, and inductors.

A favorite analogy compares the flow of electric current with the flow of water out of a tank. A capacitor stores energy when it is charged. The water tank would be the capacitor and it would be charged by a pump (a battery) which fills it up. The amount of charge in the capacitor would be analogous to the amount of water in the tank. The height of the water above some reference point would be the voltage to which the battery had pumped up the capacitor, and the area of the tank would be capacitance. A tall, skinny tank might contain the same amount of water as a shallow, flat tank, but the tall, skinny tank would hold it at a higher pressure. There are also tall, skinny capacitors (high voltage, low capacitance) and shallow, flat capacitors (low voltage, high capacitance).

There is also a pipe coming out of the tank and a valve. If the valve is open, water runs out. The valve is both a switch and a resistor. If the valve is opened only partially, it causes enough friction so that water runs slowly from the tank. It behaves like a variable resistor. When resistance is high, the water runs slowly, but if resistance is made small, the water can run more freely. Once the water is running, it can be stopped by closing the valve. The water in the pipe, already in motion, must stop. If the valve is closed very quickly, then the water must stop flowing very quickly. Water hammers in some plumbing systems which causes a distant clunk when a valve is closed quickly. The energy in the moving water suddenly has no place to go, so it bangs a pipe against its support somewhere. The moving water has acted like the inductor acts in the electronic circuit. The battery is the pump, the capacitor is the tank, the resistor and the switch are the valve, and the inductor is the moving water in the pipe.

What happens inside a capacitor? When charged by a battery, one electrode of the capacitor will become positively charged and the other one will be correspondingly negatively charged.

When the diagram of the capacitor is magnified, it can be seen that the presence of electrical charges on the electrodes induces charges in the dielectric. These induced charges determine something called permittivity. Each different dielectric material has its own value of permittivity. A more practical and better known measurement tool is called K, or dielectric constant. K is the ratio of the permittivity of the dielectric in use

to the permittivity of free space a vacuum. Therefore, all the capacitance values are related to the permittivity of vacuum.


a vacuum, K = 1, while K in every material has some value greater than 1. The higher the K, the more capacitance can be realized, with all other things being equal. The expression of capacitance is seen here, and note the presence of the constant, 8.85 X 1012 (permittivity of vacuum).

The only trick involved in using this equation is to keep the units consistent. Capacitance is in farads, the area A is in square meters and the distance between electrodes D is in meters. K is a ratio and a pure number without dimensions. Sometimes different constants are used in the equation. This comes about when units other than farads and meters are used. Microfarads and inches might be used, for example. To get an idea of what a farad is, calculate the area which would be necessary in a capacitor built to have one farad, to operate in a vacuum, and to have a spacing between electrodes of one millimeter. First, turn the equation around to solve for the area and then plug in the values known. This calculates to 113 million square meters, which would be a field about 6.5 miles on a side. Its not hard to see why one farad capacitors arent made very often and when they are, they are never made with a vacuum dielectric and a one millimeter spacing. Vacuum capacitors are made, but the market is pretty well limited to laboratory standards. All commercial capacitors use some different dielectric material with a higher value of K. Materials C = (8.85 X 10 -12) K AD or A = (8.85 X 10 -12) K CD Given: K = 1 C = 1 farad D = 1 millimeter (or 0.001 meters) A = 1 x 0.001 = 113,000,000 sq. meters (8.85 X 10 -12) x 1

An electrical fuse is a current interrupting device which protects an electrical circuit in which it is installed by creating an open circuit condition in response to excessive current. The current is interrupted when the element or elements which carry the current are melted by heat generated by the current. Fuse terminals typically form an electrical connection between an electrical power source and an electrical component or a combination of components arranged in an electrical circuit. A fusible link is connected between the fuse terminals, so that when electrical current flowing through the fuse exceeds a predetermined limit, the fusible link melts and opens the circuit through the fuse to prevent electrical component damage. A standard fuse is a one time use device that must be replaced after an overload condition has been cleared because the thin strip or ribbon of metal cannot be rejoined after it has melted through. Over-current protection may be provided by fuses as well as by circuit breakers, switches, relays and other devices. Each type of equipment has variations in ratings, service requirements and costs. Fuses generally present the most cost-effective means for providing automatic high-voltage current protection against a single over-current failure. Most types of fuses are designed to minimize damage to conductors and insulation from excessive current. Fuses are employed in many electrical systems that are used by people on an everyday basis. For example, fuses are part of electrical systems found in automobiles, boats, motorcycles and other vehicles. These fuses function to stop electricity from flowing to a particular component of the system by creating an open circuit as a result of an unsafe electrical condition. Fuses are typically employed in the electrical utility industry to protect distribution transformers, cables, capacitor banks and other equipment from damaging overcurrents. The fuses are arranged to disconnect the faulted

equipment or circuit promptly from its source of supply before damage can occur. Fuses are used extensively in high voltage electrical networks in order to protect the electrical equipment in the network from damage caused by surges through the system, generally occasioned by short-circuits or overloads. Fuses are used as necessary to protect semiconductors. Safety fuses that basically can be electrically connected in series with the semiconductor power elements require special installation space and the construction expense that goes along with it. They add electrical series resistance, which results in current-dependent heat loss. Fuses are very important in protecting circuitry from overload conditions. Fuses are devices which, by melting of one or more of their parts intended and designed for this purpose, open the circuit by interrupting the current if the current exceeds a predetermined value for a sufficiently long period of time. They are designed to blow open at predetermined current levels and are selected based upon safety specifications designated for a particular circuit. The fusible element or fuse link is intended to melt away under the influence of a current which exceeds a particular value for a particular length of time. There are thermal fuses, mechanical fuses, spark gap surge arrestors, varistors, and other similar devices, each designed specifically as a solution to one or more extreme electrical events. Each device provides benefit in

particular situations that may be greater than other types of devices. In general, an electrical fuse combines both a sensing and interrupting element in one self-contained device and is direct acting in that it responds only to a combination of magnitude and duration of current flowing through it. The fuse normally does not include any provision for making or breaking the connection to an energized circuit but requires separate devices to perform this function. A fuse is a single-phase device, such that only the fuse in the phase or phases subjected to overcurrent will respond to de-energize the affected phase or phases of the circuit that is faulty. After having interrupted an overcurrent, it is replaced to restore service. Currently, two basic types of fuses are employed, the expulsion fuse and the current limiting fuse. Each type employs a fusible element designed to melt when a current of a predetermined magnitude and duration passes through the element. The expulsion type fuse interrupts overcurrents through the deionizing action of gases that are liberated when the fusible element melts. An expulsion fuse typically employs a relatively short length of a fusible element contained within a tubular enclosure that is part of a larger assembly known as a fuseholder. The enclosure used in the expulsion type fuse is lined with an organic material. Interruption of an overcurrent takes place within the fuse by the deionizing and explosive action of the gases which are liberated when the liner is exposed to the heat of the arc that is created when the fusible element melts in response to the overcurrent. The operation of the expulsion-type fuse is characterized by loud noise and violent emission of gases, flame and burning debris, all of which pose a danger to personnel who may be in close proximity to the fuse when it operates. Because of its violent mode of operation, this type of fuse has generally been restricted to outdoor usage only. The current-limiting type interrupts overcurrents when the arc that is established by the melting of the fusible element is subjected to the mechanical restriction and cooling action of a sand filler that surrounds the fusible element. A current-limiting fuse typically consists of one or more silver wire or ribbon elements of a required length which are electrically connected at their ends to a pair of electrical terminations. The assembly is placed in a tubular housing that is made of a highly temperature-resistant material, and the housing is then typically filled with high-purity silica sand and sealed. Electrical fuses have taken many forms and generally comprise fuses having a fusible link extending between a pair of terminal portions.

The fusible link may be provided either with notches cut in one or more sides of the fusible portion or with holes formed therethrough to create narrower and therefore weaker portions within the fusible portion. One of the more common types of fuses is the thermal fuse (electrothermal fuse). In the thermal fuse, electrical current flowing through the fuse causes the fuse to heat. The current path within a typical fuse is through the end caps or ferrules to a metallic fusible element. The resistance of the fusible element develops heat that causes a portion of the metal to melt or disintegrate upon reaching the melting temperature of the metal. This property is exploited to achieve accurate thermal activation of a fuse in response to a particular level of overload current. In normal operation, the temperature of the device remains relatively low and the resistance of the device also remains low. When an overload current flows through the device, the internal temperature of the fuse rises sufficiently to cause the fuse to electrically open. An alloy type thermal fuse is widely used as a thermo-protector for an electrical appliance or a circuit element, for example, a semiconductor device, a capacitor, or a resistor. Such an alloy type thermal fuse has a configuration in which an alloy of a predetermined melting point is used as a fuse element, the fuse element is bonded between a pair of lead conductors, a flux is applied to the fuse element, and the flux-applied fuse element is sealed by an insulator. A time delay fuse is a type of fuse that is designed to allow temporary and harmless currents to pass there through without triggering the fuse. Time delay fuses are used in connection with equipment having temporary current surges, such as motors and transformers. Time delay fuses often employ a fusible element and a spring-loaded heat mass. A deposit of solder retains the heat mass from movement by the spring. The dimensions of the fusible element are selected such that it melts quickly under short-circuit conditions. Time delay fuses are typically used in circuits subject to temporary transients such as motor starting currents. A typical high-voltage, current-limiting fuse comprises a tubular insulating housing, an elongated core within the housing, and one of more fusible elements wound about the core and connected between terminals at opposite ends of the housing. A core is needed in fuses of this type rated at 5 KV and above in order to enable the fuse to accommodate the required length of fusible element within a housing of practical length. The fuse housing materials may consist of glass, ceramic, porcelain, and glass-filament-wound epoxy tubing. Copper ferrules or sand cast caps are typically glued to the ends of the fuse body with an epoxy or pressed onto the fuse housing with an interference fit to form end enclosures. A card type fuse is suitable for use

in various devices having a low electrical power of less than 1A. For example, such a fuse is suitable for fuse-matching in a wire harness composed of wires having a small diameter, and which connects a series of electronic elements in a car. In such fields, utilization of card type fuses has been increasing. Solid state fuses are also known in which transistors and thyristors are placed in series with the load and turn off in response to a load fault condition. Fuses are commonly used in automotive electrical systems to protect circuits against damage caused by overload conditions. Fuses for various circuits are often grouped together at clustered locations where circuit junctions exist in a fuse box, power distribution block, or junction block. Many automotive vehicles are equipped with a fuse junction box which serves to hold a plurality of fuses associated with the various electrically powered devices of the vehicle. A typical automotive fuse has a generally rectangular plastic body with a pair of parallel, blade-like fuse terminals extending therefrom. The outer surface of the fuse box is provided with fuse sockets to allow the fuse terminals to be inserted into electrical engagement with the circuit terminals, thereby completing and fuse-protecting the associated circuits. Typical fuse boxes are connected to the positive pole of the motor vehicle battery via one or more cables leading to the fuse box whereat power is supplied to a plurality of fuses contained within the box. The ends of the fuses opposite the end connected to the positive terminal of the battery generally are connected to outgoing cables or cable strands to supply power to electrical consumers such as, for example, motor vehicle lighting systems, sensors and switches, and power accessories. Generally, the type of fusion of fuses used for protecting an electric circuit in an automobile or the like is classified into the fusion in a high current region and the fusion in a low current region. Fuses of the relatively flat, plug in type which have a fuse link encapsulated in a plastic fuse body with a pair of terminal legs extending from the body have become very popular, especially in automotive applications. One commonly used type of automotive fuse takes the form of a pair of parallel blade type contacts with the fusable portion constituting a bridge between the two blades. Blade type fuses are increasingly used in automobile equipment, for the purposes of space requirements, protective qualities and ease of plugging in. Blade type fuses generally comprise an insulating case or body in which is partially mounted a conductive unit constituted by two connection terminal blades joined together by a fuse link element or gauging part. The fusable link is encased

in a transparent insulative plastic and may be color coded according to the ampere rating of the fuse. A fuse junction box comprises a plurality of fuse receptacles containing spring clip contacts which engage the blades when the buses are pushed blade-end first into the receptacles. When properly inserted, each fuse forms part of an electrical circuit and protects the circuit from over-current conditions. Fuses are commonly used in integrated circuits to provide redundancy and programming capabilities. Such fuses can provide for redundancy for the purpose of preventing reduction of yield of the semiconductor devices, which may be caused by random defects generated in the manufacturing process. Redundancy in integrated circuit memories is part of current wafer and chip manufacturing strategy to improve yield. By providing redundant circuits on chips, integrated circuit memory yields are increased by eliminating from circuit operation those circuits or modules which are defective or are not needed. The practice is to blow fuses which allow redundant memory cells to be used in place of cells that are nonfunctional. The redundant circuit portion is provided as a spare circuit portion having the same function as a specific circuit portion so that the specific circuit portion, which has a defect caused during manufacturing may be replaced with the redundant circuit in order to maintain the function of the entire semiconductor. Fuses are typically used in the design of monolithic integrated circuits (IC), and in particular in memory devices as elements for altering the configuration of the circuitry contained therein. To increase yield in integrated circuits such as memory chips, it is common to include redundant memory cells on the memory chips. If a memory circuit is found to be defective or is not needed, the fuse may be blown thereby activating or deactivating the redundant memory cells. Fuses incorporated in semiconductor constructions are typically provided as fuse links, which are narrow lines in a patterned conductive layer. The links are arranged in vectors or arrays, with the separation between the fuses being determined by, among other things, the spot size achievable by an energy input device utilized to heat up and blow the fuses, as well as by the positional accuracy of the energy input device. Electrical fuses, particularly silicided and non-silicided polysilicon fuses, have been widely adopted in integrated circuit fabrication over conventional metal fuses because of their package level reparability, field programming abilities, and built in self-test abilities. Fuses for integrated circuits are

typically classified as two types: laser blown and electrical fuses. Both laser blown and electrical fuses are typically located near the surface of the semiconductor device so that fuses can be blown without damage to underlying integrated circuits.


The pnp transistor works essentially the same as the npn transistor. However, since the emitter, base, and collector in the pnp transistor are made of materials that are different from those used in the npn transistor, different current carriers flow in the pnp unit. The majority current carriers in the pnp transistor are holes. This is in contrast to the npn transistor where the majority current carriers are electrons. To support this different type of current (hole flow), the bias batteries are reversed for the pnp transistor. A typical bias setup for the pnp transistor is shown in figure 1. Notice that the procedure used earlier to properly bias the npn transistor also applies here to the pnp transistor. The first letter (p) in the pnp sequence indicates the polarity of the voltage required for the emitter (positive), and the second letter (n) indicates the polarity of the base voltage (negative). Since the base-collector junction is always reverse biased, then the opposite polarity voltage (negative) must be used for the collector. Thus, the base of the pnp transistor must be negative with respect to the emitter, and the collector must be more negative than the base. Remember, just as in the case of the npn transistor, this difference in supply voltage is necessary to have current flow (hole flow in the case of the pnp transistor) from the emitter to the collector. Although hole flow is the predominant type of current flow in the pnp transistor, hole flow only takes place within the transistor itself, while electrons flow in the external circuit. However, it is the internal hole flow that leads to electron flow in the external wires connected to the transistor.

Figure 2: The forward-biased junction in a pnp transistor.

pnp Forward-Biased Junction

Now let us consider what happens when the emitter-base junction is forward biased. With the bias setup shown, the positive terminal of the battery repels the emitter holes toward the base, while the negative terminal drives the base electrons toward the emitter. When an emitter hole and a base electron meet, they combine. For each electron that combines with a hole, another electron leaves the negative terminal of the battery, and enters the base. At the same time, an electron leaves the emitter, creating a new hole, and enters the positive terminal of the battery. This movement of electrons into the base and out of the emitter constitutes base current flow (IB), and the path these electrons take is referred to as the emitter-base circuit.

pnp Reverse-Biased Junction

In the reverse-biased junction (figure 3), the negative voltage on the collector and the positive voltage on the base block the majority current carriers from crossing the junction. However, this same negative collector voltage acts as forward bias for the minority current holes in the base, which cross the junction and enter the

collector. The minority current electrons in the collector also sense forward bias-the positive base voltage-and move into the base. The holes in the collector are filled by electrons that flow from the negative terminal of the battery. At the same time the electrons leave the negative terminal of the battery, other electrons in the base break their covalent bonds and enter the positive terminal of the battery. Although there is only minority current flow in the reverse-biased junction, it is still very small because of the limited number of minority current carriers.

Figure 3: The reverse-biased junction in a pnp transistor.

pnp Junction Interaction

Figure 4: pnp transistor operation

Figure 4: pnp transistor operation The interaction between the forward- and reverse-biased junctions in a pnp transistor is very similar to that in an npn transistor, except that in the pnp transistor, the majority current carriers are holes. In the pnp transistor shown in figure 4, the positive voltage on the emitter repels the holes toward the base. Once in the base, the holes combine with base electrons. But again, remember that the base region is made very thin to prevent the recombination of holes with electrons. Therefore, well over 90 percent of the holes that enter the base become attracted to the large negative collector voltage and pass right through the base. However, for each electron and hole that combine in the base region, another electron leaves the negative terminal of the base battery (V BB) and enters the base as base current (IB). At the same time an electron leaves the negative terminal of the battery, another electron leaves the emitter as IE (creating a new hole) and enters the positive terminal of VBB. Meanwhile, in the collector circuit, electrons from the collector battery (VCC) enter the collector as Ic and combine with the excess holes from the base. For each hole that is neutralized in the collector by an electron, another electron leaves the emitter and starts its way back to the positive terminal of VCC.

Figure 3: total current flow in the pnp transistor

Figure 5: total current flow in the pnp transistor

Although current flow in the external circuit of the pnp transistor is opposite in direction to that of the npn transistor, the majority carriers always flow from the emitter to the collector. This flow of majority carriers also results in the formation of two individual current loops within each transistor. One loop is the base-current path, and the other loop is the collector-current path. The combination of the current in both of these loops (IB + IC) results in total transistor current (IE). The most important thing to remember about the two different types of transistors is that the emitter-base voltage of the pnp transistor has the same controlling effect on collector current as that of the npn transistor. In simple terms, increasing the forward-bias voltage of a

transistor reduces the emitter-base junction barrier. This action allows more carriers to reach the collector, causing an increase in current flow from the emitter to the collector and through the external circuit. Conversely, a decrease in the forward-bias voltage reduces collector current.



Fig.1 Block diagram of automatic change over switch.


In three-phase applications, if lowvoltage is available in any one or two phases, and you want your equipment to work on normal voltage, this circuit will solve your problem. However, a proper-rating fuse needs to be used in the input lines (R, Y and B) of each phase. The circuit provides correct voltage in the same power supply lines through relays from the other phase where correct voltage is available. Using it you can operate all yourequipment even when correct voltage is available on a single phase in the building. The circuit is built around a transformer, comparator, transistor and relay. Three identical sets of this circuit, one each for three phases, are used. Let us now consider the working of the circuit connecting red cable (call it R phase). The mains power supply phase R is stepped down by transformer X1 to deliver 12V, 300 mA, which is rectified by diode D1 and filtered by capacitor C1 to produce the operating voltage for the operational amplifier(IC1). The voltage at inverting pin 2 of oprational amplifier IC1 is taken from the voltage divider circuit of resistor R1 and preset resistor VR1. VR1 is used to set the reference voltage according to the requirement. The reference voltage at noninverting pin 3 is fixed to 5.1V through zener diode ZD1. Till the supply voltage available in phase R is in the range of 200V-230V, the voltage at inverting pin 2 of IC1 remains high, i.e., more than reference voltage of 5.1V, and its output pin 6 also remains high. As a result, transistor T1 does not conduct, relay RL1 remains de-energised and phase R supplies power to load L1 via normallyclosed (N/C) contact of relay RL1.

As soon as phase-R voltage goes below 200V, the voltage at inverting pin 2 of IC1 goes below reference voltage of 5.1V, and its output goes low. As a result, transistor T1 conducts and relay RL1 energises and load L1 is disconnected from phase R and connected to phase Y through relay RL2. Similarly, the auto phase-change of the remaining two phases, viz, phase Y and phase B, can be explained. Switch S1 is mains power on/off switch.

Use relay contacts of proper rating and fuses should be able to take-on the load when transferred from other phases. While wiring, assembly and installation of the circuit, make sure that you: 1. Use good-quality, multi-strand insulated copper wire suitable for your current requirement. 2. Use good-quality relays with proper contact and current rating. 3. Mount the transformer(s) and relays on a suitable cabinet. Use a Tag Block (TB) for incoming/outgoing connections from mains.

Planning of work

Choose project. Collect information about project. Arrange the components. Testing the components. Design the circuit. Connect the components according to circuit. Testing of circuit. Checked by guide. Final testing by project incharge.


Residential. Commercial offices. Factories operating with 1 phase machineries. Hospitals/Banks. Institutions.

It automatically supplies voltage in case of power failure or low voltage in up to 2 of the 3 incoming phases. Automatic Phase Changer automatically cuts supply during low voltage thus, protects equipment from the harmful affects of unhealthily low voltage.

Electronics for you(January 2009). Theraja, B.L.; and Theraja, A.K. 2002. Electrical Technology,

21st ed. Ranjendra Ravida, New Delhi, India.