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1/9/2012

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

TOPICS
15.1: Types of respiration: aerobic and anaerobic 15.2 : Aerobic respiration 15.3 : Anaerobic respiration : fermentation and application

Power point@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

PREVIOUS LESSON
Electrons carried via NADH Electrons carried via NADH and FADH2

Electron Transport Chain


A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons down a series of redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
(Campbell,9th edition)

Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate

Pyruvate oxidation Acetyl CoA

Citric acid cycle

Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis

CYTOSOL

MITOCHONDRION

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Carriers of Electron Transport


NADH dehydrogenase
H INTERMEMBRANE SPACE

The Electron Transport Chain


Cytochrome c H oxidase

Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q)

Cyt c

Q I II FADH2 NADH NAD FAD III

IV

Cytochrome C

2 H + 1/2 O2

H2O

(carrying electrons from food)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome bc1 (reductase)


MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX

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OBJECTIVES
At the end of this subtopic, students should able to : Explain chemiosmosis: proton motive force

Review: Oxidative Phosphorylation


What is Oxidative Phosphorylation? The Formation of ATP through combination of Proton (Hydrogen ions) Pumping by Electron Transport Chain and the action of ATP Synthase.

What is ATP Synthase?


A membrane-bound enzyme in chloroplast and mitochondria that uses the energy of protons flowing through it to synthesize ATP.

Scott Freeman. Biological Science. 2nd edition. International edition. page 194. Pearson.Prentice Hall.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

What is ATP Synthase?


A membrane-bound enzyme in chloroplasts and mitochondria that uses the energy of protons flowing through it to synthesize ATP.

ATP Synthase
Intermembrane space H

Rotor

Stator

Mitochondrial matrix
Scott Freeman. Biological Science. 2nd edition. International edition. Pearson.Prentice Hall.

Internal rod Catalytic knob ADP Pi + ATP

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What is Chemiosmosis?
How does the mitochondrion couple this The production of ATP via proton movement,

electron transport and energy release to


ATP synthesis? Answer: A mechanism called Chemiosmosis

through ATP synthase across a membrane,


driven by a proton gradient.

Scott Freeman. Biological Science. 2nd edition. International edition. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Chemiosmosis: The Energy-Coupling Mechanism


H H Protein complex of electron carriers Cyt c IV III II FADH2 NADH (carrying electrons from food) NAD FAD I INTERMEMBRANE SPACE H H H H H H

Proton Gradient
H H H Q III II FADH2 FAD 2 H + 1/2 O2 H2O H H H H H H INTERMEMBRANE SPACE

H
H

Cyt c IV

Q
I

2 H + 1/2 O2
MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX

H2O

NADH NAD (carrying electrons from food)

MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX

The chain uses the exergonic flow of electron to pump H+ from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space of mitochondrion.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Concentration of H+ is higher in intermembrane space. High H+ concentration also tend to drive proton back in by diffusion.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Proton Gradient
H H H H H Q IV III II FADH2 NAD NADH (carrying electrons from food) FAD H H H H H H H H H Cyt c H H INTERMEMBRANE SPACE

2 H + 1/2 O2

H2O MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX

Positively charge protons are attracted to the matrix (more negative) But its occurs very slow membrane impermeable to ions
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Proton Motive Force


The H+ gradient results is referred to as a proton motive force. Most of protons that reenter the matrix instead pass through ATP Synthase. ATP Synthase uses the energy of the proton gradient to catalyze the synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi.
INTERMEMBRANE SPACE H

MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX

ATP synthase

ADP + P i

ATP

Slide number: 21

1/9/2012

What is ATP Synthase?


A membrane-bound enzyme in chloroplast and

mitochondria that uses the energy of protons


flowing through it to synthesize ATP.

NEXT LECTURE

Explain complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose in active cells


Anaerobic respiration : fermentation and its application