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Presented by:

Dr. Thilo Stilp


Manager Ground Operations & Env.
A380 Programme, BNEJ

Ground Operations & Servicing


Introductory briefing to ACI
Toulouse, 28th May 2004

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1

A380 Key Points for Airports – Ground Operations

• Use of existing
Ground Handling
and Service
Equipment

• Efficient use of available


Ramp Space
Turn-Round Time in minutes
A380-800 Baseline1a @ 555 pax - 2 MD bridges & Dedicated Deck Catering

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

90'

• No increase in stand-blocking
Bridges
2 2
Deplaning/Boarding&LPS
14 2 2 4
LD-3 cargo FWD
31 37
LD-3 cargo AFT
22 2 7
Freight
0 0
Bulk 18 21

time à turnaround time same as


Catering @D2R 29
Catering @D4R
39
Catering @D1R
0
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Catering @D5R
0
Catering @D7R
36
Catering@D9L
1 5

B747
Cleaning
30

PotableWater 21
Waste Water
20
Refuelling Equipment
48
positioning / removal

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 2
Ramp Operational Environment & Safety
Objectives

Objectives for A380 Ground Operations


• To design A380 with and for Airlines:
4 through a continuous comprehensive dialogue with airlines and airports;
4 to better match airlines’ operating procedures and airports’ constraints;
4 to offer the optimum operational capability on ground;
• The A380 can be operated on ground as any aircraft:
4 Maneuvering capability on Code E / Group V airports;
4 Adaptable Turn-Round Time, comparable to 747, potential for quicker;
4 Use of standard Ground Handling & Servicing equipment;
4 Aircraft design for airport efficiency;
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

• Major focus on Ramp safety:


4 Human safety taken into account through design process;
4 Design features care about reduction of aircraft damage risk.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 3

Ground Operations & Servicing


Ground Servicing

Servicing points location Optimized

6 14 7 4 3 4 3 10 11

PCA Refuel Potable


GPU connector Refuel Toilet
control water
H/P air system
4 3 panel
1
8 Agreed with airlines to ensure access and
4
3
compatibility with existing GSE …
7 2 13 5 11
1 Pressure refuel connectors
2 Hydraulic reservoir servicing panel
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

(reservoir filling and pressurization)


3 Engine oil filling
4 VF generator oil filling
5 Toilet and waste service panel
6 14 12 10 6 Ground electrical power
4 7 Low pressure preconditioned air
3 8 Yellow hydraulic ground connector
9 Green hydraulic ground connector
9
10 Potable water service panel
1
11 APU oil filling
12 High pressure air engine start
4 3
13 Refuel / defuel control panel
14 Oxygen system
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 4
Ground Operations & Servicing
Ground Servicing

Main Servicing points & Indicative heights


heights
Ground Power: 2741mm H/P Air: 1939mm L/P Air: 2205mm Potable Water: 2333mm Waste Water: 3505mm
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Assumptions:
• Aircraft at 290t (~OWE)
• “Conservative” manikin height: 1.63m (1.88m w/t hands extended)
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 5

Ground Operations & Servicing


Ground Servicing

Ground Servicing Requirements


(Preliminary Information*)

11 Pressure
Pressurerefuel
refuelconnectors
connectors 44connectors
connectors(2
(2@
@each
eachwing)
wing)
Nominal
NominalBlock
BlockFuel:
Fuel:261,200
261,200l l(usable
(usablefuel
fuel315,289l)
315,289l)
Supply
Supplypressure
pressure@@4040psi
psi(2.5in
(2.5inØØ)
)
22 Toilet
Toilet(waste
(wastewater)
water)service
servicepanel
panel 2,096
2,096l l(4in
(4inØØdrain
drainvalve,
valve,1in
1inØØrinse
rinsecouplings)
couplings)
33 Potable water service panel
Potable water service panel 1,700 l, optional 2,270 l
1,700 l, optional 2,270 l (3/4in Øcoupling)
(3/4in Ø coupling)
44 Ground
Groundelectrical
electricalpower
power 22xx90kVA
90kVAup
upto
to44xx90
90kVA
kVA
(4
(4connections
connections@
@90kVA
90kVAeach)
each)
55 Low
Lowpressure
pressurepreconditioned
preconditionedair
air 44connections
connections@
@1.625
1.625kg/sec
kg/seceach
each
Max
Maxflow
flowrate
rateatat390kg/min
390kg/min(8in
(8inØØ)
)
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Max
Maxoutput
outputpressure
pressure120mbar (min≈≈50mbar)
120mbar(min 50mbar)
66 High
Highpressure
pressureair
airengine
enginestart
start ≈≈2.4
2.4
2.4 kg/sec
kg/secvia
via22connections (@≈≈3.2
connections(@ 3.2bars)
bars)
33connections
connectionsavailable
available(3in
(3inØØ)
)
* Complete information to be available by end of 2004 (to update IATA AHM 904, Ed. ’05)

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 6
Ground Operations & Servicing

Baseline Servicing & Turn-


Turn-round Time
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 7

Ground Operations & Servicing


Baseline Servicing
Baseline Ground Servicing
• Main Deck Boarding via M1 & M2 Tow tractor ü
• UD Catering at door U1R Passenger boarding bridges ü

Main deck catering vehicles ü

Upper deck catering vehicle ü

Main deck cleaning vehicles ü

Lower deck cargo loader ü

Lower deck bulk cargo loader ü

Ground Power Units ü

Pre--conditioned Air
Pre ü

Air start units ü


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Potable water Vehicle ü

Lavatory servicing ü

Fuel vehicles ü

All ground servicing equipment for baseline A380 servicing


exist today …
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 8
Ground Operations & Servicing
Baseline Servicing

Pax & Cargo Doors


Indicative* Pax
Door sill heights
B747 MD: ~ 5m A380 MD: ~ 5.1m
B747 UD: ~ 7.8m A380 UD: ~ 7.9m

Main deck door 1 & 2 separation


comparable to existing aircraft
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Indicative* Cargo
Door sill heights

Bulk Aft lower deck Forward lower deck B747 LD: ~3.1m A380 LD: ~3.1m
cargo door cargo door cargo door B747 Bulk: ~3.3m A380 Bulk: ~3.1m

Main Deck servicing similar to existing


* Depend on CG location & weight wide--body aircraft …
wide
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 9

Ground Operations & Servicing


Baseline Servicing
Main Deck Boarding/Deplaning…

Standard
A380 boarding

M1 M2 Ø Similar number of passengers aft


Balanced door usage: of door 2L on both aircraft
Simultaneous and separate Ø Same critical path and therefore
boarding flows same boarding/deplaning times
Standard
747 boarding
D1 D2

Imbalanced door usage:


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

D1 restrictions and choking of


flow to aft cabin due to D2 congestion
M2
M1

A380 cabin architecture promotes 747-


747 -400 comparable turn-
turn-
round times …
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 10
Ground Operations & Servicing
Baseline Servicing

Baseline A380 555 pax layout & Servicing


Catering

UPPER DECK
U1R U2R U3R

U1L U2L U3L

Catering M2 Trolley Lift Catering M5 Trolley Lift


Cleaning/Catering
(to serve U1 Galley) (to serve U3 Galley)
MAIN DECK
M1R M2R M3R M4R M5R
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

M1L M2L M3L M4L M5L

MD Passenger MD Passenger Cleaning Catering


Boarding Boarding

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 11

Ground Operations & Servicing


Baseline Servicing

Baseline Turn-
Turn- round Time (90min)
A380-800 Turnaround Time in minutes
555 pax standard layout - PBB at M1L and M2L, main and upper (U1R) deck servicing
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Bridges 2 2 90'
Deplaning/Boarding&LPS 14 22 4
LD-3 cargo FWD 31 37
LD-3 cargo AFT 22 27
Freight 0 0
Bulk 18 21

Catering @M2R 32
Catering @M4R 36
Catering @M1R 0
Catering @M5L 20 20
Catering @U1R 36
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Catering @U3L
Cleaning 30

Potable Water 21 Equipment positioning / removal


Waste Water 20
Refuelling 48

Critical Path

Baseline access ensures 747-


747 -400 comparable turn-
turn- round times …
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 12
Ground Operations & Servicing
Baseline Servicing

Comparing the Ramp Environment in 2D …

B747-- 400
B747
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Source: Boeing
More efficient & less congested ramp environment …
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 13

Ground Operations & Servicing


Baseline Servicing

… The Ramp Environment in 3D


… all GH/servicing operations performed in parallel
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 14
Ground Operations & Servicing

Upper Deck Catering


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 15

Ground Operations & Servicing


Upper Deck Catering

Lufthansa 8m capable 9m capable maintenance vehicle Upper Deck catering vehicle combines
Seat change vehicle with translating platform existing practices and technologies

• UD catering offers airlines complete cabin layout flexibility


with 747-400 comparable turn-round times (TRT);
• Several possibilities to cater A380 UD investigated at early
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

stage
• Clear handler and airline preference to have UD catering
based on vehicle based process as for MD Catering
– Vehicles capable of 8m operations are in daily operation today;
– 9m capable vehicles are used for maintenance with translating
platforms/cabs

Current 8m high servicing operations paved the way


for upper deck catering …
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 16
Ground Operations & Servicing
Upper Deck Catering

Airbus facilitated six working group meetings held


since February 2001 & constructed a 1:1 scale
Mock--up in TLS to:
Mock
Ø Investigate vehicle positioning accuracy and
interaction with other GSE;
Ø Obtain operational feedbackfrom drivers;
Ø Identify and develop training needs;
Ø Improve operating procedures and operator safety.

Participants:
Ø Airlines: AFR, UAE, QFA, SIA, DLH, VIR, MAS
Ø Manufacturers: Koegel Kamag, FFG, Doll, Beilhack,
Sovam, UMW, Byron, Bardawil, AMSS, Inutsuka,
Smith, Saxon, TLD;
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Ø Catering Companies: LSG, Gate Gourmet, Alpha,


Cara, Servair, Qantas Flight Catering, Emirates
Abela, SATS (SIA);
Ø Other Organisations: ISO, IATA, BAA

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 17

Ground Operations & Servicing


Upper Deck Catering

Progress:
Ø UD Catering technical feasibility
established;
Ø Initial vehicle positioning tests started in
November 2003 using existing vehicles;
Ø Positioning aids (cameras) tested
successfully with passive target on INUTSUKA
INUTSUKA prototype
prototype
aircraft mock-up; UD
UD catering
catering vehicle,
vehicle,
Tokyo,
Tokyo, Jan.
Jan. 04
04
Ø Desired safety clearances achieved
between vehicle, aircraft and adjacent
GSEs using basic visual aids;
aids
Ø Two prototype vehicles already tested
(Inutsuka & Beilhack); Serial production
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

possible by end of 2004…


Ø IATA AHM to be updated with new
Functional Specifications (AHM 926) for
UD Catering Vehicles (Edition 2005)
Note Manufacturers involved also confirmed that
Note: 110cm 160cm 110cm

conversion of PRM vehicles for UD access is simple


(due to lower payload involved) with single or double Initial
Initial positioning
positioning tests,
tests,
scissors … Toulouse,
Toulouse, Nov.2003
Nov.2003

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 18
Ground Operations & Servicing

Direct Upper Deck Access


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 19

Ground Operations & Servicing


Upper Deck Direct Access
FMT
• Baseline boarding/deplaning for the A380 is via doors M1L and
M2L on the main deck;
• Depending on aircraft layout and bridge configuration, UD access
may bring a TRT benefit but mainly serves as a service and
product differentiator for airports and airlines ;
• Several scenarios exist for access to the UD with the simplest
alternative being the upgrading of the second main deck bridge to
Norgate
have an 8m capability;
• Over-the-wing (OTW) bridges serving B747s or single-aisle aircraft
and fully automated bridge arrangements already in use;
• ISO 7718 & 16004 under review to account for UD bridges TEAM
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Baseline (Main Deck) Access


U1 U2 U3 FMC

Schiphol

M1 M2 M3 M4 M5

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 20
Ground Operations & Servicing
Upper Deck Direct Access
Alternative ways for Boarding/Deplaning

Opportunities Challenges

Ground Handling Activities need to


“catch up” with potentially reduced
Airlines
TRTs
M2/U1 Product & Service Differentiation
Cabin Layout & Boarding
Procedures have significant impact
to final outcome

Product & Service Differentiation


Terminal processes need to ensure
M1/U1 for both their customer Airlines &
absence of bottlenecks internally
Airports

passengers
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Better stand utilization with OTW OTW stands should be used by all
(increased apron dynamic capacity) other qualifying wide-
wide-body aircraft

Over--the
Over the--wing (OTW) bridge M1/M4/U1 Direct UD access possible with limited bridge
upgrading, or other technical solutions …

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 21

Ground Operations & Servicing


Upper Deck Direct Access

Airbus facilitated two working groups since June 2003; Airports with plans 1 for 3-
3-
Parties involved comprise: bridge arrangements:
Ø Airlines: Virgin, Lufthansa, Singapore, Qatar, Air-France, Ø LHR (T5)
Emirates, Qantas, Malaysia;
Ø BKK II
Ø Manufacturers: FMT, FMC, ThyssenKrupp, Indal, TEAM,
Norgate, Daewoo Eng, OTIS, Bukaka; Ø SIN (T1/T2)2
Ø Airports: BAA-LHR, JFK, ATH, ADP- CDG, Fraport, MUC, Ø DXB (S2/S3)2
JED, ICN, DXB, AMS, (BKK); Ø CDG
Ø Other Organisations: CAAS, KTL, IATA, PCI
Ø JNB
Progress: Ø JFK (T4)
Ø Bridge manufacturers have presented design solutions during Ø PVG
the working groups; Ø PEK
Ø Technical feasibility of OTW & automated multiple bridge
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

designs established; Ø KIX


Ø Realised benefits depend on cabin configuration and boarding Ø HKG2
procedures chosen by airlines; 1 Based on information provided to
Ø Airport terminal processes & ground handling activities need Airbus to date (list may not be
to assure absence of potential bottlenecks exhaustive)
2 At EIS
Note: UD stair conceptual designs available from some manufacturers
Note
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 22
Ground Operations & Servicing

Pushback/Towing
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 23

Ground Operations & Servicing


4. Towing
Pushback/Towing
Airbus facilitated three working group meetings
held since December 2001, involving:
Ø Airlines:AFR, DLH, SIA and VIR;
Ø Manufacturers:
Douglas, Goldhofer, TLD, Schopf, Koegel Kamag,
FMC, Bliss Fox;
Ø Other Organisations: ISO and SAE

Progress:
Ø Tractors are already in service that can be ballast up
to 70t, e.g. in FRA
Ø Airbus Towbarless Towing Vehicle Assessment
Criteria document is being finalised;
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Ø New Towing Fitting category/standard defined and


formally published;
Ø At least three manufacturers will have a production
towbarless model ready in 2004 (Douglas, Goldhofer
and TLD);
TLD)

A380 capable tow tractors available …


A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 24
Ground Operations & Servicing

Ramp Noise
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 25

Ground Operations & Servicing


Ramp Noise

• Recommendations for ramp noise levels defined in ICAO Annex 16, Vol 1, Att C:
• The noise levels caused by installed APU & associated aircraft systems used during
normal ground operation should not exceed:
4 85dB(A) at cargo and passenger doors and at any servicing location;
4 90dB(A) on a rectangle of 20 metres around the aircraft

20m perimeter
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Rectangle of noise survey measurement positions as per ICAO

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 26
Ground Operations & Servicing

Anti/De--icing
Anti/De
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 27

Ground Operations & Servicing


Anti/de-icing

De--icing Vehicles
De

• Tank capacity: 6000, 8000 or 10000 lt.


Courtesy of
• Overall length: 9.5-11.1m (depending on tank size)
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

De--icers currently on the market have the reach &


De
the tank capacity to de-
de-ice the A380 …

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 28
Ground Operations & Servicing
Airplane Characteristics Manual

For more specific Technical Information on


both A3800-
A3800 -800 & -800F you may visit:

http://www.airbus.com/product/a380_planning.asp

… to obtain the full document on


“Airplane
Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning”
Planning
(next update of document in June ’04)
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 29

A380 Key Points for Airports –Environment

• Meet most stringent


limits for Noise and
Emission to allow
sustainable growth
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Fuentes: Lufthansa, AECMA, Airbus

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 30
Technology for lower noise
Engines Airframe/Nacelles Performance

Trent 900 GP7200

• New high by-pass ratio • Optimisation of high lift • Better climb performance
engines systems and lower approach
speed
• Acoustic treatment of
nacelles • Flight Management
System to optimise
take-off and noise
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

abatement procedure

Half the noise energy


of a 747-
747-400
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 31

A380-800 / Trent 900 Nominal Noise Status


Status as of October 2003
- 3db = halving of noise energy
108 0
Stage 3 747-400 and 400ER noise bands. All
106 -2
Stage 3 engine variants - based on Type
certificate data sheet (TCDS) data.
104 -4
Stage 3
Cumulative vs stage 4 ( EPNdB)
Nominal noise level ( EPNdB)

-6
102
-8
100 QC4 upper limit
-10
98
QC2 upper limit -12
96
-14
Objective
94 QC1 upper limit -16
92
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

-18

90 -20

88 -22
Sideline Flyover Approach London London Cumulative
departure arrival vs Stage 4

Significantly lower noise than the 747-


747-400
A380-800 560 t MTOW 386 t MLW, Trent 900 70klb
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 32
A380-800 / GP7200 Nominal Noise Status
Status as of October 2003
- 3db = halving of noise energy
108 0
Stage 3 747-400 and 400ER noise bands. All
106 Stage 3 -2
engine variants - based on Type
certificate data sheet (TCDS) data.
-4
104 Stage 3

Cumulative vs stage 4 ( EPNdB)


Nominal noise level ( EPNdB)

-6
102
-8
100 QC4 upper limit
-10
98
QC2 upper limit -12
96
-14
Objective
94 QC1 upper limit -16
92
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

-18

90 -20

88 -22
Sideline Flyover Approach London London Cumulative
departure arrival vs Stage 4

Significantly lower noise than the 747-


747-400
A380-800 560 t MTOW 386 t MLW, GP7200 70klb
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 33

Noise Comparison A380 vs. B747-400


A380- B747-400 A380 vs. A380 vs. A380 vs.
800 B747-400 Chapter 3 Chapter B747-400 A380-800
4 MTOW 394t* MTOW 560t

Weight 560 t 396,9 t + 163 t (+41%)


555 Pax 388 Pax* + 167 Pax
Pax (+43%)

Sideline 95,8 97,9 ... 100,3** - 2,1 ... - 4,5 dB - 7,2 dB n.a.
(Limit 103)
(EPNdB)

Flyover 95,6 97,4 ... 101,6** - 1,8 ... - 6,0 dB - 10,4 dB n.a.
(Limit 106)
(EPNdB)

Approach 100,9 102,3 ... - 1,4 ... - 3,2 dB - 4,1 dB n.a.


104,1** (Limit 105)
(EPNdB)

Cumulative 292,3 297,3 ... - 5,0 ... - 13,7 dB - 21,7 dB - 11 dB


306,0** (Limit 314) (Limit 304)
Noise
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

*As currently in service at Lufthansa German Airline


** current range over various MTOW and engine versions

© of DLH, 2004
Significantly more quiet than B747-400
85dB Noise Contour for take-off at FRA
even with 40% more passengers as calculated by Deutsche Lufthansa with
input of Boeing and Airbus data for same t/o
conditions

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 34
A380 acoustic design
Low noise operations – Optimised NADP function
• CAEP/5 approved implementation of NADP1 « Close-in » and
NADP2 « Distant »

• Non-optimal handling of NADP trajectories is one reason for


frequent noise limit infringements

• A380 will have a new automatic flight function to reliably &


continuously handle NADP with optimum noise trajectories,
taking into account:
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

4 Ambient conditions
4 Airport constraints & areas to be protected
4 Actual aircraft parameters

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 35

A380 acoustic design


Low noise operations – Optimised NADP1
Height

Maximise Minimise Avoid noise Climb


height noise increase Fast

Thrust
Optimised ramp
thrust

About 20 km
Noise (dBA)
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

>2dB benefit relative


to standard NADP1
Standard NADP1
Optimised NADP1

Distance from brake release


A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 36
A380-800 Emissions Status
100

90
Vol II Requirement (CAEP4)
% of 1999 ICAO Annex 16,

80

70

60
GP 7270
50
Trent 970
40

30

20
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

10

0
NOx HC CO Smoke

Better than adopted future ICAO limitations

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 37

A380 / Wake Vortex May 2004

Presented by
Dr. Thilo Stilp, Manager Ground Operations & Environment
A380 Programme

A380 Wake Vortex

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1
Context (1)
Context: what are wake vortices?

• Rectangular wing: wake vortex are air masses drawn into


rotation due to the pressure difference between pressure side
and suction side of the wing
• Due to the freestream velocity, the vortices organize in vortex
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

tubes
• Wake vortices can be very energetic: vortex strength
(circulation) for an aircraft is, to first approximation:
Γ = Mg / (ρUsb) [m2 s-1 ]
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 39

Wake Vortex - From Generation to Encounter

Followed by

Leading aircraft Heavy Medium Small

Heavy
>136 t
A321

B747
A380

0 4 5 6 7
Separation, miles

• Current classification of aircraft by MTOW only


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

• A380 has 36% higher MTOW than B744

Adequacy of current rules must be addressed

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 40
Airbus A380 Wake Vortex Research

4Airbus research activities focussed on:


1. development and improvement of tools to understand,
predict and characterize wake vortices
– participation to European research programs (EUROWAKE, C-WAKE,
AWIATOR…)
– dedictated research programs on CFD, experimental facilities (wind
tunnel,catapult, water tank) and LIDAR

2. development of tools and methods to assess safety of


separation distances
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

– flight simulator capabilities developed in European S-Wake Program


– dedicated Airbus projects to develop safety assessment methoddolgy

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 41

International A380 Wake Vortex Steering Group

• Application of safe separation standards is the responsibility of


the National Air Safety Authorities.
• These authorities need guidance on the adequacy of the
currently existing separation standards for the introduction of the
A380 into the air traffic system

• In Mid 2003 an International A380 Wake Vortex Steering was


formed under the joint chairmanship of the Joint Airworthiness
Authorities (JAA) and Eurocontrol
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

4Members: JAA, FAA, ICAO, EUROCONTROL, Airbus


4Objective: “Provide information and data supporting findings that
can be used by States to assure the safety of aircraft operations
with the A380”

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 42
A380 Wake Vortex Steering Group

(FAA)
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

VESA
(Airbus)
A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 43

ASAT and VESA are parts of a two step approach


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 44
Wake Vortex - Influencing parameters
More than one parameter affecting Vortex characteristics & safety level of
separation distance ….
LEADING AIRCRAFT WEATHER ATM SITUATION FOLLOWER AIRCRAFT
CONDITIONS

• A/C geometry • Cross wind • Flight Phase • A/C Geometry & Configuration

• A/C configuration • Turbulence level • Procedures • Flight conditions

• Flight conditions • Shear layers • Traffic density and spacing • Flight mode

• ... • ... • Encounter geometry


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ROLL-UP SAFETY
SAFETY ASSESSEMENT
ASSESSEMENT

Vortex Movement
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE ‘YOUNG’ VORTEX and Aging THE ‘AGED’ VORTEX

1-2min; 3-6NM

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 45

Overall methodology as adopted by A380 Wake Vortex SG

Methodology for A380 wake vortex risk assessment

Combination of ASAT and VESA

Input Data from Output


• Geographic ASAT-VESA VESA • Encounter
location (airport) • Encounter Severity
probability
• Flight phase
• Encounter
• Traffic mix conditions
(vortex
• Meteorological characteristics,
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

conditions encounter
geometry, …)
• Etc, etc, ….

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 46
Wake Vortex - Influencing parameters
More than one parameter affecting Vortex characteristics & safety level of
separation distance ….
LEADING AIRCRAFT WEATHER ATM SITUATION FOLLOWER AIRCRAFT
CONDITIONS

• A/C geometry • Cross wind • Flight Phase • A/C Geometry & Configuration

• A/C configuration

• Flight conditions
• Turbulence level

• Shear layers
ASAT
• Procedures • Flight conditions

• Traffic density and spacing • Flight mode

• ... • ... • Encounter geometry


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ROLL-UP SAFETY
SAFETY ASSESSEMENT
ASSESSEMENT

Vortex Movement
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE ‘YOUNG’ VORTEX and Aging THE ‘AGED’ VORTEX

1-2min; 3-6NM

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 47

Wake Vortex - Influencing parameters


More than one parameter affecting Vortex characteristics & safety level of
separation distance ….
LEADING AIRCRAFT WEATHER ATM SITUATION FOLLOWER AIRCRAFT
CONDITIONS

• A/C geometry • Cross wind • Flight Phase • A/C Geometry & Configuration

• A/C configuration

• Flight conditions
• Turbulence level

• Shear layers
ASAT
• Procedures
VESA
• Flight conditions

• Traffic density and spacing • Flight mode

• ... • ... • Encounter geometry


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ROLL-UP SAFETY
SAFETY ASSESSEMENT
ASSESSEMENT

Vortex Movement
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE ‘YOUNG’ VORTEX and Aging THE ‘AGED’ VORTEX

1-2min; 3-6NM

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 48
A380 Wake Vortex status

• A380 Wake Vortex is currently addressed by International


Steering Group (SG)
4First time that wake turbulence of a new aircraft is addressed by
independent flight safety experts
• SG results will be provided to the National Air Safety Authorities
for guidance on A380 integration into current air traffic system
• Airbus actively supports the SG
4research activities have focussed to provide tools and methods for
scientific based safety assessment
4Airbus tools selected as part of the overall methodology
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

• Airbus respects the work of the SG but is confident that


investigation will confirm that A380 can safely operate under
existing separation rules

A380 Ground Operations & Environment Briefing for ACI - BNE - Ref. L00PR0404013 - Issue 1 Page 49