Electric  charge  

•  Electric  charge  –  is  a  property  of  ma.er  that  causes  the   par2cles  or  objects  that  possess  it  to  experience  a  force  when   near  other  objects  or  par2cles  that  also  possess  it   •  The  electric  charge  is  the  source  of  electric  force  (can  be   a.rac2ve  or  repulsive)    

Conductors  and  Insulators  

•  Conductors:  materials  through  which  electrons  can  flow  easily   •  Insulators:  materials  that  oppose  the  free  flow  of  electrons   •  Electron  affinity:  the  amount  of  energy  released  when  an   electron  is  added  to  a  neutral  atom  to  form  a  nega2ve  ion  

1  

Electric  current  
•  The  flow  of  electric  charge  through  a  conduc2ng  material  is   called  the  electric  current   •  For  current  to  flow,  we  need  a  poten,al  difference   •  Electrons  flow  from  the  nega2ve  terminal  of  the  ba.ery  to  the   posi2ve  terminal  (-­‐  to  +)   •  Conven2onal  current  flows  the  other  way  round  (+  to  -­‐)  

2  

The  Coulomb  is  the  unit  of  electric  charge   The  Ampere  is  the  unit  of  electric  current  

Q I= t

•  DriJ  velocity  
Direc2on  of  flow  of  current   e-­‐   e-­‐   e-­‐   e-­‐   e-­‐   e-­‐   Cross-­‐sec2onal     area  A  

Conductor  length  L  

L = vt Volume  of  the  conductor   V = LA = vtA
Length  of  the  conductor   Number  of  electrons  crossing   Total  charge   Current  

N e = nV = nvtA Q = qN e = qnvtA I= Q qnvtA = = qnvA t t
3  

Potential  difference  (Voltage)  
•  Defni2on:  The  poten2al  difference  V  between  two  points  in  a   circuit  is  the  electrical  energy  converted  into  other  forms  of   energy  when  1  Coulomb  of  charge  passes  from  one  point  to   the  other  

W V= Q
•  •  •  •  W  =  electrical  energy  delivered  =  work  done   Q  =  Charge  passed   V  =  poten2al  difference  (also  called  ‘voltage’)     Measured  in  Joules/Coulomb  =  Volt  

4  

Electrical  power  and  e.m.f.  
•  •  •  •  •  V  =  poten2al  difference     I  =  current   Q  =  It   Total  energy  E  =  ItV   Electrical  power  P  =  energy  delivered  per  second  =  IV  (Wa.s)  
The  electromo2ve  force  (e.m.f.)  E=W/Q  of  a  source  is  defined  as  the   electrical  energy  produced  per  unit  charge  inside  the  source     1.2V   In  series:     sum  up  e.m.fs   1.2V   1.2V   In  parallel:     e.m.f  stays  the  same   5  

Batteries  connected  in  series  and  parallel  
1.2V  1.2V   2.4V  

Ohm’s  Law  
Ohm’s  Law:  Under  constant  physical  condi2ons,  the  resistance  
V/I  is  a  constant  independent  of  V  or  I  and  their  direc2ons     V V I= or   V = IR or   R =

R

I

P = IV or   P = I 2 R

V2 or   P = R

ρL R= A
 

R  =  resistance   L  =  length  of  wire   A  =  cross-­‐sec2onal  area  of  wire   ρ  =  resis2vity  of  the  material      Unit  of  resis2vity  :Ohm  meter  (Ωm)  

6  

Resistors  in  Series  
•  Resistors  in  an  electrical  circuit  may  be  arranged  is  series  
R1   V1   R2   R3   I  

V2  

V3  

V     •  Same  current  through  all  resistors,  different  p.d.  (voltage)   across  each  resistor   •  Total  poten2al  difference  V  =  V1  +  V2  +  V3   •  Individual  poten2al  differences,  directly  propor2onal  to   resistances                  V1  =  IR1                V2  =  IR2                  V3  =  IR3   •  Total  resistance  R  =  R1  +  R2  +  R3  

7  

Resistors  in  Parallel  
•  Resistors  in  an  electrical  circuit  may  be  arranged  is  series  
I1   I   I2   I3   R1   R2   R3   I  

  V   •  Same  p.d.  across  all  resistors,  different  current  through  each   resistor   •  Total  current  I  =  I1  +  I2  +  I3   •  Individual  current,  inversely  propor2onal  to  resistances                                                    I1  =  V/R1                      I2  =  V/R2                      I3  =  V/R3   •  Total  resistance  1/R  =  1/R1  +  1/R2  +  1/R3  

8  

Internal  Resistance  
•  Power  sources  have  internal  resistances   •  Some  of  the  energy  provided  is  converted  to  heat  inside  the   source  
R  

I=
I   +   -­‐   E   r  

E (R + r)

E = IR + Ir

V = E − Ir

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To  Do  
•  From  chapter  22  read  sec2ons  22.1,  22.2,  22.3  and  first  half  of   22.4  (up  to  Kirchhoff’s  laws)  [p.444-­‐p.457  electricity]   •  Homework  Assignment  wk1:  ques2ons  22.1,  22.2,  22.4,  22.9,   22.10   •  Hand  it  in  no  later  than  4:00pm  next  Wednesday  (16  Jan)  -­‐   LATE  WORK  WILL  NOT  BE  ACCEPTED  

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