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A dc chopper converts directly from dc to dc and is also known as a dc-to-dc converter. A chopper can be considered as dc equivalent to an ac transformer with a continuously variable turn’s ratio. Like a transformer, it could be used to step-down or step-up a dc voltage source. Choppers are widely used for traction motor control in electric automobiles, trolley cars, Marine hoists, fork lift trucks and mine haulers. They provide smooth acceleration control, high efficiency and fast dynamic response. Choppers can be used in regenerative braking of dc motors to return energy back into the supply and this feature results in energy savings for transportation system with frequent stop. 10-5 Choppers Drives (H.Rashid): • • Chopper drives are widely used in traction applications all over the world. A dc Chopper is connected between a fixed voltage dc source and a dc motor to vary the armature voltage. In addition to armature voltage control, a dc chopper can provide regenerative braking of the motors and can return energy back to the supply. This energy saving feature is particularly attractive to transportation system with frequent stops (example Mass Rapid Transit MRT). Chopper drives are also used in Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). The possible control modes of a dc chopper drives are; 1. 2. 3. 4. Power (Acceleration) Control. Regenerative Brake Control. Rheostatic Brake Control. Combined Regenerative & Rheostatic Brake Control.
P P Where. so that input power is given by. The chopper switch could be a transistor or forced commutated thyristor chopper.10-5. Where..I S 3 .. load current and input current are (Fig 10-14 c).I a = k V S.. I a = Average armature current of the motor & it is ripple free.. The wave forms for the armature voltage.1: Principle of Power (Acceleration) Control: The chopper is used to control the armature voltage of a dc motor (Figure 10-14 a). The power supplied to the motor is obtained by..... assuming highly inductive load.. Pi=P O O O =Va. This is an one quadrant drive.(10-32) =V S ...... Assuming a lossless chopper...(10-31) k = Duty cycle of the chopper. The average armature voltage is obtained by.. V a = k V S .... I a ....
.......(10-35) m &L m are the armature circuit resistance & inductances respectively. the power flow to the motor (and speed) can be controlled...(10-33) The equivalent input of the chopper drive is given by..... max = (V R S / R m) tan h (R m / 4 f L m) .. I S = k I a ... 4 . For a finite armature circuit inductance (eq 7-19) can be applied to find the maximum peak-to-peak ripple current as. ΔI Where.(10-34) Hence...... by varying the duty cycle k.....The average value of the input current is obtained by....... (1/ k) .. R => R eq eq =VS/I S = (V S / k I a ) = (V S / I a ) ...
.. which is given by. I a ....05 Ω a. The back emf constant of the motor is K V = 15. V S = 600 v I a = 250 A.(10-32) => (0. (c)..02 + 0.6 R m = R a + R f = 0. we can find out R R eq e q. The armature resistance is R a = 0. the (a). (b).03 = 0. determine..6 x 600 x 250) 600 b. = (V S / k I a ) = (V S / I a ) . Now according to eq 10-32. With the help of eq 10-34....Rashid): The dc series motor is powered by a dc chopper (Figure 10-14 a) from a 600v dc source. The average armature current is I a = 250 Amps. If the duty cycle of the chopper is 60 %... => P i = 90 k watts. Input power from the source ? Equivalent input resistance of the chopper drive? Motor speed ω =? Developed Torque T d =? From the given data.(10-34) => => (600/250) (1/0. (d)..03 Ω.Example 10-7 (H.27 m V/A-rad/s... (1/ k) .02 Ω & the field resistance is R f = 0... K = 0. The armature current is continuous & has negligible ripple.6) R eq =4Ω 5 ... the power supplied to the motor is obtained by. P i = k V S.
10-5. The application of dc choppers in regenerative braking can be explained with Figure 10-15a. the kinetic energy of the vehicle or train would rotate the armature shaft. 6 . shows the voltage and current waveforms assuming that the armature current is continuous & ripple free. Then if the transistor is switched On. the armature current will rise due to the short-circuiting of the motor terminals. Fig 10-15 c. diode D m would be turned On and the energy stored in the armature circuit inductances would be transferred to the supply. This is an one quadrant drive and operates in the second quadrant (Figure 10-15 b). provided that the supply is receptive. as Let us assume that the armature of a series motor is rotating due to the inertia of the motor (and load) and in case of transportation system. If the chopper is turned off.2: Principle of Regenerative Brake Control: In regenerative braking the motor acts as a generator and the kinetic energy of the motor and the load is returned back to the supply.
At any speed less than ω min an alternate braking arrangement would be required.(10-39) Hence.(10-41) and ω ≥ ω min .(10-40) Which gives the minimum braking speed of a series motor as. I a ...... ω = Machine speed in rad/s.. Or K V... Eg=V Ch +R m I a m E g = (1 – k) V S + R I a K V = Machine constant. I a (1 – k) ...(10-42) and ω ≤ ω max ... The maximum braking speed of a series motor can be found from equation 10-40..(10-37) The voltage generated by the series motor acting as a generator is... From equation 7-31.. E g = K V. by varying the duty cycle k....... the equivalent load resistance seen by the motor can be varied from R m to ( + R m) and the regenerative power can be controlled... ω max – R m I a = V S ω max = ( + ) .. I a .. 7 ... ω .... the regenerated power can be found from.. ω min =R m I a ω min = R m / K V . R eq = (V S / I a) (1 – k) + R m . Or E g = K V...g ω min < ω < ω max).(10-38) As Where... The regenerative braking would be effective only if the motor speed is between these two speed limits (e. I a .(10-36) If I a is the armature current.The average voltage across the chopper is obtained by.. P g = V S. V C h= (1 – k) V S ......... Therefore the equivalent load resistance of the motor acting as a generator is given by. 0 ≤ (E g – R m I a) ≤ V S ....... the conditions for permissible potentials and polarity of the two voltages are........
The armature and field can be controlled independently to provide the required torque during starting. Thus for running on the traction supply. A separately excited dc motors is stable in regenerative braking. a separate excitation control is required and such an arrangement of series motor is normally sensitive to supply voltage fluctuations and a fast dynamic response is required to provide an adequate brake control. a series excited generator is unstable when working into a fixed voltage supply.Although dc series motors are traditionally used for traction applications due to their high starting torque. 9 . The application of a dc chopper allows the regenerative braking of dc series motors due to its fast dynamic response. A chopper fed series and separately excited dc motors are suitable for traction applications.
the regenerated power can be found from.. If the duty cycle of the chopper is 60 %...03 = 0.02 Ω & the field resistance is R f = 0.... V => C h= (1 – k) V S . P g? Equivalent load resistance of the motor acting as a generator R Minimum permissible braking speed ω min =? Motor speed ω =? e q? From the given data. (b).... If I a is the average armature current.... Therefore the equivalent load resistance of the motor acting as a generator is given by.01527) => ω = 3.. The average armature current is maintained constant at I a = 250 Amps. I a (1 – k) . K V = 0...Example 10-8 (H...(10-41) min => (0. The armature current is continuous & has negligible ripple. V S = 600 v I a = 250 A.6) 600 240 volts b.05 d..1527 V/A K = 0.6) + 0. V ch ? Power regenerated to the dc supply..Rashid): A dc chopper is used in regenerative braking of a dc series motor (Figure 10-15 a).02 + 0. ω min = 1. The average voltage across the chopper is given by eq 10-36..(10-37) => 250 x 600 (1 – 0. P g = V S.. The back emf constant of the motor is K V = 15.01 Ω =R m /K V .. The armature resistance is R a = 0... (d). Average voltage across the chopper... determine. the (a)..05 Ω a. (c).274 x (30/Π) => ω min = 31.27 m V/A-rad/s. R => eq = (V S / I a) (1 – k) + R m .. (e).(10-39) => R eq (600/250) (1 – 0. The dc supply voltage is 600 v.6) => P g = 60 Kwatts c. The minimum permissible braking speed is obtained as..05/0.03 Ω.(10-36) => V C h= (1 – 0.26 rpm 10 ..6 R m = R a + R f = 0...274 rad/s => ω min = 3.
.I a) ω = 66. E g = K V.. => Note: Eg=V Ch +R m I a => 240 + 0.5 / (0. K V.05 x 250 => E g = 252... I a .14 rad/s => 252.445 rad/s => ω max = 160..445 x (30/Π) = 1532. 11 . ω max – R m I a = V S => ω max =( + ) ...e.. the effective load resistance of the series generator should be adjusted by varrying the duty cycle of the chopper. I a .6 rpm => The motor speed would decrease with time.. To maintain the armature current at the same level.5 v ω = E g / (K V.14 rpm Finally the motor speed is given by.14 x (30/Π) => ω = 631. ω .... The maximum permissible braking speed can be found from equation 10-40.(10-42) => => ( ω max + ) => ω max = 160...01527 x 250) ω = 66..(10-38) & Hence..
Figure 10-16 c. This is one quadrant drive and operates in the second quadrant. as. the energy is dissipated in a rheostat and it may not be a desirable feature.10-5. An arrangement for the rheostatic braking of dc series motor is shown (Figure 10-16a).3: Principle of Rheostatic Brake Control: In rheostatic braking. The rheostatic braking is also called as dynamic braking. 12 . shows the waveforms for the current and voltage. as. An arrangement for the rheostatic braking of dc series motor is shown (Figure 10-16a). Assuming that the armature current is continuous & is ripple free. the energy may be used in heating the trains. In Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) systems.
I a (R b. R eq =(V b /I a) m = R b (1 – k) + R ... I a 2 (1 – k) ....... I a) (1 – k) P b = R b. I => => b is given by... to R m + R b and The braking resistance R b determines the maximum voltage rating of the chopper..... I b= I a (1 – k) .. I a (1 – k) . V b= R b .(10-44) Therefore the equivalent load resistance of the series generator is given by. 13 .(10-45) b Hence the power dissipated in the Resistor R P b = V b....(10-43) And the average voltage across the braking resistor is. the effective load resistance can be varied from R the braking power can be controlled...(10-46) m By controlling the duty cycle k...The average current of the braking resistor is obtained by.
The armature current is continuous & has negligible ripple. (d). V ch ? Power dissipated in the braking resistor. V P =? e q? 14 . The average armature current is maintained constant at I a = 250 Amps. The back emf constant of the motor is K V = 15.Rashid): A dc chopper is used in rheostatic braking of a dc series motor (Figure 10-16 a).03 Ω.Example 10-9 (H. If the duty cycle of the chopper is 40 %. (e). the (a). (c). determine. The armature resistance is R a = 0. (b). P b? Equivalent load resistance of the motor acting as a generator R Motor speed ω =? Peak chopper voltage.27 m V/A-rad/s. The braking resistance is R b = 5 Ω. Average voltage across the chopper.02 Ω & the field resistance is R f = 0.
If it is non receptive Thyristor T R is turned On to divert the motor current to the resistor R b. normally 20 % above the line voltage. During Regenerative braking. If the supply is partly receptive. If it exceeds a certain preset value.4: Principle of Combined Regenerative & Rheostatic Brake Control: Regenerative braking is energy efficient braking. a combined regeneration and rheostat brake control would be the most energy efficient. 15 . the logic circuit determines the receptivity of the supply. It allows an almost instantaneous transfer from regenerative to rheostatic braking if the line becomes non-receptive even momentarily. Figure 10-17 shows an arrangement in which rheostatic braking is combined with regenerative braking. the regeneration braking is removed and a rheostatic braking is applied.10-5. Thyristor T R is self commutated when transistor Q 1 is turned On in the next cycle. the line voltage is sensed continuously. on the other hand the energy is dissipated as heat in the rheostat braking. In every cycle. which is normally the case in practical traction system.
a chopper fed drive operates in the first quadrant. Quadrant Operation Summary: Regenerative Braking Control Power Control 16 . In regenerative braking. The circuit arrangement of transistorized two quadrant drive is shown in figure 10-18 b. where the armature voltage & armature current are positive (Figure 10-14 b).Two Quadrant DC-DC Converter: During Power control. where the armature voltage is positive and armature current is negative (Figure 10-15 b). the chopper drive operates in the second quadrant. Two quadrant operation (fig 10-18 a) is required to allow power & regenerative braking control.
When Transistor Q 1 is turned off. When Transistor Q 2 is turned ON. • 17 . returns energy to the supply through the regenerative diode D 2 . the armature current which flows through the free-wheeling diode D 1 decays.TWO QUADRANT Power Control: • • Transistor Q 1 and diode D 1 operates. Regenerative Control: • Transistor Q 2 and diode D 2 operates. the supply voltage V s is connected to the motor terminals. When Transistor Q 2 is turned off. When Transistor Q 1 is turned ON. the series motor acts as a generator & the armature current rises. the motor acting as a generator.
FOUR Quadrant DC-DC Converter Drive: Quadrant Operation Summary: Forward generation Forward Power Control Reverse Power Control Reverse generation 18 .
the Supply voltage appears across the motor terminals and the armature current rises. • Forward Regeneration: • • • Transistors Q 1 . When Q 4 is turned Off.Forward Power Control: • • Transistors Q 1 & Q 2 operates. When Q 1 & Q 2 are turned ON together. the armature current which rises flows through Q 4 & D 2. Q 2 & Q 3 are turned Off. 19 . When Transistor Q 4 is turned ON. the motor acting as a generator returns energy to the supply through D 1 & D 2. the armature current decays through Q 2 & D 4. Transistors Q 3 & Q 4 are turns Off. When Q 1 is turned Off and Q 2 is still turned ON.
When Q 2 is turned Off. Transistors Q 1 . Q 3 & Q 4 are turned Off.Reverse Power Control: • • The field current of the motor is reversed. the armature current falls and motor returns energy to the supply through D 3 & D 4. the armature current rises and flows in the reverse direction. When Q 3 & Q 4 are turned ON together. • • 20 . the armature current falls through Q 4 & D 2. • Reverse Regeneration: • The field current is in the same direction as in reverse power control. When Q 3 is turned Off and Q 4 is turned ON. Q 3 & Q 4 Operates and Q 1 & Q 2 are Turned Off. the armature current which rises through Q 2 & Q 4. When Transistor Q 2 is turned ON.
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