2011

Green Infrastructure retrofit…
As an alternative to conventional stormwater management
“Prevention is better than cure”. Conventional stormwater management systems attempts to cure the problem of runoffs after it is created. Whereas the target should be to prevent or minimize the generation of stormwater at first place. Besides providing ample of environmental, social and economic benefits, Green Infrastructure aims at just that, i.e. reducing volume and velocity of the runoff generated.

Pranav Mishra 1st sem., M.Tech. 11/28/2011

Contents
S. No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Title
Introduction Conventional stormwater management Green Infrastructure Green Infrastructure benefits Green Ifrastructure measures Roof garden Rain garden Vegetated swales Porous pavers Contained planters Flow-through planters Infiltration planters Rain water harvesting Rain barrels and cisterns Disconnecting/redirecting downspout. Others conclusion

List of figures
Figure 1 pervious and impervious surface Figure 2 components of stormwater Figure 4 layers of typical roof garden Figure 3 roof garden Figure 5 rain garden Figure 6 Swales Figure 7 cross section of a swale Figure 8 pervious pavers Figure 9 Roadside pervious pavers Figure 10 Contained planter Figure 11 Flow-through planter Figure 12 Cross section of a flow-through planter Figure 13 Infiltration Planter Figure 14 Cross section of an infiltration planter Figure 15 Elements of a typica RWH system Figure 16 Rain barrels Figure 17 Method of redirecting downspout Figure 18 Green parking Figure 19 Brownfield development Figure 20 Pocket wetland Figure 21 Trees and urban forestry Figure 22 Green streets

Introduction
Many communities, ranging from highly developed cities to newly developing towns, are looking for ways to assure that the quality of their rivers, streams, lakes, and estuaries is protected from the impacts of development and urbanization. Traditional development practices cover large areas of the ground with impervious surfaces such as roads, driveways, and buildings. Once such development occurs, rainwater cannot infiltrate into the ground, but rather runs offsite at levels that are much higher than would naturally occur. The collective force of such rainwater scours streams, erodes stream banks, and thereby causes large quantities of sediment and other entrained pollutants to enter the water body each time it rains.

Figure 1 pervious and impervious surface

In addition to the problems caused by stormwater and nonpoint source runoff, many older cities, have combined sewage and stormwater pipes which periodically and in some cases frequently overflow due to precipitation events. In the late 20 century, most cities that attempted to reduce sewer overflows did so by separating combined sewers, expanding treatment capacity or storage within the sewer system, or by replacing broken or decaying pipes. However, these practices can be enormously expensive and take decades to implement. Moreover, piped stormwater and combined sewer overflows (―CSOs‖) may also, in some cases, have the adverse effects of upsetting the hydrological balance by moving water out of the watershed, thus bypassing local streams and ground water. Many of these events also have adverse impacts and costs on source water for municipal drinking water utilities.
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Conventional Stormwater Management
Stormwater is rainwater and melted snow that runs off streets, lawns, and other sites. When stormwater is absorbed into the ground, it is filtered and ultimately replenishes aquifers or flows into streams and rivers. In developed areas, however, impervious surfaces such as pavement and roofs prevent precipitation from naturally soaking into the ground. Instead, the water runs rapidly into storm drains, sewer systems, and drainage ditches and can cause:
       

Downstream flooding Stream bank erosion Increased turbidity (muddiness created by stirred up sediment) from erosion Habitat destruction Changes in the stream flow hydrograph (a graph that displays the flow rate of a stream over a period of time) Combined sewer overflows Infrastructure damage Contaminated streams, rivers, and coastal water

Figure 2 components of stormwater

Conventional stormwater management has focused on removing stormwater from a site as quickly as possible to reduce on-site flooding. This has meant

implementing management techniques, such as curb and gutter and piping systems, that discharge runoff to the nearest receiving water, to reduce peak runoff discharge rates. Although this is an efficient way to remove water quickly and prevent on-site flooding, it has proven to be devastating to downstream waters by increasing the frequency and magnitude of floods, altering stream channel morphology (alignment, cross-section geometry, streambed composition) and reducing groundwater recharge, all of which make less water available for drinking water withdrawal and stream base flows.

Green Infrastructure
A set of techniques, technologies, approaches and practices—collectively referred to as ―green infrastructure‖—can be used to eliminate or reduce the amount of water and pollutants that run off a site and ultimately are discharged into adjacent water bodies. As cities move towards sustainable infrastructure, green infrastructure can be a valuable approach. Green infrastructure approaches currently in use include green roofs, trees and tree boxes, rain gardens, vegetated swales, pocket wetlands, infiltration planters, porous and permeable pavements, vegetated median strips, reforestation/revegetation, and protection and enhancement of riparian buffers and floodplains. It can be used almost anywhere soil and vegetation can be worked into the urban or suburban landscape. This also includes decentralized harvesting approaches, such as the use of rain barrels and cisterns to capture and re-use rainfall for watering plants or flushing toilets. These approaches can be used to keep rainwater out of the sewer system so that it does not contribute to a sewer overflow and also to reduce the amount of untreated runoff discharging to surface waters. Green infrastructure also allows stormwater to be absorbed and cleansed by soil and vegetation and either re-used or allowed to flow back into groundwater or surface water resources. Green infrastructure applications and approaches can reduce, capture, and treat stormwater runoff at its source before it can reach the sewer system. Site-specific practices, such as green roofs, downspout disconnections, rain harvesting/gardens, planter boxes, and permeable pavement are designed to mimic natural hydrologic functions and decrease the amount of impervious area and stormwater runoff from individual sites. The applications and design approaches can also be applied in neighborhood settings (i.e., green streets) or at larger regional scale (i.e. urban forestry) to manage stormwater. These applications and approaches can keep stormwater out of the sewer system to reduce overflows and to reduce the amount of untreated stormwater discharging to surface waters. In managing wet weather, green infrastructure practices, like all types of practices, need to be implemented at multiple scales: site, neighborhood, and regional or watershed. The most beautifully designed site, even if

multiple green infrastructure practices are used, may actually result in an overall increase in impervious surfaces and thus stormwater discharges, if new or expanded roads, parking lots and commercial development are needed to serve it. For that reason, we include approaches such as infill, redevelopment and preserving natural areas in our suite of green infrastructure approaches.

Green Infrastructure Benefits
Green infrastructure has a number of environmental and economic and social benefits in addition to reducing the volume of sewer overflows and runoff. Cleaner Water – Vegetation, green space and water reuse reduce the volumes of stormwater runoff and, in combined systems, the volume of combined sewer overflows, as well as reduce concentrations of pollutants in those discharges. Enhanced Water Supplies – Most green infiltration approaches involve allowing stormwater to percolate through the soil where it recharges the groundwater and the base flow for streams, thus ensuring adequate water supplies for humans and more stable aquatic ecosystems. In addition, capturing and using stormwater conserves water supplies. Cleaner Air – Trees and vegetation improve air quality by filtering many airborne pollutants and can help reduce the amount of respiratory illness. Transportation and community planning and design efforts that facilitate shorter commute distances and the ability to walk to destinations will also reduce vehicle emissions. Reduced Urban Temperatures – Summer city temperatures can average 10ºF higher than nearby suburban temperatures. High temperatures are also linked to higher ground level ozone concentrations. Vegetation creates shade, reduces the amount of heat absorbing materials and emits water vapor – all of which cool hot air. Limiting impervious surface and using light colored impervious surfaces (e.g., porous concrete) also mitigate urban temperatures. Moderate the Impacts of Climate Change – Climate change impacts and effects vary regionally, but green infrastructure techniques provide adaptation benefits for a wide array of circumstances, by conserving and reusing water, promoting groundwater recharge, reducing surface water discharges that could contribute to flooding. In addition, there are mitigation

benefits such as reduced energy demands and carbon sequestration by vegetation. Increased Energy Efficiency – Green space helps lower ambient temperatures and, when incorporated on and around buildings, helps shade and insulate buildings from wide temperature swings, decreasing the energy needed for heating and cooling. Further, diverting stormwater from wastewater collection, conveyance and treatment systems reduces the amount of energy needed to pump and treat the water. Energy efficiency not only reduces costs, but also reduces generation of greenhouse gases. Source Water Protection – Green infrastructure practices provide pollutant removal benefits, thereby providing some protection for both ground water and surface water sources of drinking water. In addition, green infrastructure provides groundwater recharge benefits. Community Benefits – Trees and plants improve urban aesthetics and community livability by providing recreational and wildlife areas. Studies show that property values are higher when trees and other vegetation are present. Cost Savings – Green infrastructure may save capital costs associated with paving, creating curbs and gutters, building large collection and conveyance systems, and digging big tunnels and centralized stormwater ponds; operations and maintenance expenses for treatment plants, pumping stations, pipes, and other hard infrastructure; energy costs for pumping water around; cost of treatment during wet weather; and costs of repairing the damage caused by stormwater, such as streambank restoration.

Green infrastructure measures
          Roofs gardens. Rain gardens Vegetated swales Porous pavers. Contained planters Flow-through planters. Infiltration planters Rain water harvesting. Rain barrels and cisterns. Disconnecting/redirecting downspout.

Roof garden
Greening of rooftops, by incorporating plants into the design of roofing systems, has been suggested as a method to reduce the impacts of stormwater runoff by reducing the impervious surface within a developed zone. The benefits of green roofs (sometimes called Eco roofs) for stormwater control include direct retention of a portion of the rainfall, and delaying and decreasing the peak rate of runoff from the site. green roofs consist of four distinct layers:     an impermeable roof cover or roofing membrane; a drainage net, lightweight growth media, 3 in.(8 cm), adapted vegetation.
Figure 3 roof garden

Figure 4 layers of typical roof garden

The drainage layer is an open, highly permeable material that quickly channels gravitational water off the roof. Growth media, in addition to providing a suitable rooting zone for vegetation, is typically a low-density aggregate with high-water holding capability while also providing good drainage. A lightweight media from 3 -6 in. (8 -15 cm) deep allows for retrofit installation on existing buildings, and reduces the need for extra structural support in new buildings. Media depth and porosity play an important role in stormwater retention and plant growth. Plants provide shade to the surface below foliage, intercept rainfall, and slow direct runoff from sloped roofs. Plant size and selection depend on the depth of the roof overburden (growing media) and local climate, but almost always consists of winter-hardy, drought-tolerant, perennial plants. Annual reductions of runoff of 38 -54% and 38 -45% have been reported for 3 in. (8 cm) deep media. A media depth of 2.5 in. (6.5 cm) can retain 40% of the rain for an individual 2-in. (50-mm) storm.

Benefits Green roofs offer a practical alternative for new construction and for retrofitting existing structures. It is suitable for urban areas where limited space is available to implement traditional stormwater benefits. It act as biofilter in reducing pollution content of rainfall. Reduces urban heat island effect. Reduces surrounding air temperature by evapotranspiration.

Rain Gardens
Rain gardens are landscaped depressions that are either excavated or created with side slopes. An inlet pipe from or sheet flow over impervious surfaces conveys stormwater runoff into the basin, where it is temporarily stored until it infiltrates into the ground. Basins often provide complete onsite infiltration for small storm events. Check dams or weirs can be used to detain the flow. They can be sized to infiltrate large storms in areas where soils drain well, or they may require a safety overflow or disposal method. On the surface, a rain garden looks like an attractive garden. It may support habitat for birds and butterflies, it may be a formal landscape amenity or it may be incorporated into a larger garden as a border or as an entry feature. What makes it a rain garden is in how it gets its water and what happens to that water once it arrives in the garden. There are two basic types of rain gardens – Figure 5 rain garden under-drained and self-contained. Both types of rain gardens are used to improve stormwater quality, reduce runoff volumes and generally facilitate infiltration of cleaned water. Which type of garden is selected to be built is a balance of volumes of water to be treated, existing soil conditions, available space, and budget for the project. In some cases where infiltration is not desired, the underdrain system can move excess water into a conventional storm sewer pipe system. Cases where infiltration would not be desirable would be if the bottom of the garden has less than 4‘ of clearance to the seasonal mean high water table or if the adjacent soils are contaminated and the cleaned water from the garden would become recontaminated by coming in contact with the adjacent native solids. Benefits Basins or rain gardens eliminate or dramatically reduce stormwater flow rates and volumes. They improve water quality by settling and filtering out

pollutants, they recharge groundwater, and they can provide stormwater storage capacity in a large drainage area. Trees planted in infiltration basins can shade buildings and parking lots or other paved areas, reducing runoff temperatures. The vegetation also helps prevent soil erosion, provides wildlife habitat, and is visually attractive. Vegetated infiltration basins can have an informal or formal design and are easily integrated into the overall landscape or site design. Vegetation Vegetated infiltration basins can be plantedwith a variety of trees, shrubs, grasses, and ground covers. Trees are highly recommended for their shading and temperature reduction benefits. Avoid permanent irrigation where possible. Basins are likely to need watering and weed pulling during the first one to three years. Maintenance Inspect the vegetation and structure periodically and after major storm events. Vegetation maintenance is similar to that used for other types of managed landscapes. Maintenance needs include removing sediment and debris; cleaning and repairing inlets, embankments, berms, dams, and outlets as needed; controlling erosion; and ensuring proper drainage. Some plant replacement may be necessary. With proper construction and maintenance, a vegetated infiltration basin can last indefinitely.

Vegetated Swales
Swales are gently sloping depressions planted with dense vegetation or grass that treat stormwater runoff from rooftops, streets, and parking lots. As the runoff flows along the length of the swale, the vegetation slows and filters it and allows it to infiltrate into the ground. Where soils do not drain well, swales are typically lined and convey runoff to a drywell or soakage trench. Swales can include check dams to help slow and detain the flow. A swale can look like a typical landscaped area.

Figure 6 Swales

Benefits The plants in a swale filter and slow stormwater runoff while sediments and other pollutants settle out. Swales are costeffective, attractive and can provide wildlife habitat and visual enhancements. Single or multiple swale systems can treat and dispose of stormwater runoff from an entire site. Swales can reduce the number and cost of storm drains and piping required when developing a site.

Vegetation Swales can be planted with a variety of trees, shrubs, grasses, and ground covers. Plants that can tolerate both wet and dry soil conditions are best.

Plant grassy swales with native broadleaf, dense-rooted grass varieties. Avoid trees in areas that require enhanced structural stability, such as bermed side slopes. Summer irrigation and weed pulling may be required in the first one to three years.

Maintenance Inspect swales periodically, especially after major storm events. Remove sediment and trash, clean and repair inlets, curb cuts, check dams, and outlets as needed. Maintain side slopes to prevent erosion and ensure proper drainage. With proper construction and maintenance, swales can last indefinitely.

Safety and Siting Requirements • Swales should not be located closer than 10 feet from building foundations. • Locate swales at least 5 feet from any property line. • Grade the site so that water drains to the swale, or provide some form of conveyance such as a trench to direct the runoff into the swale if site grading is impractical. • Many parking lot planting islands can be excavated and retrofitted into swale systems with curb cuts.

Figure 7 cross section of a swale

Pervious pavers
Pervious pavers are typically made of precast concrete, brick, stone, or cobbles. Pavers usually form interlocking patterns, and are placed within a rigid frame on top of a sand bed or an under drain system. Sand or gravel fills the gaps between pavers, allowing water to pass to the underlying subgrade then infiltrate into the ground. Some pavers also have small voids in the pavement surface to increase permeability. Pervious pavers are available in many colors, shapes, sizes, and textures, and can support heavy traffic loads and weights. They can replace conventional asphalt or concrete paving in parking lots, roads, and sidewalks. Benefits By infiltrating precipitation, pervious pavers reduce stormwater runoff flow rate, volume, and temperature, and filter Figure 8 pervious pavers pollutants. They help recharge groundwater and maintain stream base flows. Pervious pavers may reduce or eliminate the need for an underground storm drain system or a curb and gutter system. They are durable and attractive, and allow great flexibility of design. Pervious paver areas can serve as an overflow for other stormwater management techniques. Maintenance It is important to control site erosion and sedimentation to prevent clogging. Annual vacuum sweeping helps maintain permeability. The gaps between pavers may require occasional weeding or scorching and sand or gravel replenishment. Because pervious pavers are easily lifted and reset, they are easy to repair or replace. Safety and Siting Requirements • Use over soils that drain well such as gravelly or loamy sand. • Do not use pervious pavers in areas with high sediment loads that can clog pores in the pavement.

• Pervious pavers are not allowed in areas where hazardous material is stored or transported.

Figure 9 Roadside pervious pavers

Contained planters
A contained planter is filled with soil and plants that accept precipitation only, not stormwater runoff from another source. It is placed above ground on an impervious surface. Rainwater is temporarily stored above the soil, and then filters down through the planter. In some cases, weep holes provide drainage through the bottom of the planter onto the impervious surface. Contained planter boxes can be prefabricated pots or constructed in place. They come in all shapes and sizes, are made of stone, concrete, brick, plastic lumber or wood, and can hold a variety of plants. Benefits A contained planter reduces impervious area and stormwater runoff. Contained planters are simple, cost-effective, and visually appealing. They can be placed on many types of flat impervious surfaces, such as sidewalks, plazas, and rooftops.
Figure 10 Contained planter

Vegetation Planters can contain small trees, shrubs, flowers, bulbs, and groundcovers. Trees are especially recommended because they provide canopy cover for impervious surfaces not covered by the planter. Self-sustaining plants that do not require additional fertilizers or pesticides are recommended. Maintenance Contained planters require minimal maintenance. Check them periodically to maintain adequate drainage. They are likely to need summer watering and weeding. Potted plants require more water than the same plants growing in the ground.

Flow through planters
Flow-through planters are structures or containers with impervious bottoms or placed on impervious surfaces. They do not infiltrate into the ground. They can be placed in or above the ground level. Flow-through planters are filled with gravel, soil, and vegetation and are typically waterproofed. They temporarily store stormwater runoff on top of the soil and filter sediment and pollutants as water slowly infiltrates down through the planter. Excess water collects in a perforated pipe at the bottom of the planter and drains to a destination point or conveyance system. Flowthrough planters come in many sizes and shapes, and are made of stone, concrete, brick, plastic lumber or wood.

Figure 11 Flow-through planter

Benefits Because flow-through planters can be built immediately next to buildings, they are ideal for constrained sites with setback limitations, poorly draining soils, steep slopes, or contaminated areas. Flow-through planters reduce stormwater flow rates, volume, and temperature, and improve water quality. They can also provide shading and energy benefits when sited against building walls. They can be an attractive landscape feature and provide wildlife habitat. Vegetation Flow-through planters can contain a variety of shrubs, small trees, and other plants appropriate for seasonally moist and dry soil conditions. Summer irrigation and weed pulling may be required. Minimize the need for permanent irrigation as much as possible by using native and well-adapted plants. Maintenance Inspect plants and structural components periodically. Maintenance is similar for all container

plantings. Other maintenance needs may include removing sediment, cleaning and repairing pipes, and maintaining proper drainage. Downspouts, curb cuts, and other features where debris may obstruct flow must be inspected and cleaned periodically.

Figure 12 Cross section of a flow-through planter

Safety and Siting Requirements • Flow-through planters are recommended for compact sites because their size can vary. • An approved overflow to a proper destination disposal point is required. • Flow-through planters can be located next to building foundations or in other situations where infiltration is a concern. • They are ideal for sites with soil that does not drain well, and are suitable to all soil types.

Infiltration Planters
Infiltration planters are structures or containers with open bottoms to allow stormwater to slowly infiltrate into the ground. They contain a layer of gravel, soil, and vegetation. Stormwater runoff temporarily pools on top of the soil, and then slowly infiltrates through the planter into the ground. Infiltration planters come in many sizes and shapes, and are made of stone, concrete, brick, plastic lumber, or wood. Infiltration planters are not recommended for soils that don‘t drain well. Use flow-through planters instead. Benefits Infiltration planters are ideal for spacelimited sites with good drainage. They reduce stormwater runoff flow rate, volume, temperature and pollutants, and recharge groundwater. Infiltration planters can be Figure 13 Infiltration Planter attractive, and are easily integrated into the overall landscape design. They can also provide energy benefits when sited near building walls. Vegetation Infiltration planters can contain a variety of shrubs, small trees, and other plants appropriate for seasonally moist and dry soil conditions. Avoid permanent irrigation if possible. Planters are likely to need watering and weeding in the first one to three years. Maintenance Inspect plants and structural components periodically. Remove sediment and clear debris from inlet pipes and curb cuts to maintain proper drainage.

Figure 14 Cross section of an infiltration planter

Safety and siting requirements • Locate planters at least five feet from any property line. • Infiltration planters are only suitable for soil types that drain well. • Place them flush to the ground or above it. • An approved overflow to a proper destination point is required.

Rain water harvesting
Rainwater harvesting, collecting rainwater from impervious surfaces and storing it for later use, is a technique that has been used for millennia. It has not been widely employed in industrialized societies that rely primarily on centralized water distribution systems, but with limited water resources and stormwater pollution recognized as serious problems and the emergence of green building, the role that rainwater harvesting can play for water supply is being reassessed. Rainwater reuse offers a number of benefits.  Provides inexpensive supply of water;  Augments drinking water supplies;  Reduces stormwater runoff and pollution;  Reduces erosion in urban environments;  Provides water that needs little treatment for irrigation or non-potable indoor uses;  Helps reduce peak summer demands; and  Helps introduce demand management for drinking water systems.

Figure 15 Elements of a typica RWH system

Rainwater harvesting has significant potential to provide environmental and economic benefits by reducing stormwater runoff and conserving potable

water, though several barriers exist that limit its application. Rainwater harvesting systems typically divert and store runoff from residential and commercial roofs. Often referred to as ‗clean‘ runoff, roof runoff does contain pollutants (metals or hydrocarbons from roofing materials, nutrients from atmospheric deposition, bacteria from bird droppings), but they are generally in lower concentrations and absent many of the toxics present in runoff from other impervious surfaces. Installing a rainwater collection system requires diverting roof downspouts to cisterns or rain barrels to capture and store the runoff. Collection containers are constructed of dark materials or buried to prevent light penetration and the growth of algae. From the storage container, a dual plumbing system is needed for indoor uses and/or a connection to the outdoor irrigation system.

Rain barrels and cistern
A rainwater barrel is a water tank used to collect and store rain water runoff, typically from rooftops via rain gutters. Rainwater tanks are devices for collecting and maintaining harvested rain. Rainwater tanks are installed to make use of rain water for later use, reduce water use from mains for economic or environmental reasons, and aid self-sufficiency. Stored water may be used for watering gardens, agriculture, flushing toilets, in washing machines, washing cars, and also for drinking, especially when other water supplies are unavailable, expensive, or of poor quality.
Figure 16 Rain barrels

Rainwater tanks can also be used for retention of stormwater for release at a later time. In arid climates, rain barrels are often used to store water during the rainy season for use during dryer periods. Rainwater tanks may have a high initial cost. However, many homes use small scale rain barrels to harvest minute quantities of water for landscaping/gardening applications rather than as a potable water surrogate. These small rain barrels are often inexpensive. There are also many low cost designs that use locally available materials and village level technologies for applications in developing countries where there are limited alternatives for potable drinking water. While most are properly engineered to screen out mosquitoes, the lack of proper filtering or closed loop systems may create breeding grounds for larvae. With tanks used for drinking water, the user runs a health risk if maintenance is not carried out.

Downspout disconnection
If managed properly, the water that flows off rooftops can help keep lawns and gardens green while lowering utility bills during spring and summer months. However, most downspouts send rainwater down driveways, sidewalks, and underground pipes that lead to storm drains or sanitary sewer lines. This "stormwater runoff" picks up pollutants from motor oil, lawn chemicals, and pet waste along the way, before entering lakes and streams — untreated. The large amount of untreated water entering the storm sewer system — and eventually our streams and lakes — has lasting health, safety, environmental and economic impacts on communities. Fortunately, there are many things can be done to put rainwater to good use while reducing the amount of stormwater runoff that ends up in local waterways. The problem with pavement During the construction of homes, roads and office buildings vegetation is often removed and replaced by large paved areas. These surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. The infiltration process helps clean water and feed the underground springs that supply drinking water. Paved surfaces also increase the speed and amount of water that rushes into streams, causing stream bank erosion and harming wildlife habitats. Direct the flow of water from downspouts away from paved surfaces whenever possible. Combined sewer overflows Combined sewers are older systems that carry both stormwater and wastewater to treatment plants. When rainstorms fill combined sewers beyond capacity, the result is a Combined Sewer Overflow — a discharge of untreated wastewater and stormwater into local waterways. Combined sewers are costly to replace and still used in older areas of the region. Residents are encouraged to disconect downspouts from sewer pipes or redirect downspouts to grassy areas or gardens to reduce the rain that enters sewers. Disconnecting downspout Downspouts that connect directly to sewer pipes increase the risk of sewer overflow and flooding. Disconnecting your downspout from a sewer intake

pipe (standpipe), then redirecting the flow of water to a grassy area or garden is a simple process that makes a big difference to the environment.

Figure 17 Method of redirecting downspout

Other measures

Figure 19 Brownfield development

Figure 18 Green parking

Figure 22 Green streets

Figure 21 Trees and urban forestry

Figure 20 Pocket wetland

Conclusion
Stormwater sewer systems are necessary in urban and suburban environments where substantial amounts of impervious surfaces (e.g., buildings, pavement) have replaced natural pervious surfaces (e.g., soil, wetlands) that once absorbed storm precipitation. It is estimated that a typical city block generates over five times the amount of surface runoff as a wooded area of the same Size. Using green infrastructure not only reduces pressure on existing stormwater system, but simultaneously helps in maintaining healthy environment. We all are aware of the grave situation our environment is in today and hence it is not advisable to go for conventional stormwater management system alone for new development, which tries to alter the natural process of ground infiltration by carrying water through piping systems. Besides it also fails to carry the runoff load during peak hours, leading to water logging. The situation becomes worse at places where combined sewer system is in practice. As overflow there means soiled and contaminated, untreated water on street posing serious health risks to peoples. Hence, using stormwater management system in sync with green infrastructure practices allows to manage stormwater by naural process while still enjoying the benefits of conventional stormwater management.

References
• http://teknologimalaysia.academia.edu/NoradilaRusli/Papers/580758/L OW_IMPACT_DEVELOPMENT_AN_APPROACH_TO_RETROFIT_A_CONVE NTIONAL_STORMWATER_MANAGEMENT_SYSTEM http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/stormwater/documents /wd-08-20a_ch3.pdf http://www.lowimpactdevelopment.org/raingarden_design/whatisarain garden.htm http://www.marc.org/Environment/Water/downspout.htm http://www.marc.org/Environment/Water/rainbarrels.htm http://www.crwa.org/projects/bmpfactsheets/crwa_stormwater_plante r.pdf http://www.cnt.org/repository/GreenInfrastructureReportCivicFederati on%2010-07.pdf

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