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Oil and Gas Enterprise Management Well Engineering Module
Well Engineering – Course Outline
• • • • • • Drilling process, rig types and rig equipment Well design & well planning Drilling fluids & mud conditioning equipment Drillpipe & drillstring design Drilling Bits Directional Drilling • • • • • • • • • Casing design Cementing Hole problems & stuck pipe Evaluation Well control & BOP’s Completions Complex wells Risk management Enabling technologies
Engineering a Well
• Fully integrated team approach • All disciplines represented from beginning • All have an important part to play • Iterative Process
over its life-cycle. maximum monetary value.Well Planning • Optimum Design a Fit-for-Purpose Well: – a well which contributes . without compromising safety and environmental standards .
Well Design – Reaching the Target – Geological Column • Formations to be drilled • Rock types • Age of formations • Drillability – – – – – – Reactive or not? Mobile? Geopressured? Unconsolidated? Fractured? Faulted? Geological Prognosis .
• Sub-normal pressure occurs when a full column of interconnected pore fluid does not reach the surface. over normal or sub normal. . • Normal pressure occurs when there is full pressure communication between the pores of the rock throughout the geological column. • Over pressure occurs when impermeable boundaries prevent fluid communication and trapped fluids support a larger proportion of the overburden. – Formation pressures can be normal.Well Design • Formation & Fracture Gradients – Formation Pressure is the pressure exerted by the formation fluids within the pore spaces of the rocks.
Well Design • • • Fracture Gradient Rock strength: tensile. Tensile strength important for fracture gradient. Rocks are more liable to fail in tension than compression. or impact. Fracture pressure is that pressure required to overcome rock strength and fracture the formation. compressive. shear. Leak-Off Tests (LOT) and Formation Integrity Tests (FIT) • • . Determination of Fracture Gradient – Direct: Leak-off test. – Indirect: Mathematical modelling.
5 x 8000 x 0. Hydrostatic pressure (Phyd) = ρ. Static bottom hole hydrostatic pressure at 13.000ft md (8. additional pressure must be applied to overcome fluid friction.052 e. .052 = 5.g.h in consistent units. In API Units (Phyd) = mud weight (ppg) x true vertical depth (TVD ft) x .200 psi Circulating Pressure – When fluid is circulated in a well.000ft tvd) with 12.5 ppg mud = 12.Well Design Hydrostatic Pressure – – The pressure created by a column of fluid due to its density and vertical height.g.
Pressure is lost as energy is consumed circulating fluid around the well. BHCP = Phyd + APL Where: BHCP = bottom hole circulating pressure APL = annular pressure loss • APL is the only frictional pressure loss in the circulating system that acts directly on the well bore. APL • BHCP . APL is the differential pressure over the length of the annulus required to move fluid up the annulus. This additional pressure is provided by the mud pumps.Well Design Circulating Pressure – – – A pressure must be applied to circulate the fluid in the well.
the pressure at any given depth is the hydrostatic pressure of the fluids filling the interconnected pore spaces of the subsurface formations above that depth. • In normally pressured formations. vertical depth and geological history.Downhole Pressures • • The pore spaces of subsurface formations are filled with fluids. The most common fluid is water but oil or gas may be present. • Pore pressure (also called formation pressure) varies with fluid density. • Abnormally pressured formations have higher or lower pressures than normally pressured formations. the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling mud must exceed formation pressure. . • To keep primary control of the well.
BHA. drill pipe. BHCP = Phyd + APL . bit and annulus Drill collars Drill bit The only system pressure loss that acts on the bottom of the hole is the annular pressure loss (APL).Circulating System Surface lines Mud Pump Drill pipe Ppump = Sum of well system pressure losses = losses in surface lines.
Drilling and Completion Fluids Functions of Drilling Fluid October 2008 .
Mud Conditioning Equipment The solids control system shown is for a land well but the same type of equipment is used offshore. .
Transmit hydraulic energy to the bit. Stabilise the wall of the wellbore. f. d. Lubricate. cool and support the bit and drill string. . Suspend cuttings when circulation is stopped. Control downhole formation pressures. b. Drill cuttings removal and hole cleaning. c. e.Functions of Drilling Fluids 1. Release the cuttings at surface. h. Seal off permeable formations with a thin elastic wall cake. g. Primary Functions a.
The drilling fluid supports the drill string by the action of buoyancy and by damping out drill string vibrations. – reduces friction between hole wall and the rotating drill string. Lubricating properties depend on solids content . Oil and synthetic-base muds lubricate better than most water base muds but they are less efficient at cooling the bit and drill string. Cool and Support the Drill String • During the drilling operation considerable heat is generated by: – work done at the bit – overcoming frictional forces between the drill string and hole wall – hydraulic energy expended at the bit. • • • • • In highly deviated wells. Additives are sometimes used to improve the lubricity of WBM.Lubricate. .high solids content reduces lubricity. a drill fluid with good lubricity is essential. • Circulation of the drilling fluid: – keeps the bit and drill string cool.
Functions of Drilling Fluids 2. Avoid environmental pollution e. Minimise the risk of sticking the drill string. Allow effective formation evaluation d. casing and wellhead corrosion b. . Maintain stable properties under all downhole conditions c. Secondary Functions a. Minimise wear on circulation system components f. Prevent drillstring.
filter cake – Formation protection • Zone dependant – Temperature Tolerance • Additives & system stability at downhole temperature . calcium carbonate – Viscosity or resistance to flow – Fluid loss control – filtrate.Drilling Fluids (or Drilling Mud) • Properties of Drilling Fluids – Density • Weighting agents – barite.
viscosity. bentonite – Polymers – filtration control. They are composed of various combinations of solids. salt saturated – Clays – viscosity and yield e. liquids. thinners • OBM – Emulsion of oil and water – Inhibition of water sensitive formations.g. gases and classified according to continuous phase • WBM – Most basic – More environmentally friendly – Fresh water.shales – Lubricity – Temperature stability – Formation damage – Environmentally unfriendly – spillage. drill cuttings disposal etc . salt water.Drilling Fluids (or Drilling Mud) Composition of Drilling Fluids Required functions & properties achieved with range of fluids with differing compositions.
. 3. 2. Failure to do this will result in cuttings build up. If not the cutting action of the bit will be less efficient as old cuttings are reworked while new formation is being drilled.Hole Cleaning 1. Cuttings should be removed from the hole at the same rate as they are created. which in turn may cause hole problems. drill string rotation. Cuttings should be removed quickly from the bottom of the hole. Cuttings removal depends upon the annular velocity of the drill fluid. rate of cuttings generation (ROP) and cuttings slip velocity.
• Invasion damage (also called skin damage) can seriously reduce the productive capacity of the well. (Less oil produced per psi of drawdown. • Invasion can seriously impair the porosity and permeability of the formation near to the wall of the hole in two ways: – The mud filtrate can interact chemically with the formation causing clays and shales to swell – The mud solids can block up the pores of the rock.) .Minimising Formation Damage • Excessive filtrate and fine mud solids invade the formation when we have: – High overbalance in the well – a poor quality filter cake.
the equilibrium state of stress near the hole wall is disturbed.Maintaining Hole Stability • When a hole is drilled. The drilling mud in the hole provides support to the wellbore by creating a radial stress. As a result. Stresses once carried by the rock removed by drilling are transferred to the rock remaining beyond the bore of the hole. σ1> σ2 > σ3 . circumferential stresses (sometimes called hoop stresses) are created around the wellbore. Radial stresses acts towards the hole wall σr = σ3 Longitudinal stress acts vertically σz = σ2 Circumferential stress acts around the bore of the hole σθ= σ1 • • • Usually in the UKCS.
Hole stability also depends on the degree of chemical interaction between the mud and the formation. σ1> σ2 > σ3 .Maintaining Hole Stability • Radial stresses act normal to the wall of the hole and reduce the circumferential stress. Radial stresses acts towards the hole wall σr = σ3 Longitudinal stress acts vertically σz = σ2 Circumferential stress acts around bore of the hole σθ= σ1 • • Usually in the UKCS. Borehole collapse occurs if the difference between the circumferential stress and the radial stress exceeds the shear strength of the rock forming the hole wall.
. • Poor solids control leads to a build up of fine solids in the mud system which adversely affects mud rheology. • Effective removal of these solids at the surface is essential before the mud is pumped back down the well. • The alternative to good solids control is continuous dilution of the mud.Mud Solids Control • Mud returned from the bit is loaded with drill cuttings and occasionally cavings caused by hole instability. wear on equipment and rates of penetration. which is very expensive in terms of mud chemical usage.
8 S. The shape of drill cuttings may give a clue to downhole formation pressures. Acicular shaped shale cuttings are often associated with over pressured shales.G.3 S. . Hole cavings can be created by hole instability and/or the movement of the drill string against the wall of the hole.g.2. barite at around 4. Most sedimentary rock densities range from 2.Drill Cuttings • • • • • • • Drilling cuttings are created at the bottom hole by the bit. Rock density depends on the mineral or minerals making up the rock and the porosity of the rock. Mud weighting materials have higher densities.2 – 4.G. Drill cutting density affects how easily they may be removed from the hole.6 . e.
When circulation is resumed. slip velocity tends to zero. 2. they are separated from the mud at the shale shakers. When circulation is stopped.e. 4. Drilling fluids are thixotropic. Finer solids are then separated from the mud using desanders. 5. i. Gelling is usually sufficient to hold the cuttings in suspension i.e. When the cuttings reach the surface. drill cuttings must be held in suspension in the mud and not allowed to fall down hole at their slip velocities. . gels are broken as the mud “shear thins” and cuttings resume their upward path. Highly viscous mud makes it difficult for solids control equipment to separate the cuttings from the drilling fluid.Suspension and Release of Cuttings 1. 3. desilters and/or mud cleaners. they gel up when they stop moving.
e. This is called the transport velocity (Vt).Annular Velocity and Slip Velocity • • High annular velocities (Va) improve cuttings removal but….61 = 3. the cuttings will be lifted to the surface. • Va = Q/(π ( Dh2 – Dp)2/ K) Where: Va = annulus velocity (ft/min) Q = pump rate (bbl/min) Dh = hole diameter (in) Dp = pipe diameter (in) K = 4 x 144 x 5. High annular velocities may cause unwanted side effects. Slip velocity (Vs) depends upon: Cuttings shape.231 • • . Vt = Va – Vs Stoke’s Law can be used to calculate Vs.g. wash outs and high ECDs. size and density Drill fluid density and viscosity Annulus flow regime Provided that Va>Vs. The rate at which cuttings settle in a drilling fluid is called the slip velocity.
•Shale shakers remove drill cuttings from the return mud flow. •Two electric motors rotating in opposite directions vibrate the shaker screens on an inclined plane at several hundred c/min. •Modern offshore rigs may have up to four shale shakers operating in parallel. •When fitted with fine mesh screens (200/250 gauge) they are able to remove particles down to sand size.Mud Solids Control Equipment Mud cleaner. sand sized particles from the return mud flow. . Desander Used to remove course. Linear motion shale shaker.
net force on the shaker is zero except along the line of motion passing through the C of G of the rotating shafts. Because counterweights rotate in opposite directions. .Linear Motion Shale Shaker Counterweights • • Two eccentric shafts are rotated in opposite directions ‘in phase’.
Hydrocyclones • • • • Induced vortex throws solids to the outer wall by centrifugal force. . Another spiral causes the mud in the centre of the cone to spiral upwards and exit through the vortex finder. These solids spiral down under gravity and exit at the cone apex. A mud cleaner is a combination hydrocyclone and shaker screen.
Principle of the Decanting Centrifuge .
The mud from Centrifuge No. Process rate approximately 2 bpm. Processed drilling fluid from this centrifuge is then returned back to the active system. .Twin Centrifuges for Barite Recovery • • • Drilling fluid from active system is fed to a Low Speed Centrifuge via a positive displacement pump. 1 is gravity fed to a holding tank. The barite removed from the mud is returned via gravity from the solids discharge end of Centrifuge No. • • • • Mud in the holding tank is then fed to a High Speed Centrifuge via a 2nd positive displacement pump. 1 back to the active system. Low gravity solids removed from this mud are discharged overboard.
However. it injects a large amount of air into the mud system that encourages corrosion and other problems. .Mud Mixing Hopper Jet Nozzle • • The jet mixing hopper is simple to operate and very reliable.
. 10 HP motor drives the impeller through reduction gearing.Paddle Mud Agitators • • • • • Used to prevent suspended mud solids from settling out of the mud. Mud guns are supplied from ring main drawing from the active tank. Mud guns may supplement the paddle agitators. Position in the mud tank is important for good mud agitation.
Vacuum Degasser • • • A typical vacuum degasser consists of a cylindrical chamber taking gas cut mud from the sand trap. Gas from the compressor outlet is routed to a flare line which offshore is routed to the top of the derrick or mast. The chamber above the fluid level is kept at a partial vacuum by a compressor. . degassing it and then discharging the degassed mud back into downstream active mud tanks.
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