ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGES: APPLIED ON RJF

DESCRIBING THE GRAMMAR OF SPEECH AND WRITING
By [your name] Instructor: [their name] Institute

The ingredients for his biological weapons 12. 8. The machine tools 11. 5. one using spoken language. the other written. For this purpose two texts. 2. 4. 7. The head-nouns have then been underlined and the other slots of the noun phrase: determiner / numerator. have been chosen (Appendix A and B). The record 13. The library of Congress 14. 6. Their grammar and syntax have then been compared and assessed on the basis of their noun phrases (task one) and other clauses (task two) in addition to a general comparative analysis of the two texts. A problem for us The west of honesty The reason for going A lie The concern that weapons of mass destruction The hands of the Saddam Hussein regime A regime that used such weapons The United States and Britain with these weapons of mass destruction The weapons of mass destruction 10. pre-modifiers and post-modifiers have also been discussed and analysed. The premise of your question . 1. 3.DESCRIBING THE GRAMMAR OF SPEECH AND WRITING 2 This paper has been written in an attempt to compare and contrast spoken and written language. Following are the noun phrases with underlined head nouns from the spoken text’s first 200 words (Appendix A). 9. The first two hundred words of both the texts were sifted through to identify noun phrases in both the texts.

An elephant 23. 9. A lesson 17. A wrestling match between an elephant and a turtle 22. The same time 19. A pacifying role in conflicts 12. The current attack 16. 2. 4. The sorrow Innocent civilians The pictures The story of grief. 20. The head-nouns have been underlined in a similar pattern. 5. 8. 6. A balanced war 21. The influential Hamas commander A al-Jaabari. 10. 7. The Gaza people have no rights at all? 15. The wound 13. 1. Home-made rockets 18.DESCRIBING THE GRAMMAR OF SPEECH AND WRITING 3 Listed below are the noun phrases identified in the first 200 words of the second text that represents the written language. Big countries that are expected to play a pacifying role in conflicts 11. The fifth day The Israelis Besieged Gaza using all kinds of sophisticated weaponry Sophisticated weaponry The Israelis have ever invented. A turtle . 3. The right to defend itself 14.

pre-modifier and post-modifier. The modifiers can again be a word of a phrase. adjective phrase and relative clauses. A That used such weapons The machine The That weapons of mass destruction A Verb Phrase Prepositional Phrase For us Adjective Phrase Relative Clause . Any of these may act as a modifier. The tables below elaborate the classification of the modifiers of the noun phrases listed above for text one and text two. The other types of phrases such as verb phrase. Table 1 classifies the noun phrases of the first text that is the text of spoken language. head noun. In general it contains four elements: determiner / indicator.DESCRIBING THE GRAMMAR OF SPEECH AND WRITING 4 In brief a noun phrase can be defined as that word or group of words which predominantly contain one head noun. prepositional phrase. Noun Phrase Determiner /Numerator A problem for us The concern that weapons of mass destruction The machine tools A regime that used such weapons Table 1: Classification of Noun Phrases of Text 1.

DESCRIBING THE GRAMMAR OF SPEECH AND WRITING 5 Noun Phrase Determiner /Numerator The story of grief. . we deduce that the written language of text two had more variety of elements usage in the noun phrases as well as generally for example the text one contained no verb phrases as modifiers while the text two contain several verb phrases. The fifth day The Fifth The Verb Phrase Prepositional Adjective Phrase Of grief Phrase Relative Clause Besieged Gaza using all kinds of sophisticated weaponry Big countries that are expected to play a pacifying role in conflicts Using all kinds of sophisticated weaponry Besieged Big That are expected to play a pacifying role in conflicts Table 2: Noun Phrase Classification of Text 2 When we compare the two texts on the basis of the two tables.

. PILGER: . FEITH: I think that. |I don't believe [that's accurate]|. I think.. |with [the current attack]| |they [want to teach Gaza a lesson| because |previously Hamas and [some its factions [launched [home-made rockets]]]| against the Israelis. sadness and |pain [that have fallen on] [innocent civilians]|. I think that the premise of your question is wrong. PILGER: Isn't there a problem for us in the West of honesty about the reason for |going to war| in Iraq � and |that was weapons of [mass destruction]|? FEITH: |I don't think| |that was a lie|...] PILGER: Why is it |wrong for dictators and terrorists| to |kill [innocent civilians]|. PILGER: ... Just look at |some of the pictures| and |they [tell the [story of grief]]|. It is like |a wrestling match between an elephant and a turtle|.. in the Library of Congress.. |The machine tools| and |the ingredients [for his [biological weapons]]| |all came from other countries|. the other various types of phrases and clauses have been indicated with ||while the embedded clauses have been indicated with [[ ]]. But at the same time.. |Israel assassinated [the influential Hamas commander Ahmad Al-Jaabari] |. FEITH: No.. |I can’t even begin| |[to describe] [what is [going on in Gaza] now]|. it's on the record. PILGER: Well. PILGER: Well. most of the weapons of mass destruction from Saddam Hussein weren't built by him..... What hurts more is when |you hear [big countries]| that are expected |to play [a pacifying role]| in conflicts |add salt to the wound|. [.. they say instead: “|Israel has [the right to defend itself]|.. |most of whom [are women and children]|. yes they were. |I [really think]| that the.. FEITH: |I don't think [that's right]|.” Does that mean that |the [Gaza people] have [no rights at all]|? According to the Israelis. |Instead of [asking both sides [to stop]]|.. and |was supplied [by the United States]| and Britain with |these weapons of mass destruction|.. |but [this is not [a balanced war]] |. No |words can express the sorrow|... These images |speak for themselves|.. many of them |from this country and Britain|.. This is |the fifth day| |the Israelis are shelling| |[besieged Gaza] [using all kinds of [sophisticated weaponry]]| |which the West and the Israelis [have ever invented]|. |We went to war| |in [large part] [because of the concern]| |that weapons of [mass destruction]| in the ... |Excuse me|.DESCRIBING THE GRAMMAR OF SPEECH AND WRITING 6 In the following dialogue taken from the first text. in the hands of |[the Saddam Hussein] regime| . in particular nerve gas. |I am lost for words|. FEITH: Well.. Most. |a regime that [used such weapons]| ..

3 Apr... FEITH: No. PILGER: Hmm.000. talking about are..... I mean in Iraq at the moment. FEITH: I don't. . FEITH: I don't think that's right. and I don't accept the assertion.. and right or excusable for the United States to do exactly the same. [. and if we did it. I think that the premise of your question is wrong. in particular nerve gas.. Most.. Introduction to the Grammar of English. But. FEITH: Well.. in the hands of the Saddam Hussein regime .DESCRIBING THE GRAMMAR OF SPEECH AND WRITING 7 References: Hopper.. PILGER: Well....000 people died in that tragedy. 1984. Kurland. PILGER: . innocent civilians? FEITH: No. numbers that you're... I don't accept your assertion that we've killed thousands of. there are studies that are talking about 10.] PILGER: Why is it wrong for dictators and terrorists to kill innocent civilians. yes they were.... the United States doesn't do it." How the Language Really Works: The Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing.. wonder about double standards here.. and was supplied by the United States and Britain with these weapons of mass destruction. A Short Course in Grammar....W. 2003. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. the United States does not target civilians. where 3. I don't know that that's true.... 1999.. in the Library of Congress.. most of the weapons of mass destruction from Saddam Hussein weren't built by him..... There's a lot of studies.. I think.. FEITH: Well. a regime that used such weapons . PILGER: There's a lot of. PILGER: The United States doesn't kill. But I don't want to get into numbers. "Complete Reference: The Noun Phrase... but then look at the thousands who have died since. many of them from this country and Britain. PILGER: Well. W.. Rodney... Could you address that? FEITH: I think that the.. PILGER: Why are they questionable? FEITH: I. are questionable... I really think that the. Daniel J.. Paul J.. let's leave aside your.. Appendix A Text 1: spoken Transcribed interview between John Pilger and Douglas Feith PILGER: Isn't there a problem for us in the West of honesty about the reason for going to war in Iraq and that was weapons of mass destruction? FEITH: I don't think that was a lie. The machine tools and the ingredients for his biological weapons all came from other countries.. We went to war in large part because of the concern that weapons of mass destruction in the .. Critical Reading. Huddleston. Those of us on the outside who look at September 11. PILGER: ... and examination of facts on the ground that suggest indeed thousands.. 2009. and. it's on the record.. I think that the. as what the terrorists do. of innocent people.... but certainly thousands seems a fair figure.. FEITH: I think that... it would be as reprehensible as. so let's. let me get.. Norton & Company: New York. I don't believe that's accurate..

There is no infrastructure or electricity for half the year. Even when it is open. Israel assassinated the influential Hamas commander Ahmad Al-Jaabari. What will happen to your mind? People who live in big cities and have all luxuries lose it. Israel does not exist on its land. No words can express the sorrow. This is the fifth day the Israelis are shelling besieged Gaza using all kinds of sophisticated weaponry which the West and the Israelis have ever invented. There are no jobs and no freedom. Just look at some of the pictures and they tell the story of grief. people have to provide millions of documents to pass. sadness and pain that have fallen on innocent civilians. Imagine if you live in such conditions. Poverty prevails all over. a strike on Gaza massacred a whole family.DESCRIBING THE GRAMMAR OF SPEECH AND WRITING 8 Appendix B: Text 2: written Jailed and Massacred I can’t even begin to describe what is going on in Gaza now. Most of the politicians have visited Gaza and know the situation there.” Does that mean that the Gaza people have no rights at all? According to the Israelis. Forgive me Gaza. Put yourselves in Gaza’s shoes and tell me what would happen? Will you ever come up with the response that Israel has the right to defend itself. It is not a walk in the park. Gaza is literary a big jail. Excuse me. they say instead: “Israel has the right to defend itself. Of how many years you can count any casualties of these rockets on your fingers? Today. most of whom are women and children. It occupied that land in 1948. this is the least I could do for you! . the West and the whole world should ask: “Why?” On top of that. Gaza has been under siege for ages. But at the same time. but this is not a balanced war. There is no proper food or medicine. in comparison. their land is occupied and they live in constant agony. First of all. These images speak for themselves. It is like a wrestling match between an elephant and a turtle. What hurts more is when you hear big countries that are expected to play a pacifying role in conflicts add salt to the wound. Instead of asking both sides to stop. Even Hamas missiles hardly hit anybody. when they throw simple and trivial missiles. with the current attack they want to teach Gaza a lesson because previously Hamas and some its factions launched home-made rockets against the Israelis. One day the border crossing Rafah is open and another 10 days later it is closed. I am lost for words. These people.

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