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Post Merger Challenges: A Case Study on Hdfc & Cbop Merger Author(s) : Abhishek Tripathi; Shilpa Jain Keyword(s)

: Mergers;Indian Banking Industry;Psychological Impact;HDF C Bank Source : Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management.Vol 2; N o 4; Year 2011. Abstract The literature review suggests that the most of the research work has been condu cted on various reasons for merger failure, psychological impact of merger on in dividuals, effect of merger and acquisition on the morale and psychology of empl oyees, motives of merger in Indianbanking sector and post merger integration. Ho wever, there is scant number of studies related to these issues, in the Indian c ontext. As the consolidation of banking industry in near future is inevitable, t here would be lot of merger and acquisition in the industry. Research on the exp eriences of past mergers in the Indian banking industry can go a long way in smo oth post merger integration in the futuremergers and acquisitions in the Indian banking industry. However, there is a dearth of studies on M&A experiences in th e Indianbanking industry, as is evident from the survey of the literature. The p roposed study endeavors to fill this gap. This paper has been divided in two par ts. First part includes introduction, Merger motives, capital worth after post m erger of both the banks. Second Part deals with the results obtained from the me rger and challenges faced by both the banks. The current study strives to explor e the impact of M&A in thebanking industry in India and identify post merger int egration issues in the bank mergers. The study draws from a mix of recent litera ture review and interpretations of observations of employees and managers. It ev aluates various reasons for M&A, post merger integration problems and impact of merger and acquisition on employees in the context of CBoP and HDFC bank merger. 2/3 Mergers and Acquisitions in Indian Banking Sector Author(s) : Rahul K. Kavishwar; Shrinivas R. Patil; K. H. Rajendrapr asad Keyword(s) : Mergers & Acquisitions;Business Strategy;Indian Corporat es;Consolidation Author Address : KLE Society's Institute of Management Studies and Resear ch at Hubli Source : Journal of Commerce and Management Thought.Vol 3; No 1; Year 201 2. Abstract After the introduction of LPG (1991) in India, private and foreign players are p laying major role. They are introducing new products and services which make oth ers to enhance their skill in the respective area. Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) are a significant form of business strategy today for Indian Corporate. A large number of Mergers & Acquisitions deals are making headlines all over the world. One may wonder as to what it is that necessitates Mergers & Acquisitions deals. One may be interested in knowing the main deals of the same and motives behind i t. M&A may take different shapes. Simply, a merger is a transaction involving tw o or more corporations, swapping stocks, but only acquiring firm survives. Merge rs usually occur between firms of somewhat similar size and are usually friendly .Acquisition is the purchase of a company that is completely absorbed as an oper ating subsidiary or division of the acquiring corporation. M&A refers to a combi nation of two or more firms into one firm; it may involve acquisition or consoli dation. In absorption, one firm acquires one or more other firms. In consolidati on, two or more firms combine to form a new entity. The Indian banking sector re forms initiated in the year 1992 with deregulation of banking sector in India. T he Government of India, the owner of public sector banks, has expressed its inte rest in for strengthening these banks through selective M&A in Indian Banking se ctor. Consolidation of the bankingsector, it is presumed, is required to improve operational efficiency and to facilitate the emergence of globally competitive banks. IndianBanking sector will have to explore inorganic growth options in ord

er to Significant challenges emanating from large sized foreign banks to be known for their deep pockets, advanced technology and skilled personnel. Indian banks also started hunting for M & A. This equation is specifically applicable to M&A in t he Indian banking sector. The key principle behind buying a bank is to create sh areholder value over and above that of the sum of the two banks. In other words two banks together are more valuable than two separate banks. This paper highlig hts the M&A in Indian Banking sector in post liberalization era with the analysi s of motives for the same. 3/3 Financial Performance of Indian Banking Sectors during Pre and Post Mergers and Acquisitions Author(s) : Bhavesh Chadamiya ; Mital Menapara Keyword(s) : Merger & Acquisition; Corporate Restructuring; Financial Source : Commerce and Management.Vol 1; No 4; Year 2012. 21-27. Abstract Mergers and acquisitions (M & A) have been a very important market entry strategy as well as expansion strategy. This present era is known as competition era. In this era companies to avoid the competition, go for merger, and enjoys sometimes monopoly. Liberalization and technological advances are increasingly pushing the banking sector towards greater globalization to improve the operational flexibility of Banks, which is crucial in the competitive environment that banks operate in. The present study is mainly based on secondary data. In order to evaluate financial test have been used performance, Ratio analysis, Standard Deviation and t as tools of analysis. The researcher has found that overall the merger and acquisition does not effect of the financial position of banks except when a weaker & non-viable banks are merged with a financially sound and profit making bank in such case the profitability of the later bank will be affected. 1/8 Pre and Post Merger Operational Efficiency of Banks in India a Comparative Study Author(s) : N. Bharathi; G. Vijaya Kumar Keyword(s) : Bank Merger; Operational Efficiency; Ratio Analysis; Mer ged Bank's; Strength; Productivity of Merged Banks. Author Address : Department of Commerce, Delhi College of Arts and Commer ce (University of Delhi), Netaji Nagar, New Delhi Source : Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management.Vol 2; N o 2; Year 2011. Abstract The Economic reforms initiated by the Government of India during the mid of 1991 altered the business environment radically. The policy changes through LPG and IT helped our financial institutions for multifaceted growth. As a result financ ial awareness has contributed fuel to dynamism in the Indian economy. Banking se ctor is the most leading in India has been among the top performers in the marke ts.Banks being a front line financial institutions in our economy working under intense and healthy competition. Indian banks have opted forMergers and Acquisit ions (M&A) as a strategic tool for global entry mode and expansion in future. Me rgers and Acquisitions is a pre-requisite that lead banks to the phase of consol idation amongst banks in future. This paper focuses on a comparison of pre and p ost merger of banks and its operational performance measured through selected 11 ratios. 2/8 Post Merger Challenges: A Case Study on Hdfc & Cbop Merger Author(s) : Abhishek Tripathi; Shilpa Jain Keyword(s) : Mergers;Indian Banking Industry;Psychological Impact;HDF C Bank Source : Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management.Vol 2; N

o 4; Year 2011. Abstract The literature review suggests that the most of the research work has been condu cted on various reasons for merger failure, psychological impact of merger on in dividuals, effect of merger and acquisition on the morale and psychology of empl oyees, motives of merger in Indianbanking sector and post merger integration. Ho wever, there is scant number of studies related to these issues, in the Indian c ontext. As the consolidation of banking industry in near future is inevitable, t here would be lot of merger and acquisition in the industry. Research on the exp eriences of past mergers in the Indian banking industry can go a long way in smo oth post merger integration in the futuremergers and acquisitions in the Indian banking industry. However, there is a dearth of studies on M&A experiences in th e Indianbanking industry, as is evident from the survey of the literature. The p roposed study endeavors to fill this gap. This paper has been divided in two par ts. First part includes introduction, Merger motives, capital worth after post m erger of both the banks. Second Part deals with the results obtained from the me rger and challenges faced by both the banks. The current study strives to explor e the impact of M&A in the banking industry in India and identify post merger in tegration issues in the bank mergers. The study draws from a mix of recent liter ature review and interpretations of observations of employees and managers. It e valuates various reasons for M&A, post merger integration problems and impact of merger and acquisition on employees in the context of CBoP and HDFC bank merger . 3/8 Mergers in Banking Industry of India: Some Emerging Issues Author(s) : K.A. Goyal ; Vijay Joshi Keyword(s) : Mergers;Emerging Issues;Local Telecommunications Divisio n;ICICI Bank;Indian Banking Source : Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences.Vol 1; No 2; Y ear 2011. 157-165. Abstract The world of competition is like a jungle where monsters gobble smaller ones the refore one has to be competent enough to win the rivalry. There are evidences th at large enterprises have merged smaller competitors in themselves. This review article on mergers in banking industry has been ignited from the case of the Ban k of Rajasthan Ltd. and ICICI Bank Ltd. The aim of this paper is to probe the mo tives ofbanks for mergers and acquisition with special reference to Indian Banki ng Industry. For this purpose sample of 17 mergers (post liberalization) of Bank s is taken. This study is conducted on the basis of number of branches, geograph ical penetration in the market and benefits from the merger. Apart from their fi nancial aspects, this article also raises certain questions from the point of vi ew of Human Resources Management and Organization Behaviour for scholars and res earchers. This article leaves footprints on the way of further studies on merger s and acquisitions from a different outlook. 4/8 Mergers and Acquisitions in Indian Banking Sector Author(s) : Rahul K. Kavishwar; Shrinivas R. Patil; K. H. Rajendrapr asad Keyword(s) : Mergers & Acquisitions;Business Strategy;Indian Corporat es;Consolidation Author Address : KLE Society's Institute of Management Studies and Resear ch at Hubli Source : Journal of Commerce and Management Thought.Vol 3; No 1; Year 201 2. Abstract After the introduction of LPG (1991) in India, private and foreign players are p laying major role. They are introducing new products and services which make oth ers to enhance their skill in the respective area. Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A)

are a significant form of business strategy today for Indian Corporate. A large number of Mergers & Acquisitions deals are making headlines all over the world. One may wonder as to what it is that necessitates Mergers & Acquisitions deals. One may be interested in knowing the main deals of the same and motives behind i t. M&A may take different shapes. Simply, a merger is a transaction involving tw o or more corporations, swapping stocks, but only acquiring firm survives. Merge rs usually occur between firms of somewhat similar size and are usually friendly . Acquisition is the purchase of a company that is completely absorbed as an ope rating subsidiary or division of the acquiring corporation. M&A refers to a comb ination of two or more firms into one firm; it may involve acquisition or consol idation. In absorption, one firm acquires one or more other firms. In consolidat ion, two or more firms combine to form a new entity. The Indian banking sector r eforms initiated in the year 1992 with deregulation of banking sector in India. The Government of India, the owner of public sector banks, has expressed its int erest in for strengthening these banks through selective M&A in Indian Banking s ector. Consolidation of the banking sector, it is presumed, is required to impro ve operational efficiency and to facilitate the emergence of globally competitiv e banks. Indian Banking sector will have to explore inorganic growth options in order to Significant challenges emanating from large sized foreign banks to be known f or their deep pockets, advanced technology and skilled personnel. Indian banks a lso started hunting for M & A. This equation is specifically applicable to M&A i n the Indian banking sector. The key principle behind buying a bank is to create shareholder value over and above that of the sum of the two banks. In other wor ds two banks together are more valuable than two separate banks. This paper high lights the M&A in Indian Banking sector in post liberalization era with the anal ysis of motives for the same. 5/8 Implication of Mergers and Acquisitions on Finanaical Position of Selected Banks Author(s) : P. Natarajan; K. Kalaichelvan Keyword(s) : Mergers and Acquisition; Liquidity; Activity; Profitabil ity. Author Address : Department of Commerce, Pondicherry University, RV Nagar , Kalapet, Puducherry (UT)-605014. Source : Journal of Banking Financial Services and Insurance Research.Vol 1; No 5; Year 2011. 73-82. Abstract In today's globalized economy, competitiveness and competitive advantages have b ecome the buzzwords, for corporates around the world. Companies are increase sin gly using Mergers and Acquisitions (M &A) mainly for entering new markets aiming asset growth, garnering greater market share/additional manufacturing capacitie s, and gaining complementary strengths and competencies, and to become more comp etitive in the market place. M&A are not to the Indian banking sector. Between 1 961 2004, 71 merges took place among variousbanks in India. Mergers and acquisitions are used for improving competitiveness of companies and gaining competitive adv antage over other firms though gaining greater market share, broadening the port folio to reduce business risk and entering new markets. There is variation in te rms of impact on performance following mergers, depending on the firm acquired dom estic or cross-border. In particularmergers have had a positive effect on key fi nancial and operational performance of firms acquiring domestic firms while a sl ightly negative impact of the firms acquiring cross-border firms. Therefore an a ttempt is made in this article to evaluate the performance of acquiringbanks bas ed on comparing key financial position indicates before and after acquisition pe riod of 5 years. The researchers has used accounting ratios metric viz., liquidi ty ratios, activity ratios and profitability ratios to elicit financial position of the banks during pre and post acquisition periods. This will help to asses t he implications of M&A on the financial position of acquisition bank in the deal . 6/8

Mergers & Acquisitions in the Indian Banking Sector and Pre and Post Merger Tech nical Efficiencies - an Empirical Investigation Author(s) : V. K. Shobhana; N. Deepa Keyword(s) : Mergers and Acquisitions; Technical Efficiency; Producti ve efficiency; Stochastic Production Frontier; Cobb- Douglas; Merged Entity. Author Address : PG and Research Department of Commerce, Vellalar College for Women (Autonomous), Thindal, Erode-12 Source : Journal of Banking Financial Services and Insurance Research.Vol 1; No 8; Year 2011. 1-9. Abstract Mergers & Acquisitions (M&As) in the banking sector has been looked upon as an i mmediate mode for external growth. Market driven merger which are on gradual ris e are outcomes of the post-reform period driven by the changes in competitive la ndscape of the Indianbanking system which forced many of the incumbent banks to restructure themselves and boost their efficiency. The present study examines th e technical efficiency of the nine select merged banks in the post-reform period . The study uses Stochastic Production Frontier Approach to measure the technica l efficiency as a ratio of output to input. The study reveals that of the nine s elect cases of M&As, the merger deals of Union Bank of India and HDFC Bank only resulted in significant improvement in the technical efficiencies. 7/8 Pre and Post Merger Performance of Banks in India - a Comparative Study Author(s) : N. Bharathi; G Ravindran Keyword(s) : India;Comparative Study;Financial Institutions;Banking S ector;Indian Banks Source : Journal of Indian Management & Strategy 8M.Vol 17; No 1; Year 20 12. Abstract The Economic reforms initiated by the Government of India during the mid of 1991 altered the business environment radically. The policy changes through LPG and IT helped our financial institutions for multifaceted growth. As a result financ ial awareness has contributed fuel to dynamism in the Indian economy. Banking se ctor is the most leading in India has been among the top performers in the marke ts.Banks being a front line financial institutions in our economy working under intense and healthy competition. Indian banks have opted forMergers and Acquisit ions (M&A) as a strategic tool for global entry mode and expansion in future. Me rgers and Acquisitions is a pre-requisite that lead banks to the phase of consol idation amongst banks in future. This paper focuses on a comparison of pre and p ost merger of banks and its performance measured through selected 13 ratios. 8/8 Mergers and Acquisitions in INDIAN Banking: What Works, what Fails, and why Author(s) : Naveen Kumar Sharma Keyword(s) : Merger and Acquisition; Banking Sector; Indian Financial Growth Author Address : Department of Management and Technology, Government Engi neering College, Bikaner Source : Zenith International Journal of Business Economics and Managemen t Research.Vol 2; No 10; Year 2012. 239-250. Abstract The present study based on Indian banking mergers, examines the impact of merger and acquisitions on the development of India banking sector. India is slowly by surely moving from a regime of large number of small banks to small number of l arger banks. Bankmergers can increase value by reducing costs and/or increasing revenues. Cost reductions can be achieved by eliminating redundant managerial po sitions, closing overlapping bank branches and consolidating back office functio ns. Cost cutting potential may be greater when merging banks have geographical o verlap. Revenue enhancement can also be attributed from sources like cross selli ng of bank services. There are diverse ways to consolidate the banking industry

the most commonly adopted by banks is merger. Merger of two weaker banks or merg er of one healthy bank with one weak bank can be treated as the faster and less costly way to improve profitability that spurring internal growth. The findings of this study reveal that mergers and actuations plays significant role in the d evelopment of financial growth of India banking sector 1/4 Mergers and Acquisitions in Indian Banking Industry : A Source of Competitive Ad vantage Author(s) : Awadhesh Kr Tiwari Keyword(s) : Indian Banking Industry;Competitive Advantage;Paradigm S hifts;Stakeholders Source : Professional Banker.Year 2008. Abstract The banking industry has transformed itself from a sluggish business entity to a dynamic industry. In the last two decades, the Indianbanking sector has grown a t an astonishing pace, marked by several paradigm shifts. And now, mergers and a cquisitions have added a new dimension to the Indian banking industry. They will enable banks to achieve world class status and give more value to all the stake holders 2/4 Mergers and Acquisitions in Indian Banking Industry a Case Study Author(s) : Awadhesh Kr. Tiwari; Megha Grover Keyword(s) : Mergers and Acquisition; Banking Industring; Strategies alliances; Nationalised Banks; Capital Adequacy; Fixed assets; Total asset; Depo sits; Consolidation. Source : Mangalmay Journal of Management & Technology.Vol 4; No 2; Year 2 010. Abstract It has been realized globally Mergers and Acquisitions is the only way for gaini ng competitive advantage domestically and internationally and as such the whole range of industries are looking for strategic acquisitions within India and abro ad. In order to attain the economies of scale and also to combat the unhealthy c ompetition within the sector besides emerging as a competitive force to reckon w ith in the International economy. Consolidation of Indian banking sector through mergers and acquisitions on commercial considerations and business strategies-i s the essential pre-requisite. Today, the banking industry is counted among the rapidly growing industries in India. It has transformed itself from a sluggish b usiness entity to a dynamic industry. The growth rate in this sector is remarkab le and therefore, it has become the most preferred banking destinations for inte rnational investors'. In the last two decades, there have been paradigm shift in Indian banking industries. The Indian banking sector is growing at an astonishin g pace. A relatively new dimension in the Indian banking industry is accelerated through mergers and acquisitions. It will enable banks to achieve world class s tatus and throw greater value to the stakeholders.In this analytical research pa per, an attempt has been made to evaluate the effectiveness of mergers and acqui sitionsof the selected merged banks on the basis of selected variables prior and after mergers and acquisitions. For striving this objective, a case study of Gl obal Trust Bank Ltd. (GTB) merged with Oriental Bank of Commerce (OBC) has been taken. 3/4 Mergers and Acquisitions in Indian Banking Industry a Case Study Author(s) : Awadhesh Kr. Tiwari Keyword(s) : Mergers; Acquisitions; GTB; OBC; Take over. Source : Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management.Vol 2; N o 2; Year 2011. Abstract It has been realized globally Mergers and Acquisitions is the only way for gaini

ng competitive advantage domestically and internationally and as such the whole range of industries are looking to strategic acquisitions within India and abroa d. In order to attain the economies of scale and also to combat the unhealthy co mpetition within the sector besides emerging as a competitive force to reckon wi th in the International economy. Consolidation of Indian banking sector through mergers and acquisitions on commercial considerations and business strategies is t he essential pre-requisite. Today, the banking industry is counted among the rap idly growing industries in India. It has transformed itself from a sluggish busi ness entity to a dynamic industry. The growth rate in this sector is remarkable and therefore, it has become the most preferred banking destinations for interna tional investors'. In the last two decade, there have been paradigm shift inIndi an banking industries. The Indian banking sector is growing at an astonishing pa ce. A relatively new dimension in the Indian banking industry is accelerated thr ough mergers and acquisitions. It will enable banks to achieve world class statu s and throw greater value to the stakeholders. 4/4 Effect of Mergers on Efficiency and Productivity of Indian Banks: A CAMELS Analy sis Author(s) : Jagdish R. Raiyani Keyword(s) : Mergers;Indian Banks;Financial Performances;Private Sect ors Source : Asian Journal of Management Research.Vol 1; No 2; Year 2011. Abstract The process of globalization and liberalization has strongly influenced the Indi an banking sector. During this period, the banks put in place effective risk man agement mechanisms and added fresh capital, which is very important to the banki ng industry. By concentrating on the top line and bottom line, banks across the board have improved their profit while reducing their operational costs and more number of banks has improved their financial performance by using the concept o f mergers and acquisitions. CAMEL rating is used by most banks across the world as a performance evaluation technique. It undertakes all the important criteria, i.e., Capital, Assets, Mana gement, Earnings and Liquidity (CAMEL), for the evaluation of any bank. The stud y investigates the extent to whichmergers lead to efficiency. The financial perf ormance of the bank has been examined by analyzing data relevant to the select i ndicators for five years before the merger and five years after the merger. It i s found that the private sector merged banks are dominating over the public sect or merged banks in profitability and liquidity but in case of capital adequacy a nd NPAs, the results are contrary. Further, it was observed that the private sec tor merged banks performed well as compared to the public sector merged banks.