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H E ERA of modern N T editions began almost exactly a century ago, when Tischendorfs "editio octava maior" broke new ground in this field. Since then decisive changes have taken place, in particular as regards the material, but also as regards the methods of N T textual criticism. Attempts have twice been made to work the new material into one large edition. Work on Legg's edition was broken off after the second volume and von Soden's edition failed to gain influence. Of the two, von Soden was the more ambitious. He not only set up a new text, but, at the same time, tried to bring in the entire history of the N T text, including the ramifications of the Koine. Without any doubt, he accomplished more in this work than his critics often acknowledge. Nevertheless, the statement already made on publication, that the entire work would have to be done again, was quite correct. Legg simply reprinted the Westcott-Hort text and collected together in his critical apparatus the material which was accessible to him. Certainly anyone would gladly avail himself of the assistance offered in Legg's two volumes, but even so, he would never be able to dispense with Tischendorfs critical apparatus, which, in spite of its being a century old, still forms the basis of all textual criticism. In May 1966, The Greek New Testament was published under the responsibility of a group of editors and on behalf of the United Bible Societies — two conditions equally new and unusual. The success of this edition has been extraordinary and it has already been reprinted several times. Early in 1968, a second edition is to be brought out, containing a number of changes in text, some of great significance. As well as this, the assessment of some text variants in the critical apparatus will be changed and an initial series of corrections of unclear or incorrect notes will follow. These modifications will be clear to the user only on closer scrutiny. The things which will immediately catch his eye are the changes on the title page. A new name, that of Professor Dr. Carlo M. Martini, S J . , has been added to those of the editorial Committee, and an additional note "in Cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, 1 ' is appended to the title. The latter is the result of the already very considerable cooperation of the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung at Münster University in the work of
* An invited paper read at the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature on December 29, 1967. For publication it has been abbreviated. — EDITOR.
under the responsibility of the same editorial committee as The Greek New Testament. which will continue to appear under this name. for example. for instance. etc. However. for whom it is specially designed. in the orthography. In the course of the coming year. Of course. which have given rise to differences of opinion from . responsibility for the conception as a whole will. the differences between these two editions will be clear. to a great extent. These differences arise from the differing purposes of the two editions. in particular that of the frequently differing text form. quote manuscript witnesses for all those passages. the new Nestle-Aland will have a considerably higher standard. a number of small differences will remain. probably for 1970. In future. its aim being to provide the specialist working on the N T text with all the material he might need. The Greek New Testament will be under the patronage not only of the International Bible Societies. After the publication of the second edition. the text of The Greek New Testament will be changed or vice versa. within the gospels. 1. Naturally.6. a third edition is contemplated. is not divided up according to pericopes. but also of the Pontifical Biblical Institute. In comparison with earlier editions. The Nestle-Aland will. while the number of variants per page in The Greek New Testament is. Should agreement on these passages be reached. which likewise will. be distributed by the United Bible Societies and the Pontifical Biblical Institute. which already includes a number of anticipated text alterations. etc. remain with Kurt Aland.180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE forming the critical apparatus and it expresses the fact that responsibility for the revision and scientific preparation of the edition's apparatus has been transferred to Münster. Since the average number of variants per page will be 20. in paragraphing. The addition of Professor Martini's name has significance with regard to our future program. indeed. The same plan is under way for the Nestle-Aland edition. a number of problems arise. the critical apparatus is just as important as the text and the marginal notes are also of some significance. 1968. beginning with translators. intended exclusively as a scientific pocket edition for use in universities and by N T specialists. on the average. the editorial committee will have to discuss all the passages. in future. In details such as punctuation it follows more closely the rules of classical philology. which will alter the text to such an extent that it will be identical with the 26th edition of Nestle-Aland. but. for it is. whereas The Greek New Testament addresses itself to a much wider circle. For in the Nestle-Aland edition. in which the existing proofs or manuscript of the new Nestle-Aland edition differ from The Greek New Testament. in the use of capital or small letters. for example. Nestle-Aland. according to individual logia and to other results of form criticism. Professor Martini is professor of New Testament Textual Criticism at the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome.
ALAND: GREEK NT. the uncials X A B C D W O K L P Q R Z r A H ^ the extant fragments of uncial manuscripts (about 125 uncials in all) and the minuscules f1. including the single readings of the papyri. be mentioned in the critical apparatus if the majority text splits into two or more groups. Apart from the fact that. be quoted in the preface (according to our collations we can now already list several hundred). f13.. In the gospels.. The so-called Koine-manuscripts will appear under the siglum M (i. but in differing combinations. The manuscripts belonging to the majority text will. of course. It will. e. Its task is to make available the material necessary for the establishment of the original text. i. . i. Hesychian or Egyptian text) will disappear. 565. the form. but will also present them differently and more precisely. and the same will apply for the Old Latin and Coptic witnesses. But it cannot be the intention of a pocket edition to attempt a complete history of the Koine. these include. and 1424. But we will have to forego an attempt to reconstruct the development of the Koine in all its detail. their significant variant readings. Of these. 1241. e. By means of a wellplanned system. naturally. The user will not only be given all the material necessary to enable him to make an independent decision about the text. 700. according to the circumstances. 28. but also all that he needs to reconstruct the history of this text. besides all the papyri. naturally. the Nestle-Aland includes not only all exegetically important variant readings. to deduce e silentio which manuscripts support the reading printed in the text. Through these two editions the urgent needs are met. 1010. For a certain number of manuscripts will be completely collated with all the variant readings. in which the N T writings first appeared. it will also be possible in the future. wherever necessary. Of course. But the decisive question is: has enough been done? I believe that the asking of this question already implies a negative answer.. In addition. The siglum § (i. we have avoided excessive growth of the apparatus and will be able to keep it within justifiable limits. the Syriac versions will. 892. the newly-discovered major manuscripts will be regularly consulted. but also those in which the major manuscripts differ. When the old translations are quoted. PRESENT AND FUTURE EDITIONS 181 Tischendorfs time until the present and which have resulted in the differences in the various editions over the past hundred years. manuscript witnesses pro et contra a reading will be noted. It will be replaced by a list of its manuscript witnesses. e. be individually named. This edition too will be available in 1970. Provision has also been made that the apparatus remains clearly arranged and legible. e. 33.. The new Nestle-Aland will not only offer more variant readings than its earlier editions. majority text). where only the witnesses for a variant reading are quoted. all other Greek manuscripts which are important for a special variant reading will be included.
for Westcott and Hort explained (vol. this number of minuscules were known in their entire content. at that time. but it can never replace the comprehensive edition. Of the Coptic text of the N T only the initial fragments were known to Tischendorf. Nowadays. as is well known. However. but only very few (mostly uncial lectionaries). Of course. Of the now-known uncials. the shortened version must contain a reliable extract from the complete work. Tischendorfs accomplishment was immense. i. All the editions of the Vetus Latina. p11. that in their time. And that which applies here to the 26th edition of Nestle-Aland holds to an even greater extent for the other pocket editions in use today. the Nestle-Aland is to a comprehensive edition. but not the Sinai tic Syriac. In fact. are completely out of date. only about one-third was accessible). not to mention the fact that many manuscripts have been discovered since then. 58-60. Tischendorf consulted some lectionaries. and it must provide all the essentials for everyday work . what a medium sized Latin dictionary is to the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. 77). which was only discovered in 1892. he knew and utilized the Curetonian Syriac. e. In the case of the translations. p. Germany. one need only mention Johannes Belsheim. of which. This is about 6% of the 2764 minuscules known today. he used only parts of one single manuscript (i. All the great critical editions of the church fathers first began to appear after Tischendorfs death. e.. pp. the last volume of which appeared little more than 40 years ago. pp. It was at most 150. the Nestle-Aland edition cannot replace a large comprehensive critical edition of the NT. which involves making decisions about the competing variant readings under discussion at the present time and surveying those important variant readings contained in the major N T manuscripts. that even Horner's edition. . used by Tischendorf. By way of comparison. and Studien zur Überlieferung des Neuen Testaments und seines Textes. is completely out of date and insufficient. Without doubt. which our generation used until the appearance of Jiilicher's Itala edition and the edition of the Vetus Latina Institute at the monastery of Beuron. 1 For further details see my The Gospels Reconsidered. even though he is glad to have the shortened version for daily use and quick reference. and the scholar will always use the latter as a basis for his own independent work. 2. As an example.. he used at most 80 (possibly only 64). 1 One hundred years have passed since an edition last appeared.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE The Nestle-Aland edition cannot be more than a manual edition offering the scholar all he needs for his day-to-day work. It cannot be ascertained with any certainty how many minuscules he used. but how many manuscripts did he use for his critical apparatus? Of the more than 80 papyri known today. it so happens that even the editions of the Vetus Latina. the situation is such. a maximum of 30%. which summed up what was known about the tradition of the N T text. were more often than not unreliable. 8-9.
from a present-day point of view. von Soden's edition is difficult to use because of its complicated system of sigla. Von Soden definitely recognized the right moment. The Greek New Testament. but apart from the fact that this has in general been taken for granted and not really proved. for the editions of both von Soden and Legg are unreliable in the information they give.ALAND: GREEK NT. . in its newly published 4th revised edition. including the one of von Soden. none of the existing editions uses more than 50% of the number now known. p. and. e. they fall far below these percentages. Such is our present situation. When the Chester Beatty papyri became known. the need for such an edition was even more urgent. for instance. but he aimed too high and strove towards his goal with insufficient prerequisites. It was said that the volume containing the critical apparatus would be ready within a few years and that a few years later. PRESENT AND FUTURE EDITIONS 183 In spite of this. So the situation is in no way basically improved by the use of von Soden or Legg. And besides this. a critical text of the Gospel of Luke based on this apparatus would be published. I explained at the Congress of New Testament Scholars in Oxford : But in the critical apparatuses of all editions. or 77% of these Mss. The Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum. in 1942. for the most part. the percentage of minuscules not used in the older editions is higher. a closer investigation shows that 735 of these cursives which have not been used in the editions of the last hundred years were written earlier than the 12th century.3 During the ten years since then. and every N T scholar the world over. It is likely that the majority of them belong to a late stratum immediately preceding the textus receptus. 7.. indeed excessively overdue. and the Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum. Already in 1957. has introduced 68 uncials (with few exceptions complete) into its critical apparatus. the number of known minuscules has increased by more than 250. is very much aware that a comprehensive critical edition of the Greek N T is overdue. Since then. twenty-five years have come and gone and all that has appeared is a specimen six verses of the Gospel of Luke. The only exceptions are the Nestle-Aland. as already said. [i. in addition to the uncials already used. As far as the uncials are concerned. who is working on textual criticism..'' The Gospel of Luke was to be dealt with first. total of cursive manuscripts] have remained unused. g. no fewer than 1938. I do not want a The Gospels Reconsidered. Tischendorf's edition is and remains the indispensible basis for the person involved in textual criticism. in most cases in the earlier editions (e. a plan was launched for an " International Project to Establish a New Critical Apparatus of the New Testament. It was therefore understandable that N T scholars were enthusiastic when. Besides this. Accordingly. the term "used" can only refer to a very sporadic consultation of the uncials. when Merk and Bover quote the number of uncials used by them as 121 and 120 respectively).
e. the first step towards a complete critical edition of the Gospel of Luke. It hardly needs saying that such an enterprise is possible only with combined effort. It will contain. during which. in conjunction with the annual conference of the Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas. To avoid even the semblance of competition with the International Project. By then. Aland. Until now. the principles of such a comprehensive critical edition will be discussed. the work of the Institute for New Testament Textual Research in Münster was certainly not directed towards such a comprehensive critical edition. this would have been absolutely impossible. the absence of a comprehensive critical edition of the N T given rise to continually increasing criticism of N T textual research. about the possibility of creating such an edition. under the direction of K. The same will apply for any subsequent volumes which may be published. Aland). Aland): List IV 48 208 23703 1609 4235 List VII 81 267 2764 2143 5255 Papyri : Majuscules: Minuscules : Lectionaries : Total: s von Dobschütz listed numerically as far as 2401. since manuscript material has become available during the last decade to an extent which would have been unimaginable a short time before. as complete a knowledge as possible of all the manuscript material. with the printing of the Textus Receptus. and patristic quotations. there will be a seminar. preparations will be so far advanced as to make this possible.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE to discuss this specimen. the specialists have all been Europeans. Since the Bodmer papyri have been edited. the old translations. Initially. consultations have taken place between the European centers for text criticism and a number of specialists in the Greek tradition. I place the numbers quoted in the 4th "List of Manuscripts'' (by von Dobschütz) alongside those appearing in the 7th "List" (Lists V-VII by K. i. . In 1968. but elsewhere — most probably with the Pauline epistles. it cannot be compared with the comprehensive critical edition of which we have been speaking. for even when this volume of Luke is available. Today the situation has changed. but numbers 2362-2392 were not related to manuscripts (this was done later by K. Therefore recently. For comparison. only a collection of material. work on the edition will definitely not start with the gospels. In this way the number 2370 is reached.. At its foundation nine years ago. The numbers achieved speak for themselves. of course. The first condition for such an edition is. all the more so. but the circle can be enlarged at any time.
Therefore years ago we began to sort all the minuscules critically. More than 1000 manuscripts have already been examined in this way. we have not yet reached the absolute total.. remain a problem for us too. the text in which the N T writings were put into circulation by the author or a collector (e. The lectionaries. just as certainly. Certainly. And this number is increasing steadily. can be disregarded for the comprehensive critical edition. it will not be necessary to use a system of 1000 test passages. The striven-for comprehensive critical edition is concerned with ascertaining the original text of the NT. The next stage of the work has also long since begun. In this form..ALAND: GREEK NT. similar to that used for the minuscules. but in the critical apparatus it could not possibly do this with all 2764 minuscules.. a total of 4478 manuscripts. This is many more test passages than a philologist usually refers to for the classification of the manuscript of a classical author. but because the amount of work entailed can neither be performed nor justified. where the manuscripts show characteristic differences. with special attention to the papyri. that the start of work on a comprehensive critical edition is assured. which until now have remained unpublished or insufficiently edited. A final solution has still not been found. which is more than were known of at the beginning of our work. Any comprehensive critical edition will have to make use of all papyri and all uncials. i. PRESENT AND FUTURE EDITIONS 185 That is an increase of 1020 manuscripts in the years between 1954 (when List V appeared) and 1967. for the majority of the minuscules either have the pure. e. but we have photo copies or microfilms of about 80% of them at the Institute for New Testament Textual Research. however. we possess at present: 76 239 2385 1778 papyri uncials minuscules lectionaries i. but. more test-passages will be needed than have been used before. But we may assume that any future increase will take place slowly. e. which are explained by the inner development of the manuscript. the Pauline epistles) and with making available all the material necessary for the discovery of this text. because other Institute work . It is out of the question to use here a sorting system. One thousand passages in the N T were selected. Of course. and it is not too much to say as far as the knowledge of manuscript tradition is concerned. The Institute has already begun to examine and edit the papyri and uncials. This is impossible not for reasons of space and clear arrangement. so-called Koine text or reflect only the later development of this text. Any manuscript which agrees with the Koine text in all these passages or gives only insignificant variant readings. g. as was earlier the case for the most part. Not only are the manuscripts known by name.
are effectively combined. In addition.. in fact. originates from Tischendorf and is not based on original sources. Furthermore. The discussions which are to take place in 1968 must show whether and to what extent the plan for a large. is being prepared. Jülicher's Itala edition will soon be completed. of course. many of which are indispensable for the early history of the text of the NT.186 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE has stood in the way of this. which is not only of the greatest urgency and importance. A list of these Coptic manuscripts. for besides its work within the Greek sphere. the Institute has long since also turned to the old versions. comparable with the list of Greek manuscripts. e. The Institute has large collections and has already systematically dealt with quite a number of the church fathers. both internationally and interconfessionally. as soon as it is required. The manuscripts of both these works are near completion. including The Greek New Testament. The patristic quotations from the N T present a very difficult problem. for the material of all the editions. but. which in recent years have been impressively increased by a series of very important discoveries and publications. This plan was not initiated by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research. as is a critical edition of the Catholic Epistles. the Institute years ago began to collect information about the Coptic manuscripts of the NT. . a collection of information on the Ethiopian version of the N T has been started. the Institute is willing to undertake such a task. comprehensive edition of the N T can be realized. unavoidable. notably the collections of the Pierpont Morgan Museum and the Bibliotheca Bodmeriana. i. The accomplishment of this immense undertaking will only be possible if the efforts of all those concerned. but is. the modern critical editions of the church fathers. But there is still important work to be done here.
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