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DC motors can provide a high starting torque and it is also possible to obtain speed control over a wide range. The methods of speed control are normally simpler and less expensive than those of AC drives. DC motors play a significant role in modern industrial drives. Both series and separately excited DC motors are normally used in variable-speed drives, but series motors are traditionally employed for traction applications. Due to commutators, DC motors are not suitable for very high speed applications and require more maintenance than do AC motors. With the recent advancements in power conversions, control techniques, and microcomputers, the ac motor drives are becoming increasingly competitive with DC motor drives. Although the future trend is toward AC drives, DC drives are currently used in many industries. It might be a few decades before the DC drives are completely replaced by AC drives. Controlled rectifiers provide a variable dc output voltage from a fixed ac voltage, whereas a dc-dc converter can provide a variable dc voltage from a fixed dc voltage. Due to their ability to supply a continuously variable dc voltage, controlled rectifiers and dc-dc converters made a revolution in modern industrial control equipment and variable-speed drives, with power levels ranging from fractional horsepower to several megawatts. Controlled rectifiers are generally used for the speed control of dc motors. The alternative form would be a diode rectifier followed by dc-dc converter. DC drives can be classified, in general, into three types: – 1. Single-phase drives – 2. Three-phase drives – 3. DC-DC converter drives (Choppers)

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. When a separately excited motor is excited by field current i f and an armature current of i a flows in the armature circuit. i a + L a + e g .. which is also called as speed voltage is given by.(C) The torque developed by the motor is expressed as. the motor develops a back emf and a torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed....... i f ..... E g = K v.... i a. The equations describing the characteristics of a separately excited motor can be determined by figure 10 – 1... Td=j ω + B ω + T L ..(D) The developed torque must be equal to the load torque.(Figure 10-1 Equivalent circuit of separately excited dc motors)....... The instantaneous field current is described as..(A) The instantaneous armature current is given by. V f= R f i f + L f .....(B) The motor back emf (e g).. which is given by. The field current i f of a separately excited motor is independent of the armature current i a and any change in the armature current has no effect in the field current. T d = K t..(E) 2 . V a = R a. i f .... ω.... The field current i f is normally much less than the armature current....

.. V f = R f I f . N-m.(10-7) 3 . so that it can be obtained as....(10-4) The developed torque must be equal to the load torque. The speed of the separately excited motor can be obtained with the help of equation 10-3 as... P d = + T d...(10-3) The torque developed by the motor is... I f ....... ω.... ω = Motor speed in rad/s B = Viscous friction constant in N-m / rad/s K v = Voltage constant.. I f = V a – R a I a ω = (V a – R a I a) / (K v.(10-3) => => => => K v.. R a = Armature circuit Resistance. I f ...... T d = B ω + T L ... Ω. I f) ω= – .. I f) ω = (V a – R a I a) / (K v. I a..... I f .. H.(10-6) The relationship between the field current I f and the back emf E g is non linear due to the magnetic saturation.. Ω...(10-2) V a= R a I a + E g V a = R a I a + K v.. The under steady stat conditions... ω.Where.. H... T L = Load torque... ω.... V a = R a I a + K v...... V/A-rad/s K t = K v= Torque constant L a = Armature circuit inductance.. I f ...(10-1) E g = K v. L f = Field circuit inductance.. ω .. R f = Field circuit Resistance. Figure 10-2 shows the magnetization characteristics of motor. the time derivatives in these equations are zero and the steady-stat average quantities are.(10-5) The developed Power is given by. ω....... T d = K t.....

Armature current. • The speed. Rated field current Rated armature current. (Which corresponds to an armature current Ia. for a speed less than the base speed. and Field current against the speed. (Figure 10-3 Characteristics of separately excited dc motors). (known as field control). In practice.• Equation 10-7 shows that the motor speed can be varied by. which corresponds to the. & is known as the rated (or base) speed. (known as voltage control). Figure below shows the characteristics of Torque. The armature voltage is maintained at the rated value and the field current is varied to control the speed. – – – controlling the armature voltage Va. or torque demand Td . (i). (iii). the power developed by the motor (= torque X speed) remains constant. 4 . For speed higher than the base speed. Power. (ii). for a fixed field current If). controlling the field current If. and the armature voltage Va is varied to control the speed. Rated armature voltage. • • However. The armature current and field currents are maintained constant to meet the torque demand.

ω. I a) ω = (V a – R a I a) / (K v. I a. ω.... Td=Bω+T L The speed of a series motor can be obtained with the help of equation 10-9 as. E g = K v..(10-10) The torque developed by the motor is..... I a .....Basic Characteristics of Series DC Motors The field of a dc motor may be connected in series with the armature circuit (shown in fig: 10-4). and this type of motor is called a series motor.(10-8) V a= R a I a + E g . The steady stat average quantities.. ω......(10-11) The developed torque must be equal to the load torque.. T d = K t..(10-9) V a = R a I a + K v.. I => => => K v. I a = V a – R a I a => ω = (V a – R a I a) / (K v.. I a .. ω.. so that it can be obtained as...(10-9) a V a = R a I a + K v. I a) ω= – ..... I a .... The field circuit is designed to carry the armature current..(10-12) 5 ....... V a= R a I a + E g ..

• • • (Figure 10-5 Characteristics of dc series motors). • The equation 10-12 shows that the dc series motor speed can be varied by. the speed could be very high and it is not advisable to run a dc series motor without a load. • • For a speed upto the base speed. – – • Armature voltage Va. especially at starting and due to this reason series motors are commonly used in traction applications. At a very light load. the speed-torque relationship follows the natural characterstics of the motor and the power (= torque X speed) remains constant. (which is the measure of Torque demand). A dc series motor provides a high torque. The equation 10-10 shows that. Armature current Ia.Hence.The armature voltage is varied and the torque is maintained constant. (known as voltage control). shows the characteristics of a dc series motors. the speed increases. 6 . Figure 10-5. As the torque demand is reduced. Once the rated armature voltage Va is applied.

Example 10-1(H..497) Now according to equation 10-3 V a = R a I a + K v ..(10-3) => (c).ω ... 2000 rpm separately excited dc motor controls a load requiring a torque of T L = 45 N-m at a speed of 1200 rpm.25 Ω and the voltage constant of the motor is K v = 0.97 v.66 rad/s.(10-2) => (b).75 Amps.66 x 1... Determine the.. E g =? required armature voltage V a =? rated armature current of the motor I rated =? From the given data.. Now according to equation 10-4 T d = T L = K f .7032 V/A rad/s.I f . the armature circuit resistance is R a = 0....I a . the viscous friction and no-load losses are negligible. (0.28 v. hence. (0.. The armature current may be assumed continuous and ripple free..Rashid): A 15 h. (c).25 Ω K v = K t = 0. (b).497) => E g = 132..7032 V/A rad/s.p. => V a = 142.. => (220 / 147) => I f = 1... The field voltage is V f = 220 v..ω .497 Amps.87 Amps.7032 x 125..(10-4) I a = T d / K f .. Solution: R f = 147 Ω R a = 0.. I f = (V f / R f) (a).p = 746 watts. Similarly according to equation 10-2 E g = K v . 220 v..66 x 1. back emf = ?.25 x 42..7032 x 1. 7 . I rated = (15 x 746)/ 220 => I rated = 50. The field circuit resistance is R f = 147 Ω.7032 x 125. (a).I f .497) => I a = 42.I f .. since 1 h.I f ... => (45/0. V f = 220 v T d = T L = 45 N-m ω = 1200 x (л/30) = 125.75) + (0.

(a).25 Ω K v = 0. => √ x 208 v => Vm= => ω =104.(10-4) I a = T L / K f .25 Ω..274) => Ia= .Rashid): The speed of a separately excited motor is controlled by a single phase semi-converter (Fig: 10-8 a). Field current I f = ? (b).. The field current.I a . 208v.. V s = 208 v Vm=√ xVs R f = 147 Ω R a = 0. which is also controlled by a semi-converter.27) / 147 => If= Now according to equation 10-4 T d = T L = K f .274) => Eg= 8 .. The ac supply voltage to the armature and field converter is one phase.. I f= V f / R f (b). is set to the maximum possible value..7032 x 1...... Now according to equation 10-16 V f= ( ) for 0 ≤ ≤ л ..... Determine. Input power factor of the armature circuit converter. The load torque is T L = 45 N-m at 1000 rpm. => (187.. ? (c).72 x 1.. The viscous friction and no-load losses are negligible.16) / л => Vf= In this way the field current can be obtained as.. Similarly according to equation 10-2 E g = K v . The maximum field voltage (and current) is obtained for a delay angle of V f= ( ) => (2 x 294. Delay angle of the converter in the armature circuit..I f ..F =? Solution: From the given data.7032 V/A rad/s..7032 x 104... => (45/0.Example 10-2 (H. The armature resistance is R a = 0.I f . P..... The inductances of the armature and field circuits are sufficient enough to make the armature and field currents continuous & ripple free..7032 V/A rad/s.(10-16) = 0..(10-2) => (0.72 rad/s... the field resistance is R f = 147 Ω and the motor voltage constant is K v = 0. so that.I f . T d = T L = 45 N-m ω = 1000 x (л/30) (a). 60 Hz..ω .

25 x 50. the power from the supply can be obtained as...I f . For obtaining delay angle V a= ( ) ) .82) => V a = 106.38 = ( => (c).F = P 0 / V I => (5343.694 (Lagging)... we use equation 10-5 for 0 ≤ => => ≤ л .56) + (93. 9 .23) => P a = 5343.(10-15) 1.03 Amps. I sa = ( ) ∫ => => I sa }½ ) / л} ½ = I a {(л - 50..03) => V I = 7702.38 v.F = 0.. Pa=Po=VaIa => P a = (106...24 Finally the input power factor is obtained as.23) + (0.2) / 180} ½ => I s a = 37.23) => P o = 5343..72 x 1.38 x 50.274) => (12..38 x 50... 0. The armature voltage can be obtained with the help of equation 10-3 V a = R a I a + K v .5 Watts The rms input currentof the armature converter (Fig: 10-8 c).24) => P. Similarly the input volt-ampere rating obtained as.5 Watts Similarly if the losses in the armature converters are neglected.ω . V I = V S I sa => (208 x 37. is obtained as.1363 = = Cos –1 106. the output power is obtained as.23 {(180 – 82.. Po=VaIa => P o = (106.(10-3) => (0.5)/ (7702.1363) => = if the armature current is constant & ripple free.(b).1363 = (0. P.7032 x 104.

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