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SEALS AND SEALING PRACTICES IN THE NEAR EAST Developments in Administration and Magic from Prehistory to the Islamic Period
Proceedings of an International Workshop at the Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo on December 2-3, 2009
ILONA REGULSKI, KIM DUISTERMAAT and PETER VERKINDEREN
UITGEVERIJ PEETERS en DEPARTEMENT OOSTERSE STUDIES LEUVEN – PARIS – WALPOLE, MA 2012
Van Beek “Non Signat Aegyptus”? Seals and Stamps in the Multicultural Society of Greco-Roman Egypt N. Ritter On the Development of Sasanian Seals and Sealing Practice: A Mesopotamian Approach B. Regulski Introduction K. Tomas The Transition from the Linear A to the Linear B Sealing System U. Müller Do Seal Impressions Prove a Change in the Administration during the Reign of King Den? H. Caseau Magical Protection and Stamps in Byzantium vii ix xi xiii 1 17 33 51 81 99 115 . Vandorpe and B.C. Duistermaat Which Came First. Control and Prestige – Seals among the Rural Population of Qau-Matmar K. Dubiel Protection.TABLE OF CONTENTS Contributors to this volume Programme of the conference Preface I. the Bureaucrat or the Seal? Some Thoughts on the Non-Administrative Origins of Seals in Neolithic Syria V.
Schaefer Block Printing as an Extension of the Practice of Stamping 133 149 163 175 189 209 . Sijpesteijn Seals and Papyri from Early Islamic Egypt E.vi TABLE OF CONTENTS J.R. Kotsifou Sealing Practices in the Monasteries of Late Antique and Early Medieval Egypt P. Caseau Sealing Practices in the Byzantine Administration C.M. Fernández Medina The Seal of Solomon: From Magic to Messianic Device S.-Cl. Dorpmüller Seals in Islamic Magical Literature K. Cheynet and B.
I will propound it as a case study of the synthesis of different religious traditions operated by magic. was a symbol shared by Spain’s cultural traditions: Christians. which was made possible with the support of the research project: “Orientalismo e historiografía en la cultura española del Barroco”. Solomon (Sulaym n) is a wise king and one of the prophets of Islam as he predicted the arrival of the prophet Mu ammad. The Moriscos were the “new Christians” of Muslim origin forcibly converted to Catholicism at the beginning of the 16th century in Spain. The seal of Solomon is also a device that expresses various levels of meaning. His seal granted him authority and gave him supernatural powers. The seal of Solomon. Historical-mythical First it is an object that has its own history expressed in Quranic exegetical literature as well as in historical accounts and tales. supposedly built to his command. the objects attached to I thank my thesis director Mercedes García-Arenal and Fernando Rodríguez Mediano for the invaluable guidance and assistance when writing this article. The earliest records on Solomon’s presence in Iberia go back to the Arab conquest of al-Andalus. * . As in the Thousand and One Nights. HUM 2007-60412. the three main religious groups of Iberia. placed the jars inhabited by demons and sealed by Solomon on the Atlantic coast of Africa. The Arab chronicles depict this conquest under a halo of legend. Ibn ab b. But it turned to fulfill the hopes and to ease the misfortunes of Moriscos living among the old Christian population. as I will show. In the Arab myths of the conquest of Spain. the 9th-century Muslim chronicler of al-Andalus. the westernmost part of the known world is portrayed as a continuum of mythical elements. Jews. and Muslims. where he also located the mythical Copper City.THE SEAL OF SOLOMON: FROM MAGIC TO MESSIANIC DEVICE* ESTHER FERNÁNDEZ MEDINA In the present paper I would like to present some magical practices related to the seal of Solomon ( tim Sulaym n) among the Moriscos in early modern Spain.
2 Fig.176 ESTHER FERNÁNDEZ MEDINA Solomon are evidence of his previous passage through the Peninsula (Hernández Juberías 1996).a lab narrated how God sent down his hallmark with the angel Gabriel as a gift to Solomon with the wisdom he demanded. This popular literature of the Muslims develops the scarce amount of information contained in the second and thirty-eighth s rah of the Quran. etc. Al. The story of the seal of Solomon was known in Spain since the first contacts with Muslim culture. 1: The six-pointed star engraved on a gold ring with the Islamic šah da in positive. 1 There are 99 sacred Names to call Allah. and the nature of His attributes is developed in Islamic theology (for a full list of authors and their different versions of the sacred Names see Gimaret: 1988). 212). This power is given by the inscription of the Greatest Name of Allah. alMu y (the Giver of Life). the human beings. Positive gravures on seals seem to be magic ones (Martínez Núñez 2007: 344 no. and how the seal had originally pertained to Adan (Kis 1997: 210). 2 The literary genre of qi a al-anbiy (stories of the prophets) consists of traditional accounts developing Quranic stories about the prophets of Islam. and the animals and birds.. This literature of Qi a describes in detail how the seal is composed of different metals according to the nature of the being towards which its order is directed ( a lab 2002: 516). but the story turns the authority into the magical power to control all natural and supernatural phenomena. the wind.e. all of creation. Andalusi and Morisco tales depicted Solomon’s stories in accordance with his portrait in medieval oriental sources.1 The signet will thus be the sign of authority. i. The ring and its signet represent power (mulk) over all creatures including the spirits (jinn).. such as al-W id (the Unique). .
” The Jewish. This approach is instructive for the topic under examination since the authorship of the Biblical book is traditionally attributed to Solomon. they called it “Seal of Solomon. The seal of Solomon thus might have assumed a negative meaning in Islamic eschatology at least in al-Andalus. However.abar or al. As Almudena Ariza has noted. therefore the conjecture supports the identification of that symbol with the announcement of a new era heralded by the wise king of Judaism and prophet of Islam. 4 This is the original population of northern Africa. Also a ad of al. Victor Klagsbald explained the relationship of the Star of David or Shield of David (magen David) with the rabbinic symbolism of the lily. Whereas Islamic sources kept the six-pointed star related to their prophet. on the other hand.3 This tradition relates how those convicted at Doomsday are identified by the seal of Solomon engraved on their foreheads.THE SEAL OF SOLOMON 177 Messianic symbolism In a second level of meaning. and we will now trace its Jewish origins. The lily symbol is the representation of the people of Israel. named it “Shield of David” or “Star of David” (Klagsbald 1997). . in the 11th century. The six-pointed star would originally be the sign announcing the coming of the Messiah of the lineage of David. by contrast to Moses’ pole identifying the true believers (Ibn ab b 2005: 129). there is clear evidence showing that the seal of Solomon took on a specific meaning in orthodox Islam. the use of the seal in Caliphal coins of al-Andalus is due to a call of support to the berber population.4 The symbol had been already minted in the Idrisid coins of North Africa 3 A ad is a story on Muhammad’s sayings or actions transmitted within a chain of authority.az l ’s Durrat al-Fa ra. and draws its messianic sense from a rabbi’s allegorical interpretation of the Song of Songs. the seal of Solomon is a symbol. echoed this theme except for the symbols attached to it (Abel 1965: 72). They usually supported š parties and were close to heterodoxy and messianic ideas. Islamic eschatological symbolism To some extent the seal is appropriated as a typically eschatological symbol and this is evidenced in the ad reproduced by Ibn ab b al-Andalus in the 9th century.
herce) with prophylactic purposes. It is. those written in Arabic and those written in aljamía (Spanish vernacular in Arabic script). for instance. common in mystical rituals and prayers. Popular perception of Solomon’s wisdom and power will be adopted by the Spanish population as a whole. 2: The six-pointed star in a dir am of andalusi provenience (Rodríguez Lorente 1991). probably containing another hidden meaning to the population since the trend of the š current is based in the esoteric interpretation of the sacred book: the Quran (Ariza 2010). by the rulers. Magic device The imprint The seal of Solomon was shaped in Morisco books of magic. then. The aljamiado manuscript Junta 59.178 ESTHER FERNÁNDEZ MEDINA and used as a political instrument. shows the seal of Solomon surrounded by the sacred Names of Allah. It meant the adoption of the attributes of Solomon. as we will see. Fig. This new version of the role of Solomon for Morisco population occurred in the gap of traditions and practices associated to him as there is indeed a shift in the conception of the Prophet and his seal in orthodox Islam and its most popular currents. Prophylactic practices ascribed to the power of Solomon are compiled in a Morisco codex from the 16th century. a magical-mystical symbol that protects and blesses. which clearly show its meaning in the practice of ritual magic in Spain. the Ocaña . wisdom and power. as a formula to reach an ecstatic state ( ikr). ever present in charms and talismans ( irz.
Torijano 2002). . the Prophet inquires into the illnesses caused by various demons and invokes them for their cures following the ancient exorcist scheme (Albarracín 1987. 3: The seal of Solomon. titled Misceláneo de Salomón (Albarracín Navarro and Martínez Ruiz 1987). Here.THE SEAL OF SOLOMON 179 manuscript called Misceláneo de Salomón. where recipes made from herbs and animal-based medicines are combined with religious phrases and magic signs. Fig. Salomonic script and magic signs on a page of a Morisco manuscript from Ocaña.
The seal conferred super-natural powers to limit evil forces. In such direction. the Greatest Name of Allah.5 A good example of the interaction of Solomonic knowledge and its prophylactic uses also occurs in the translation of the Dioscorides’ Book of Simples by Alonso Laguna in 1555. Ta‘lab 2002.180 ESTHER FERNÁNDEZ MEDINA Another Morisco manuscript contains magic recipes to cure illnesses and pains and also to seek love or dissolve it: the Libro de dichos maravillosos in the manuscript Junta 22 (Labarta 1996). the belief in the magical properties of the seal of Solomon lies in the existence of an inscription in its center. th 5 . some authors like Ibn al. Traditional tales show how demons would obey Solomon’s direct commandments. As mentioned in the literature of Qi a . whose properties and representation in folk medicine for women might explain its success (Gómez Moreno 2000: 111). the sellón de salomón or big seal of Solomon. 7 The Agaddah is the Jewish genre of exegetical and traditional accounts developing biblical stories. a flower of six petals. the author mentions a plant for women’s cosmetic use. Albarracín 1999). Solomon has the divine power to carry out his orders. and lock them up or subjugate them. In his elaboration. provided with the royal authority of his owner.jj alAll those signs and the hexagram are called Sellos (seals) in this literature from 15 and 16th-century Spain. The common aim of Muslim thaumaturges was to find out which of the 99 Sacred Names would confer to the magician the power mastered by Solomon. and it may enforce Klagsbald’s theory on the supposed identification between the six-pointed star label and the lily symbol. In both manuscripts the prophet Solomon is the only one who has the control over supernatural elements that cause pain: the jinn.7 Islamic Qi a or even represented in the Christian Cantigas of Alfonso X (Romero 1989. Those tales are recounted in Jewish Agaddah.6 The seal-ring Added to the traditional use of the seal-ring. those which locked them in jars or forced them to build his Temple in just one week. The magic signs accompanying the prayers and remedies for each purpose must be included in the production of the irz (talisman) to accomplish the magic order directed to the jinn as if it were commanded by Solomon and sealed with his signet ring. 6 It is worth mentioning that the sellón de Salomón in Laguna’s translation of Dioscorides was a lily species. but in 16th-century Spain.
4: The seven signs of the Greatest Name of God. occasionally represented as a pentagram (Doutté 1984). The essence of his seal would consist in its combination of the sacred texts of the three monotheistic religions. The same devices were used in Jewish magic. demons. are commonly known as faw t though their correct name is saw qi al-f ti a. The seven letters which are not contained in the first urah (chapter) of the Quran. that the stairs and the m m8 were representative of the Gospel. related to the Names of Allah. 9 8 . the angels. the planets. The connection between the science of letters and the properties of the numeric value of the Name of God or the angels are also involved in the production of talismans and magical rings. Fig. divinatory or preventive. Al-B n claimed that the two first signs corresponded to the Quran. the f ti a. beginning with the command label of Solomon. The magical literature and the production of talismans emanating from it are concerned with the signs and their astrological coordinates.THE SEAL OF SOLOMON 181 Tilims n (10th century) and al-B n (13th century) debated about the nature of the Greatest Name. The ring of Solomon would supposedly have this label engraved from which its power originated. In his dissertation he exposed the enigmatic Greatest Name on a stamp composed of seven signs. and the Names of God in a magic square reproduced by al-B n .B n is an Egyptian author who wrote a treatise on the science of the letters that became the basis for all kinds of magic. and that the last three signs belonged to the Torah. The signs of the Greatest Name have correlated with the days of the week. Al. in which the sixpointed star is also associated with the Names of God and the angels The m m is the 24th letter of the Arabic alphabet. the faw t 9.
caused the proliferation of ring manufacturing. While in his Epistola Reprobatione he intended to refute necromancy. The spread of legends about ancient treasures hidden by Muslims before leaving Spain. The treatise was translated into Latin from the 13th century onwards (Thorndike 1947: 250-1). was a complete guide that provided the exorcism scheme for invoking demons and recipes to make the magic seal-ring and miter. qualities that were to be closely linked and related to the immediate goals of ars notoria. called Annulis Salomonis. the materialistic aim for making the magical seal-rings was treasure hunting. The miter represents the role the priests acquired during the development of the exorcism. the sovereignty granted to the King by his seal also bestowed power over the four princes of the jinn. The popularity of Muslims as wizards provided their productions with power (Thomas 1971: 231-4). exemplifies. . he mentioned one of the magic treatises that circulated in Europe: the work. However. Many other treatises proliferated following this trend and we can argue that the magical properties of the seal of Solomon were popularized in Spain and developed for this purpose (Tausiet 2007: 39-77). a work attributed to Solomon that circulated around modern Europe. As the Rekontamiento de Sulayman from ms. Opera Medica Omnia (Vilanova 2005: 29-31). a Christian physician from the 13th century. as Sefer Raziel. and the belief in demons acting as guardians of these riches. and it supposedly had an Arabic source (Vilanova 2005: 32-3).10 As it shows.182 ESTHER FERNÁNDEZ MEDINA in a kabbalistic way. as this literature and numerous trials of the Inquisition show. the role that the seal of Solomon played in Spanish Islam blurred the boundaries between religious creeds while inspiring magic treatises and charms for materialistic objectives. the art of conjuring demons. We also find the mention of a treatise attributed to Solomon in the work of Arnau of Villanova. 5305 of 10 The magic seal-ring is the symbol of Solomon’s power and knowledge. The seal of Solomon in the Morisco historical context As I have attempted to show. as shown in a letter found by the Inquisition in 1532 to a Valencian Morisco requiring gold rings manufactured in Algiers of his partner (Labarta 2009: 207). But it also turned out to be the perfect instrument to help the Moriscos bear the obligation to convert to Catholicism in a less painful way.
A Christian princess fell in love with him while he was wandering. aiming to prevent the expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain with an attempt of religious exaltation. thus turning to the first messianic meaning of the symbol in Jewish tradition. Solomon wandered for forty days around his kingdom until his redemption occurred with the casual discovery of the ring inside a fish. allowed a demon to steal his signet ring and occupy his throne. they could use their magic seal-rings and talismans to protect themselves (since they were forbidden to carry weapons). At the same time. These books contain an apocryphal gospel written in Arabic that was supposed to have been revealed by the Virgin Mary to Arab Christian disciples. This story became a model and source of hope for every Morisco.THE SEAL OF SOLOMON 183 the Biblioteca Nacional of Madrid refers (Vespertino 1983). God. The story ends with the author’s mention of Solomon as the announcement of Jesus’ advent. yet . The Sacromonte Tablets also mentioned the History of the seal of Solomon (Roisse 2006) in one of the enigmatic books described above. The Sacromonte Tablets are twenty-two lead books written in Arabic that appeared in Granada in the final years of the 16th century. then. These disciples came to Spain with the Apostle James. It narrates the sin of Solomon or how he fell from divine grace after making an image for one of his concubines. and helped him to recover his throne and seal-ring. Voices soon appeared trying to show the falsehood of these findings by demonstrating the anachronism exposed in the language and contents (García-Arenal and Rodríguez Mediano 2006). to avoid pain in case of torture by the Inquisition. The History of the Seal of Solomon followed the tendency of local prophecies. becoming the first Christians Arabs of the Peninsula. thus turning to idolatry. and there they suffered martyrdom. That the seal of Solomon is a symbol at the crossroads of diverse religious persuasions is particularly evident in the forgeries known as the Sacromonte Tablets. The tablets pretended to be ancient Christian texts (although they made no mention of the Trinity or the divine person of Jesus) while presenting the Arabic language. Solomon’s haughtiness caused him temporary misfortune. or even to make themselves invisible. as a vehicle of Christian revelation. The authors of the forgeries intended to make a cross-confessional synthesis that enabled the permanence of Islam in an attenuated form that would not clash with Catholicism. which had been banned in Granada in 1567.
Rodríguez Mediano: 2008). the Morisco Miguel de Luna. Rodríguez Mediano: 2006). which he had found in Morisco magical Works (García-Arenal. One of the Lead Books translators. He also pointed to the widespread use of the seal of Solomon in amulets used by the old Christians or even painted on the walls or doors of their houses (García-Arenal and Rodríguez Mediano 2010). the book called History of the Seal of Solomon” (Wiegers 2010). Another example of the symbol’s popularity among the Christians of Granada is the trial of a Christian silversmith by the Inquisition in 1626. stipulating that the said manuscript and the magical tradition exemplified by it can be found in them viz. avoid shipwrecks and lessen the pain. “the authors then connected these findings to the Lead Books. 3) where the hegemonic relationship of the Islamic Prophet with the demons can be pointed out. “The books as a fruit of the culture of the Moriscos drew the attention of a much larger public than Moriscos had ever drawn before” (Wiegers 2010). Marcos Dobelio. similar to those found in the lead plates. an Arab Christian scholar. It is a curious hybrid of Christian and Muslim symbols in a talisman whose protective function was related to the four paradigmatic uses of prophylactic magic: to avoid death by iron. hexagrams and stars. a part of the šah da) were being used by the Christian population. so-called Solomonic script. He was found to be making crosses on which the shape of the seal of Solomon was engraved. even by the Archbishop of Granada himself. He insisted on showing how exorcist formula of Islamic origin present in the Lead Books (even l ill ha ill All h. but he also pointed to the risks and to the harmful consequences the findings were having among the population. But. whereas Miguel de Luna was trying to prove the authenticity of the tablets. His arguments were many and sound. the subject of their study. This talisman took part in the . The cultivated elite that participated in the translation of the Lead Books showed an interest in Morisco literature like the manuscript of Ocaña (Fig. for exorcism. in his report. seek love. was writing extensively in the first half of the 17th century in order to refute them (García-Arenal. As Wiegers notes.184 ESTHER FERNÁNDEZ MEDINA inscribed in the frame of the Morisco cultural knowledge and literature accounts such as the aforementioned Rekontamiento de Sulayman. speaks of the secret characters that are present in alB n ’s work.
Leg. It can still be seen today in the walls of the Sacromonte Abbey.11 The success the Solomonic seal had and the widespread use of it as a magical and talismanic device beyond the Morisco minority in whose magical practices it had originated is quite outstanding. 18. Conclusion The trope of Solomon’s seal is documented in the Iberian Peninsula at least from the 10th century. both present in the seal of Solomon are also the privileged fields of hybrid encounters between Moriscos and Old Christians in Iberia (García-Arenal 2003). In light of the Moriscos’ marginal situation and the pressure they experienced. was employed by the Moriscos to warn community members of the imminent final judgment. Pedro de Arce Cabeza de Vaca. n. the conscience use of the seal in the forgeries of the Sacromonte attempts to deliver a message of religious syncretism to the entire population. the coming expulsion. Inquisición. along the lines of talisman manufacturing. Archivo Histórico Nacional. referencing the prophecy and redemption of the Prophet Salomon. In some cases it carried an eschatological meaning. In the last stage of the existence of Moriscos in Spain. after his apostasy. In a like manner. the seal of Solomon. talismans and other objects by the three religions. 11 . Diversos delitos. The sealstamped crosses were made of silver in series with astrological coordinates. which doubtlessly would have interpreted it according to its cultural ascendency and religious confession. offered them a halo of hope. D. there are records documenting its use for prophylactic magic in manuscripts. Similarly.THE SEAL OF SOLOMON 185 Christian symbol of the cross and the six-pointed star as an example of the synthesis of beliefs operated in magic. Magic and messianism. due to its eschatological meaning. it was employed for exorcism. in others. one of the most emblematic sites of Christian Granada (Harris 2007). 1952/4I Relación de las causas despachadas en la Inquisición de Granada en el año de 1626.
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