Lab 1 (Skin and Epithelial tissue) …………………………………………………... Page 1 Lab 2 (Skin and Annexes).………………………………………………………….. Lab 3 (Cartilage and Bone).………………………………………………………… Lab 4 (Bone Formation) ………………………………………………………......... Page 4 Page 8 Page 12

Lab 5 (Muscle Tissue) …………………………………………………………..…… Page 14 Lab 6 (Blood Vessels) …………………………………………………………..…… Page 18 Lab 7 (Respiratory System).…………………………………………………….……. Page 21 Lab 8 (Oral Cavity).………………………………………………………………..…. Page 25 Lab 9 (Digestive Tract).………………………………………………………………. Page 28 Lab 10 (Associated Glands).…………………………………………….………….... Page 33 Lab 11 (Urinary System) …………………………………………………….………. Page 38 Lab 12 (Nervous System) ……………………………………………………………. Page 43 Summary: Epithelial Tissue ..………………………………………………………… Page 46

Summary: Connective Tissue.…………………..……………………………...…….. Page 47


SKIN & EPITHELIAL TISSUE In this lab we will explore the structure of epithelial tissue of the skin. The skin is an organ made up of epithelial tissue and connective tissue. Epithelial tissue forms sheets that cover the outside of our bodies (skin) as well as line the respiratory tract, digestive tract, and capillaries (for capillaries, the epithelium exists as a one layer of squamous cells called endothelium). Epithelial tissue has some important characteristics: a) Cells are tightly packed leaving little intercellular space b) Has a basement membrane upon which the basal layer of cells rests c) Cells are polarized, meaning they proliferate in a directional fashion The classification of epithelia is based on: a) The shape of cells (squamous [flat], cuboidal [square], columnar [rectangular]) b) The apical surface modification (cilia, microvilli) c) The number of cellular layers arranged in the tissue (simple [1 layer] or stratified [2 or more layers]) It is important to note that the stain used on all of the Light Microscopy (LM) slides is Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Hematoxylin, colours basophilic structures a purple-blue hue. Basophilic structures usually contain nucleic acids such as DNA, RNA, ribosomes, and the chromatin-rich nucleus. On the other hand, Eosin stains acidophilic structures a reddish-pink colour. Examples include structures composed of proteins like collagen as well as the cytoplasm. Hydrophobic structures such as fat cells and myelin around the axons of neurons do not stain well with H&E. Note as well that the basement membrane present in all epithelial tissue does not stain well with H&E. Instead, the PAS stain must be used.

Of the 4 main types of tissues in the body—Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, and Neural—the skin is composed of 2: epithelial and connective tissue. The skin is divided into 3 main layers called the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. 1. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin composed of epithelial tissue. More specifically, the epithelium found here is classified as squamous stratified keratinized epithelium. It is avascular (contains no blood vessels) and therefore receives nutrients from the underlying connective tissue. The epithelium of the epidermis is composed of different layers of cells as well as the basement membrane. From innermost to outermost cells, the layers are: i) Basement membrane (BM):  This is not a layer of cells, but rather a layer of extracellular matrix (ECM) that lies underneath the first layer of cells of ALL epithelium  Composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagens (including Collagen IV, Laminin, Entactin, Nidogen, and Fibronectin


4 . the pigment that gives skin its colour iii) Stratum Spinosum:  Composed of a thick layer of polygonally-shaped differentiated cells connected via cellular junctions called desmosomes. and restriction the movement of harmful substances into the tissue  As stated above. It is separated from the epithelium via the basement membrane and it separates the epidermis from the hypodermis. it is invisible in most LM slides except in the hair follicle and the trachea ii) Stratum Germinativum (Stratum Basale):  Composed of one layer of cells resting on the basement membrane  These cells are columnar undifferentiated cells which give rise to all other cell layers in the epithelium  Some of these cells are stem cells which continuously undergo mitosis to replenish the skin cells that are shed at the uppermost layer  Note that this layer contains melanocytes which make melanin. CT is characterized by a large amount of extracellular fibers (like collagen) and amorphous ground substance (called extracellular matrix) which is composed of substances secreted by cells of the CT. The dermis is the second layer of the skin and is composed of connective tissue (CT) which provides support for the skin. there are no nuclei or cell junctions  Keratin is a fibrous structural protein (“a translucent scleroprotein”) that gives skin its strength and waterproof property  Note: with continuous pressure and rubbing on the skin. which allow the skin to have such great tensile strength (resistance to tear with stress)  These cells have centrally located nuclei and migrate from the stratum Germinativum towards the upper layers of the epithelium iv) Stratum Granulosum:  Composed of 1-2 layers of more squamous and elongated cells  Cells contain non-membrane bound keratohyaline granules (basophilic) which squish the nucleus as they increase in size in the cell  The cells also contain lamellar bodies (membrane-bound structures filled with phospholipids) which are released by exocytosis to form a lipid sheet covering the stratum corneum v) Stratum Corneum:  Composed of dead cells which are keratinized  Because the cells in this layer are dead. keratin proliferates forming calluses  2. the dermis contains blood vessels and is therefore said to be vascularized and innervated. Unlike the epidermis layer just above it.It functions to attach the basal layer of epithelial cells to the connective tissue below via the cellular junctions called hemidesmosomes  This structure maintains the polarity and scaffolding of epithelial cells  Serves as a filtration barrier allowing movement of nutrients and waste by diffusion.

the dense CT can be classified as irregular. It is composed of loose CT with a significant amount of adipocytes (fat cells). 5 . vascularized.There are two layers that compose the dermis: i) Papillary layer:  This is the upper layer of the dermis that stains a slightly lighter pink  Composed of loose CT and contains many cellular elements  Has a more disorganized appearance as compared to dense CT  Loose CT is very cellular. flexible. NOTE: Non-keratinized epithelium is characterized by the presence of nuclei in the top layers of the cell. The hypodermis is the third and final layer of the skin. The adipocytes stain poorly with H&E and therefore appear translucent under the microscope. and not very resistant to stress ii) Reticular layer:  The lower layer of the dermis. meaning that the fibers are not aligned in an orderly way as in dense regular CT (i. This is contrasted with keratinized epithelium where the top layer is composed of dead cells lacking nuclei.e. tendons)  Dense CT offers resistance and protection and has less cells than loose CT 3. stains a darker pink than the papillary layer  Composed of dense CT and therefore has less cellular elements and more ECM (collagen fibers and other fibrous elements)  More specifically. It connects the reticular layer of the dermis to the underlying structures and organs.

These glands stand in contrast with endocrine glands which are ductless and secrete directly into the blood. The type of glands discussed in this lab are called exocrine glands because their secretions are secreted through a duct and have external destinations such as (i) the surface of the body or (ii) a body cavity considered continuous with the external environment (i. Glands are invaginations of secretory epithelium into the underlying connective tissue. it is important to classify the different types of exocrine glands according to their mechanisms of secretion. the cells stay intact but all of their contents are emptied  Examples: Exocrine pancreatic secretion Secretions of the sweat gland b) Apocrine gland (apocrine secretions)  Part of the glandular cell is released with the secretion (the cytoplasm and part of the plasma membrane).ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #2 SKIN AND ANNEXES This lab reviews the structure of the skin as well as other structures found in the different layers of the skin: the hair. urea. The secretory portion:  Located in the hypodermis immediately below the dermis  This part of the gland is highly coiled in appearance  The glandular cells are responsible for the collection of fluid and salt from surrounding capillaries  It consists of a single layer of columnar cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells (long and flattened cells) which contract and squeeze the secretory part of the gland and push the sweat out  The secretion is composed mainly of water. These glands consist of a secretory portion and an excretory portion: 1. For the structure of the skin. sebaceous gland. It serves the purpose of thermoregulation of the body as the sweat evaporates from the surface of the skin. This gland also regulates concentrations of water (secondary to the kidneys) and sodium. and sodium chloride 6 . There are 3 types: a) Merocrine gland (merocrine secretions)  Only the secretion product is secreted—no part of the glandular cells is secreted. coiled. please refer to the Lab 1 summary. the mouth). but the cell does not die  Example: Mammary gland secretion (milk) c) Holocrine gland (holocrine secretions)  All of the cell’s contents are secreted (including the cytoplasm) and the cell dies  Example: Sebaceous gland SWEAT GLAND — The sweat gland is a simple. and sweat gland. tubular gland that opens at the surface of the skin.e. Before discussing the sweat and sebaceous glands. The sweat gland is an example of a merocrine gland. ammonia.

releasing the sweat onto the skin’s surface  2 layers of cuboidal cells with a central lumen where sweat flows outward  This part of the gland serves to expel the sweat produced by the secretory portion  There are no myoepithelial cells. in fact. The sebaceous gland is a holocrine gland as the glandular cells die upon release of their contents. phospholipids. the duct of the sebaceous gland opens between the hair follicle to the hair shaft. The excretory duct:  Located in the dermis and leads all the way up through the epidermis to the surface of the skin. and the cuboidal cells are more lightly colored than the columnar cells of the secretory portion SEBACEOUS GLAND — The sebaceous gland is found at the upper part of the hair follicle in the dermis. they migrate towards the duct at the top of gland and begin to die Note the disappearance of nuclei as the lipids accumulate and cells prepare to burst Eventually the cells burst and their contents as well as pieces of the cell are released       7 . The following is a histological description of the gland as well as the process of secretion: The gland is made up of several layers of polygonal epithelial cells surrounded by CT The gland is formed by a bulb-like grouping of cells which migrate toward a single short excretion duct As the cells mature. they accumulate lipids (cholesterol. The secretion of the sebaceous gland is called sebum and is thought to have some mild anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Sebum is composed of lipids and cell material (from the holocrine secretion).2. In hairless areas of the skin (called glabrous skin) the secretions of this gland are released directly onto the surface of the skin. triglycerides) giving the cells a ‘bubbly’ appearance While accumulating these lipids. glycogen.

8 .

bordering the hypodermis. The hair bulb:  This is the base of the hair located deep in the dermis  The bulb contains stem cells. does not stain well so remains pale in the slide b) Huxley’s layer – 2 identical layers of wider cells with visible nuclei. composed of tricohyaline granules which are heavily stained by Eosin c) Cuticle of the IRS – 1 layer of lighter flat cells. The hair can be separated into 3 parts: 1. sensory functions. The hair has several functions including thermoregulation. The hair follicle:  The part of the hair called the follicle spans the region from just below the arrector pili muscle to just below the sebaceous gland  The arrector pili is smooth muscle responsible for stiffening of the hair (goose bumps)  In this part of the hair. cells have differentiated to form different distinct layers (moving inwards): i) Connective tissue sheath:  A layer of CT from the dermis surrounding the follicle and bulb ii) Glassy membrane:  This is the basement membrane of the hair and can be seen under light microscope  This basement membrane is continuous with the basement membrane of the epidermis (due to the invagination of the epidermis) iii) External root sheath (ERS):  Several layers of epithelial cells and is continuous with the epidermis  This layer spans the region from the dermal papilla to the epidermis iv) Internal root sheath (IRS):  Spans the region from the hair bulb to the sebaceous gland  Consists of 3 layers: a) Henle’s layer – a single layer of cells without visible nuclei. and as such is the region responsible for hair growth  An important feature to note in this region is the dermal papilla—the invagination of the papillary layer of the dermis between the two projections at the base of the hair (when viewed in longitudinal section)  The dermal papilla is essential for hair growth and maintenance  It is vascularized and innervated and is therefore responsible for supplying blood to the bulb as well as sending pain signals when the hair is pulled  If the dermal papilla is destroyed—by pulling out the hair or damaging the skin to the level of the dermal papilla—the hair will no longer grow at that site 2. The hair and the sebaceous gland together are known as the pilosebaceous unit. have the appearance of shingles 9 .HAIR — The hair projects from the dermis. but arises from hair follicles located deep in the dermis layer of the skin. and protection.

v) Cuticle of hair shaft: a) Consists of 1 layer of cuboidal cells which flatten as they move towards the end of the hair b) Also has the appearance of shingles but stains darker than the cuticle of the IRS vi) Cortex:  Located in the center of the hair. The hair shaft:  This is the region above the end of the follicle (from just below the sebaceous gland) that is exposed to the outside environment  It is composed of: i) Cuticle of the hair shaft ii) Cortex iii) Medulla (when present) 10 . this part surrounds the medulla (if a medulla is present) and comprises the widest portion of the hair shaft vii) Medulla:  The medulla will not be seen in the slide as it is only present in thick hairs of humans and some animals 3.

CT functions to provide structural support to the surrounding tissues. reticular. we will briefly review some important characteristics of CT. they are referred to as chondrocytes. 2 types of supporting connective tissue will be examined: cartilage and bone. Unlike epithelial tissue which is composed mostly of cells. CT can be classified according to the following diagram: Different types of CT serve different functions. fibers. The cells that are secreting the ECM have the suffix ‘____blast’ while the trapped cells carry the suffix ‘____cyte’. connective tissue is made up mostly of extracellular matrix (ECM) consisting of protein fibers and ground substance. as supporting CT. First. In addition. as well as the type of fiber present (collagen. The ECM is secreted by the cells of the particular tissue and ultimately this ECM envelopes and traps the cells. tendon will be studied as an example of Dense Regular CT. CT consists of the cells of that particular type of CT. bone and cartilage are specialized forms of CT whose cells produce an ECM with a firm consistency. chondroblasts secrete ECM and at the point when they are imprisoned with this ECM. or elastic) that will give the CT its properties. in cartilage. It is the different concentrations of each of these components.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #3 CARTILAGE AND BONE In this lab. and ground substance (with the latter two making up the ECM). In the body. For example. 11 .

It consists of several layers and components: i) Perichondrium: a layer of dense irregular CT that forms a type of protective capsule around the cartilage except at joints  The perichondrium consists of 2 layers: the upper Fibrous Layer composed of fibrocytes and Collagen Type II. The cells reside in pockets called lacunae within the ECM. Hyaluronic acid) and glycoproteins (Chondronectin)  The GAGs of the proteoglycans are negatively charged and therefore attract water into the ECM. ii) ECM with chondrocytes:  As chondroblasts of the chondrogenic layer secrete ECM and mature. this cartilage is called articular cartilage. and the lower Chondrogenic Layer (or Cellular Layer) which is composed of chondroblasts  VERY IMPORTANT: the hyaline cartilage found in joints does not have a perichondrium. giving cartilage its strength and resilience Of the 3 types of cartilage—Hyaline. they become more round in shape  Eventually. CARTILAGE — Cartilage allows tissue to support mechanical stress without distortion and provide support to adjacent soft tissues. they become trapped in the ECM in lacunae and at this point are referred to as chondrocytes  Groups of cells in a single lacuna that originate from 1 chondrocyte are called isogenous groups. Elastic. The ECM of cartilage consists of: a) Fibers – Collagen Type II (hyaline cartilage) or elastic fibers (elastic cartilage) b) Ground substance – Proteoglycans (Keratan SO4. the epiphyseal plate.DENSE REGULAR CT — Tendon is a good example of Dense Regular CT. It consists of cells called chondrocytes and chondroblasts (immature chondrocytes) as well as a network of ECM secreted by these cells. It is surrounded by synovial or articular fluid which provides cushion and nutrients to joint cartilage. Since the perichondrium is responsible for cartilage repair. Chondroitin SO4. in the event of cartilage damage on articular surfaces. it is repaired much more slowly (if at all) and depends on growth of chondrocytes in the ECM. there can be up to 8 cells in one lacuna 12 . you will notice the organized parallel arrangements of Collagen fibers as well as a small population of fibrocytes that are sandwiched between these densely packed fibers. Note that cartilage is avascular (has no blood vessels) because nutrients can diffuse through the matrix from the perichondrium to the chondrocytes and wastes can diffuse in the opposite direction. It is found on the surfaces of moveable joints. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type of cartilage found in the body. In this tissue. and Fibrous—only the first two will be seen in the lab: 1. tendons connect muscle to bone and in doing so. allow the coupling of muscle contraction to movement of the bones. In the body. and trachea. larynx.

elastic cartilage is structural similar as hyaline cartilage. etc. Haversian Systems. interstitial growth occurs by mitotic division of chondrocytes lower in the ECM. and osteoclasts—as well as an ECM made of calcified materials and Collagen Type I. 2. It consists of 3 types of cells—osteoblasts. These fibers give this cartilage its tremendous flexibility. BONE — Bone serves to support body tissues. protect internal organs. Inner Circumferential System. and is also involved in regulation of blood Ca2+. ii) Osteocytes:  These cells are flatter than osteoblasts and are found in lacunae  Nutrients are provided to the cells and wastes are removed by tiny channels emanating from the lacunae called canaliculi. Elastic cartilage is very similar to hyaline cartilage. In articular cartilage. Aside from these fibers. only interstitial growth can occur because there is no perichondrium. these cells synthesize and secrete the organic components of bone: Collagen Type I in the endosteum and in the zone of mixed spicules. with the only distinguishable difference being the presence of elastic fibers in the ECM. The ECM of bone consists of: a) Fibers – Collagen Type I (Organic) b) Calcified ground substance – Proteoglycans and glycoproteins (Organic) c) Minerals – Hydroxyapatite crystals (Inorganic) As mentioned previously. facilitate movement. osteocytes. as it is needed where highly flexible support is required in the body like the epiglottis and the external ear. endosteum and in some Haversian systems. they become trapped by the matrix  Osteoblasts become osteocytes in the Outer Circumferential System. which ultimately communicate with the blood vessels in the Haversian canal  These canaliculi are needed because the mineralized matrix of bone prevents diffusion of nutrients through the matrix to the osteocytes  Osteoprogenitor cells  Osteoblasts  Osteocytes iii) Osteoclasts: 13 . It differs in use. A note about cartilage growth: appositional growth occurs in the chondrogenic layer of the perichondrium where the chondroblasts differentiate and secrete ECM. there are 3 types of cells present in bone: i) Osteoblasts:  Located in the periosteum. and ground substance  They are derived from osteoprogenitor cells (stem cells for bone)  As they secrete ECM.

a condition in which the bone mineral density becomes too low 14 . These are large and multi-nucleated cells involved in bone resorption and remodeling by degrading collagen and calcium. thereby affecting the concentration of calcium in the blood  These cells play a role in osteoporosis.

this layer has a fibrous sublayer composed of collagen and fibroblasts as well as an innermost cellular sublayer composed of osteoprogenitor cells ii) Outer Circumferential System (OCS):  Consists of several layers of osteocytes just below the periosteum  Encircles the circumference of the bone iii) Haversian canal:  Contains blood vessels. nerves. and loose CT  The larger the Haversian canal. disorganized arrangement of bone  It is found in the epiphyses (ends) of long bones b) Compact bone:  It appears as a dense mass of bone with concentric rings containing centrally located channels  Found in the diaphysis (shaft) of long bones Lamellar bone—meaning “layered bone”—is found in compact bone and has several layers and structures that can be identified under the microscope (from outer layer to inner layer): i) Periosteum:  Forms a capsule of dense irregular CT around the circumference of bone  Similar to the perichondrium in hyaline cartilage.There are 2 types of bone: a) Spongy / cancellous bone:  It appears as a discontinuous. the younger the Haversian system iv) Volkmann’s canal:  These are canals that run perpendicular to Haversian canals and connect neighboring osteons allowing “communication” between them v) Haversian system or Osteon:  This is the entire system of concentric layers of bone surrounding the Haversian canal  Osteons are separated from each other by cementing lines which lie on the outermost periphery of the osteon vi) Interstitial system:  This is suspected to be the remnants of a degrading Haversian system (function unknown) vii) Inner Circumferential System (ICS):  It consists of layers of osteocytes that run parallel to the endosteum viii) Endosteum:  A single squamous layer of cells closest to the bone marrow  Mainly composed of osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts 15 .

creating a bone collar  Because the bone collar deprives the cartilage of nutrients. the cartilage degenerates.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #4 BONE FORMATION This lab describes and discusses the types of bone formation (called ossification) as well as the function and structure of the epiphyseal plate. and the ECM is calcified  Blood vessels invade the bone collar bringing osteoprogenitor cells  Osteoblasts then stick to the calcified matrix and secrete bone ECM surrounding the cartilage remnants  The secondary ossification center is formed by the same mechanism but is situated in the epiphyses of long bones  Not all of the cartilage of the secondary ossification centers is turned into bone: some remains on articular surfaces (joints) throughout life as well as in the epiphyseal plate until around 20 years of age 16 . resulting in the formation of spongy bone  An example is the soft spot on the head of a baby which is an area of CT that has not yet been ossified  Peripheral mesenchymal cells give rise to periosteum 2. as well as long bones  This ossification leads to appositional growth in the long bones (increase in diameter)  The cells responsible for initiating this process are the mesenchymal cells.e. Intramembranous ossification (not shown in the lab):  Occurs in the mesenchyme of flat bones (i. Endochondral ossification:  Endochondral. the chondrocytes die. OSSIFICATION — There are 2 types of bone formation: 1. signifies ossification involving bone formation from within an area of hyaline cartilage in the shape of the bone to be formed  This type of ossification allows for the formation of short and long bones  The primary ossification center forms in the diaphysis where the perichondrium is transformed into periosteum via intramembranous ossification. which are multipotent stem cells residing in embryonic CT called the mesenchyme (these are cells that can differentiate into many different types of cell of a particular function)  First a group of these cells differentiate into osteoblasts to form the primary ossification center  The osteoblasts then produce bone ECM which is then calcified to form spicules. they are then trapped by this matrix thereby becoming osteocytes  Ossification centers expand outwards and fuse. jaw). meaning ‘from within cartilage’. skull.

the chondrocytes proliferate while at the end close to the diaphysis. osteocytes. Primary bone is then deposited on the calcified cartilage matrix by osteoblasts. the chondrocytes hypertrophy.EPIPHYSEAL PLATE — The epiphyseal plate connects the two epiphyses to the diaphysis and is responsible for growth in length of long bones. and deposit a calcified matrix. At the end of the plate close to the epiphysis. and osteoclasts are found in this zone  The term “mixed spicules” indicates that the bone spicules in this area are composed of both calcified cartilage matrix and bone 17 . Until the age of 20. die. There are 5 zones in the epiphyseal plate: i) Zone of resting cartilage:  Hyaline cartilage with normal cartilage cells ii) Zone of proliferation:  Chondrocytes are dividing rapidly by mitosis forming “stacks of coins”  These cells are very acidophilic iii) Zone of hypertrophy:  Cells begin to enlarge and lacunae fill with glycogen. the thickness of the epiphyseal plate remains constant due to equal rates of chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix destruction. giving them a whiter appearance iv) Zone of cell death:  Disappearance of nuclei as cells begin to rupture and secrete calcified matrix v) Zone of mixed spicules:  Bone matrix (stained darker) is laid down over the calcified cartilage matrix (stained lighter) by osteoblasts  Osteoblasts.

etc. skeletal muscle. and cardiac muscle. Each type of muscle has identifying characteristics that will allow you to differentiate one from the other. composed only of myosin (‘thick filaments’) M line: dead center of the H band. composed of myosin with lateral connections between the filaments. The sarcomere has a distinct pattern of bands and lines which indicate the organization of the myofilaments. It is important to be comfortable identifying muscle in both cross section and longitudinal section as both can be tested on the lab exam. This pattern can be seen when the muscle cell is sectioned longitudinally: Z line: the border of the sarcomere that bisects the I band. These are the smallest functional unit of contraction and are responsible for the contraction of the entire muscle. myosin. we will study the histological differences between the 3 kinds of muscle found in the body: smooth muscle. with creatine kinase as the major protein of this line 18 . composed of α-actinin I band: composed only of actin filaments (also called thin filaments) A band: the largest band. composed of overlapping actin and myosin H band: also called pseudo band H.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #5 MUSCLE TISSUE In this lab. is in the center region of the A band.) The myofilaments in skeletal and cardiac muscle are organized into contractile units called sarcomeres. Muscle is a complex tissue with many levels of organization: Muscle ↓ Bundle of fibers (fascicle) ↓ Muscle fiber (muscle cell) ↓ Myofibril ↓ Myofilament (actin.

Examples of locations of smooth muscle include the uterine wall. involuntary contractions. The following is an outline of the histological characteristics of smooth muscle: a)     b)  Longitudinal section: No striations since myofibrils are not organized into sarcomeres Cytoplasm is homogenous and clear in appearance The cell shape is fusiform (wider middle and tapered ends) There is only one centrally located nucleus per cell Cross section: Again. The sarcoplasmic reticulum that surrounds the muscle fiber stores Ca2+ and releases it upon depolarization of the muscle cell. the tunica muscularis of the GI tract. however. not simply the peripheral parts of the fiber. the media layer of major blood vessels. there are no white ‘halos’ around the nucleus 19 . This difference in structure renders myosin the limiting factor in smooth muscle contraction. while actin is the limiting factor for the contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscle. in smooth muscle these filaments are not organized into sarcomeres. a network of T-tubules and terminal cisternae (sarcoplasmic reticulum) play an important role in the mechanism of muscle contraction. and the upper parts of the respiratory tract. In addition. Muscle tissue has some variations of the typical names given to certain cellular structures. The term triad is used to describe a T-tubule sandwiched between two terminal cisternae. The T-tubules are invaginations of the sarcolemma that allow for depolarization of the entire muscle fiber. These variations include: Sarcolemma: muscle cell plasma membrane Sarcoplasm: muscle cell cytoplasm Sarcoplasmic reticulum: muscle cell endoplasmic reticulum Note that all types of muscle have the myofilaments actin and myosin. the actin and myosin fibers overlap (but do not shorten) resulting in a shortening of the I band and H band.Upon contraction. In skeletal muscle. the structure of myosin in smooth muscle is different from that in skeletal and cardiac. This is called the Sliding Filament Model of muscle contraction. SMOOTH MUSCLE — This type of muscle is responsible for slow. clear appearance of cytoplasm due to lack of sarcomere organization of myofibrils  Single centrally located nuclei  As compared with cardiac muscle.

Muscle cells. Similar to skeletal muscle. vigorous. CARDIAC MUSCLE — This type of muscle allows for involuntary. Finally. followed by the perimysium which separates bundles of muscle cells (fascicles). Cardiac muscle has different characteristics that serve as identifiers in longitudinal and cross section: 20 . bundles of muscle cells. elongated nuclei line the periphery of the cell Cells are very long Cross section: Due to the myofilaments. but only to the level of the perimysium. the cytoplasm appears grainy Nuclei appear round and small and are located at the periphery of the cell **Nuclei of muscle cells are located under the sarcolemma while fibrocyte nuclei (of the surrounding CT) are located on the outside of the muscle cell plasma membrane—make sure you don’t confuse the peripheral nuclei of skeletal muscle with the fibrocytes of the CT surrounding the muscle fibers.SKELETAL MUSCLE — This type of muscle is involved in quick and forceful voluntary contraction. cardiac muscle is organized into sarcomeres and is surrounded by a layer of CT. the upper third of the esophagus. rhythmic contractions. This type of muscle has a very distinct histological appearance and is quite easy to differentiate from both smooth and cardiac muscle: a)    b)   Longitudinal section: Very prominent striations due to sarcomere organization Many flattened. the endomysium surrounds individual muscle cells and is comprised of the basement membrane of the muscle cell and reticular fibers. as well as groups of these bundles are separated by connective tissue. The role of this CT is to: i) Connect muscle fibers to each other ii) Provide nutrients and blood iii) Supply nerves iv) Attach muscle to bone through tendons (dense regular CT) to transduce muscle contraction into movement The CT surrounding the entire muscle is called the epimysium. Skeletal muscle can be found associated with bones. You can differentiate the fibrocytes from the nuclei by a difference in color (fibrocytes are darker and more dense) and shape (fibrocytes are more elongated and muscle nuclei are more rounded). in the tongue. Cardiac muscle is only found in one place in the body: the heart. and in outer anal sphincter to name a few.

a) Longitudinal section:  Striations can be seen due to the presence of sarcomeres  These cells are branched and have only one nucleus per cell  This is the only type of muscle that has intercalated disks which will appear at a perpendicular angle to the length of the cell  These intercalated disks allow for the synchronization of muscle contraction via gap junctions which permit rapid conduction of electrical signals from cell to cell  Nuclei are centrally located. so the presence of a grainy cytoplasm would allow the identification of the tissue as cardiac muscle  A while halo can be seen around the nucleus. similar to smooth muscle but unlike skeletal muscle b) Cross section:  Centrally located nuclei are an important feature in distinguishing this cell from skeletal muscle (which has peripherally located nuclei)  Note that smooth muscle also has centrally located nuclei. this halo contains glycogen and does not stain well with H&E therefore it remains white 21 .

They return excess fluid from the tissues to the circulation. the sub-endothelial layer (CT remnant) lies below the basement membrane of the endothelium  In some vessels. closest to lumen):  First is the endothelial layer composed of simple squamous epithelium  Endothelium is a semi-permeable barrier between the blood and the ISF (interstitial fluid) allowing gas and nutrient exchange  In arteries.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #6 BLOOD VESSELS In this lab we will be differentiating between the different types of blood vessels that appear in the body. However. proteoglycans. but they are an important component of the circulatory system. The arterial vessels of the circulatory system are termed the efferent vessels as they transport blood away from the heart. The walls of blood vessels consist of 3 types of tissue—epithelial tissue. meaning ‘vessel of a vessel  Allows diffusion of nutrients into the adventitia  Vasa vasorum are found in large vessels  This layer has Collagen Type I Lymphatic vessels will not be seen in the lab. These tissues are organized into distinct layers: 1. you are responsible for the theory concerning Medium Sized Veins but they will be not tested on the lab exam nor do they appear in the lab. on the lab exam there will be no ambiguity as very definite structures will be given. there is an Internal Elastic Limiting Membrane (IELM) under the sub-endothelial layer which appears very wavy in cross section 2. Adventitia (outer layer):  Composed of dense irregular CT  Network of small vessels called vasa vasorum. the changes in blood vessels in the body are gradual and therefore so are the changes in histological characteristics. Sometimes a given vessel might be difficult to classify because in reality. Media (middle layer):  Composed of smooth muscle (number of layers depends on the vessel)  In Elastic Arteries there are layers of elastic membrane made of elastin  Reticular fibers (Collagen Type III). Initima (inner layer. The characteristics of the media will allow you to distinguish between arteries:  Elastic arteries have many layers of smooth muscle with elastic fiber lamellae  Muscular arteries have 4 or more layers of smooth muscle and completely lack a layered system of elastic fibers  Arterioles have 1 to 2 layers of smooth muscle and lack elastic fibers 22 . In addition. and muscular tissue. and glycoproteins are present among smooth muscle (lends strength and resistance to the vessel) 3. connective tissue. and conversely the venous vessels are termed afferent vessels as they bring blood back to the heart.

 No sub-endothelium Carotid Vein  No IELM  Incomplete layers of smooth muscle  Thin relative to adventitia  Thick longitudinal smooth muscle  Dense irregular CT  Vasa vasorum NOTE: Do not confuse capillaries with venules. but not that of a venule. Although they share some of the same characteristics. elastic fibers)  Vasa vasorum (small vessels)  Dense CT  Vasa vasorum in larger vessels Muscular artery Arteriole  Endothelium  Thin sub-endothelium  No IELM  1-2 layers of smooth  Instead there is an muscle Internal Elastica (elastic fibers—not a membrane)  Endothelium only  No sub-endothelium  No IELM  Endothelium only  No sub-endothelium  No IELM  Very thin layer of dense CT Capillary  Absent  Basement membrane and reticular fibers surround endothelium Venule  Smooth muscle is absent  Location of pericytes (not seen in lab)  Basement membrane  Very thin layer of CT  Endothelium Large vein Ex: Vena Cava.SUMMARY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD VESSELS — INTIMA Elastic artery Ex: Aorta. 23 . collagen fibers. keep in mind that capillaries are much smaller than venules—a single erythrocyte (RBC) fills almost the entire diameter of a capillary. large branches of Aorta  Endothelium  Sub-endothelium  IELM (1st layer of elastic fibers)  Endothelium  Sub-endothelium  IELM prominent MEDIA  Very thick layer  Many elastic fibers  Smooth muscle layers alternate with elastic fibers  Smooth muscle cells run in many different directions  Thick layer  4 or more layers of smooth muscle  No elastic fibers ADVENTIA  Dense irregular CT (fibrocytes.

and dilation of the vessel upon relaxation of the muscle cells. when the vessel is cut in cross section the endothelial cells appear in cross section while the smooth muscle cells appear in longitudinal section. more rigid walls due to stronger blood pressure in these vessels  Less likely to collapse when sectioned  More pronounced media  No valves  Larger lumen  More collagenous tissue. keep in mind that endothelial cells run parallel to the vessel while the smooth muscle runs perpendicular to the vessel. more loosely constructed  Less elastic and muscular tissue  Thinner walls due to decreased blood pressure in these vessels  Collapse readily when sectioned  More pronounced adventitia  Valves present VEIN Finally. 24 . when the vessel is cut longitudinally the endothelial cells appear in longitudinal section while the smooth muscle cells appear in cross section. As a result.A COMPARISON OF AN ARTERY AND VEIN OF THE SAME SIZE — ARTERY  Smaller lumen  More elastic and muscular tissue  Thicker. The organization of smooth muscle in this way permits constriction of the vessel upon contraction of the muscle cells. On the other hand. when viewing the different sections.

and moisten air before it reaches the alveoli (called ‘conditioning the air’)  There is no gas exchange in this zone ii) Transitional zone:  Consists of the respiratory bronchioles  This zone is a transitional segment between the conducting zone and the respiratory zone  Smooth muscle is still present. The layers of the conducting portion are as follows (from innermost to outermost): 1. serving to keep the airways open  This zone is responsible for allowing air to pass into the deeper part of the respiratory system (the respiratory zone) where gas exchange takes place  Serves to clean. which is composed of loose CT. larynx. and lung alveoli  There is no cartilage and almost no smooth muscle in this zone  This area is responsible for gas exchange Similar to the blood vessels. elastic fibers. regular bronchioles. and capillaries (analogous to the papillary layer of the dermis) 25 . bronchi. trachea.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM The function of the respiratory system is to provide oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the blood to maintain the tissues of the body—a mechanism called gas exchange. but there is no cartilage  The function of this zone is to keep the airways open as well as warm and moisten the air before it reaches the alveoli  The beginning of gas exchange takes place in this zone iii) Respiratory zone:  Consists of the alveolar ducts. the conducting zone of the respiratory tract follows a general plan that spans the entire zone. and terminal bronchioles  Cartilage and smooth muscle are present to varying degrees (depending on the structure). The respiratory system consists of 3 zones. Mucosa (closest to the lumen):  The innermost layer is composed of respiratory epithelium which is classified as ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells  This respiratory epithelium spans the region from the nasal cavity to the bronchi— note that there are no goblet cells in the bronchioles  Under the basement membrane of the epithelium lies the lamina propria. alveolar sacs. each having a distinct function: i) Conducting zone:  Consists of the nasal cavity. warm.

trachea.2. Sub-mucosa:  This layer lies underneath the mucosa and is comprised of fibrous dense irregular CT of varying thickness  The acinar glands (serous and mucous) present in this layer have ducts that open into the lumen of the respiratory tract  Note that in the nasal cavity only. it is necessary to be familiar with the different types of cells comprising the tissue. these cells are the precursors of the brush cells which then differentiate into ciliated cells. Adventitia (furthest from the lumen):  This layer below the cartilage and muscle is composed of dense irregular CT  The function of this layer is to attach the structure (i.e. the glands are in the lamina propria  Varying quantities of cartilage and muscle are found in the submucosa  C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings are present in the trachea and the bronchi to a lesser extent (discontinuous cartilage)  Note that these cartilage rings are surrounded by a perichondrium  The trachealis muscle (smooth muscle) is present at the back of the trachea and serves to bridge the gap between the ends of the cartilage rings  A smooth muscle layer is present in post-tracheal structures of the conducting zone  The cartilage and muscle are needed to provide support and keep the airway open 3. as well as the functions of these cells: i) Ciliated cell: these cells are the tallest in this epithelium and have tiny hair-like projections called cilia on the apical border (recall: 9 + 2 configuration) ii) Brush cell: these cells have microvilli which create a brush border on the cell. They are also the precursors of goblet cells and small granule cells v) Goblet cell: these cells are filled with glycoproteins that are secreted by exocytosis 26 . note that microvilli are not like cilia. but rather they are projections of the plasma membrane that serve to increase the surface area of the apical surface iii) Small granule cell (Argentaffin cell): these cells secrete epinephrine and serotonin facing the basement membrane (not into the lumen) iv) Short cell: these are the stem cells of this epithelium therefore they are undergoing continuous mitosis. bronchus) to other organs or tissues in the body Because respiratory epithelium is so important.

SUMMARY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT — Trachea SUBMUCOSA ADVENTITIA  Dense irregular CT  Acinar glands (serous. (many vessels) not continuous rings Smooth muscle above cartilage Simple ciliated columnar epithelium without goblet cells Abundance of smooth muscle (organized into 2 spiraling layers) Unclear layer Wavy epithelium due to (very thin. mucous and Respiratory epithelium and  Dense seromucous acini) basement membrane of irregular CT  Thick C-shaped hyaline cartilage epithelium rings Lamina propria  Trachealis muscle and other smooth muscle around cartilage Dense irregular CT Wavy respiratory epithelium Thin layer of Only serous acini (mucous acini (cross sect. contraction of smooth muscle No cartilage mixed with cells No glands lung tissue) Thin lamina propria Continuous transitional layer: simple ciliated columnar cells and non-ciliated cuboidal Clara cells (stain lighter than ciliated cells) Less wavy due to less smooth muscle cells Lamina propria almost absent Few smooth muscle cells Wall remains intact and continuous No cartilage No glands MUCOSA Intrapulmonary Bronchus Regular bronchiole Terminal bronchiole Unclear layer Respiratory Smooth muscle cells touch the bronchiole Discontinuous shorter cuboidal epithelium due to lack of lamina (transitional epithelium with neither goblet propria region) cells nor ciliated cells Smooth muscle cells are Clara cells are present discontinuous and form large projections No lamina propria Wall is discontinuous May have patches of alveolar tissue Unclear layer 27 .) with fewer goblet dense irregular would occlude the lumen with cells than in trachea CT mixed with mucous) lung tissue Highly vascular lamina propria Hyaline cartilage present in plates.

Alveolar duct Mucosa exists as knob-like projections No lamina propria Discontinuous Clara cell layer Discontinuous smooth muscle within the epithelial knobs No glands Unclear layer 28 .

and finally reaches the respiratory zone where the gases diffuse down their concentration gradients and are exchange across the alveolar and capillary walls. which allows them to inflate readily upon inspiration so gas exchange can occur effectively iii) Alveolar macrophage:  Much bigger than Type II cells  Can be free in alveolus or fixed to the interalveolar septum  Has an irregular nucleus and prominent lysosomes iv) Capillary endothelial cell:  Line the alveolar capillaries  Share a basement membrane with Type I cells In order for gas exchange to occur. starting in the capillary and eventually being exhaled after diffusing into the alveoli. through the transitional zone. and the respiratory zone finally ends in the alveoli of the lung. O2 must diffuse through the Type I cell. covers the entire alveolar surface)  This surfactant serves to lower the surface tension of the alveoli. 29 . The alveoli are the main site of gas exchange in the lungs. then through the shared basement membrane of the Type I cell and the capillary endothelial cell. CO2 follows the reverse path. and finally through the capillary endothelial cell where it is taken up by erythrocytes in the capillary. There are 4 types of cells located in the lung alveoli: i) Type I pneumocyte:  Simple squamous epithelial cell lining the alveolar lumen  Rests on a basement membrane which is shares with the capillary endothelial cell ii) Type II pneumocyte:  This secretory epithelial cell is often wedged near the corners of the interalveolar septum (the elastic fiber wall separating the alveoli)  Has a prominent round nucleus and lamellar bodies within the cytoplasm  This cell has a very special purpose: it secretes pulmonary surfactant which covers the Type I pneumocytes (i. Notice that there are no more knobs of smooth muscle in the alveolar sac or the alveoli but small amounts of smooth muscle remain in the alveolar ducts. The air traces a pathway from the conducting zone of the respiratory tract.The alveolar sac follows the alveolar duct.e.

the structures of the oral cavity will be examined. giving it a different texture and function than the keratinized epithelium of the skin. columnar cells that are present in the IDE and serve to synthesize and secrete enamel  A very important structure of the unerupted tooth is the root sheath—this is the area where the IDE and ODE merge  The dentin-enamel junction is the point at which the dentin and enamel merge 2. while in the erupted tooth the enamel is far too hard to be sectioned so it must be dissolved during the preparation of the slide.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #8 ORAL CAVITY In this lab. and the esophagus. including the tooth (unerupted and erupted). There is a transition from the non-keratinized epithelium to the keratinized epithelium in the lips (just before the outer surface of the lip). TOOTH — Un-erupted and erupted teeth look quite different histologically. the tongue. Notice that in the un-erupted tooth. but does not include the enamel itself  Ameloblasts are tall. Unerupted (developing) tooth: From innermost layer to outermost layer. The oral cavity is lined with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with an underlying layer of lamina propria. Erupted tooth: a) Clinical crown:  Projects above the gingiva and consists of enamel and dentin  Enamel is composed of 98-99% inorganic matrix (hydroxyapatite crystals) and is the hardest material in the human body  Dentin is composed of 70% inorganic matrix (hydroxyapatite crystals) and 30% organic matrix 30 . Stellate Reticulum. the enamel is malleable enough to be sliced and included in the section. and Outer Dental Epithelium (ODE). Stratum Intermedium. 1. the structures of the unerupted tooth: a) Developing pulp b) Odontoblasts (arranged in a layer) c) Predentin and dentin d) Enamel (stains magenta due to its basophilic nature) e) Enamel organ (of epithelial origin):  The enamel organ functions in the formation of the enamel of the tooth  It is composed of (from innermost to outermost layer): the Inner Dental Epithelium (IDE).

 The dentin is under the enamel layer. the dentin appears as the first layer of the erupted tooth 31 . but because the enamel has been removed.

ending at the cementum  The cementum runs down the outside edge of the dentin from the uppermost part of the root to the bottom of the dentin  It attaches the periodontal ligament to the tooth to ensure stability of the tooth  The cementum is a hard substance that has a similar composition to bone  It stains darkly and increases in thickness as it approaches the bottom of the tooth  Cementocytes can be seen in the inner part of the cementum layer.b) Anatomical crown:  Consists of the clinical crown plus the gingiva  This is the division between the crown and the root where the enamel layer ends  The gingiva is composed of parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. apical foramen. which then becomes mineralized dentin (stains darker pink)  A thick layer of this dentin surrounds the pulp and odontoblasts  The cellular processes of the odontoblasts leave small canals within the dentin that span the entire dentin layer. odontoblasts. we see the mucogingival junction—the area where the parakeratin disappears and the epithelium becomes the non-keratinized oral mucosa which continues to the cheeks and lips  The pulp is composed of highly vascularized and innervated loose CT  Odontoblasts form a layer of cells on the outside of the pulp and produce the unmineralized predentin (stains pale pink). dentin. lymphatics. and blood vessels to enter the pulp  Note: In transverse sections. you may not be able to see the apical foramen and the dentin will appear to completely encircle the pulp  The periodontal ligament lies on the outside of the cementum and joins to the alveolar bone. these cells synthesize the cementum  The apical foramen is the opening at the bottom of the root allowing nerves. 32 . giving the gum a tough and resistant quality c) Root and associated structures:  Structures of the root: pulp. but feels different than the walls of the cheeks because of numerous microscopic and some macroscopic projections called papillae. thus lending support to the root and keeping the tooth in place. cementum  Structures associated with the root: periodontal ligament. it is composed of a fibrous dense irregular CT  Alveolar (primary) bone is the bone of the maxilla or mandible (upper or lower jaw bone) that lies on the outside of the periodontal ligament and forms a socket in which the tooth lies TONGUE — The tongue is composed of skeletal muscle which projects in all directions and appears much less organized than skeletal muscle found elsewhere in the body. The epithelium covering the tongue is non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with an underlying lamina propria. alveolar bone  At the level of the root.

protects the esophagus  Lamina propria – loose CT  Muscularis mucosa – 1 layer of longitudinally arranged smooth muscle that is most dense in the esophagus ii) Submucosa:  Composed of dense irregular CT with an abundance of thick collagen and elastic fibers  Contains mucous-secreting esophageal glands iii) Tunica Muscularis:  Consists of 2 layers of muscle: the inner circular layer and the outer longitudinal layer  Composed of skeletal muscle in the upper 1/3 and smooth muscle in the remaining 2/3  These muscles are responsible for gut motility (peristalsis and segmentation) iv) Adventitia:  A thick layer of fibrous dense irregular CT surrounding the esophagus 33 . The esophagus has specific characteristics: i) Mucosa:  Epithelium – non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Filiform papilla:  These papillae have a pointy shape and a long. they secrete lipase into the groove of the papilla (involved in lipid digestion) ESOPHAGUS — The esophagus connects the oral cavity to the digestive tract and has an abundance of smooth muscle.There are 3 types of papillae (all with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium): 1. Fungiform papilla:  These papillae have a tall. narrow stalk with a bulbous head  They are dispersed among the filiform papillae  A highly vascular lamina propria projects into the center of the structure  Few taste buds are present on the upper surface of the papilla but they are not present in the sections used in our laboratory 3. giving the tongue a rough texture and aiding in food processing  These papilla have a thick layer of epithelium resting upon a lamina propria which projects into the center of the structure  There are no taste buds present in these papillae 2. Circumvallate papilla:  The largest and least numerous of the papillae  Taste buds are present in the epithelial layer (stain lighter in color)  Again. lamina propria projects into the center of the structure  The papillae are surrounded by a groove formed by the folded epithelium  Serous von Ebner glands are found under these papillae. slender structure thus serving to increase the surface area of the tongue  There can be tiny portions of keratinized epithelium at the tips of these papillae  There are many of them covering the surface of the tongue.

stomach. In this lab. It has a specific organization with distinct histological features in each of its sections. The entire tract follows a similar plan or organization: Mucosa ↓ Submucosa ↓ Tunica Muscularis ↓ Adventitia (esophagus) OR Serosa (rest of GI tract) ESOPHAGUS — The esophagus is a short tube connecting the oral cavity to the stomach.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #9 DIGESTIVE TRACT The digestive tract is responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients from foods. While the colon maintains the same structural plan. The esophagus has specific characteristics: v) Mucosa:  Epithelium – non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. and colon. thus allowing the passage of food from the mouth to the stomach via peristalsis. the other sections of the GI tracts are subdivided into different regions which appear distinct under the microscope. small intestine. serves to protect esophagus  Lamina propria – loose CT  Muscularis mucosa – 1 layer of longitudinally arranged smooth muscle above the submucosa vi) Submucosa:  Composed of dense irregular CT with an abundance of thick collagen and elastic fibers  Contains mucous-secreting esophageal glands vii) Tunica Muscularis:  Consists of 2 layers of muscle: the inner circular layer and the outer longitudinal layer  Composed of skeletal muscle in the upper 1/3 of the esophagus and smooth muscle in the remaining 2/3  These muscles are responsible for motility (peristalsis and segmentation) viii) Adventitia:  Thick layer of fibrous dense irregular CT surrounding the esophagus 34 . we will be studying several sections of the digestive tract: the esophagus.

the pit region occupies a much larger area than in the fundus and body (pit to gland ratio is 2:1) 35 . These regions differ in the characteristics of the mucosa layer. fundus. it can be further subdivided into the neck and the base:  Neck: contains mucous neck cells which secrete mucous (thick cells with basal nuclei) and parietal cells which produce and secrete HCl and intrinsic factor (stain bright pink and ‘look like fried eggs’)  Base: this region stains more darkly than the neck. which secrete an acidic mixture called gastric juice  The pit is the upper region of the gastric gland:  It is composed of tall columnar surface mucous cells  These cells have basal nuclei and secrete mucous into the lumen of the stomach to offer protection from its acidic contents  The gland is the lower region of the gastric gland that dumps its contents into the pit. which then control food breakdown and digestion (Ex: Gastrin and Somatostatin. In the lab. among others)  In the fundus and body. we will see sections of the fundus and body which have the same characteristics. It then stores the chyme until the small intestine is ready to continue further breakdown and absorption. i) Mucosa:  FUNDUS AND BODY:  Epithelium – Simple columnar epithelium that is folded forming pits and glands called gastric glands. the pit region is very small while the gland region is quite prominent (pit to gland ratio is 1:3)  Lamina propria – loose CT found between the gastric glands as well as between the base of the gland and the muscularis mucosa  Muscularis mucosa – a layer of longitudinal smooth muscle above the submucosa  PYLORUS:  Epithelium – Simple columnar epithelium also folded into pits and glands called pyloric glands  The pit is the upper region of the pyloric gland:  This region is lined with surface mucous cells that secrete mucous  The gland region below the pit empties its contents into the pit:  Tubular in shape and surrounded by mucous cells (no parietal cells)  Also has enteroendocrine cells scattered between the mucous cells  In this area of the stomach. body. and pylorus regions. The stomach is subdivided into the cardia.STOMACH — The stomach functions mainly to break down and add acid to incoming food to form an acidic mixture known as chyme. as well as the pylorus which is distinct from the other regions (we will not see the cardia region). and consists of parietal cells as well as zymogenic cells/chief cells which contain enzyme precursors/proenzymes/zymogens needed for food breakdown (basal nuclei and granulated cytoplasm)  Also present in the neck and the base of the gland are enteroendocrine cells/argentaffin cells—they secrete hormones that regulate gastric secretions.

 Lamina propria – same as in the fundus and body regions  Muscularis mucosa – same as in the fundus and body region 36 .

These regions *differ in the characteristics of the submucosa*. and Paneth cells (contain zymogen granules/enzyme precursors/proenzymes) which stain lighter than the cells of the crypts  Paneth cells are columnar cells with basal nuclei and granular cytoplasm located at the base of the crypts.ii) Submucosa:  A thin layer of dense irregular CT lacking glands iii) Tunica Muscularis:  Consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle: internal oblique layer.  Stem cells reside at the base of the crypts and are constantly regenerating in order to replace the cells that shed from the tips of the villi  Lamina propria – highly vascularized loose CT pushes up into the center of the villus. It is subdivided into the duodenum. as well as intestinal glands which are invaginations called crypts of Lieberkühn  The villi:  Consist of few goblet cells and many enterocytes/absorptive cells involved in absorption of nutrients (columnar cells with a brush border/microvilli)  The crypts:  Consist of mainly enterocytes/absorptive cells with goblet cells. middle circular layer. however. stem cells. enteroendocrine cells. and the ileum. the jejunum. Sections of the duodenum and the jejunum will be studied. DUODENUM i) Mucosa:  Epithelium – Simple columnar epithelium forming projections called villi. as well as absorption of nutrients at the surface of its mucosa. the ileum will not be tested on the lab exam. They secrete lysozyme. and external longitudinal layer iv) Serosa:  A layer of dense irregular CT resting on a layer of mesothelial cells NOTE: parietal cells are present only in the gland region of the gastric glands (in the fundus and body regions)—NOT in the pit region of the gastric gland nor in any part of the pyloric gland ______________________________________________________________________________ SMALL INTESTINE — The small intestine is responsible for terminal digestion of food coming from the stomach. note the presence of few loosely scattered smooth muscle cells in the lamina propria within the villi  Muscularis mucosa – a single layer of longitudinal smooth muscle ii) Submucosa:  Composed of dense irregular CT  Contains mucous Brunner’s glands which secrete an alkaline fluid to help neutralize the highly acidic chyme coming from the stomach iii) Tunica Muscularis:  Has 2 layers: inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer 37 .

iv) Serosa:  Layer of dense irregular CT covered by a layer of mesothelial cells 38 .

JEJUNUM i) Mucosa:  Epithelium – Simple columnar epithelium forming villi and crypts (epithelium has the same composition as in the duodenum, but with a few more goblet cells)  Lamina propria – loose CT  Muscularis mucosa – a single layer of longitudinal smooth muscle ii) Submucosa:  Consists of dense irregular CT but lacks glands, unlike the duodenum  The plicae circularis (also called valves of Kerckring) is most developed in the jejunum —it a series of ridge-like folds formed by the mucosa and submucosa iii) Tunica Muscularis:  Has 2 layers: inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer iv) Serosa:  Layer of dense irregular CT covered by a layer of mesothelial cells ILEUM i) Mucosa:  Epithelium – Simple columnar epithelium forming villi and crypts, with villi having a more pointed, finger-like appearance (epithelium has the same composition as in the duodenum, but with many more goblet cells)  Lamina propria – loose CT  Muscularis mucosa – a single layer of longitudinal smooth muscle ii) Submucosa:  Consists of dense irregular CT lacking both glands and a prominent plicae circularis iii) Tunica Muscularis:  Has 2 layers: inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer iv) Serosa:  Layer of dense irregular CT covered by a layer of mesothelial cells _____________________________________________________________________________ _

The histological characteristics remain the same throughout the colon, so it is important to differentiate this structure from other areas of the digestive tract (mainly the small intestine). i) Mucosa:  Epithelium – Simple columnar epithelium forming only long straight crypts without villi  The epithelium consists of enterocytes, abundant goblet cells, and few enteroendocrine cells, but lacks Paneth cells  Lamina propria – loose CT  Muscularis mucosa – a single layer of longitudinal smooth muscle ii) Submucosa:  Consists of dense irregular CT, with neither glands nor plicae circularis iii) Tunica Muscularis:  Has 2 layers: inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer  Outer longitudinal layer forms 3 thick bands that surround the colon called the taenia coli 39

iv) Serosa:  Layer of dense irregular CT covered by a layer of mesothelial cells


* A note on sectioning of slides: The section of the smooth muscle layers of the Tunica Muscularis allow you to tell if the tissue you are studying was cut in cross section or longitudinal section. Examine the outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle: if this layer appears in longitudinal section, the tissue was sectioned longitudinally. If, however, the outer longitudinal layer appears in cross section, the tissue was sectioned in cross section.


adrenal gland iii) The way the secretion leaves the cell:  Merocrine — cell remains intact upon secretion Ex: Sweat gland. tube-like structure Ex: Sweat gland. gastric glands 42 . gland has a duct Ex: Sweat gland. we will review the classification of glands. gland is ductless Ex: Thyroid gland. namely the 3 salivary glands. exocrine pancreas  Apocrine — part of cell is secreted. Glands are classified according to the following criteria: i) The number of cells:  Unicellular – consists of one cell Ex: Enteroendocrine cells of the GI tract. Islets of Langerhans (pancreas). salivary glands  Endocrine — product goes directly into the blood. and the liver. Before discussing these glands in detail. but cell does not die Ex: Mammary gland  Holocrine — cell dies and its contents are secreted Ex: Sebaceous gland iv) The type of duct:  Simple — unbranched Ex: Sweat gland  Compound — branched Ex: Salivary glands v) The appearance of the secretory portion:  Acinar — spherical collection of cells Ex: Mucous acini (mucous secretions) or serous acini (serous secretions)  Tubular —long. goblet cells  Multicellular – consists of more than one cell Ex: Salivary glands or any gland consisting of more than one cell ii) The destination of the secretion:  Exocrine — product goes to external environment.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #10 ASSOCIATED GLANDS In this lab we will be studying several of the glands associated with the functioning of the GI tract. the pancreas.

The serous acini are surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells which aid in propulsion of the saliva to the secretory ducts. These acini secrete a non-viscous. short cuboidal epithelial cells resting on a basement membrane. The serous demilunes of the seromucous acini are surrounded by myoepithelial cells. proteinaceous secretory product. empty into the interlobar ducts of the gland  Interlobar ducts: very large ducts that travel between the lobes of the gland within the interlobar CT. The secretion of the salivary gland has many ingredients and is collectively known as saliva. eventually empty into the interlobular ducts)  Intercalated duct: lined with simple. with pale circular basal nuclei. flattened basal nuclei. its secretions travel to the oral cavity via an extensive network of ducts:  Intralobular ducts: (ducts within the lobules of the gland. empty into interlobular ducts  Interlobular ducts: lined by simple columnar epithelium and are located between the lobules in the interlobular CT. They secrete a thicker. Some of these ingredients are enzymes like salivary amylase. as well as initiating breakdown and digestion of carbohydrates. lysozyme. this gland is composed of serous acini  These acini stain darkly due to the presence of zymogen granules at the apical part of the pyramidal-shaped cell  The myoepithelial cells surrounding the acini function to contract and push the contents of the acini into the ducts of the gland 43 . b) Serous acini consist of smaller pyramidal cells that stain darkly. Parotid gland:  Located in the cheek. CLASSIFICATION OF THE SECRETORY PORTION OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS: a) Mucous acini have large cuboidal/columnar cells that stain quite pale and also have dark.SALIVARY GLANDS (3) – The functions of the salivary gland include wetting the oral cavity and incoming food. eventually drain into the main excretory duct of the gland which then empties into the oral cavity THE 3 SALIVARY GLANDS: 1. c) Seromucous acini have a large mucous portion (stains pale) with a crescent-shaped serous portion (stains darker) called a serous demilune. these are the first ducts coming off the acini and empty into the striated ducts  Striated/secretory duct: lined by simple columnar epithelial cells with longitudinal striations due to mitochondria at the base of the cells. and lactoferrin. NOTE: all mucous and serous secretory epithelial cells of the acini rest on a basement membrane STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS (from outside to inside):  The entire gland is surrounded by a capsule of dense irregular CT  The gland is composed of many divisions called lobes which are then further subdivided into smaller sections called lobules  Each lobule is separated by an extensive septum of connective tissue called interlobular CT  Because this is an exocrine gland. more viscous substance. as well as the antibody IgA.

 Secretory product is rich in salivary amylase and IgA antibody 44 .

with few serous cells appearing as serous demilunes on the mucous acini  The mucous acini stain pale due to the presence of mucin granules in the cytoplasm of the mucous cells  Secretory product is rich in lysozyme NOTE: The prefix ‘intra’ refers to within the structure itself (Ex: intralobular ducts are ducts within the lobules of the gland). 1. The prefix ‘inter’ refers to between structures (Ex: interlobular ducts are ducts between the lobules of the gland) _______________________________________________________________ PANCREAS – The pancreas is a compound acinar gland with both an exocrine portion and endocrine portion. Sublingual gland:  Located under the tongue and is covered by the oral mucosa of the oral cavity  This gland consists mainly of mucous acini. the serous acini of the exocrine pancreas do not have myoepithelial cells  Note the presence of centroacinar cells in the center of the acini  These cells have a pale-staining cytoplasm and lack granules. They are derived from the cells of the intercalated ducts of the pancreas The ducts:  Intralobular ducts (connect the acini):  Intercalated ducts: lined with simple. Submandibular (submaxillary) gland:  Located beneath the mandible (lower jaw bone). these ducts eventually coalesce to form the main pancreatic duct which empties directly into the intestine 45 . empty into interlobular ducts. with many of the mucous acini having serous portions called serous demilunes (in the shape of a crescent)  Secretory product is rich in lysozyme and lactoferrin 3. Note that there are *no striated ducts* in the pancreas  Interlobular ducts: lined with simple cuboidal epithelial cells and are surrounded by the interlobular CT. this gland consists of serous acini as well as seromucous acini  The majority of the acini are actually serous acini. The endocrine portion is composed of the Islets of Langerhans that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. The exocrine portion is composed of serous acini (similar to the parotid gland) which secrete digestive enzymes into the duodenum. short cuboidal epithelial cells and are the only type of intralobular duct in the pancreas. which is grouped into serous acini within the gland  The acini stain darkly due to zymogen granules at the apical pole of the cell and have basal nuclei  Unlike in the salivary gland. Exocrine pancreas:  The functional unit of the exocrine pancreas is the pancreatic acinar cell.2.

46 .

while others are secreted as active enzymes  Enzymes include: proteases [trypsinogen. pale-staining clusters of cells lodged within the exocrine portion of the pancreas and surrounded by a thin capsule of dense irregular CT  As an endocrine gland. which branches into hepatic arterioles that supply the individual hepatic lobules. In this filtration process. many macromolecules are absorbed into the blood. procarboxypeptidase. lipases [prophospholipase A]. BLOOD FLOW TO THE LIVER: 1. and are then returned to the bloodstream. The blood from the hepatic arterioles reaches the hepatocytes via fenestrated 47 . storing lipids and carbohydrates. In the GI tract. and producing bile (involved in fat digestion). but also has cells that secrete somatostatin (δ cells) ______________________________________________________________________________ _ LIVER – The liver is the largest gland in the body with its functional unit being the liver epithelial cell called the hepatocyte. proelastase]. before this blood can pass into circulation it must first be filtered to rid the blood of toxic or overabundant materials. They are located in the portal space. Regulation of the exocrine pancreas:  Controlled by the enzymes secretin and CCK (cholecystokinin) allowing it to adjust the level of secretion as needed  Secretions of the exocrine pancreas:  Secretes pancreatic juice (digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate) into the lumen of the duodenum to aid in digestion and neutralization of the acidic chyme  Some of the enzymes are secreted as proenzymes/enzyme precursors and only become activated in the intestine. THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS Striated ducts NO striated ducts Mucous and serous acini ONLY serous acini NO centroacinar cells Centroacinar cells NO Islets of Langerhans Islets of Langerhans 2. RNase] **It is important to differentiate the salivary glands from the exocrine pancreas: THE SALIVARY GLANDS vs. this portion of the pancreas does not have ducts and secretes hormones directly into the blood  As such. Some of the functions of the liver include removing substances from the blood coming from the GI tract. amylases. there are many fenestrated capillaries within the Islets of Langerhans to allow for the passage of these hormones into the blood  Mainly contains cells that secrete glucagon (α cells) and insulin (β cells). however. macromolecules are taken up by the liver and enzymatically modified. The systemic/arterial supply: The arterial supply consists of the hepatic artery coming from the heart. nucleases [DNase. Endocrine pancreas (Islets of Langerhans):  The Islets of Langerhans are round.

48 . which converge to form the central vein in the center of each lobule. These vessels provide oxygen and nutrients to the hepatocytes.capillaries called sinusoids.

tiny channels called bile canaliculi carry the bile produced by the hepatocytes  While still remaining between adjacent hepatocytes. there is an enlargement of CT called the portal space:  There are 3 structures present in the portal space: 1. the blood drains from the hepatic vein into the inferior vena cava to be recirculated by the heart (after being oxygenated in the lungs). Bile duct:  Has very round. The portal supply: The portal supply consists of the portal vein which drains from the lower part of the GI tract (intestines). centrally-located nuclei  Cholangioles can often be spotted near the bile duct—they are much smaller than the bile duct and their nuclei stain the same color as those of the duct 2. The portal venules are also located in the portal space. These sinusoids converge to form the central vein which is located in the center of each lobule. Portal venule (branch of the portal vein):  Has a very thin wall and has a larger lumen than both the hepatic arteriole and the bile duct 49 . a portal system begins and terminates in a bed of capillaries. here. Finally. these bile canaliculi will bend and drain into the cholangiole. The system offers a direct route for materials from the intestines to the liver without first being returned to the heart and recirculated throughout the entire body. By definition. which are further divided into hepatic lobules:  Many hexagonally-shaped lobules. which then empties into the hepatic vein. the portal veins begin in the lower portion of the GI tract as a network of capillaries which then converge to form one portal vein that enters the liver. The blood in the central vein drains into the sublobular vein. empties into the right and left hepatic ducts which eventually drain into the gall bladder via the common bile duct  At the junction of adjacent lobules. Hepatic arteriole (branch of the hepatic artery):  Has a thicker wall than the bile duct and the portal venule 3. Once in the liver. with a central vein in its center  The sinusoids serve to connect the portal venule and the hepatic arteriole to the central vein  The blood and the bile circulate in 2 different systems within the lobules: a) Blood circulates from the periphery of the lobule to the center (from the portal space to the sinusoids and then to the central vein) b) Bile circulates from the center of the lobule to the periphery:  Located between adjacent hepatocytes. each lobule is separated by dense irregular CT  Each lobule is composed of cells called hepatocytes as well as sinusoids (irregular capillaries lined with fenestrated endothelial cells).2. STRUCTURES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE LIVER:  The entire gland is surrounded by a capsule of dense irregular CT  It is divided into lobes. which then empties into the bile duct  Cholangiole: lined with low cuboidal or squamous cells (it is analogous to the intercalated duct of the salivary glands or pancreas)  Bile duct: lined by cuboidal/columnar epithelium with lightly-strained cytoplasm and darkly-stained central nuclei. the portal vein branches into portal venules which carry blood to the hepatocytes via the fenestrated capillaries called sinusoids.

This system has several important functions including regulation of total body water. and (iii) the thick straight ascending limb. The first part of the nephron is the renal corpuscle which serves to filter the blood through a network of extensive fenestrated capillaries. The area cribosa is the opening of the collecting ducts into the minor calices of the kidney. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney consisting of both coiled and straight tubes of varying sizes located partly in the cortex and partly in the medulla. The collecting tubules and then collecting ducts of Bellini form from the DCT. however they are not considered part of the nephron. 50 . This thick straight ascending limb transitions into the Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT). and secretion of hormones (Renin and Erythropoietin). the urinary bladder.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #11 URINARY SYSTEM The urinary system consists of the kidneys. excretion of soluble metabolic wastes. the ureters. (ii) the thin ascending limb. whose end marks the end of the nephron. The cells of this tube constantly filter the blood and allow for the excretion of wastes as well as the recycling of useful substances. maintenance of ionic balance. The Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) stems from the urinary pole of the renal corpuscle and leads into the Loop of Henle. The Loop of Henle is composed of (i) the thick straight descending limb. and the urethra.

Area cribosa 51 .

and finally exists the vascular pole via the efferent arteriole  Bowman’s capsule consists of: a) An outer parietal layer composed of simple squamous epithelial cells  This layer is continuous with the cells of the PCT which exit the corpuscle at the urinary pole b) A layer of basement membrane c) An inner visceral layer composed of specialized cells called podocytes which surround the capillaries within the glomerulus  The secondary cellular processes of the podocytes (called pedicels) form finger-like projections that wrap around the capillaries and create gaps called filtrations slits  The basement membrane of the podocytes is shared with the basement membrane of the endothelial cells lining the capillaries  There is a large space within the Bowman’s capsule called the Bowman’s space/capsular space/urinary space which collects the filtrate coming from the fenestrated capillaries of the glomerulus ii) Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT):  Originates from the urinary pole of the renal corpuscle and is the first tube to carry the glomerular filtrate out of the glomerulus  Composed of darkly-staining cuboidal cells that have striations due to folding of the plasma membrane around mitochondria  Cells have a brush border (microvilli) to increase surface area for absorption of fluids and proteins  Cells have centrally located nuclei. Cortex:  This is the outer region of the kidney that stains darker than the inner region  The structures of the cortex are: i) Renal corpuscle:  Composed of (i) a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus which serves to filter the blood entering the corpuscle.KIDNEY – Each kidney is surrounded by a capsule of dense irregular CT and is divided up into 2 histologically distinct regions: 1. and (ii) a round structure surrounding the glomerulus called Bowman’s capsule  The renal corpuscle has a vascular pole where the blood vessels enter. the cell of the DCT have fewer striations. as well as a urinary pole where the glomerular filtrate exits via the PCT  The blood enters at the vascular pole via the afferent arteriole. and lack clear membranes between adjacent cells  The tubules have partially occluded and cloudy lumens iii) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT):  As compared to the PCT. a more sparse brush border  These cells have a less acidophilic cytoplasm than those of the PCT and therefore they stain a lighter color 52 . which then branches into an extensive network of coiling fenestrated capillaries.

thus increasing the membrane’s permeability to H2O iii) Vasa recta:  Long capillaries arising from the efferent arterioles which have an arterial end and a venous end  Vasa recta run close to the thin ascending limb of the Loop of Henle and are located only at the level of the medulla  Vasa recta are involved in providing oxygen and nutrients to the medulla 53 . but is the first tubule that is not considered part of the nephron  It is lined by cuboidal cells with central nuclei and visible lateral membranes between cells  These tubules increase in diameter as they move away from the cortex v) Medullary rays:  These are striated projections of the medulla within the cortex  These rays consist of collecting tubules as well as the thick straight descending limbs and thick straight ascending limbs of the Loop of Henle 2. which is the area of the DCT that is extremely close to the afferent arteriole  The Macula Densa is part of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (discussed below)  In this area. which are separated by interlobar dense irregular CT called Columns of Bertin  Interlobar arteries can be found within this interlobar CT  The structures of the medulla are: i) Loop of Henle:  Thick straight descending limb – same appearance as the PCT  Thin ascending limb – resembles a capillary. plasma membranes between cells are not visible  An important region of the DCT is the Macula Densa. Medulla:  This is the inner region of the kidney and stains paler than the cortex  This area has a striated appearance due to the presence of the straight tubules of the Loop of Henle as well as the thick collecting ducts (not part of the nephron)  These structures are grouped into pyramid-shaped sections called medullary pyramids. the DCT lumen appears clean and empty  These cuboidal cells have their nuclei close to the apical/luminal membrane (they are said to be ‘kissing the apical membrane’)  Again. which increases H2O resorption by stimulating the insertion of aquaporins (water channels) into the membrane. but has a larger empty lumen  This section of the Loop of Henle is highly permeable to Na+  Thick straight ascending limb – same appearance as the DCT ii) Collecting ducts of Bellini:  Consists of large columnar cells with centrally located nuclei  The plasma membranes separating cells is very visible in these ducts  This is the site of ADH/Vasopressin action. Also in contrast with the PCT. the DCT cells are densely packed large columnar cells  This area of the nephron is the site of Aldosterone action (increases uptake of Na+. and therefore the absorption of H2O) iv) Collecting tubules:  This is the continuation of the DCT.

54 .

The arcuate arteries then branch into the interlobular arteries. the afferent arteriole gives rise to the fenestrated capillaries. The efferent arteriole can then either: 55 . it consists of: i) Macula Densa:  The region of the DCT with large columnar cells ii) Juxtaglomerular cells:  These are the cells of the afferent arteriole that are close to the Macula Densa  They are modified endocrine cells which release secretory granules containing hormones (Renin. which then proceeds to branch into the smaller arteries interlobar arteries that run in the interlobar CT.iv) Major Calyces and minor Calyces:  These are areas which collect the concentrated urine after it has passed through the nephron  The area cribosa at the apex of the medullary pyramids drains the urine from the collecting ducts into the minor Calyces. which then coalesce to form the efferent arteriole that exits the glomerulus again at the vascular pole. which branch at right angles and travel upwards until they branch again into the afferent arterioles that lead into the glomerulus at the vascular pole. Erythropoietin) into the capillaries of the glomerulus in response to physiological stimuli (not seen in this lab) iii) Extraglomerular mesangial cells:  These cells are located in the region of the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle between the Macula Densa and the afferent and efferent arterioles (just outside the glomerulus) BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE KIDNEY: (Identification of blood vessels is not required in this lab) Oxygenated blood coming from the heart enters the hilum of kidney via the renal artery. Once inside the glomerulus. The interlobar arteries branch at right angles into the arcuate arteries which run horizontally along the cortico-medullary junction. which then drain into the major Calyces  A widening of the ureter called the renal pelvis collects the urine from the major calyces and empties it into the ureters  Note: singular = calyx THE JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS:  An important structure located in the cortex.

while when there is less urine in the bladder there are more cell layers  The epithelium is able to expand in order to accommodate increasing volumes of urine  A thin layer of lamina propria is present beneath the epithelial layer ii) Submucosa:  A layer of dense irregular CT that lies below the mucosa iii) Tunica muscularis:  Composed of 3 layers of smooth muscle as well as some dense irregular CT  The smooth muscle layers appear as: inner longitudinal.URINARY BLADDER – The urinary bladder is a muscular compartment that serves as a reservoir for urine until it can be excreted from the body via the urethra. polygonal-shaped surface cells called facet cells/dome cells  This number of layers of epithelium varies depending on the amount of urine in the bladder  When there is more urine in the bladder there are fewer cell layers. and outer longitudinal 56 .  It is composed of several layers: i) Mucosa:  The layer closest to the lumen is composed of transitional epithelium which is characterized by bulgy. middle circular.

The grey matter is composed of the cell bodies/somas/perikaryon of neurons. and motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.ANAT 261 — LAB REVIEW #12 NERVOUS TISSUE In this lab. unmyelinated axons. The nervous system is divided into the CNS. These cells include pyramidal cells in the brain cortex. It is the myelin sheath covering the axon that gives the white matter its lighter appearance. as well as eukaryotic cellular organelles  Dendrites are projections of the perikaryon that receive incoming messages from other neurons  There is also one longer projection called an axon that is connected to the cell body via a pyramid-shaped region called the axon hillock. as well as different types of neuroglia. Furthermore. while in the spinal cord the grey matter is central and the white matter is peripheral. Axons can be myelinated or unmyelinated. the myelinated axons have gaps in the myelin sheath called Nodes of Ranvier which allow for the propagation of electrical impulses along the axon. Multipolar neurons will be seen in sections of the CNS. integrates and processes various stimuli. dendrites. which is composed of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum) and spinal cord. Nerve tissue consists of a small amount of extracellular matrix (ECM). A nerve is a collection of the nerve cell fibers (axons) that conduct sensory or motor impulses towards and away from the CNS. a prominent nucleolus.  Nissl bodies are darkly-staining granules occupying the cytoplasm of the perikaryon and dendrites. Nerve cells/neurons:  The cell body (also called the soma or the perikaryon) of the neuron has a large round nucleus. but lacks neuronal cells bodies. Purkinje cells in the cerebellum.e. thereby acting as a site of protein synthesis in the neuronal cell body. as well as 2 types of cells: 1. The white matter is composed of the myelinated axons of neurons as well as neuroglia. the CNS is composed of two morphologically different types of nervous tissue: grey matter and white matter. these neurons are defined as having more than two cellular processes (i. we will examine some structures of the Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).  Lipofuscin pigment granules are found in the cell bodies of the ganglion cells 57 . one axon and many dendrites). but not of the axon hillock. peripheral nerves of the PNS will be studied. and the PNS which includes all other nervous tissue in the body (nerve fibers and nerve ganglia) outside of the CNS. The functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron (or nerve cell) as it receives. In addition. transmits. These granules consist of RER and free ribosomes. The organization of the grey and white matter is reversed in the brain (cerebral cortex and cerebellum) and the spinal cord—in the brain the grey matter is on the periphery with white matter in the center.

however you will have to identify cells as general glial cells  The 4 types of neuroglia: a) Astrocytes:  Found in the white matter of the CNS. therefore explaining the sparseness of the nuclei 2. which are a type of multipolar neuron with a pyramid-shaped cell body  Also present in this region are glial cells  The pia mater (one of the meninges of the central nervous system) surrounds the outer surface of the cerebral cortex CEREBELLUM – The cerebellum has the same organization of grey and white matter as the cerebral cortex (i.e. these cells are responsible for producing the myelin that covers the axons of the white matter c) Schwann cells:  Found in the PNS. Granular layer (inner layer):  The granular layer is extremely dense and contains the axons that extend from the Purkinje cell body 58 . the white matter is located below the grey matter (not seen in the slides). Glial cells/neuroglia (not studied in the lab):  These cells serve to support. these small neuroglia have a phagocytic function as they clear the damaged structures in the CNS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: CEREBRAL CORTEX – The cortex is the convoluted outer layer of grey matter surrounding the cerebrum. these cells form and maintain the blood-brain barrier.2. as well as regulate ion and neurotransmitter concentrations b) Oligodendrocytes:  Found in the white matter of the CNS. Molecular layer (outer layer):  A more sparse looking layer containing the dendrites of the Purkinje cells  Purkinje cells have an extensive network of branching dendrites that take up much space in this layer. and nourish the nerve cells  There are several different types of neuroglia that perform different functions.  In this region there are many pyramidal neurons. Recall that in the brain. the cerebellar cortex is composed of grey matter while the central part of the cerebellum is composed of white matter). these cells produce the myelin sheath covering the axons in the white matter  Unmyelinated axons in the PNS reside in the clefts of Schwann cells d) Microglia:  Found throughout the CNS. you will not be responsible for identifying the specific neuroglial cell in the nervous tissue. There are 2 layers of grey matter in the cerebellar cortex that are separated by a layer of Purkinje cells: 1. protect.

These peripheral nerves are composed of:  Groupings of many bundles of myelinated axons (myelinated by Schwann cells)  Several of these bundles grouped together are surrounded by a fibrous layer of dense irregular CT called the epineurium  Each bundle within this group of bundles is surrounded by another layer of dense irregular CT called the perineurium  Finally. as well as motor fibers which relay information from the CNS to the PNS 59 . This term refers to bundles of nerve fibers outside the CNS. the prominent Nissl bodies in the perikaryon and dendrites. round cell bodies  The white matter is located central to both of these layers of grey matter SPINAL CORD – There are two regions in the spinal cord: 1. The cell body of the Purkinje cell is lodged in the border between the molecular layer and the granular layer. a darker H-shaped region in the center of the spinal cord Many multipolar neuron cell bodies can be seen in the ventral horns Note the distinct shape of the cell body. as well as the dense nucleoli of these neurons At the center of this H-shaped region lies the central canal/ependymal canal lined with ependymal cells  Neuroglia are present in both white and grey matter  Note also that there is an anterior aspect and a posterior aspect of the spinal cord PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: PERIPHERAL NERVE – In the PNS. each individual axon is surrounded by a thin layer of dense irregular CT called the endoneurium. composed of reticular fibers and fibrocytes  Most peripheral nerves consist of bundles of sensory fibers which relay information from the PNS to the CNS. The more superficial region of the spinal cord consists of white matter which is lighter in appearance The predominant structures in this layer are myelinated axons which appear as small tubes surrounded with a thick white layer of myelin 2. but is closer to the granular layer  The Purkinje cells appear quite distinct on the border of these two layer with their large. axons are grouped together in bundles to form peripheral nerves. Deep to the white matter lies the grey matter.

Transitional Epithelium:  The number of layers of the epithelium depends of the state of the bladder—there are more layers when empty and fewer layers when full  Found in: Urinary bladder 60 . Simple epithelium [1 cell layer] i) Simple Squamous Epithelium:  Thin flat cells with little intercellular space  Found in: Endothelium (the epithelium that lines blood vessels) Bowman’s capsule of the renal corpuscle (kidney) ii) Simple Cuboidal Epithelium:  Cells appear to be nearly square with approximately central nuclei  Found in: Distal convoluted tubule of kidneys Collecting ducts of kidneys iii) Simple Columnar Epithelium:  Tall cells with basal nuclei which are all at the same level  Usually have either an absorptive or secretory function. but nuclei are at different levels  Found in: Lining of the trachea (with goblet cells) B.e. Submandibular gland) C. Stratified Epithelium [more than 1 layer of cells]: i) Stratified Squamous Epithelium:  Cellular layer composed of squamous epithelium with many layers of cells  May be either keratinized or non-keratinized  Found in: Surface of tongue (non-keratinized) Skin (keratinized) ii) Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium:  Like simple cuboidal. found lining much of the digestive tract and larger ducts of glands  Found in: Lining of the GI tract (with goblet cells and brush border) iv) Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium:  Similar to simple columnar epithelium. but has more than 1 layer of columnar cells  Found in: Lining of the ducts of large salivary glands (i. but has more than 1 layer of cuboidal cells  Found in: Lining of excretory ducts of the sweat gland Lining of secretory ducts of salivary glands iii) Stratified Columnar Epithelium:  Like simple columnar.SUMMARY OF TYPES OF EPITHELIUM AND THEIR LOCATIONS — A.

less cellular than loose CT i) Dense Regular CT  Found in: Tendon ii) Dense Irregular CT  Found in: Reticular layer of dermis D.Renal pelvis and calyces in the kidneys Ureter and urethra SUMMARY OF THE TYPES OF CT AND THEIR LOCATIONS — A. Dense CT:  Provides support for surrounding tissues. Bone:  Supports tissues. facilitates movement i) Compact bone  Found in: Diaphyses of long bones Outer layer of epiphyses of long bones ii) Spongy bone  Found in: Epiphyses of long bones 61 . Adipose tissue:  Composed of fat cells  Found in: Hypodermis of skin Many places throughout the body where fat is concentrated B. Loose CT:  Highly vascular and cellular. Cartilage:  Supports surrounding tissues and provides cushion i) Hyaline cartilage  Found in: Trachea and larynx Articular cartilage Epiphyseal plate of long bones i) Elastic cartilage  Found in: Epiglottis External ear E. loosely organized  Found in: Papillary layer of dermis Lamina propria of GI tract (and others) C.

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