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Valid for R3 and 2010 Versions
Part 1: Suspension
Joseph Little Mississippi State University
Running an Analysis 3.Table of Contents 1. Getting Up and Running C. Model Construction 5. Intro A. Conclusion 3 4 6 9 17 . This tutorial 2. Viewing Results 4. ADAMS and ADAMS/Car B.
one of which is Formula SAE. conditions are specified.aspx On this page. The tutorials for any ADAMS product can be found by going to Help >> Getting Started tutorial. Other programs in the ADAMS product line allow you to create a mathematic model your dynamics system through a graphical interface. and then stress/strain plots are typically output. Loading this database is a perquisite for beginning this tutorial. After a short preview to the capabilities of the program. ADAMS/Car is an interface for ADAMS/Solver designed specifically for Automotive Engineering. Also. initial conditions (such as initial velocities or forces) are specified. This Tutorial This tutorial is intended the present the user with a minimal amount of knowledge need to model their suspension in ADAMS/Car. This tutorial requires that you have the FSAE database loaded. the graphical and numerical data are output describing the motion of the bodies in the system. which are a great source of help with issues running simulations. Getting Started MSC offers a University Bundle of software to several academic organizations. visit the following address and follow the instructions to get the ball rolling. This tutorial is not intended to teach the principles of suspension dynamics. Make sure to read the forum rules. which is the most general interface for ADAMS/Solver. http://www. most users will begin with a fairly well defined preliminary suspension setup. with this log-in. and ideally the user will have a good idea of what their suspension design goals are.com/kb/results_kb. Included in the bundle is ADAMS/View. multiple bodies are defined and constrained. In ADAMS. ADAMS/Car by default arrives with several templates. a tutorial for this can be found at a link above. a reply will be sent letting you know what you will need to do. material is defined boundary. The heart of ADAMS is ADAMS/Solver. C. There is a link to do this near the log in area. While it is feasible to begin using ADAMS with a “clean slate”. you can access the MSC user forums. B. If your school does not already have access.com/Contents/Academia/Learn/Competition. a program that solves high order differential equations of motion. It is easy to get into ADAMS/Car and not understand the mechanics that are making everything work. where in FEA. To access the Knowledge Base an account/log-in is required.Introduction A. this guide will . but one more specific to FSAE (along with an instructional PDF on how to get it loaded into ADAMS) can be found at http://support. The process is analogous to FEA. Doing the ADAMS/View tutorials and then the ADAMS/Car tutorials will provide a good foundation for beginning this tutorial.mscsoftware. ADAMS and ADAMS/Car ADAMS stands for Automatic Dynamics Analysis of Mechanical Systems. click Contact Us and use the MSC University Program link to send an email.cfm?S_ID=1-80028801 This is one of many helpful articles that can be found in the MSC Knowledgebase. It makes use of predefined templates to streamline the process modeling a vehicle. I highly recommend doing the tutorial for this program and becoming familiar with this program to get a feel for how thing work in ADAMS.mscsoftware.
Right click in the Open Suspension Assembly section box click. that would require some plot creation and animation loading. This will bring a menu with several options. incremental process to modify the model to represent your vehicle. For now we will back-track a little and run a Quasi-Static analysis on a front suspension subsystem. which will be discussed later. we need a Suspension Assembly instead of a Full Vehicle Assembly. Making mistakes will be less discouraging after seeing what the baseline model is capable of. There are several examples in this tutorial where an entry box will . Your results in the post processor will not look like the ones shown in the pdf. ADAMS Help provides many helpful tutorials. then following a simple.tbl. them run some simulations with it. namely in the Getting Started section. The best approach for ADAMS is the Crawl. Start with the working FSAE model. Running an Analysis A good place to start is to run some analysis on the baseline FSAE model. Run strategy. These tutorials use demo subsystems and assemblies. Then double-click fsae_front_with_steer. Completing these tutorials is the best way of getting a good grasp of the program. Walk. thought it may be best go through the tutorial word for word at first. Guess. Point to File >> Open >> Suspension Assembly. To run a Suspension Analysis. etc. 2. The FSAE Template tutorial ends with a Full Vehicle Simulation. This is mainly to get a feel for what the program is capable of. they can usually be applied directly to the FSAE models with little to no modification. Then go back and begin modifying the subsystems to represent you car.asy. This is important: Right clicking in text boxes and using the Search.show how to create a fully defined suspension in ADAMS/Car with easy-to-follow instructions and graphics. Pick. submenus is a unique and fundamental part of using ADAMS. Point to Search >> <fsae_2008r1_MDR3>/assemblies.
This could alternatively be “first_run” or something similar. This can be changed in Settings >> Units. and obviously the opened assembly will not be in the background before you open it. However. The idea is to be able to identify your data sets when running multiple simulations. for the graphics and results data.be filled with a long string of abbreviations separated by underscores. a good value is usually 10 times the number of seconds. the File >> Open >> Assembly will close after selecting Assembly. Bump is the distance above the modeled position where the simulation will begin and Rebound is the distance below the modeled position where the simulation will end. In tests that run for a specified amount of time. I have my units set to Inches in this particular shot. etc. velocities. The output step tells how often you want the solver to output positions. it got there using the right click menu in this method This is also important: In my slides. Setting this to 50 will output each piece of data and an image 50 times throughout the duration of the test.1 seconds. pressing F1 with the window active will bring a help window describing each input. Point to Simulate >> Opposite Wheel Travel and fill out the box as shown. which will output every 0. but the default is metric. before the Open Assembly box appears. . The ‘a’ is just a prefix for the output name of the simulation. Most often. in the above image. I have used an image editor to show several steps on the screen at once. This is a helpful technique in just about any window of dialogue box. forces.. the analysis windows will ask for information familiar to people with a basic knowledge of vehicle dynamics. In general. however ADAMS will revert to mm whenever the program is restated. Now we will run our first suspension analysis. but I have merged several shots to streamline the tutorial. For example.
We will be loading a preconfigured plot file containing 9 pre-made plots. Now is a good time to talk about graphics area manipulation. windowed zoom. rotate. This can be viewed frame by frame to insure that the simulation ran as intended. click OK to run the simulation. we will look at the data collected from the simulation. Viewing Results Now that simulation has been run. an animation of can be played by pointing to Review >> Animation Controls and clicking the play icon. and zoom. Do this by pointing to Plot >> Create Plots the right click in the Plot Configuration File Dialogue Box and select Search >> <acar_shared>/plot_configs. In the file explorer choose mdi_suspension_short.tbl. view control will be a sub-menu).After the box is filled out. The postprocessor loads with your result set listed in the simulation box near the bottom of the screen. . 3. This particular animation shows the specified articulation of the suspension. Next. Right clicking on an empty area gives the view control menu (when right clicking over a non-empty area. Switch to Adams/Postprocessor by pressing F8. It is highly recommended to memorized the keyboard shortcuts associated with translate.
or a data set vs. . several choices will appear in the component box. After selecting the data from the request box. To make a plot. however a plot can be created using any two data sets.The plot configuration file has 9 plots. one of which must be selected. select the analysis from the simulation box. each comparing a different suspension characteristic to wheel travel. then select to data for the dependant axis from the request box. time. The 9 plots in choose mdi_suspension_short all use wheel travel for an independent axis.
Note that +testrig has to be expanded to show several of the most relevant data sets. In this example. After this selection process. The name if this analysis was “example”. not Time. otherwise time can be selected for the independent axis. . roll angle (measured from contact patches). select OK in the Independent Axis Browser (if you selected Data. the following plot is generated: Also. Selecting the Data option under Independent Axis brings up the Independent Axis Browser. for the Independent Axis) then click Add Curves. an animation can be loaded by pointing to View>>Load Animation then clicking + next to the name of the simulation and choosing the appropriate animation.The above example shows the selection of caster angle (left wheel) vs.
We will begin with the suspension subsystem. and suspension subsystems. understanding the model at this stage sense is critical at this stage in or to advance to more complex simulations. The model from the previous exercise was the front suspension assembly. Kinematic and Dynamic. Kinematics concerns the first two. such as Solidworks… or a kinematics program… . you can begin to model you own suspension. Spring Travel Linearity. Though ADAMS main benefit is the ability to go far beyond Kinematic Analysis. and forces. modification) requires information that can be generally grouped into two categories. This included the arb. Roll Angle. Kinematics This assembly consists of rigid bodies. The construction (or in this case. Model Construction Now that your familiar with the Suspension Simulations. Kinematic analysis gives information like Camber Change vs. You probably will get your hardpoint information from some other program in which you’ve already modeled your suspension. steering. You will model your kinematic suspension using hardpoints. joints. and Roll Center Migration.4.
Or even a 3 view sketch on graph paper. Many of the modified subsystems will still reference files in the FSAE template database. we will create a new front suspension subsystem. your front suspension subsystem might be called msm_frontsusp. Enter a name for your front suspension subsystem. and that the template may need heavy modification to perform well in your application. Now that you have you own database. only replacing FSAE with your acronym. so it needs to an active database with the same name on any machine you want to run your new model on. navigate to the FSAE template directory and select _fsae_frontsusp. Use Save As to save modified subsystems to this database. Point to New >> Subsystem. something of the sort will be needed for modeling in ADAMS. Before you begin. you may want to create a new database. Select OK to create your subsystem. You could begin with the template model and build from there. if your team’s name was Mississippi State Motorsports. Alternatively there are export options that are described in the help section. as they will help you differentiate subsystems. This isn’t a requirement. where as the template front suspension subsystem is called fsae_frontsusp. just a helpful convention. this lets ADAMS know that it is creating a front suspension from the template. For example.tpl. not a rear one. . etc. templates. Select front for the minor role. For the template. just keep in mind that many rules have been created since this template was made that need to be taken into account. Note the leading underscore that indicates this is a template file. It is a good idea to stick to the FSAE template naming conventions. Do this by navigating to Tools >> Database Management >> Create Database. assemblies.
but instead we will insert it into a front assembly and edit it from there. This will bring the Hardpoint Modification Table. The first step will be modifying the default hardpoint data in the template. .Now that your subsystem is created. but editing from the assembly tends to be more convenient as the subsystem won’t need to be opened individually. where you can enter the 21 points (actually more. Both methods are acceptable. This is done by pointing to Adjust > Hardpoint > Table. you could begin be modifying it to represent your suspension immediately. but points with left and right counterparts are mirrored) that kinematically define a SLA suspension setup and ARB setup.
e. but could still function perfectly in simulation. which further describe each hardpoint that needs to be entered. One thing that is important to know is that geometries are “children” of rigid bodies. but can also be entered manually. Do this in File >> Manage Assembly >> Toggle Subsystem Activity. If you haven’t designed ARBs yet or don’t plan to. which is what you see in the graphics area. The numbers correspond to the tables below. The image below shows all of the hardpoints labeled. . CG and inertias can be calculated from geometry. The locations of parts in your model are controlled by Hardpoints. i. ignore the points in the Front Suspension subsystem (setting pt 2 equal pt 10 may make the bellcrank geometry look correct) and disable the ARB subsystem.Note: The rigid bodies have geometry associated with them. select the ARB subsystems in the dropdown menu and select Inactive. Note that some ARB hardpoint are included in the Front Suspension Subsystem and additional point need to be defined in the ARB subsystem menu. The geometries are also linked to the hardpoints. but they are “just for looks”. the end of a strut could appear to be floating in space.
. 11 shock_to_chassis Shock/Chassis pivot center Note: ADAMS considers the spring/damper a single part. defines the axis about which the bellcrank rotates. Note: Since shock_to_bellcrank does not update the geometry of the bellcrank. 7 lca_rear See 5 8 prod_outer PRod/upright pivot. Outer end of push/pullrod. This point does not affect the geometry of the bellcrank.12 & 13 are the contol arm/chassis pivots lca is lower control arm and uca is upper control arm 6 lca_outer Points 6 & 13 are the upright/control arm pivots. Inner end of push/pullrod. 9 prod_to_bellcrank PRod/Bellcrank pivot. 3 bellcrank_pivot The location of the center of the pivot of the bellcrank 4 bellcrank_pivot_orient Along with 3. 2 arblink_to_bellcrank Arb / Bellcrank Pivot. the point will still rotate properly with the bellcrank . 16 tierod_outer Tierod/upright pivot. geometry is only for mass calculations (which can be overwritten) and appearance. Switch to this using the drop menu at the top of the hardpoint modification table window. Only important for determining forces applied to the chassis by the mount. see below. 10 shock_to_bellcrank Shock/Bellcrank pivot center. They also define the steer axis. it may appear to float in space.7. Can be any other point on this axis 5 lca_front Point 5. 17 wheel_center Geometric center of wheel.Suspension Hard Point Chart 1 arb_bushing_mount Location where Anti_Roll bar mounts to the chassis. the geometry of the bellcrank also depends on this point Note: Other arb points can be modified in the arb subsystem table. For information on what to do with separate spring/damper locations. but remember. depending on weather wheels are steered. the shock. 12 uca_front See 5 13 uca_outer See 6 14 uca_rear See 5 15 tierod_inner Either the tierod/steering actuation pivot or tierod/chassis pivot.
A point not listed Is the Global Center.Anti-Roll Bar Hard Point Chart 18 arb_bend Anti-Roll Bars are typically activated by a lever arm. for ADAMS.0 unless you have used a different origin for your front suspension hardpoint than for your entire car. This point is the lever arm end. or the “bend” location. The other end is arblink_to_bellcrank. model them as a single unit. connected to the chassis at on end and the bellcrank at the other. This will be used in the future when assembling a Full Car Assembly. For a straight. this point will likely be the same as 18 except with 0 for the y coordinate. latitudinal bar. Also can be thought of as the end point of the anti-roll bar. 19 arb_bushing 20 droplink_to_arb The droplink is the member that pushes/pulls on the lever arm. Though the spring and shock can have separate hardpoints assigned to them in some programs. Setting the static preload in the spring property menu will assure it functions correctly. and will be 0.0. 21 arb_middle The center of the arb. After all of the hardpoints are entered. . 2 in the suspension subsystem graph. This is the location at which that arm connects to the anti-roll bar. Location of the cylindrical joint/bushing that constrains the arb’s rotation. set static toe and camber.
For the springs. the middle of the three button in the bottom right corner of the modify spring box. click Modify Property File. Tire property files are available from the FSAE tire test consortium (TTC). . we will enter some mechanical property descriptions. CG height. Most likely. First define some basic info the system like weight. and sprung mass.Next. you will choose Linear Spring and enter a rate. You could either enter the tire information manually or select a tire property file of for the tire. In the curve manager there are several options for setting your spring rate.
Alternatively. Now when you go to the post processor. cg location. of source the accuracy of this will depend on that of the geometry. Part mass. except this time the curve tool will have to be used. and part moment inertias. dynamics simulation can be useful at the subsystem level for looking at damping characteristics and member loading. masses. and inertias can be entered manually by right clicking on a part and pointing to [part name] >> Modify. Simply run an analysis. then run the analysis with a new prefix. The additional suspension subsystem information required for dynamic simulation are: damping curves. there will be 2 analyses. . Simply plot the same data from both analysis and compare the graphs. part masses. and inertias can be calculated from geometry. cg location. however. Following the plot creation method shown above can be repeated to show as many overlapped curves as desired (as long as the surf box is unchecked). Note that tutorials for other simulations are in the Getting Stated section of ADAMS Help. make a change.Now simulations can be ran as described before. Dynamics Definition of dynamics characteristics will mostly be for Full Car simulation. One essential technique will be analysis of a design change by overlaying graphs. The damper information is entered much the same way the spring information is.
Overlaying a dozen skidpad simulations and animation with successive camber iterations: Also easy. Ever wondered what the trajectory of a Formula car doing 120 MPH up a 45 degree ramp would be? Easy. and in most applications. 5. Changing one function to COS would offset the oscillations. the majority of your work. But the suspension is your starting point. The next tutorial will go into other subsystems and then full vehicle assemblies. the program is a full dynamics engine. Conclusion Although this tutorial focuses on suspension. This will oscillate the wheels at a magnitude of 10 (model units) at a frequency of 1Hz. Point to Simulate >> Suspension Analysis >> Dynamic… and fill out the box as shown. . several other loads can be applied. Also. much more can be done with full vehicle simulation. The results of these animations will generate force data for components and suspension damping rates. once you’ve built your model.Now a dynamic simulation can be run. so there are no boundaries on what you can and can’t simulate.
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