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1: Point Loading of a 1D Cantilever Beam

Table of Contents Introduction Problem Description Theory Geometry Preprocessor Element Type Real Constants and Material Properties Meshing Loads Solution General Postprocessor Results Validation

Page Number 2 3 3 4 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 17

UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.1

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Introduction Welcome to the UCONN ANSYS Mechanical Training Suite! Modules 1. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.3W. a small introduction to ANSYS Workbench is explored in modules 1. Modules 1.1 Page 2 . Using classical beam loadings. a general category of Finite Element problems which can be solved in one load step and one iteration. common modeling mistakes and other modeling considerations. 1. These problems are generally quick to solve using the software and are easier to set up.1-1. Also. While most tutorials in this suite use the ANSYS Mechanical APDL package.1-1. we will investigate how different boundary conditions affect the number of mesh elements required to achieve a converged solution. We will study the tradeoffs and benefits of modeling in one two or three dimensions. Completion of this first series of modules will help the user gain proficiency in the layout of the APDL environment and draw attention to the modeling process. we will model fundamental structures in one two and three dimensions in an environment where theoretical answers are known and can be compared against the created models.5W and 1.7W.9 are also designed as an introduction to Linear Static Structural problems.9 are designed to be an introduction to the fundamental modeling considerations and features in ANSYS.

the Von Mises Equivalent Stress from equation 1 reduces to: (1.7) UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.1 Page 3 .2) Using these simplifications. (1.33 x Length of beam Cross Section Base Cross Section Height Point Load Young’s Modulus of Aluminum at Room Temperature Poisson’s Ratio of Aluminum In this module. The beam theory for this analysis is shown below: Theory Von Mises Stress Assuming plane stress. We will be using beam theory and mesh independence as our key validation requirements.1.1.1.5) (1. we can derive: (1.3) Bending Stress is given by: (1.1.Problem Description y Nomenclature: L =110m b =10m h =1 m P=1000N E=70GPa =0. From statics.4) Where and .1) Since the nodes of choice are located at the top surface of the beam. we will be modeling an Aluminum cantilever beam with a point load at the end with one dimensional elements in ANSYS Mechanical APDL. the Von Mises Equivalent Stress can be expressed as: (1.1.1.6) With Maximum Stress at: = 66 KPa (1.1. the shear stress at this location is zero. ( .

1. Click on Mechanical APDL (ANSYS) to start ANSYS. Integrating again to get deflection: (1.10) At the fixed end (x=0).13) (1.Beam Deflection The governing equation of a beam in bending is given by the Euler-Bernoulli relationship: (1. we get: (1.14) ( ) The maximum displacement occurs at the point load( x=L) .11) Geometry Opening ANSYS Mechanical APDL 1.9) Integrating once to get an angular displacement. On your Windows 7 Desktop click the Start button 2. Under Search Programs and Files type “ANSYS” 3.5.1.1. 3 1 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.1. This step may take time.1 2 Page 4 . we get: (1.y(0)= 0 thus .1. so deflection ( is: (1.1. thus 0 (1.12) At the fixed end.1.7.8) Plugging in equation 1.

Preferences 1.1 Page 5 . Check the box that says Structural 3. Go to Main Menu -> Preferences 2. Click OK 1 2 3 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.

In the box underneath. Click Global Cartesian 2. type /triad. The Triad in the top left corner is blocking keypoint 1. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for the point 110. 3.0 creating a keypoint at the origin.Keypoints Since we will be using 1D Elements.1 Page 6 .off in Utility Menu -> Command Prompt 8 7 7. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Replot Your graphics window should look as shown: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. To get rid of the triad. Click Apply 4. write 0.0.0 5. Click OK 1 5 2 3 6. our goal is to model the length of the beam.0. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create ->Keypoints -> On Working Plane 1.

Thus it is recommended you use the SAVE_DB and RESUM_DB functions frequently to create checkpoints in your work.1 Page 7 . we will create a temporary save file for our model. If salvaging your project is hopeless. This will start your model from scratch.Line 1. 1. Click OK Go to Utility Menu -> Ansys Toolbar -> SAVE_DB The resulting graphic should be as shown: 2 3 4 SAVE_DB Since we have made considerable progress thus far. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Select Pick 3. going to Utility Menu -> File -> Clear & Start New -> Do not read file ->OK is recommended. Go to Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar ->SAVE_DB This creates a save checkpoint 2. This temporary save will allow us to return to this stage of the tutorial if an error is made. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Lines -> Lines -> Straight Line 2. Enter 1. go to Utility Menu -> RESUM_DB WARNING: It is VERY HARD to delete or modify inputs and commands to your model once they have been entered. If you ever wish to return to this checkpoint in your model generation.2 for keypoints 4.

Click beam -> 3D Elastic 4 4.ROTY. compression.ROTZ).UY. For more information. and torsional capabilities.1 5 3 4 * Page 8 . bending. ANSYS has its own library of internal functions known as Commands that are used in the backend from the GUI front end. It has tension. Click OK 5.Preprocessor Element Type 1. The ANSYS HELP library also provides useful information on the theory behind ANSYS calculations and modeling best practices.ROTX.UZ. Go to Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> SAVE_DB 2 * BEAM4 is a one dimensional linear element with 6 degrees of freedom (UX. Similar to the Java APL or the Matlab HELP feature. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete 2. consult the ANSYS HELP by clicking HELP ANSYS HELP ANSYS Mechanical APDL at its core is a command line driven FEA code. Click Add 3. We encourage you to explore the vast volumes of ANSYS HELP to increase your proficiency in ANSYS beyond the scope of these tutorials UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Click Close 6.

Go to Material Model Number 1 -> Structural -> Linear -> Elastic -> Isotropic 2 3. Go to Main Menu -> Material Props -> Material Models 2.1 Page 9 . Go to Utility Menu -> SAVE_DB 3 3 4 Now we will add the thickness to our beam. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Real Constants -> Add/Edit/Delete 2. 1. Enter 7E10 for Young’s Modulus (EX) and . Click Add 3.Real Constants and Material Properties 1. out of Define Material Model Behavior 6. Click OK 5. Click OK 2 6 3 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.33 for Poisson’s Ratio (PRXY) 4.

1 . Go to Utility Menu -> SAVE_DB 5 2 5 5 7 3 Loads 6 4 Page 10 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Click Mesh 6.4. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Meshing -> Mesh Tool 2. Click Pick All 7. 4. Go to Size Controls: -> Global -> Set 3. Click OK 6. Click Close 8. Under Real Constants for BEAM4 ->Shell thickness at node I TK(I) enter: 10 for cross sectional area 10/12 for moment of inertia IZZ 10 for thickness along Z axis 1 for thickness along Y axis 5. Under SIZE Element edge length put 55. Click Close 4 Meshing 1. Click OK 5.

Under Directories: pick the Folder you would like to save the . we will name the file ‘1D Cantilever’ 3. 4. 1. Thus it would be convenient to save the geometry so that it does not have to be made again from scratch.1 Page 11 . For this tutorial.db file to.Saving Geometry We will be using the geometry we have just created for the next 3 modules. Click OK 2 4 3 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Go to File -> Save As … 2. Under Save Database to pick a name for the Geometry.

Click Pick -> Single and with your cursor. 2. 3. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Nodes Go to Utility Menu -> Plot Controls -> Numbering… Check NODE. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Loads -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Structural -> Displacement -> On Nodes 6. 10. Click OK 11.Displacements 1. Node Numbers to ON Click OK 3 Your plot should look as shown: 4 5.1 Page 12 . Click All DOF to secure all degrees of freedom 9. Go to Utility Menu -> SAVE_DB 6 8 9 7 10 The fixed end will look as shown below: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Click OK 8. 4. click on first node 7. Under Value Displacement value put 0.

This step may take some time depending on mesh size and the speed of your computer (generally a minute or less). LS stands for Load Step. as they are irrelevant to the problem at hand. This will delete the previous force assignment. 6.1 Page 13 . Go to Main Menu -> Solution ->Solve -> Current LS (solve). Ignore any warnings that may appear on your screen. Under List of Items enter 2 for node 2 and press OK 5 3. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Loads -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Structural ->Force/Moment -> On Nodes 2. 3 4 Under Lab Direction of Force/mom select FY Under Value Force/moment value type -1000 Press OK Go to Utility Menu -> SAVE_DB USEFUL TIP: If you wish to assign new force values. pick the nodes of interest and replace that component of force with 0 before assigning new values. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.Point Load 1. 4. 5. 2 4 The load at the end face should look as below: Solution 1.

5. go to Utility Menu -> Command Prompt and type /title. Go to Main Menu -> General Postprocessor -> Plot Results -> Contour Plot -> Nodal Solution 2.1 Page 14 . Press enter 2 3 The Resulting Plot should look as shown below: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Deflection of a Cantilever Beam with a Point Load. 6.General Postprocessor We will now extract the Preliminary Displacement and Von-Mises Stress within our model. Click OK 4. To give the graph a title. Displacement 1. Press enter and write /replot to refresh the window. Go to DOF Solution -> Y-Component of displacement 3.

1. Go to Utility Menu -> List -> Results -> Element Solution … 2.4. Click OK This chart shows all reaction forces and moments at each node in the domain. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. we get the expected stress of 66 kPa.4. Go to Element Solution -> All Available force items 3. We can.1. Since we are interested in reaction moments in the z direction. however. we can readily calculate the bending stress in our model and by extension. we cannot create a contour plot of Von-Mises stress for 1D elements. If we plug this value into equation 1.11E6 Nm.1. Plugging into equation 1. look up the moment reactions at each element. the equivalent stress.1 Page 15 .Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress Unfortunately. we will look to the last column in the chart: According to the chart the maximum moment at the fixed end of the beam is .

15) above. Since the equations for deflection and stress are fourth order and second order respectively.1. This is due to the fact that ANSYS uses Gaussian Quadrature to interpolate between the integration points. This changes with respect to the element used. the answer will have no error because the Quadrature is accurate to the correct degree polynomial.15) Max Equivalent Stress Error Using equation (1.Results The percent error (%E) in our model max deflection can be defined as: ( Max Deflection Error ) =0% (1. the percent error for Max Deflection and Equivalent Stress in our model is 0%. Thus the one dimensional method has zero percent error in deflection and stress.1 Page 16 . Beam4 used twopoint Gaussian Quadrature.1. a numerical technique which is fourth degree accurate. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.

Go to PRNSOL Command -> File -> Close Open 1D_P_YDeflection. Click OK 4.Further Analysis In addition to this baseline data. Click Next > 12.lis in Excel Click Fixed Width Click Next > 8 9 10. Select Nodal Solution -> DOF Solution -> Y-component of displacement 3. 1. Click Finish 10 11 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. We will use the Y-deflection data as an example of how to do this. 7.1 Page 17 . we can export both the deflection and Von-Mises data to Excel. Go to Utility Menu -> List -> Results -> Nodal Solution … 2.lis to the path of your choice 4 6 6. 8. The list file should populate. Save the file as 1D_P_YDeflection. This will cause Excel to separate these columns into separate columns in the spreadsheet 11. 9. Go to PRNSOL Command -> File -> Save As … 5. Click a location on the ruler between the NODE and UY columns.

1 Page 18 .Validation UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.

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