The Jain Knowledge Warehouses: Traditional Libraries in India Author(s): John E.

Cort Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 115, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1995), pp. 7787 Published by: American Oriental Society Stable URL: Accessed: 01/03/2010 03:01
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D.500 years ago-the texts containing the teachings of Mahavira are essential for the guidance of the Jain community. HarvardUniv. While not attempting to be comprehensive. "The Western Discovery of Jain Temple Libraries. A recent article by Donald Clay Johnson.l The discovery and publication of some of the more important of these manuscripts expanded greatly scholarly knowledge of Indian history." provides an excellent overview of the process by which British administrators and Western scholars in the nineteenth century became aware of and gained access to these extensive manuscript collections of the Jains in western India. 214. "The Western Discovery of the Jain Temple Libraries. philosophy. management. Some manuscript collections were owned by individual laymen. ritual. this article essays a beginning at a sociology of Jain knowledge. At the same time as these manuscripts have come to the attention of the scholarly world. See also his "Georg Biihler and the Western Discovery of Jain Temple Libraries. and community life. see John E. and hence my use of the term "warehouse" to describe these libraries. their utility within the Jain community itself has drastically declined.. and is found in early lists of internal austerities practiced by them. In this article I look at the libraries themselves. in Vividh Pijd Satgrah. But these libraries have never been viewed as social institutions in and of themselves. In the absence of any living enlightened teachersaccording to Jain cosmological doctrines. and art.. enlightenment in this era became impossible shortly after the demise and liberation of Mahavira over 2. 77 2 For a detailed description of the Jain community of Patan. as handwrittenmanuscripts have been replaced by printed books for both ritual and pedagogical purposes. An early nineteenth century hymn expresses this sentiment quite clearly: "In this difficult time. and use of the libraries and the in manuscripts in the small town of PEatan north Gujarat.THE JAIN KNOWLEDGE WAREHOUSES: TRADITIONAL LIBRARIES IN INDIA JOHN E. in north Gujarat. CORT DENISON UNIVERSITY The Jains of western India have preserved hundreds of thousands of handwrittenmanuscripts for many centuries in their libraries or "knowledge warehouses" (jndn bhandar). Various Clay Johnson. ed."3 Svddhydya. is an important and expected activity of all mendicants. 1989."Jain Journal 26 (1992): 197-210. But the role of these manuscript collections within the Jain tradition has changed greatly in the past century. 1986). . religion. Cort. the icons of the Jina and the scriptures of the Jina are the supports of the faithful Jains.2 Written copies of manuscripts have long played an important role in Jain intellectual. diss. some by domesticated monks. STUDENTS INDIAOWEA GREAT OF debt to the Jains for the hundreds of thousands of invaluable handwritten manuscripts preserved in their many jndn bhan. or study of the scriptures. and use of the libraries and the manuscripts. 3 Vir Vijay. As a result. I look at the libraries in the important Jain community of Patan (the 1 Donald medieval Anahillavada Pattana). essay a beginning of a sociology of Jain knowledge. These manuscripts have been an invaluable aid in reconstructing much of the history of Indian society. while the manuscripts are better cared for than ever. Pafinyas Jinendra Vijay Gani (Sivana: Tapagacch Jain Saigh. This article investigates the patterns of ownership. they have been relegated to a marginal status within the Jain community. and art. philosophy. and others were under the control of the leaders of the lay congregations. management. to indicate patterns of ownership."Libraries and Culture 28 (1993): 189-203.ddrs or "knowledge ware(Sanskrit jndna-bhdnddgdra) houses" in western and southern India. Cosath Prakdri Piiuj (composed in 1818)." Ph. In particular. "Liberation and Wellbeing: A Study of the Svetambar Murtipujak Jains of North Gujarat.

20-21. repetition. D. 11. Symbol. and Muni Jinavijaya.7 Furthermore. Patan: Dalal. 79-81. cit. 167. which was his capital. C.1 (1995) texts give us some details concerning the praxis of study in the early Jain tradition.vol. ed. John E. 344-46. 38. 13 These locally published books tend not to find their way into the broaderbookselling market.5 According to a Svetambara Jain tradition. the layman Soma arranged for the copying (lekh) of the Santinathacaritra portion of Hemacandra's Trisastisaldakpurusacaritra to for the copying of the Dharmavidhiprakarana of Sri- with the spiritualbenefit going to both Jasa's prabhasuiri. 542. Cort and JainSeries 33 (Bombay: SinghiJain Shastra Sikshapitha Bharatiya Vidya well involvedin identifying problems of as interpretive involvedin speaking a Jain'canon'.s. and Broach at a combined cost of 180 million rupees. 1953). Muni Jambu Vijay (Bombay: Jain Sahitya Vikas Mandal.215.1952). Jnanvijay. 8. 9 Prasasti to ms. 1937). known as "knowledge accounts" (jnin khatd). D. 3.ed.. 3.34).12 Most lay congregations today maintain separate accounts. in 1362 Jasa Dunigaraand his wife Vijhi Tilhi arranged 4 Jarl Charpentier. 5. and religious sermons" (30." all in his Scripture and Community. temples containing such images. op. cit. Routledge. 1977-86). father Limba and his mother. ed. B. 10 Kumdrapala Prabandha.the colophons on some manuscripts indicate that commissioning the copying of a manuscriptgenerated merit that could be dedicated to a living or deceased ancestor.9 It is therefore not surprising to find that medieval Jain kings and merchants were famous for the libraries that they established. with the spiritual benefit (sreyas) going to his father. for example. Singhi Jaina Series 18 (Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. ed. and so several monastic leaders decided that manuscript collections should be established in major cities in order to preserve Jain knowledge. (Atlanta: 6 Triputi Maharaj [Munis Darsanvijay. 564. 14 For a discussion of the establishment of the library at Jaisalmer.-A. and the fourteenth-century mahamatya("prime minister")Vastupala is said to have established three libraries in Patan. Gaekwad's Oriental Series 21 (Baroda: Central Library. 5 Onthe thesetexts."to C. the first libraries were built in the late eighth century.13 The libraries established by Kumarapalaand Vastupala in Patan are believed to have been destroyed by the Muslims. D. problems The see PaulDundas.10and arrangedfor the copying of seven sets of the Svetambara agamas along with Hemacandra'sSan1 skrit and Prakritgrammar.questioning. with some of the texts transferred to the library in Jaisalnler in the Rajasthani desert for safekeeping.. op. Dalal's A Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Jain Bhandars at Jesalmere. and Nyayvijay]. Jainapustakaprasastisarhgraha. quoted in K. in which the funds are to be used only for the propagation of knowledge. primarily by printing books or pamphlets. A Descriptive Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Jain Bhandars . "Prastavana. During a fierce drought between 785 and 789 the monks grew lax in their observance of the full monastic behavior. Gandhi.8Similarly. and Bhogilal J. 27. Jain Parampara no Itihas (Ahmedabad: Sri Caritra Smarak Granthmala. Muni Caturvijay [Agamoday Samiti 58. in the thirteenthcentury v. reflection. see Lalchandra Bhagvandas Gandhi. 33. Also Muni Jinavijaya. 1943). Jaina Grantha Bhandars in Rajasthan (Jaipur: Shri Digamber Jain Atishaya Kshetra Shri Mahavirji. ibid.. "There are five elements to study: oral recitation. 108. ed. and Jain texts. and W.. 6. 1928])." and "The Jain Scriptures and the Study of Jainism. ibid. Cambay.which is why so many Jain texts published in this century do not appearin North American or European libraries.1 in Sanghvi Pado Bhandar:C. Literary Circle of Mahdmdtya Vastupala and its Contributions to Sanskrit Literature.Svopajnavrttion Yogasdstra 3. 12 C.41-94.4 Among the key events in the crystallization of the split between the Svetambaraand Digambara sects were three Svetambara councils held in Valabhi in Gujarat and Mathurain north India in the fourth and fifth centuries to commit to writing standardeditions of key Jain texts. andthreeessaysby Kendall Folkert.1922).. Lundell. In the Svetambara Uttarddhyayana Sutra. "Jfianbhandarni Avalokan" (in Limbdind Jain Jndnbhandarni Hastalikhit Prationu Sucipatra. The three most important 'fields of donation' for medieval Svetambaralaity were images of the Jinas..Archives d'ltudes Orientales (Uppsala: 18 J. 7 Hemacandra. 1921)." "The'Canons' 'Scripture': Text. and the security of Jaisalmer relative to that of Patan.78 Journal of the American Oriental Society 115. 16-17.1993). 1. Gaekwad's Oriental Series 76 (Baroda: Oriental Institute. 1967). nuity Ritual.14 Most of the extant manuscripts in Patan are of Pattan. See also Punyavijay.6 Arranging for manuscripts to be copied for monks to use and establishing places for them to be kept were among the duties expected of laity as part of their support for and devotion to the monastic community. Kasliwal. Bombay: Agamoday Samiti. Sandesara. Scholars Press. 140. Singhi but give to his mendicant guru Dhanesvarasuiri. "Scripture Contiof in the JainTradition. Upadesa Taraigini. L. Dalal. The twelfth-century emperor Kumarapalais said to have established twenty-one libraries in Patan. l Ratnamandiragani. we read. ed. The Uttarddhyayanasutra.1 in Sri Safigh Bhandar. For example. n. Dalal. Jains(London: 1992). 8 PraSasti to ms. quoted in Muni Punyavijay. n.119.61-70.

ner& Co. and texts that are crucial to mendicant praxis.and Muni Jambuvijaya. that Georg Biihler in 1873 found in an Ahmedabad Jain library 400 copies of the Avasyakasatra.15The oldest paper manuscript..2% 9. in the Bombay Circle.= 2051 v. 1883). Of the dated palmleaf manuscripts.9% 18. Detailed Report of Operations in Search of Sanskrit Mss. Thus 1995 C. to another room in the same library. 4. 171-94. whattexts shouldscholarsstudyin order 1883 (Bombay: TownHall.E. 100.As of the eye becomesaccustomed the darkness.16 A count of the dates as given by Muni Punyavijay (who organized the libraries) in the manuscript catalogues gives the following distribution for the copying of the approximately 18.s. 1992). today these needs are met by printed copies. for this importanttext contains the rules and texts for the six daily rites (dvasyaka) that are obligatory for all mendicants. grammarsused for the learning of Sanskrit and Prakrit. 20 Letterfrom G. Papers Relating to the Collection and Preservation of the Records of Ancient Sanskrit Literature in India (Calcutta: Su- of 1878). about a dozen are from the twelfth century.000) are on paper.19 We Dalal.20More technical or philosophical works were copied less frequently. Catalogueof jaya. . This pragmatic reason behind the choice of which manuscripts to copy also in large part explains both the demise of the tradition of copying manuscripts. and most (over 23.E."in Texts in Context: Scripturein a Performative Traditional Hermeneutics in South Asia.1991). 17th c. in February 1886.57. although there are perhaps half-a-dozen undated ones from earlier in the tenth century. The libraries themselves were kept either in small. 21 Peter Peterson.) system. and the latest is dated 1441 c. and especiallyof the collectionsof individualmendicantsthathave been incorporated the libraries. Ibid. Catalogue of Manuscripts in Shri Hemachandracharya Jain Jnanamandira Patan. v. whichis the entrance the smaller into anddarker vaultwherethebooksarekept. "Svetambar Murtipujak Context. and IV. unventilated cellars.E.London: TriibSociety'sLibrary. editor. ed. 18 The dates are all in the VikramSamhvat (v..s.We gathered belowthe one windowwhichfromabovelets lightinto this strange place . 21 His description of another visit three years later. or Punyavijay provided an estimated date:17 15th c. 18th c. Bombay. perintendent Government Printing. into wouldbe mostilluminating.1873. the Manuscripts of Pdtana Jain Bhandadra. compiler. therefore. 40. devotional texts used in community rituals. Cort. and the lack of use of most libraries today: whereas in former times the Jain community needed to have on hand a number of copies of many texts for ritual and educational purposes. which he visited in early 1883: Thebooksarekeptin a dark vault. dates from 1300-1301 c. about one hundred from the thirteenth century.9% 16. Shree Shwetambar Jain Murtipujak BoardingSeries 1 and 3 Sharadaben Chimkanbhai Educational Research (Ahmedabad: Centre.500 paper manuscripts for which either a specific date is given in the colophon..6% 26.andMuniPunyaviHemacandracarya Jinanmandir.18 16th c. Pattan Catalogue (see note 8).. or in similar chambers above ground.CORT: The Jain Knowledge Warehouses: Traditional Libraries in India 79 from a later period.E. 19th c. part I (Patan: 16 15 Jain 1972). Timm to understand the tradition how was mediated the mendito cants?A study of the Jain librarieswith these questionsin mind.. It is not surprising. II.s. John E. hole in to a the wall is seen. whichis for the mostpart56 yearsaheadof the Christian calendar.on stepunderground outof thelightintowhichyou can see nothing that ping in the least suggeststhe realcharacter the place. in Archibald Gough. August 1882-March of (Albany:StateUniversity New YorkPress. parts I. Biihlerto the Director PublicInstrucof Edward tion. is even more graphic: A perusal of the titles of the manuscripts indicates that the numbers of copies of a given manuscript are directly related to its ritual and authoritative roles. on the other hand. The oldest dated palmleaf manuscript is from 1062 c. 20th c. narrative texts used by monks as the bases for sermons.6% 23. 35. 19For a discussionof the ways in whichthe ritualandperformativeuses of texts provideus with a different 'canon'of textsthando moretraditional considerations orthodoxy of and see Jain normativity. Only a little fewer than seven hundred palmleaf manuscripts remain in Patan. dark.20 August.9% find many copies of texts belonging to the Svetimbara 'canon'. Jeffrey R. Peter Peterson describes quite vividly the cellar attached to the Santinath temple in which was kept the famous Cambay library. ed. on Scholarship the Jains has tended to ignore two basic questions:what texts did the mendicantsactuallyread and use?-and therefore. 17 Muni Punya Vijaya.

andeverypartof theroof. paper manuscripts being roughly 9 to 12 inches wide by 4 to 6 inches high.unlesshis padlockwere to be forcedopen. or as many as several dozen texts."TheSvetambar Man. R.30. In the case of larger sahghs. ibid. To protect the manuscripts from insects.. 26 (1991):651-71. and other valuables could be stored for safe-keeping. 1887). centered around the neighborhood temple. Bhandarkar: At presentthe Bhandar entirelyin the chargeof the is Panches(or trustees)." 26 Shridhar R.1977). withbats.In the case of such Bhandars at Jaisalmerand elsewhereI generallyfound that each and Panch individual (or trustee) on his ownpadlock put his key. At its broadest. fairly air-tight wooden boxes roughly one-foot tall. 25On the mendicant ordersamongthe Svetambar MuirtipuJain Murtipujak Menjaks. Unlike Brahmanical manuscripts. Dalal notes that the extant Patan palmleaf manuscripts range in size from 36" by Bundles of texts were sometimes 21/2"to 41/2" 11/2". This roomwas worse.22 ing for a day with such manuscripts. In between are sahghs comprised of the lay adherents of one of the mendicant orders (gacch). a single text of many pages. or stored in wellbuilt.24 by tied together and covered by cloth. manuscripts.wascoveredwithout an interstice.25 A manuscript collection might be under the control of a sahgh of any of these sizes. and so could legally possess monasteries and manuscripts.s. Most extant manuscripts are on paper. although mendicants could exercise more or less control depending on individual charisma. These rooms were attached to Jain monasteries (updiray) or temples.The first thingto catchmy eye was a square piece of whitecloth extended over the roof exactlyabovethe placewhereI was to sit.London: March1886 (Bombay: Society'sLibrary. Individual manuscripts might contain a single text in just a few pages. the heritaryJain mayor of Patan. Masterpiecesof Jain plates Painting(Bombay: Marg. But sangh can refer to any of several different types of congregation.80 Journal of the American Oriental Society 115. see JohnE. I satin thatnoisomeroomforfourmortal days doing my best to forgetthe bats. These mendicants.1 (1995) was said in my FirstReportof the strange Something character theplace. This was the case. 41.for example.28-29. Report of a Second Tour in Search of Sanskrit Manuscripts made in Rajputana and Central India in 1904-5 and 1905-6 (Bombay: Government Cen- JuttaJain-Neubauer (New Delhi: Sterling. tr. Art and Rituals: 2500 Years of Jainism. 12-13 and 101-3. Bhandarkar. Jain manuscripts tend to be of a fairly uniform size. this lay control often involved the Nagarseth. with 10 inches by 4 inches being the norm. 24 Dalal. for example.. or on occasion to ordinary houses. See also Saryu Doshi. Cort. ornaments. did not take the full-fledged mendicant vows of non-possession (aparigraha). Bhandarkar. & 23For a discussionand photographs the preparation of of Fischer see the ink andthe copyingof a manuscript. so thatthe Bhandars couldnot be opened kept unlessall the keys werebrought Underthese together. dicant. which might or might not be closely related in terms of content. I mighthavethought a canopyof we thensawit. while at its narrowest it refers to the congregation of a neighborhood.1985). R. and sometimes dusted with red arsenic powder. The term for a Jain congregation is sangh. it hadnotits realpurpose beensoonapparent. in times of political instability. April 1884- TownHall. 11.23Palmleaf manuscripts tend to be wider but less high.andget on with the workbeforeme. tralPress. partof That theroof. as described by S. Eberhard and JyotindraJain. images. with older ones being on palm-leaf. Triibner Co. circumstances wouldhappen a Bhandar it that couldnot be openedeven if there shouldbe a single dissident Panchagainstthatbeingdone. reports that in Patan each bhandar "is the property of the Gachchha and is Many Jain pilgrimage shrines still have secret cellars where. C. with the bhanddrs in Jaisalmer. 1907). In practical terms.hangingdownfromthe rafters.. A Third Report of Operations in Search of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bombay Circle. they were sometimes stored with chips of fragrant wood. one can easily understandthe fate that befell the inquisitive monks in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose! Managementof the manuscriptcollections was of two kinds. After work- 22 Peter Peterson. the actual ownership of many of the manuscriptcollections was in the hands of specific mendicants who resided permanently in their monasteries. and an occasional one on cloth. G. and the Jain members of the Paficayat. and fastening-so it seemedat least-all theirmyriad eyes uponme. sangh control really meant control by the leading laymen of the sangh. and vary somewhat more in size. sangh refers to the entire Jain congregation of a town. wherefor genof erationsthese Cambay books have lain undisturbed in theircoffin-like boxes.n. the ruling council of Patan. . D.26 Up until the early decades of the twentieth century. either congregational or individual. known as yatis.

Paiinyas Ramnikvijay et. and the following articles by Muni Punyavijay in Jidndaijali: Pijya Muni Sri Punyavijayji Abhivddan Granth. "The Problem of the Day.. editor. 1874-75 (Bombay: Director of Public Instruction. 1905). Mohanlal Dalichand Desai (Bombay: Jainacharya Shri Atmanand Janma-ShatabdiSmarak Samiti. For good overviews on the location and cultural significance of Jain manuscriptcollections. "PatannaJain Bhandaro. Bikdner Jain Lekh Saigrah (Kalkatta: Nahta Bradars.Report on the Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bombay Presidency during the Year 1883-84 (Bombay: Government Central Press. who "asked in returnnothing but a railway-guide-a request which I readily granted. in a 1905 article written by Kalyanji Padamji Shah of Radhanpur in The Jain Swetamber Conference Herald. in A. Albrecht Wezler [Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. for example." The Jain Swetamber Conference Herald 1." Hindi section. Travels in Western India (London: Wm."27 Similarly Biihler describes the bhandar of the Khartar Gacch."Jain Swetamber Conference Herald 12. H. shows examples of all of these ownership patterns.6 (1959): 25-29. 59-65 (reprinted in Ludwig Alsdorf. Part of this reform involved lawsuits between lay satghs and yatis concerning the possession of manuscripts. D. 1875). 16066).1 (January 1916). See also the reports on the searches for Sanskrit manuscripts by R. Shree ShwetambarMurtipujakJain Boarding Series 1-3 (Ahmedabad: Sharadaben Chimanbhai Educational Research Centre." Jain Yug. 28-32. 1951). 29 G. K. 51. Lalchandra Bhagawandas Gandhi. Seth. 1936). Patan. Mohanlal Dalicand Desai. Gaekwad's Oriental Series 76 (Baroda: Oriental Institute. who in 1869 received a numberof manuscriptsfrom a yati. Banarsidas Jain. see the following: anon. "Apni Adrsya thati Lekhankala ane tena Sadhno. 1937). "PatannaJnanbhandaro. 6-16. Catalogue of the Manuscripts of Patana Jain Bhan. and not until the Sripujya returned from a tour in Rajasthan was Btihler able to gain access to the collection." and Bhaiivarlal Nahta. however. Bhandarkar. the withdrawal of lay support for the yati institution has resulted in most of the manuscript collections coming under the control of lay sahghs. G. Ludwig Alsdorf.dar was part of the above-mentioned reform movement.. Kanubhai Vra.30 While the courts sided with the yatis.. 28 Lieutenant-Colonel James Tod. ed. compiler. 39-52." Gujarati section." in Jainacharya Shri Atmanand Centenary Commemoration Volume. and 12. 56-59. D. ed. (Baroda: Sri Sagar Gacch Jain Upagray): "Jinanbhandaroni Samrddhi. vol. and Peter Peterson cited elsewhere in these notes." Gujarati section. 1991). Allen and Co. a priest [yati] makes an Upasraya his permanent residence. C.und NeuIndische Studien 7 (Hamburg:Cram. 24143. Agarcand Nahta Granthbhandaro. the manuscripts that are now in the Hemacandra Bhandar were in fact spread among more than a dozen different collections. in part driven by instances of yatis selling manuscripts to foreign scholars and other interested parties.dra. 2. 1839). R. Kielhorn. Biihler. "Jnanbhandaro ek par Drstipat.CORT: The Jain Knowledge Warehouses: Traditional Libraries in India 81 in the charge of the prominent lay-members of the sect. Dalal.s. 6. 233. n. and Muni Jambuivijay. Looking at the history of the Patan collections. al. cit. and Muni Punyavijay.. which Tod described as being under the management of the Nagarseth and the Pancayat.29 The institution of the yati has largely disappeared from the Jain community as part of a broad-ranging reform of mendicant and lay practice over the past century. Catalogue of Manuscripts in Shri Hemachandracharya Jain Jnanamandira. most of which are now part of the Hemacandra Jfinn Bhandar. Muni Punyavijay. the main organ of the reformists. Kleine Schriften. Kasliwal. C.S.4 (April. Gopal Bhandarkar. or head yati. The consolidation of the manuscript collections and the construction of the new bhan. entitled "The Problem of the Day."32 dal Suvarn Jayanti (Bombay: Patan Jain Mandal. Alt. cit. Bhandarkar. de Gruyter& Co. Gough. Hindi section. 32 Kalyanji Padamji Shah. 69. who worked on the Patan collections in 1915.. A Descriptive Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Jain Bhandars of Pattan. part I: Paper Jaina Jnanamandira. 31 Information on the collections comes from my own study of the collection.. 1887). ed. "Neues aus alten Jainabibliotheken. op. Geburtstag dargebracht von der deutschen Indologie. "Gujaratna HastpratParab 10 (1980): 668-74." in Beitrage zur indischen Philologie und Altertumskunde: Walther Schubring zum 70. "Panjab ke Jain Bhandaro ka Mahatva. Report on Sanskrit Mss. 61-69. Biihler dated July 5. 1."Patan Jain Man- 27 Ramkrishna . 157-68. the library is always in his charge and practically he is its owner.31 Through the early years of this century. 1869. The reformist sentiment was expressed very clearly.28 as being under the control of the Paficayat and the Sripijya. 1-18. 30 An extreme example was mentioned by Biihler. Georg Biihler. Muni Punyavijay. F. but more importantly from the following published sources: C. "Jinanbhandarno Paricay. 1964). ed. op.2 (February 1916). although he was unable to see one collection because its yati owner had hidden it." In this article he stated: "The question for solution stands thus: How to release and diffuse our sacred lore at present confined in dark and stinking cellars to the care of heaps of dust and corroding insects. Dalal. E. When. Manuscripts (Patan:Sri Hemacandracarya 1972). I. 4 parts in 3 volumes. 1974]. reported that by that date all the bhandadrs were in the hands of laymen. 1956)." Report of G.

Ramnikvijay note 31). Dalal warned of the danger of the destruction of manuscripts by white ants.1 (1995) and Home Minister of Bombay State. It stands on a raised plinth for protection against flooding. that of Limbdi Pado."Life and Worksof AgamaPrabhakar (see vijayji. by K. and catalogue manuscript collections. Three of the collections now in the HemacandraBhandar are examples of collections managed by a sangh affiliated with a mendicant gacch. Sandesara. 1942). when Dalal surveyed the Patan collections." on account of the breadth of his scholarship." IndianAntiquary (1939): 121-25. This effort also gained the public support of Acarya Vijay Vallabhsiiri (1871-1954). at Parsvanatha Pattana. see JohnE.theChanicatalogue notbeenpublished. and so the Baroda government set up a committee to recommend proper steps for the preservation and study of the manuscripts. As of 1915. the medieval polymath Hemacandra(1089-1172). In Patan this was originally the work of PravartakKantivijay (d. is hand-written of the catalogue in the L. Vasta Manek. then president of the GujaratSahitya Parishad 33 TheJaisalmer L. Shah. tions and residential neighborhoods. Forfurther and Cort. in addition to cataloguing the Patan collection. in the memory of his father Mohanlal Moticand. D. D. In the case of Patan there was also pressure from the government. "Prasastiof the Temple of VadipuraIndica1 (1892):319-24. The building contains a front reading room and three manuscript storage rooms. it was under the management of a citywide Jain trust.anJain Sangh. Institute in Ahmedabad.34 Most of the money-Rs 2.together with the Jain members of the Paficyat. who had been known as the kalikalasarvajia. The largest of the collections incorporated into the Hemacandra Bhandar is the Sri Sangh Bhandar. the Santinath Bhandcar Cambay. and that C. theCambay and catalogue the To Gaekwad's Oriental Seriesin Baroda. ed. thebestof my knowlthe has although edge. which was under the supervision of the Pat. 35 See G. Umakant MuniPunyaP. they did agree to arrange for the manuscripts' preservation."Connoisseurs Devotees:Lockwoodde Forestand . and a few manuscripts from the private collection of a layman. and upon his death was deposited in the Sagar Bhandar. Seth Dharamcand Abhecand Pedhi.see P. Hemcand Mohanlal. "Inscription the JainaTempleof Vadi at Parsvanatha Patanand Genealogyof the Teachersof the Kharatara Gaccha. Chani. Patan was part of the northern district of Baroda State."Journal of the Oriental Institute 25 (1976): of discussion thetempleitself. M. A large new building was constructed to house the collection. Vadi Parsvanathwas the one temple in Patan affiliated with the Khartar Gacch. Institute. D. and resolutions advocating manuscript preservation and cataloguing were regularly passed at the biennial conventions of the Svetambar Jain Conference. and its foundational inscription is an important On the one hand.000 in land-came from a single donor. study. and the new library was named after Patan'smost famous monk. D. D. one of the leaders of the reform movement. next to the most important Jain temple of Paficasar and surroundedby many other Jain instituPars'vanath. and the L. This large building is in the heart of a Jain area in the middle of Patan. copy see For a brief biographyof Muni Punyavijay. 1940). although the bulk of the work was done by Caturvijay's disciple. The manuscripts themselves are stored in specially designed airtight wooden boxes which are kept inside locked metal cabinets. Abhivadansection. "Correspondence: of at Patanand Appreciation the Workof the Jain SaintHe2 New macandra. In practical terms. The bulk of the different collections was incorporated into one single collection. Dalal from the Baroda Oriental Institute was able to prepare a preliminary catalogue of the manuscripts. At that time the Sri Safigh Bhan. each closed by a heavy metal bank-vault door. assisted by his disciple Painyas Caturvijay (d. a number of monks undertook to collect. The bulk of this latter collection had been given by Vasta Manek to Vakil (lawyer) Lehrubhai Dahyabhai. Institute Ahmedabad. and it was in part through the influence of the Gaekwad's government that Western scholars first gained access to the main collections. C. werepublished the and by catalogues in in L. who catalogued the collections of Jaisin almer. Biihler."in Jinaiijali." Epigraphica of andB.33 Support for this work was forthcoming from the laity.100 in cash and Rs 51. Munshi. "the Omniscient of the Dark Age. the great Muni Punyavijay (1896-1971). this meant that the collection was under the control of the Jain Nagars'eth. 393-98.dr also contained a smaller collection formerly under the control of a neighborhood satigh. J. The temple of Vadi Pargvanathwas consecrated in 1596. While the Jains of Patan resisted the suggestion that the manuscripts should be shifted to Baroda and incorporated into the Oriental Institute's collection. Diof Resurrection the Jfiana-Bhandars vanji. 34Fora description the openingceremonies the backof and of to ground the construction the new building.89-96. This building was inaugurated on 7 April 1939.82 Journal of the American Oriental Society 115.

of the sixteenth century V. Kielhorn. although earlier Bhandarkardescribed it as under the control of Yati Ripsagar.CORT:The Jain Knowledge Warehouses: Traditional Libraries in India 83 document in the history of the KhartarGacch. Muni Punyavi(see jay. is an informal branch of the Tapa Gacch). 38 M. Part of this collection had belonged to a layman. cit. The current condition of this collection 40 Dalal. Bhandarkar'sdescription of the Agali Seri library indicates well the way in which collections were often aggregates of smaller collections. 36 Muni Punyavijay describes this collection as a "new edition" (navi avrtti) of the Jaisalmer collection.40 smaller Tapa Gacch collection in the same neighborhood. cit. and F. the one neighborhood saigh in Patan affiliated with the nearly defunct Vimal branch of the Tapa Gacch.). and said that the yati had moved many of the manuscripts to Ahmedabad.3 (March 1994): 68-74.E.op. Desai. also known as the Agali Seri ("Front Street") Bhandar. Btihler. many of them in Jaisalmer. 42 A was the leader of an order of yatis. 39 Muni Punyavijay. also catalogued in 1797. 37 Lieutenant-Colonel James Tod. Travels in Western India. 1849) of Ahmedabad. copied at the expense of a millionaire layman. op.38As mentioned above.37 Another collection under the control of a satigh affiliated with a gacch was that of the Sagar Gacch (this gacch.36 many importantlogic and Advaita Vedantin texts copied on paper manuscriptsin the first half of the fifteenth century. 75 palmleaf manuscripts from this collection were sold to F.. 4. but at the moment it is frozen in Khetarvasi due to a court investigation into eleven stolen manuscripts. Dalal noted that this collection also contained 108 manuscriptsthat were formerly the propertyof a Sagar Gacch yati. copied in the years 1425-35 at This collection includes the orders of JinabhadrasFri. for a time this collection also housed that of Vakil LehrubhaiDahyabhai. that was established by Riipvijay (d. had belonged to an unknown Vijay yati. Santidas Devkaran. had been left in Santidas Devkaran's house by the yati Mohanvijay. after the name of the neighborhood in which it was located. A third such collection was that of the Tapa Gacch.. in the Bombay Presidency during the Year 1880-81 (Bombay: Government Central Book Depot. that from Aduvasi Pado. Dalal.. there were three other collections belonging to unknown laymen. cit.. at the beginning The Metropolitan Museum of Art's Jain Temple Ceiling. 242. Bhav Sagar. 1. had belonged to the mendicant Pafnyas Satyavijay. op. Allen and Co. (see 242. 36. 41 G. R. one catalogued in 1780." Orientations 25. Patan tradition has it that this collection was established by Acarya Vijay Devsuri (1578-1657). op.E. though less likely. and one in 1804.42A fifth collection. and Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar. catalogued in 1797. Chaddu Saha. The collection in Khetarvasi Pado is a neighborhood collection that is still separated from the Hemacandra Bhandar. One small collection. This is a collection of 76 old and rare palm-leaf manuscripts. a yati) Dipcand Hemcand. Current plans are to incorporate this collection into the Hemacandra Bhandar. Another collection that is separate from the Hemacandra Bhandarrepresents the control of a sangh that is both a neighborhood sarigh and a mendicant-lineage affiliated sangh. an important part of this collection is a set of manuscripts of the Jain Siddhaiita (the Svetambara 'canon') and related commentaries. head of the Tapa Gacch in the first half of the seventeenth century. where he lived.35The collection in the Vadi PargvanathBhandar was established earlier than the present temple. again catalogued in 1797. mid-fifteenth century Both Biihler and Bhandarkarreferred to another C. This is the collection of 3. Most of the manuscripts are paper copies of earlier palm-leaf manuscripts. 232-34. op.206 manuscripts in Bhabha Pado. Most of this collection was formerly in the nearby village of Kungher. and had been catalogued in 1797. A fourth collection had belonged to Sripiijya Jinendrasuri. and been catalogued in 1695. This was the collection described by Colonel James Tod.(i. sripuajya . catalogued in 1805. (note 29). who visited Patan in 1822.. cit. Lastly. Embracing a Visit to the Sacred Mounts of the Jains.4 I assume that this collection was later incorporated into the Tapa Gacch collection. which now is the collection of the BhandarkarOrientalResearch Institute in Pune. A second group had belonged to the mendicant Gafigavijaygani. as well as the collection of the layman Maka Modi. G. A seventh collection. of 114 manuscripts. had belonged to the layman (or possibly. with an Account of the Ancient City of Nehrwalla (London: Wm. Kielhorn in 1880-81 for inclusion in the Bombay Government collection. more properly speaking. 1839). Report on the Search for Sanskrit Mss. "PatannaJinanbhandaro. 1881).e. is an example of a collection under the control of a neighborhood saigh. A further collection.39According to Dalal. and the Most Celebrated Shrines of Hindu Faith between Rajpootana and the Indus. H. A third collection. D. "PatannaJinanbhandaro" note 31). 36." note 31). cit. from where it was transferred to Patan. (note 27). Bhandarkar described it as under the management of one Yati Ratanvijay.

while another collection of 407 manuscripts was bought in Bhuj.013 manuscriptscollected by PravartakKantivijay.. which later was either removed from Patan or incorporated into another collection. of of a discussion the tradition poetryamongKacchyatis.. R.This is reminiscent of a similar situation in the Jaisalmer described by S. but was under the managementof a lay family in the neighborhood.dars. ed. andsays thatit consistedof 614 manuscripts. the is Jain 1968). At the request of Muni it Jambuivijay.511 manuscripts came from Ahmedabad at the request of Punyavijay.352 manuscripts collected by Acarya Vijay Vallabhsuri in the Panjab. 124-29. Biihler more than thirty years ago and had remained locked up ever since. but was transferred to Patan at the request of Muni exampleof sucha collectionis the largelibrary and in beingorganized Koba(betweenAhmedabad Gandhina43 S.47 Desai and Dalal mention a collection that went in the other direction-that of Yati Lavanyavijay. and 1.d. was given to the HemacandraBhandarin 1976. part I. ages of the famousDharanacaturmukhavihara templeof 48 Desai. 44 MuniJambuivijay. cit. pp. "Kacchna Rajkavi Yatisri Kanakkusalji.46 The relocation of two collections from Jaisalmer and the Panjab indicates the extent to which bhandars have been mobile over the centuries. and then more recently by PravartakKantivijay. Dalal noted that the collection had been periodically catalogued and organized by the yatis. a lineage of yatis. Rajvijay Dayavijay. Ranakpur 1440."43 A similar collection was that of Safighvi Pado. Desai says that it was transferredto Radhanpur. he arranged for it to be bought and transferredto Patan.2-3). 45 Somasundarasuri also famousfor consecrating imN. which he had collected for his own use. which also consisted largely of palm-leaf manuscripts.285 manuscripts was formerly in the possession of a Jaisalmer KhartarGacch yati.1 (1995) Punyavijay.who in 1905 inspected one bhandar "which had last been opened for the inspection of Dr. Dalal. convinced the trustees to come to Patan so he could inspect the manuscripts in the course of preparing the recently published comprehensive catalogue of the Patan Bhan. Non-resident." catalogue(see in Sri Mahdvir Jain Vidydlay Suvarnmahotsav Granth. through his personal mendicant charisma.and had long been famous among those interested in learning the techniques of traditional poetry. The collection of Yati Himmatvijay consisted of 72 manuscripts.). The only key to the bhandar is in a bank safe deposit box in Patan. see is This information also includedin part Libraries. 46 A recent . and a new catalogue of the collection preparedby Muni Jambivijay.48 indicates some of the frustrations that can await those scholars who want to work with traditional manuscript collections..84 Journal of the American Oriental Society 115. Examples of these were the collections of 2. of the recentcomprehensive Duleray Karani. cit. copied between the years 1381 and 1433 at the instructions (upadesa) of two successive heads of the Tapa Gacch. who were also spiritual preceptors to the Maharao of Kacch in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries. which can only be opened when two trustees come from Bombay.n. Sri (Patan: Hemacandracarya TapaGacch. cit. Copies of this catalogueare in the For and of Congress the Centerfor collectionsof boththe Library (ibid. 66 manuscripts collected by Acarya Vijay Manikyasuiri (these were later kept under the control of the neighborhood sangh in MahalaksmiPado. and is described as the Mahalaksmi Pado Bhandar by both Dalal and Desai). op. Rajasthani.. Acarya Devasundarasuri (1340-1404) and his disciple Acarya Somasundarasuri (1374-1443). [untitled] 47 Biihler mentionsthis collection in his 1874-75 report Jain JnanMandir. 208-91. A large collection of 1. (Bombay: Sri Mahavir Jain Vidyalay.dar had not been opened for several decades until Muni Jambuvijay.44 This collection includes some twenty manuscripts of important Jain 'canonical' texts and commentaries. This bhan.45 Other collections represent those of individuals. especially reformist monks who in their constant travels urged lay followers to donate manuscripts in their personal possession so they could be made available to the larger public. non-yati monks also developed personal collections. Bhandarkar. 37. R. Bhandarkarmentioned a similar small collection in the hands of another Patan yati. This collection was in the monastery of the Lodhi Posa! branchof the Tapa Gacch. where they reside. Gujaratisection. This collection was in the monastery of the yatis of the Kusal Sakha in Bhuj. Two other collections currently in Patan also came from elsewhere. mostly on architecture (silpa sastra). Acarya Vrddhicandrasuri. 12. of of gar) underthe inspiration AcaryaPadmasagarsuri the op. When Muni Punyavijay heard that the then-presiding yati was interested in selling this collection. Kacch. and Gujarati. Upadhye et al. Research IV. Bhandarkar. in op.while Dalal says it was transferredto Palanpur and most likely burnt in a fire there. This collection consisted mostly of poetry and poetic theory in Braj. The Subhvir collection of 2. note 31).

Tod thought that this was the collection to which his yati assistant gained entrance. before publishing his catalogue. painted or embroidered book covers. Biihler. in 1883.CORT: The Jain Knowledge Warehouses: Traditional Libraries in India 85 The final collection in Patan was that of the yatis of the Pumrima Gacch. 1887). In addition. This is but the yati of the Purnima Gacch.Report on the Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bombay Presidency during the Year 1883-84 (Bombay: Government Central Press. however. paintings on cloth. L. "SvarfpachandraYati. but none of the collections investigated had manuscripts from that time. April 1886-March 1892 (Bombay: Society's Library.. metal. ed. devotional images in stone. Trench. when Dr. who still own a monastery in Patan in Dhandher Vado. clear from the description of RamkrishnaGopal Bhandarkar. as it had been hidden by the yati. D. 6. Since the Jains have been quite catholic in their attitudes towards the collection and retention of texts. Series. royal. and more visible series such as the Bombay Sanskrit and Prakrit Series.. D. The texts have significantly augmented our understandingof the social. and crystal. who came to Patan less than a decade later. intellectual. Institute of Indology. 51 RamkrishnaGopal Bhandarkar. ibid. the Puirnatalla following Svariipcand's death there was a lawsuit between his successor and the satigh concerning the ownership of the monastery and the manuscript collection. and secondly showed that Hemacandra had belonged to yet a third Gacch. 1894). who worked in Patan in 1915. English section. D.. above). over the centuries the bhandars have become the repositories for other works of art. writing in 1916. however. and of no great scholarly importance. B. His descriptive catalogue of the palm-leaf manuscripts was finally edited by Pandit L. in 1893. Dalal furtherreported that gacch. but in the case of Patanthe cataloguing history has been a checkered one. 50 G. and Padmanabh S. cit. The first extensive catalogue was preparedby C. The Pramdnavarttikamof Dharmakirti: The First Chapter with the Autocommentary.. Donald Johnson has succinctly described the process by which the Jain manuscriptcollections came to the attention of Western scholars. For examples of Buddhist materials preserved in the Jain bhandairs.. and as of 1915 the location of the collection was unknown. the catalogue of a 1975 exhibition in Ahmedabad. 38. see Umakant P. the bhanddr collections have also included valuable Brahmanical and Buddhist texts that would otherwise have been lost to posterity.55 Many of the Jain collections have been catalogued and the catalogues published. "Vasudhara-dharani:A Buddhist Work in Use Among the Jainas of Gujarat. Serie Orientale Roma 23 (Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. ."51 Peter Peterson reported a similar failure another decade later. not the Khartar Gacch. paper manuscript in the Bhabha Pado bhandadr. which was edited from a 16th-century v. Bhandarkarsaid. London: Kegan Paul. 2. in large part because it was inaccessible to scholars. op. D. who had charge of the Bhandar said to have originally belonged to Hemachandra. see Raniero Gnoli. The subsequent investigation of these collections has resulted in the publication of many hundreds of critical and semi-critical editions of texts. Buhler wished him to show his manuscripts to him.54Most of what we know about western Indian painting comes from the study of the many illustrated manuscripts in the bhandars. 53 Dalal. although as mentioned above this was actually the Khartar Bhandar attached to the Vadi Parsvanath temple. both by limited circulation Jain-funded text series. Buhler was under the same mistaken impression later in the century in 1874. But it was the source of great curiosity in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.49This collection consists of 701 paper manuscripts of fairly recent date. Svaruipcand. and other sculptures."50 fact. was as immoveable as he was in 1874-75.. Eventually. 52 Peter Peterson. A Fourth Report of Operations in Search of Sanskrit Mss. together with the Panch [pancaiyat]is the In keeper of Hemachandra'sBhandar. Popular tradition had it that the bhandar of the great Hemacandrawas still extant in Patan. Gandhi of the Oriental 54 Many of the manuscripts for Brahmanicaltexts published in the aforementioned series came from Jain bhandars.. 55 For an example of the range of artistic treasures to be found in bhanddrs.53 This situation was also reported by Desai. 102."in Sri Mahavir Jain Vidydlay SuvarnmahotsavGranth. Town Hall. who firstly was clear that the collection in question belonged to the Purnima Gacch. Series 69 (Ahmedabad: L. He died. ed. who added that many of the manuscripts had been sold to a 49 I havediscussed monastery its yatis in my disserthis and tation (see note 2. Treasures of Jaina Bhandars. 1960). and artistic history of western India. after the courts found in favor of the yati-that he was the legal owner of the manuscripts-he gave the manuscripts to the HemacandraBhandar. 2. in the Bombay Circle. the person to whom Buhler referred was not of the KhartarGacch. when he said that the "Sripuj of the Kharataragachha .s. Dalal. Trubner & Co.. Shah. Jaini. 1978). painted wooden manuscript boxes. Gaekwad's Oriental Series and the L.. such as illustrated scrolls. 30-45. British agent in Ahmedabad.52This misconception was cleared up only by C. Dalal of the Baroda Oriental Institute. part I. D.

to which were added Punyavijay's catalogue of the manuscripts in the Bhabha Pado bhandar. Their condition is not unlike the condition of Western archives as described by Claude Levi-Strauss in La Pensee sauvage: "we might say of archives that they are after all only pieces of paper. A visit to any Jain library indicates how marginal the manuscripts are to the ongoing Jain identity. D. D. Institute of Indology in Ahmedabad. from 1928 through 1943. Typesetting of the second volume. a local collection was entrusted to the hereditarymanagement of one family. Muni Punyavijay worked for many years.darthat was given to the HemacandraBhandarin 1976. Patan. well as transcription of all of the many manuscript colophons. I. It is distributed through the L. Institute but never finished. with the advent of published editions of texts.035 paper manuscripts. Other collections 56The Patanbhandaralso containsthe extensive personal workscollectedandusedby Muni of reference library printed referencelibraryis also uncataThis invaluable Punyavijay. Muni Jambuvijay prepared a small catalogue of the palm-leaf manuscripts from the Sanghvi Pado bhan.darsubsequent to Punyavijay's list. an alphabetical index of all 20. for our knowledge and condition to be totally unaffected were a cataclysm to destroy the origi- Institute.56 logue of the Manuscripts of Pdatana We have seen that the ownership of Jain manuscript patterns formerly followed many different patterns. In the meantime. In other cases these private collections were turned over to public management at the urging of charismatic mendicants. this untitled catalogue is available only through the Bhandarin Patan. He re-edited the 1972 catalogue as well as the unpublished volume 2 (except for the colophons). and texts copied in Patan are found in all the other major Jain manuscriptcollections. D. was begun by the staff of the L. but few people know this. and therefore governed by active ritual. A study of the colophons of the manuscripts further confirms the mobility of texts.andlying in boxes on the secondfloorof the bhandar. The history of these collections furtherreveals a dramatic change that has occurred in the last one hundred years. relegated to the antiquarian interests of the equally marginal scholarly community. which is managed by a registered public trust. since it was never included in the lists of L. of course. as manuscripts have moved from being an essential part of the tradition. are themselves dependent upon the manuscripts. and Panjab being brought to Patan. that of Sanghvi Pado. In some cases these were then given to a congregation upon the layman's death by his survivors. these collections also came under the control of congregations. as many of the texts currently in Patan were originally copied in towns and villages throughout western India. Jaisalmer. and purity concerns. Some collections were managed by the lay congregations. due to a dispute between the institutions. educational. Jambuvijay'slist of 268 paper manuscriptsgiven to the bhan. publications. The second volume of this catalogue was to have covered the many more paper manuscripts. In the late 1980s and early 1990s Muni Jambuivijayworked to reorganize the Patan bhandars. It is ironic that at the same time as access to these manuscripts on the part of scholars has become easier. Still other collections were the personal property of laymen. as Western notions of public libraries and research institutions have come to dominance in India. and other collections presumably being taken from Patan to other cities. and Jambuvijay's catalogue (complete with alphabetical index) of all the palm-leaf manuscripts. and uncles. D. and the resultant extinction of yati lineages. This was recently published in three volumes by the Sharadben Chimanbhai Educational Research Centre in Ahmedabad as CataJain Bhandara. the need for the manuscripts in the Jain community itself has drastically decreased. or else in research institutions (themselves frequently affiliated with universities) such as the L. These two factors may be related. . such as the HemacandraJnan Bhandar in Patan. Kacch. We have also seen the mobility of these collections. but with the withdrawal of lay support for the institution of the yati. which is affiliated with GujaratUniversity. Nowadays the vast majority of the handwritten manuscripts are found either in bhanddrs. pt. logued. which covers the paper manuscripts from 13 of the collections. organizing and preparing a catalogue for the Patan collection. at the citywide level by the Nagarseth and the Paficayat. I: Paper Manuscripts. and at the neighborhood level by the leaders of the local congregation. aunts. to being a marginal part of the tradition. They need only all have been published. much as many American museum collections have been built up as descendants donate the collections of departed parents. with collections from Ahmedabad. but was never published. which was to have covered the remaining three bhanas dadrs. collections moving from location to location within Patan. vol.1 (1995) were the personal property of resident yatis. was published by the Hemacandra Jnan Mandir in 1972 as Catalogue of Manuscripts in Shri Hemachandracharya Jain Jnanamandira. and published in the Gaekwad's Oriental Series in 1937 as A Descriptive Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Jain Bhandars of Pattan.86 Journal of the American Oriental Society 115. Institute of Indology in Ahmedabad. In one such case. Volume one of his catalogue. These published editions.

1966). 60 The connectionbetween manuscripts and power sometimesexpressesitself moredirectly. I said that there was no need for her to hold the book."61I cannot help but be reminded of the scene at the end of the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark.1959).see Cort. therefore. D. severalothercases. in Kalyanji Padamji Shah's words. in an act sure to run shivers up the spine of any library archivist. that one's hands are covered with a fine.The Jain manuscriptsare revered." D. this was due to the fearof losingalchemical formulaewhichmighthavebeenhidden awayin themassof scrap in paperby some ancestor. Once in Patan I was attending a complex temple ritual (mahapijd). "It is a book. as I prefer to translatejnin bhanddar. feel this loss as an irreparableinjury that strikes to the core of our being.The Sacred theProfane.CORT:The Jain Knowledge Warehouses: Traditional Libraries in India 87 nals. charged sandalwood powder known as vaskep (as well as money) are made onto metal trays on the tables. 59RudolfOtto. tr. This sense of numinous power is accentuated when one realizes." in contemporaryJain society. in Peter Peterson's words. "undisturbedin their coffin-like boxes. the powder is sprinkled over the books and manuscripts themselves.) refers to manuscripts "being hidden away in private collections." inSavageMind[no translator Univ. but she replied that it must not be placed on the floor. to which I had brought along my own copy of the ritual manual in order better to follow the proceedings.." or. It is holy." One can more easily read a critical edition of a medieval text in a research library in Cambridge or Chicago. 198-203. Harvey OxfordUniversity (London: Press. Once a year. in some cases ownersrefusedto let himinspectmanuscripts fearthatthis for wouldresultin a diminution the owner'stemporal of powers: "Inone case. and they are protected. Brace& World." What I had treated rather cavalierly as a collection of pieces of printed paper was to her an inherently charged and sacred object.The manuscripts lie. 1948). Manuscripts not only contain jndn.MirceaEliade. white ants and all other vermin except scholars. known as "Knowledge Fifth" (Jfian Paficami). any book. [that] will be destroyed unused by the action of time. Trask (NewYork: Harcourt. and disrespect is considered as an as'atna. reminding one of the observa57ClaudeLevi-Strauss. provide our sense of the past with its "diachronic flavour" by putting us "in contact with pure historicity. cit. but not necessarily something with which they expect people to have frequent contact. or in this case hand-written Jain manuscripts. a Jain woman became agitated and picked up the book. Offerings of the sacred. dicated](Chicago: 58For moreon the of Pafcami.60This holy power contained in the physical presence of the manuscripts accounts for the many references over the past century to the inaccessibility of Jain libraries. "knowledge warehouses. rain. . as she put it in English. in which the long-lost Ark of the Covenant is carefully nailed inside a box and wheeled into a vast. SatakatrayadiSubhdsitasarigraha of Bhartrhari. The Jains are and have been profoundly ambivalent in their attitude towards manuscripts and the powerful. mice. for they are dangerous and taboo. relateshis frustration seeking manuscripts the preparation his in for of criticaleditionof Bhartrhari's as Satakatraya. The tions of Rudolf Otto and Mircea Eliade that anything which is holy is also considered to be dangerous. 1950). powerful and efficacious knowledge. and sing vernacular hymns to Knowledge. endless warehouse from which it will never return. they also contain vidya. Kosambi D.This knowledge is something to be preserved in libraries and worshipped in the abstract in rituals.58 The very books and manuscripts as physical objects are to be treated with respect and veneration. Jains insist that a book. When I placed the manual on the floor of the temple in order to take some photographs. or moral fault. air. Both moder printed books and older hand-written manuscripts are arrangedin tiers on tables. salvific knowledge (jnan) contained therein." Levi-Strauss observes that archives. performance Jinan Liberation and Wellbeing (note 2). Willard and tr. Laity stand before the books with hands joined in a gesture of veneration. for. a multivalent term that covers both the Western categories of science and magic-in other words. 10. however. Jains go to the libraries and bhanddrs to worship both the knowledge contained in the manuscripts and the physical manuscripts themselves."57Levi-Strauss goes on. on the fifth day after the New Year. should be treated with respect. they are holy. after a day of working with manuscripts. of ChicagoPress. and then.. TheIdea of the Holy. at another it would be profound: "We should. 61 Similarly Kosambi (loc. "confined in dark and stinking cellars to the care of heaps of dust and corroding insects. but they are also to a significant extent locked away and ignored. it was due to the fearof titles to property beingproveddefectiveby examination of the old bundles. D. to indicate that while such a loss might be negligible at one intellectual level. red layer of poisonous arsenic powder. Kosambi. Singhi Jain Series 23 (Bombay: Singhi Jaina Sastra Siksapitha and Bharatiya Vidya Bhavana.241-42. John W. or. but the text in this form loses some of the numinous charge felt by the reader when reading a manuscript painstakingly copied by hand several centuries earlier.59 And this perhaps epitomizes the condition of the manuscript the collections.

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