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gm§»` {gÕmÝV

(gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma)

boIH$
AéU Hw$_ma CnmÜ`m`

ZmJ npãbeg©
11 E.`y.E. Odmha ZJa, {Xëbr-110007, ^maV
amîQ´>r` g§ñH¥$V g§ñWmZ, ZB© {Xëbr Ho$ {dÎmr` gh`moJ go àH$m{eVŸ&

ZmJ npãbeg©
(i)11 E. `y>.E. Odmha ZJa, {Xëbr-110007
(ii)Obmbnwa _m\$s, MwZma, {_aOmnwa, `y.nr.
Xya^mf: 23855883, 23857975

(C) boIH$

ISBN 81-7081-638-6
àW_ g§ñH$aU: 2006
_yë`: én`o 95.00

lr gwaÝo Ð àVmn Ûmam ZmJ npãbeg©, 11 E. `y>.E. Odmha ZJa, {Xëbr-110007


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gmV bmoH$ 12-
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pñQ´>¨J {gÕmÝV, Xod-Agwa-{nVa Ÿ15 Ÿ&
2.Xoe H$mb H$s _mn 16-81
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3.gá-`moOZ 19-
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ñVa 31Ÿ& (5) gm¡a `moOZ 32, (6) àH$me `moOZ 32, (7) à_mU `moOZ
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4.gyú_ _mn 37Ÿ&
5.H$mb Ho$ 9 _mZ 37-
9 gJm] go VwbZm 37-41Ÿ& (1) ~«m÷ 41, (2) àmOmnË` 41, (3) {Xì` _mZ
42, (4)Jwé _mZ 42, (5) gm¡a _mZ 42, (6) MmÝÐ _mZ 42, (7) {nVa
_mZ 42, (8) gmdZ _mZ 43, (9) ZmjÌ _mZ 43Ÿ&
6 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AÜ`m`/{df` n¥ð>
6.`wJ 43-
(1) g§ñH$ma `wJ 43, (2) _Zwî` `wJ 44, (3) n[adV© `wJ 45, (4) ghò`wJ
45, (5) Y«wd `m H«$m¡ÄM `wJ 46, (6) A`Z `m B{Vhmg `wJ 46, (7)
Á`mo{Vfr` `wJ 48Ÿ&
7. `wJ MH«$ 49-
[Q>ßnUr -(1) V¥Vr` H$ën 50, (2) ~«÷m H$m H$mb , 7 ~«÷m, 28 d{gð>-
50, ñdm`å^wd, AmX_-51, (3) `wJ IÊS> 52, (4) H$í`n Am¡a _ÝdÝVa
54, (5) Ob-ßbmdZ 55, (6) gá{f© 55Ÿ&
8.ì`mg-gyMr 56Ÿ&
9.H${b nyd© Ho$ amOd§e 58-
gy`© d§e 58, MÝÐ d§e 61, AÝ` _w»` d§e-(1) {_{Wbm 63,(2) H$mÝ`Hw$ãO
64, (3) e`m©V 64, (4) H$mer 64, (5) ~mh©ÐW 64, (6) M¡Ú 64, (7)
nmÄMmb, AZw, Ðþøw, `mXd 64, H«$moïw> 65Ÿ&
10.H${b Ho$ amOd§e 66-
(1) MÝÐ 66,(2) gy`© 66, (3) _JY H$m ~mh©ÐW 66, (4) àÚmoV 67
(5) {eewZmJ 67, (6) ZÝX 68, (7) _m¡`© 68, (8) ew“ 69, (9) H$Êd
70, (10) AmÝY« 70, (11) Jwá 71, (12) H$í_ra amOd§e 72, (13)
_mbdm amOm 74, (14) Zonmb amOd§e 77, (15) Hw$N> _hmnwéfm| H$m H$mb-
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7.doX emIm`| 96Ÿ&
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101, CnbãY emIm`| 101-103Ÿ&
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Cn{ZfX²,ñ_¥{V J«ÝW-104Ÿ&
10.B{Vhmg nwamU 105-5 VWm 10 bjU-105Ÿ& 18 {Z`_, dJ©,5 dmX-106,
H«$_ 106-108, nwamU Vm{bH$m 109, CnnwamU 110Ÿ&
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(4-5) {Zéº$, N>ÝX 116, (6) Á`mo{Vf 116-117Ÿ&
12.doX Ho$ Cnm“-118- _r_m§gm, doXmÝV, Ý`m`, d¡e{o fH$, gm§»`, `moJ-118,
nmíMmË` 118-120Ÿ&
13.CndoX 120-(1) AW©emó naånam 120, (2) Am`wdX} 121, (3) YZwdX}
122, (4) JmÝYd©dXo 123Ÿ&
14.AmJ_ `m VÝÌ 123-IÊS> 124, (1) nmÄMamÌ 124, (2) e¡d AmJ_
125-127, (3) emº$ AmJ_ 127-129, (4) gm¡a VÝÌ 129, (5-6)
JmUnË`, ~m¡Õ 130Ÿ&
15.àmH¥$V {dÚm 130-_Zmo{dÚm, kmZpÝÐ`,H$_}pÝXA` {dÚm-131,_yb{dÚm,
{Xì` Aó 132, eó, {eën 133Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 134-223
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134,Amgw[a, nÄM{eI,df©JÊ`, dmMñn{V {_l, _hm^maV, `w{º$Xr{nH$m,
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2.VÎdg_mg gyÌ 137-22 VWm 26 gyÌ 137Ÿ&
8 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AÜ`m`/{df` n¥ð>
(4.VÎdg_mg)
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gyÌ 2-Aï>m¡ àH¥$V`:141Ÿ&
3.fmoS>e {dH$mam:-142
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e¡dXe©Z 1.$VÎd 144, 2. H$bm Am¡a CÝ_of 145, 3.g¥{ï> Ho$ ^mJ 146,
4.VÎd-ê$n, 5.g¥{ï> H$bm 146, 6.H$bm H$m AW© 147, 7.Ord H$s CÞ{V
H$bm 147, 8 .AÝ` H$bm`|, 9. CÝ_of 148, 10.ewÕ VWm AewÕVÎd 152Ÿ&
ZmgXr` gyº$ 150-152Ÿ&gå~pÝYV gyÌ 152Ÿ& nwéf H$m gdê$n 153Ÿ& EH$
Am¡a ~hþV nwéf 155Ÿ&
5.Ì¡JÊw `_² 155-ì`m»`m 156Ÿ& 3 Am¡a 7 àmU-157Ÿ& 3 `m 7 bmoH$-159Ÿ&
^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ _| 3 ^oX-160Ÿ& J{UV _| {ÌJwU 161Ÿ& eara Ho$ fQ²>MH«$
162Ÿ& gm§»` VWm doXmÝV H$m MVw:gyÌr 162Ÿ&
6.gÄMa à{VgÄmMa 163, AW©, ì`m»`m 163, g¥{ï>-àb`, gm§»`-doXmÝV
MH« 164Ÿ& amgm`{ZH$ {H«$`m, àb` 165Ÿ&$ D$î_mJ{VH$s, BboŠQ´>m{ZH$ Va§J,
`moJ-166Ÿ& MH«$dV² JwU-167Ÿ&
7.AÜ`Ë_ A{Y^yV A{YX¡d 167, ì`m»`m 168Ÿ&
8.nÄM A{^~w{Õ 170,{MÎmd¥{Îm, AÝV:H$aU 170,^mdmJUoe 171Ÿ&
9.nÄM ѽ`mo{Z 171, kmZpÝÐ`, H$_}pÝÐ` 173Ÿ&
10.nÄMdm`w 173-e{º$ 173,gmo_-Am¡f{Y, g¥{ï> H$_© 174, nwéf H$bm.
àmUdm`w 175, _éV² 176,F${f, eara àmU 177, {edê$nr àmU 178,
eara Ho$ àmU ^oX 178-180Ÿ&
11.nÄM H$_m©Ë_m 180-{Xì`e{º$, Am`wdX} , gm_JmZ 180, _Yw{dÚm, öX`
Ho$ [XemAm| _| VÎd, ^mdmJUoe _V 181, eara H$_©, nÄMm{¾,J{V 182Ÿ&
12.nÄMndm© A{dÚm 182- 50 àË`` 183-185Ÿ& {dÚm A{dÚm 185-186Ÿ&
A{dÚm Ho$ nd© 186Ÿ& nd© ^oX 187Ÿ&
13.28 Ae{º$ 188-JUZm 188Ÿ& gmYZm H$s ~mYm 189Ÿ& 28 ~wÕ 189Ÿ&
14.ZdYm Vw{ï> 190-ì`m»`m 191Ÿ& ^{º$_mJ© 192Ÿ&
{df` gyMr 9
AÜ`m`/{df` n¥ð>
(4.VÎdg_mg)
15.Aï>{g{Õ 193-gm§»` ^oX, `moJ {g{Õ 193-194, D$h Am{X 195-198,
à_moX198-199,_w{XV, _moX_mZ 199,{g{Õ Ho$ ^oX 200,A‘x>e 201Ÿ&
16.Xg _m¡{bHmW© 201-Xg AW© Š`m| 202,_ybmW© gyMr 203-207, C^` Ho$
JwU 207Ÿ&
17.AZwJh« gJ© 208-ì`m»`m209Ÿ&
18.MVwX©e ^yVgJ© 210, Zm_ bmoH$,gJ© 211, `mo{Z 212-214Ÿ&
19.{Ì{dY ~ÝYZ 214Ÿ&
20{Ì{dY _moj 217-e¡d Xe©Z 217Ÿ&
21.{Ì{dY à_mU 217-à_m 218, AZw_mZ, eãX 219Ÿ&
22.Xw:I {ZdmaU 220-{Ì{dY Xw:I 221, {df` Xw:I 222, Šboe, H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm,
H$_©\$b 223Ÿ&
5.gm§»`H$m[aH$m 224-237
^y{_H$m 224Ÿ&
n¥ð> H$m[aH$m n¥ð> H$m[aH$m
224 1 231 37-41
225 2-7 232 42-46
226 8-12 233 47-52
227 13-17 234 53-59
228 18-24 235 60-64
229 25-30 236 65-68
230 31-36 237 69-72
6.gm§»`gyÌ 238-297
AÜ`m` 1/1-164 gyÌ -238-257Ÿ& 2/1-47 n¥.257-261Ÿ&A.3/1-
84 n¥.262-271Ÿ& A.4/1-32 n¥.272-275Ÿ&A.5/1-129 n¥.271-279Ÿ&
AÜ`m` 6/1-70 n¥ð> 289-297Ÿ&
7.n[a{eï> 298-309
1.gm§»` gyÌ gyMr 298-307Ÿ& 2.nÄM{eI gyÌ 307-309Ÿ&
gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AÜ`m`-1
{díd-d¥j Am¡a doX
1.AmJ_-{ZJ_-nwamU-^maVr` `m {díd kmZ Ho$ `o VrZ _yb òmoV h¢Ÿ& BZ
VrZm| H$s CËn{Îm EH$ gmW hþ`r h¡-
àW_§ gd© emómUm§ nwamU§ ~«÷Um ñ_¥V_²Ÿ&
AZÝVa§ M dŠÌoä`mo doXmñVñ` {d{ZJ©Vm:Ÿ&&
(dm`w.nw.1/61;_Ëñ` nw.53/3)
g¥{ï> H$o Amaå^ _| ~«÷m H$mo g_P Zht Am ahm Wm {H$ g¥pîQ> H$m`© H¡$go H$a|Ÿ& V~
CÝhm§Zo o nwamU Ûmam nyd© H$ën H$s à{H«$`m H$m ñ_aU {H$`m Am¡a doXm| H$s aMZm H$sŸ&
Ü`mZ H$s {d{Y, à`moJ, AZwgÝYmZ-`o g^r VÝÌ Ho$ {df` h¢ {OZH$m {~Zm
CëboI H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
{dÚm Am¡a _hm{dÚm-doX lw{V h¡, BgH$m `h AW© Zht {H$ F${f {bIZm Zht
OmZVo Wo Omo AZn‹T> bmoJm| H$s YmaUm h¡Ÿ& kmZ H$m dmVmdaU go J«hU lw{V h¡Ÿ&
_yb g¥{ï> H$m Amaå^ AmH$me go hþAm,CgH$m JwU eãX h¡Ÿ& AV: lw{V H$m AW©
AÝ` kmZopÝÐ`m| Ûmam ^r J«hU h¡Ÿ& nwa H$m MoVZ nXmW© nwéf h¡, dh ~mha go Omo
J«hU H$aVm h¡ dh {dÚm `m doX hŸ¡& nwa H$m ~mhar AmdaU _ha² h¡Ÿ& nwéf Ho$ H$m`©
H$m Omo à^md _ha² Ûmam J«hU hmoVm h¡, dh _hm{dÚm h¡Ÿ&
{dÚm J{V _y{Îm©
nwéf _hm{dÚm nwéf
kmZ

_ha² `m AWd©
{dÚm-_hm{dÚm lw{V Ho$ VrZ nX
_yb AmYma `m ~«÷ AWd© (Wd©={hbZm, WaWamZm, AWd©=pñWa, emÝV) h¡Ÿ&
Bggo lw{V Ho$ 3 nXm|-nXmW© H$m ê$n, Cggo gyMZm H$m AmJ_Z,kmZ-Ûmam VrZ
doXm|-F$H²$, `Ow:, gm_- H$s CËn{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& gånyU© g¥{ï> _| _y{Îm©, J{V, à^md-
joÌ-`o F$H²$, `Ow:, gm_ h¢Ÿ& BÝht H$mo A{¾, dm`w, a{d ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& {dX²
YmVw Ho$ 4 AW© 4 doXm| Ho$ AZwgma h¢Ÿ&
2 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
VÎd doX {dX² YmVw H$m AW©
_y{Îm© F$H²$ gÎmm (pñW{V)-{dX gÎmm`m_²(nm.Ym. 4/60)
J{V `Ow: bm^ (àm{á)-{dX²>b¥ bm^o(6/141)
kmZ gm_ kmZ-{dX kmZo(2/57)
gÝX^© AWd© {dMma H$aZm-{dX {dMmaUo(7/13)
MoVZm»`mZ {Zdmgofw(10/177)
doX Ho$ 4 {d^mJm| H$m àm`: 40 àH$ma go dU©Z h¡, Cg_| EH h¡-
F$½ä`mo OmVm§ gd©emo _y{Îm©_mhþ:, gdm© J{V`m©Owfr h¡d eídV²Ÿ&
gdª VoO§ gm_ê$ß`§ h eídV², gdª hoX§ ~«÷Um h¡d g¥ï>_²Ÿ&&
(V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U3/12/8/1)
BÝh| A{¾, dm`w, a{d ^r H$hVo h¢-
A{¾ dm`w a{dä`ñVw Ì`§ ~÷ gZmVZ_²Ÿ&
XwXmoh `k {gÕçWª F$½`Ow: gm_ bjU_²Ÿ&&(_Zwñ_¥{V 1/23)
BZ XmoZm| íbmoH$m| _| ~«÷ H$m AW© AWd©-doX h¡, Omo àW_ doX h¡-
~«÷m XodmZm§ àW_§ gå~^yd {dídñ` H$Îmm© ^wdZñ` JmoámŸ&
g ~«÷{dÚm gd© {dÚm à{Vð>m_Wdm©` Á`oð> nwÌm` àmhŸ&&1Ÿ&&
Ûo {dÚo do{XVì`o, B{V h ñ_ `X² ~«÷{dXmo dXpÝV nam M¡d Anam M(4)
VÌmnam F$½doXmo `OwdX} :,gm_doXmo,AWd©dXo :,{ejm,H$ënmo, ì`mH$aU§, {Z麧$,
N>ÝXmo,Á`mo{Vf{_{VŸ& AW nam ``m VXja_{YJå`Vo(5)(_wÊS>H$ Cn.1/1)
F$H²$ VWm AÝ` doXm| _| ^r AWd© H$m àW_ doX Ho$ ê$n _| CëboI h¡-
Ëdm_¾o nwîH$amXÜ`Wdm© {Za_ÝWVŸ& _yÜZm} {dídñ` ~mYV:Ÿ&&13Ÿ&&
V_w Ëdm XÜ`L²>L>¥ {f: nwÌ B©Yo AWd©U:Ÿ& d¥ÌhU§ nwaÝXa_²Ÿ&Ÿ&14&Ÿ&
(F$H²$, 6/16/13-14; dm.`Ow.11/32-33,15/22-23; gm_ 9/10,
V¡.g§.3/5/11/3-4,4/13/2-3,4/4/1)
EH$ _yb doX go VrZ Am¡a hmoZo Ho$ H$maU Ì`r H$m AW© 4 doX hmoVm h¡, Š`m|{H$ _yb
^r ~Zm ahVm h¡Ÿ& BgH$m ^«m_H$ AW© bJm`m OmVm h¡ {H$ nhbo EH$ doX Wm ~mX _|
AWd© hþAmŸ& 4 doX-òï>m ê$n _| ~«÷m Ho$ 4 _wI h¢ VWm CZH$m {M• nbme d¥j h¡Ÿ&
nbme _| ^r EH$ emIm go VrZ nÌ {ZH$bVo h¢, O¡go AWd© go 3 AÝ`Ÿ& {hÝXr _|
C{º$ h¡-dhr T>mH$ Ho$ VrZ nmVŸ&
1. {díd-d¥j Am¡a doX 3
d¥j-ê$n _| ì`m»`m-JrVm _| doX H$mo g_PmZo Ho$ {b`o d¥j-ê$n _| ì`m»`m
h¡Ÿ&_yb òmoV d¥j Ho$ _yb O¡gm h¡, Cgo D$na H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& Cggo {Z_m©U H$s
{d{^Þ {Xem`| CgH$s emIm`| h¢Ÿ& {Z_m©U H$m n[aUm_ d¥j Ho$ \$b O¡gm h¡, AV…
XmoZm| H$mo \$b hr H$hVo h¢Ÿ& _yb go emIm, nÌ (\$b) H$m {Z_m©U VWm Cg_| nwZ…
b` hmoZo H$m H«$_ gXm MbVm ahVm h¡, AV…Bgo A{dZmer AídËW `m Aì``
nwéf H$hm OmVm h¡-
D$Üd©_by _Y…emI_ídËW§ àmhþaì``_²Ÿ&
N>ÝXm§{g `ñ` nUm©{Z `ñV§ doX g doX{dV²(JrVm 15/1)
Aì`` H$m AW© h¡, ì``(IM©) Zht hmoZm, _yb òmoVgo {OVZm H$_ hmoVm h¡, dh
nwéf H$mo ~ZmZo _| bJ OmVm h¡, AV…`moJ ~am~a ahVm h¡Ÿ& ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ _| 5
àH$ma Ho$ g§ajU {gÕmÝV h¢-_mÌm,D$ÁOm©,(`m gmnojdmX _| XmoZm| H$m `moJ),
AmdoJ, H$moUr` AmdoJ,na_mUw Ho$ _yb H$Um| H$m pñnZŸ& Aì`` nwéf H$m eara
Xmé (H$mð>) H$m H$hm JmVm h¡Ÿ& Mmamo Amoa \¡$bm hþAm nXmW© g_wÐ h¡, Cggo
AÝV…g§k d¥j AÞ H$m {Z_m©U H$aVo h¢Ÿ& BÝhr d¥jm| Ho$ \$b Am{X go _Zwî` H$m
eara ~ZVm h¡Ÿ& Aì`` nwéf ja go nao VWm Aja go ^r loð> h¡, AV…CÎm_ nwéf
(`m nwéfmoÎm_=OJÞmW) H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ-
`ñ_mV² ja_VrVmo@h_jamX{n MmoÎm_…&
AVmo@pñ_ bmoHo$ doXo M à{WV… nwéfmoÎm_…Ÿ&&(JrVm 15/17)
bmoH$ VW doX(kmZ-{dkmZ) XmoZm| ^mfm`| EH$ gmW àM{bV ahVr h¢, AV… XmoZm|
H$m dÎm©_mZ H$mb _| dU©Z h¡Ÿ& nwéfmoÎm_ à{WV(first) h¡, AV… EH$ H$m H«$_
EH$s` Zht, àW_ hmoVm h¡, Am¡a EH$ H$mo (_`m©Xm-nwéfmoÎm_) am_ H$hm OmVm h¡&
g_wÐ (dmVmdaU) go d¥j Ho$ _mÜ`_ go Aì`` _mZd eara ~ZVm h¡, AV…OJÞmW
H$m eara ^r g_wÐ go ~h H$a Am`o H$mð> go ~ZVm h¡-
AXmo `Ômé ßbdVo {gÝYmo: nmao Anyéf_²Ÿ&
VXma^ñd Xwh©Umo VoZ JÀN> nañVa_²Ÿ&(F$H²$10/155/3)
AWm©V² Omo Anm¡éfo` Xmê$(H$mð>) g_wÐ go ~h H$a Am`m CgH$s AmamYZm H$a
XwJ©_ g§gma H$mo nma H$amoŸ&
{díd-d¥j Ho$ Á`mo{Vfr` Am¡a AmÜ`mpË_H$ ê$nm| H$m gå~ÝY AmJo {X`m Om ahm
h¡Ÿ& Am{Y^m¡{VH$ ê$n H$B© ì`{º$-ê$nm| H$m g_Ýd` h¡Ÿ&
4 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
{díd-d¥j
_ÊS>b ê$n XodVm _mhoída-gyÌ Ho$ dU© eara Ho$ MH«$
ñda gdU© AÝV:ñW gm¡ÝX`© bhar 9H$m g¥{ï>-H«$_
11
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Hy$_©-MH«$,JmobmoH$)
3.gm¡a BÝÐ C d ñdm{Yð>mZ
(gy`© H$m à^md-joÌ) ({d{H$aU) (Zm{^)

4.MmÝÐ gmo_ F$ a _{Unya


(MÝÐ-H$jm H$m Jmobm) ({dab nXmW©) (_oéXÊS> H$m _yb)
5.^y A{¾ b¥ b _ybmYma
(n¥Ïdr) (gKZ nXmW©) (_b-_yÌ Ûmam| H o$~rM)
[Q>ßnUr -(1) {díd Ho$ g^r 5 _ÊS>b {ZamH$ma Ho$ gKZ ê$n hmoZo Ho$ H$maU
A{¾(g¥{ï> H$s AJ« `m àW_ {H$«`m) h¢, g~go gKZ _ÊS>b n¥Ïdr {deof ê$n go
A{¾ h¡Ÿ& BZ 5 A{¾`m| _| àW_ 2 H$m AZw^d Zht hmoVm, ApÝV_ 3 H$m {_bm-
Owbm à^md hmoVm h¡-AV…BÝh| Zm{MHo$V ({MHo$V=AbJ-AbJ, ñnï>) A{¾
H$hm OmVm h¡-F$V§ {n~ÝVm¡ gwH¥$Vñ` bmoHo$,Jwhm§ à{dï>m¡ na_o namÕ} (na_-Jwhm
na_oð>r H$s n[a{Y nam=1017 `moOZ H$m AmYm h¡)
N>m`mVnm¡ ~«÷{dXmo dXpÝV, n#mm¾`mo `o M {ÌUm{MHo$Vm: (H$R> C.1/3/1)
BZHo$ {_{bV à^md go empÝV h¡, AV… `o {ed Ho$ 3 ZoÌ h¢Ÿ& à{V _m“{bH$ H$m`©
_| BZ VrZ ZoÌm| H$m ñ_aU {H$`m OmVm h¡-
A{¾_yÕ© m© Mjwfr MÝÐgy`m£, {Xe: lmoÌo dmp½dd¥VmíM doXm:(_wÊS>H $ Cn.2/1/4)
{ed=C+F$+b¥=hþbhþbr(^mfm _| hmobr)Ÿ& A§JO o« r _| ^r hmobr (holy) =n{dÌ
ApÝV_ nX hmoZo Ho$ H$maU n¥Ïdr nX(nX²ä`m§ ^y{_:-nwéf-gyº$-13)`m nÙ h¡
Vpñ_pÝh aÊ_`o nÙo ~hþ `moOZ {dñV¥VŸo & gd© VoOmo JwU_`o nm{W©db¡ j © U¡dV¥© Ÿo &
1. {díd-d¥j Am¡a doX 5
Vƒ nÙ§ nwam ^yV§ n¥{Wdr ê$n_wÎm__²Ÿ&
Zmam`U g_wX^ ² Vy § àdXpÝV _hf©`:(nÙnwamU, g¥{ï> IÊS> 40/2-3)
nwîH$a-nU© Am¡a A{¾-Ëdm_¾o nwîH$amXÜ`Wdm© {Za_ÝWV(F$H²$ 6/16/13)Ÿ&
(2) A{¾ gKZ VWm gmo_ {dab h¡Ÿ& lÕŸm Ûmam A{¾ gmo_ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& lÕm AWm©V²
gab aoIm(ldm `m lV²) _| YmaU (àgmaU) go A{¾ \¡$bH$a gmo_ hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ-
lÕËñd gmoå`o{V(N>mÝXmo½` C.6/12/3)Ÿ&
gmo__Ü`o hþVmeZ:(A{¾:)-(_¡Ìm`Ur Cn.6/38)&
gKZ nXmW© Ho$ ê$n _| n¥Ïdr A{¾ h¡, `h MÝÐ-H$jm Ho$ Ho$ÝÐ _| h¡Ÿ& gy`© ^r gKZ
VoO `m D$Om© Ho$ÝÐ Ho$ ê$n _| A{¾ h¡, CgHo$ Mmamo Va\$ gmo_ Ho$ H$B© ñVa h¢-eVéÐr
(100 gy`-© ì`mg Xya n¥Ïdr),ghò-éÐr (e[Z-H$jm),bj-éÐr (_¡Ì`o -_ÊS>b)
eVerf© éÐe_Zr`_²,h d¡VÀN>Vé[Ð`{_Ë`mMjVo namo@j_²(eV.~«m.9/1/1/7)
eV `moOZo h dm Ef (Am{XË`:) BVñVn{V(H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m.8/3)
ghò§ h¡V Am{XË`ñ` aí_`:(O¡{_Zr` Cn.~«m.1/44/5)
Agm¡ `ñVm_«mo AéU CV ~^«:w gw_“b:Ÿ&
`o M¡Z§ é Ðm A{^Vmo {Xjw {lVm: ghòemo hoS> B©_ho(dm.`Ow.16/6)
^y_`o m}OZ bjo Vw gm¡a§ _¡Ì`o _ÊS>b_²Ÿ&
bjm{ÔdmH$añ`m{n _ÊS>b: e{eZ: pñWV_²({dîUw nw.2/7/5)
gy`-© _ÊS>b H$s gr_m H$mo{Q> (=gr_m,`m 100 bj) ì`mg Xyar na h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ ^rVa
{dîUw Ho$ 3 nX h¢,{_Ì-joÌ _| éÐ Ho$ 3 ñVaŸ&CgHo$ ~mha déU-joÌ h¡ {Og_|
_hbm}H$ H$m gmo_ h¡-
_hÎmËgmo_mo _{hfíMH$ma Anm§ `X²J^} Ad¥UrV² Xod_²(F$H²$9/17/41)
gy`© {H$aUm| H$s ApÝV_ gr_m ~«÷mÊS> h¡-`h {dîUw H$m na_ nX h¡ Am¡a gy`m] H$m
g_yh (gya`:) h¡Ÿ& _Zwî` H$m _pñVîH$ CgH$m à{Vê$n hmoZo Ho$ H$maU {dÛmZm|
H$mo ^r gya`: H$hm OmVm h¡-
BX§ {dîUw{d©MH«$_o ÌoYm {ZXYo nX_² (F$H²$ 1/22/17)
V{ÛîUmo: na_§ nX§ gXm ní`pÝV gya`: (F$H²$1/22/20)
(3) ì`mH$aU VWm VÝÌ (g¥{ï>) Ho$ AmYma ê$n _mhoída-gyÌ _| 14 gyÌ (14
~ma S>_ê$-dmXZ `m 14 ^wdZ) VWm 43 Aja h¢Ÿ& àW_ 2 gyÌm| Ho$ Aja 5 _yb
ñda h¢-ABCU²Ÿ& F$b¥H$² Ÿ&(ApÝV_ hbÝV dU© gyÌ-g_m{á H$m {M• _mÌ h¡)
6 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
ñda dU© ñd: `m AmH$me Ho$ àVrH$ `m ñdê$n h¢Ÿ& CZHo$ gdU© (EH$ hr ñWmZ go
CƒmaU) AÝV:ñW dU© eara Ho$ AmÝV[aH$ {díd Ho$ MH«$m| Ho$ ~rO _ÝÌ h¢-h`daQ²>Ÿ&
bU²Ÿ& BZ ~rO-_ÝÌm| Ho$ H«$_ _| _{Unya-ñdm{Yð>mZ H$m H«$_ ~Xb J`m h¡Ÿ&
gmYZm- H«$_ _| _oéXÊS> H$m _yb ñdm{Yð>mZ h¡, CgHo$ Cna _{Unya h¡Ÿ& gm¡ÝX`©-
bhar(e‘>amMm`©) íbmoH$ 9 _| h¡-
_ht _ybmYmao H$_{n_{Unyao hþVdh§,pñWV§ ñdm{Yð>mZo ö{X _éV_mH$me_wn[aŸ&
_Zmo@{n ^«_y Ü`o gH$b_{n{^Ëdm Hw$bnW§,ghòmao nÙo gh ah{g nË`m {dha{g&
(4) BZ ndm] H$s _mn 7 àH$ma Ho$ `moOZm| _| doX nwamUm| _| Xr J`r h¡Ÿ& 7 `moOZ
VWm 7 `wJ Añ` dm_r`-gyº$ Ho$ AZwgma h¢-
gá `wÄOpÝV aW_oH $MH«$mo EH$mo Aídmo dh{V gáZm_m(F$H²$ 1/164/2)
_Zwî` go Amaå^ H$a n¥Ïdr, gm¡a-_ÊS>b, ~«÷mÊS>, ñd`å^y-H«$_e: H$mo{Q>-H$mo{Q>
JwUm ~‹S>o h¢Ÿ& n¥Ïdr Ho$ [b`o gm¡a- _ÊS>b AmH$me h¡, nwZ: CgHo$ {b`o ~«÷mÊS>
AmH$me h¡, ~«÷mÊS> Ho$ {b`o ñd`å^y AmH$me h¡Ÿ& BZ AmH$mem| Ho$ {b`o n¥Ïdr,
gm¡a-_ÊS>b, ~«÷mÊS> ^y{_ h¢Ÿ& VrZm| ^y{_ gy`-© MÝÐ go àH$m{eV h¢-XmoZm| go
àH$m{eV n¥Ïdr, gy`© go àH$m{eV gm¡a-_ÊS>b, VWm gy`-© àH$me H$s ApÝV_
gr_m ~«÷mÊS > h¡-
a{d MÝÐ_gmo`m©dÝ_`yI¡ad^mñ`Vo& g g_wÐ g[aÀN>¡bm n¥{Wdr VmdVr ñ_¥Vm &
`mdËà_mUm n¥{Wdr {dñVma n[a_ÊS>bmV²Ÿ&
Z^ñVmdËà_mU§ d¡ ì`mg _ÊS>bVmo {ÛOŸ&&({dîUw nw.2/7/3-4)
VrZ ^y{_ H$mo 3 _mVm VWm AmH$me H$mo 3 {nVm H$hm J`m h¡ (F$H²$1/164/
10,2/27/8)Ÿ& àË`oH$ n¥Ïdr Ho$ ~mha dm`w (J{Verb nXmW©) Ho$ H«$_e: 10
JwUm ~‹S>o 7 AmdaU h¢Ÿ, AV: ApÝV_ AmdaU H$mo{Q> JwUm hmoJmŸ& 107=224,
AV: H$mo{Q> JwUm H$m AW© h¡, 24 ~ma 2 JwUm H$aZmŸ& AV…24 Ajam| H$m N>ÝX
Jm`Ìr hr g^r bmoH$m| H$s _mn h¡Ÿ-
B_o d¡ bmoH$m Jm`Ìr (VmÊS>ç _hm~«m÷U 15/10/9, 16/14/4)Ÿ&
_Zwî` go Amaå^ H$a Jm`Ìr (224) go JwUm H$aZo na n¥Ïdr(Jm`Ìr), gm¡a-
_ÊS>b (gm{dÌr), ~«÷mÊS> (gañdVr), ñd`å^y({Z`Vr `m g§`Vr) H$m AmH$ma
hmoVm h¡(AmnñVå~ J¥ø gyÌ n[a{eï>)Ÿ&
(5) ñd`å^y A{V {dab hmoZo Ho$ H$maU AmH$me O¡gm h¡Ÿ& J{V H$m Amaå^ `k `m
1. {díd-d¥j Am¡a doX 7
na_oð>r _ÊS>b go h¡Ÿ& gm¡a_ÊS>b H$m Ho$ÝÐ gy`© VoO `m àH$me Ho$ òmoV Ho$ ê$n _|
BÝÐ h¡, Cgr go g¥{ï> Mb ahr h¡, AV: dh OJV² H$s AmË_m h¡Ÿ& gm¡a VoO MÝÐ Ho$
nmg AmH$a _ÝX VWm {dab hmo OmVm h¡, AV: `h gmo_ h¡Ÿ& gm¡a _ÊS>b _| g~go
KZr^yV n¥Ïdr h¡, AV: `h A{¾ hþAmŸ& BZ 5 ndm] H$m Amaå^ 2 Aì`º$ ñVam| go
hþAmŸ& g~H$m _yb ~«÷ h¡ Omo ag-ê$n h¡, AWm©V² ha ñWmZ, H$mb, VWm {Xem _|
g_mZ h¡Ÿ& CgH$s g¥{ï> AZoH$ àH$ma H$s hmo gH$Vr h¡, à{V ^oX EH$ ~ëem `m
emIm h¡, AV: Bgo ghg«-~ëem H$m H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& g¥{ï> H$aZo H$s BÀN>m eyÝ`-
ê$n ag go hþ`r-Bg _Z H$mo ídmodgr`g(eyÝ` _| {Zdmg H$aZodmbm) _Z H$hm
OmVm h¡Ÿ& CËn{Îm-H«$_ h¡-AgÛm BX_J« AmgrV²Ÿ& VVmo d¡ gXOm`VŸ&..`Û¡ VËgwH$¥ V§
agmo d¡ g:Ÿ& ag§ øodm`§ bãÜdm@@AmZÝXr ^d{VŸ&(V¡{Îmar` C.2/7/1)Ÿ&
Vñ_mÛm EVñ_mXmË_Z AmH$me: gå^yV:Ÿ&& AmH$memÛm`w:Ÿ& dm`moa{¾:Ÿ& A¾oamn:Ÿ&
AX²>ä`: n¥{WdrŸ& n¥{Wì`m AmofY`:....(V¡{Îmar` C.2/1/3)Ÿ&
_Zwî` eara _| BgH$s à{V_m ghòma VWm ídmodgr`g-_Z H$m Amkm-MH«$ h¢Ÿ&
Aja-nwéf-Aja nwéf {H«$`m `m `k ê$n h¡Ÿ& {díd Ho$ àË`oH$ nd© go _mZd
eara H$m EH$ H$mof `m EH$ AmË_m H$m J{Verb gå~ÝY h¡Ÿ&
gË`-gyÌ
(H$) Aì`º$-AmË_m ñd`å^y -VËjU, gXm
F$V-gyÌ
(I) `k-AmË_m na_oð>r _Z H$s J{V(_ZmoOd) go

gwfwåZm ~«÷-aÝY« gy`©-{H$aU


(J) {dkmZ-AmË_m ----Amkm----- ghòma---- gy`© (àH$me J{V go)
AUw-nW _hm-nW
lÕm-gyÌ
(K) _hmZ-AmË_m MÝÐ-H$jm
n«kmZ-AmË_m MÝÐ (àH$me `m AmH$f©U J{V go)
_Z Ho$ 2 AmË_m (XmoZm| g_mZ h¢)
{Q>ßnUr-(1) Aì`º$ AmË_m VWm ~«÷ EH$ hr h¡, CZ_| gXm gå~ÝY ~Zm
ahVm h¡Ÿ& gy`© OJV² H$s AmË_m h¡-
8 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
gy`© AmË_m OJVñVñWwfíM (dmO.`Ow.7/22)
gy`© H$m A§e {dkmZ AmË_m h¡, Omo ~w{Õ H$m {Z`ÝÌH$ h¡Ÿ&AV: gy`© H$mo AmË_m-
H$maH$ ^r H$hVo h¢Ÿ& {dkmZ-AmË_m H$m {Zdmg _w»`V: öX` _| h¡Ÿ& àË`oH$
ì`{º$ Ho$ eara _| öX` go gwfåw Zm Ûmam Amkm-MH«$ VH$ VWm CgHo$ ~mX ~«÷-
aÝY« go ghòma VH$ H$m gå~ÝY AUw-nW H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX gy`© VH$ H$m
gå~ÝY _hm-nW h¡ Omo {H$aU Ûmam hmoVm h¡-
VXoVo íbmoH$m ^dpÝV-AUw: nÝWm {dVV: nwamUmo _m§ ñn¥ï>m@o Zw{dÎmmo _`¡dŸ&
VoZ Yram A{n`pÝV ~«÷{dX: ñdJª bmoH${_V D$Üdª {d_wº$m:Ÿ&&8Ÿ&&
Vpñ_ÄNw>Šb_wV Zrb_mhþ: {n“b§ h[aV§ bmo{hV§ MŸ&
Ef nÝWm ~«÷Um hmZw{dÎmñVoZ¡{V ~«÷{dËnwÊ`H¥$Îm¡OgíMŸ&&
(~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn.4/4/8,9)
AW `m EVm öX`ñ` ZmS>çñVm: {n“bm{UåZpñVð>pÝV ewŠbñ` Zrbñ` nrVñ`
bmo{hVñ`oË`gm¡ dm Am{XË`: {n“b Ef ewŠb Ef Zrb Ef nrV Ef bmo{hV:
Ÿ&&1Ÿ&& VÚWm _hmnW AmVV C^m¡ J«m_m¡ JÀN>ÝVr_§ Mm_w§ Mm_wî_mXm{XË`mËàVm`ÝVo
Vm Amgw ZmS>rfw g¥ á m Amä`mo Zm‹ S >rä`: àVm`ÝVo Vo @ _w p î_Þm{XË`o
g¥ám:Ÿ&&2Ÿ&&....AW `Ì¡VXñ_mÀN>aramXwËH«$m_Ë`W¡Va¡ do apíåm{^ê$Üd©_mH«$m_Vo g
Amo{_{V dm hmoÛm_r`Vo g `mdpËjß`oÝ_ZñVmdXm{XË`§ JÀN>Ë`oVÛ¡ Ibw bmoH$Ûma§
{dXwfm ànXZ§ {ZamoYmo@dXwfm_²Ÿ&&5Ÿ&&(N>mÝXmo½` C.8/6/1,2,5)
~«÷-gyÌ(4/2/17-20)-
1-VXmoH$mo@J«ÁdbZ§ VËàH$m{eVÛmamo {dÚmgm_Ï`m©ÎmÀN>ofJË`Zwñ_¥{V`moJmƒ
hmXm©ZwJ¥hrV: eVm{YH$`mŸ&
2-aíå`ZwgmarŸ& 3-{Z{e Zo{V MoÞ gå~ÝYñ` `mdÔoh^m{dËdmÔe©`{V MŸ&
4-AVíMm`Zo@{n X{jUoŸ&
_¡Ìm`Ur Cn{ZfX² (6/30 ) ^r Ðï>ì`ŸŸ&
àH$me-J{V go gy`© Ho$ gmW gå~ÝY 8 {_ZQ> _| OmH$a CVZo hr g_` _| dmng
Am`oJmŸ& AV: `h EH$ _whÎÿ m© (48 {_ZQ>) _| 3 ~ma AmVm-OmVm h¡Ÿ-
{Ìh© dm Ef (_Kdm-BÝÐ:-Am{XË`:-gm¡aàmU:) EVñ`m _whÎÿ m©ñ`o_m§ n¥{Wdt
g_ÝV: næ`}{V(O¡{_Zr` ~«m.Cn.1/44/9)
ê$n§ ê$n§ _Kdm ~mo^dr{V _m`m:H¥$ÊdmZñVÝd§ n[a ñdm_²Ÿ&
1. {díd-d¥j Am¡a doX 9
{Ì`©{Ôd: n[a_whÿÎm© _mJmV² ñd¡_©ÝÌ¡aZ¥Vwnm F$VmdmŸ&&(F$H²$ 3/53/8)
MÝÐ VH$ OmH$a bm¡Q>Zo _| àH$me H$mo àm`: 1.7 goH$ÊS> bJVm h¡Ÿ& Bgo àm`:
{Z_of-_mÌ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
(2) _Z Ho$ ñVa-_Z H$s CËn{Îm eyÝ`-ê$n ag go hþ`r, {Ogo ídmodgr`g² _Z
H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& CgH$m àW_ ê$n h¡-ñdm`å^wd _Z Omo AZÝV h¡, {H$ÝVw Ñí` OJV²
_| gm¡ Aa~(1011) H$U ê$n ~«÷mÊS> h¢, AV: gm¡ Aa~ H$mo Id©(MyU© ê$n) H$hm
OmVm h¡Ÿ& BgH$m doX `m kmZ AZÝV H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& Ñí` OJV² H$s à{V_m h_mam
~«÷mÊS> h¡, {OgHo$ Id© H$U gy`© g_mZ Vmam h¢Ÿ& BZ XmoZm| H$s à{V_m _Zwî` H$m
_pñVîH$ h¡, {Og_| Id© H$mo{fH$m(neuron) h¢Ÿ& BgHo$ _yb 3 àH$ma Ho$ ZjÌ h¢-
~«÷mÊS>m| Ho$ g_yh Ho$ ê$n _| ñdm`å^wd, Vmam g_yh Ho$ ê$n _| ~«÷mÊS>, VWm gm¡a
_ÊS>b Ho$ {nÊS>Ÿ& ZjÌm| H$s g§»`m eVnW ~«m÷U_| h¡-
Eä`mo bmo_JÎm}ä` D$Üdm©{Z Á`moVtî`mZ²Ÿ& VÚm{Z Vm{Z Á`moVt{f: EVm{Z Vm{Z
ZjÌm{UŸ& `mdÝË`oVm{Z ZjÌm{U VmdÝVmo bmo_JÎmm©:Ÿ&(eVnW ~«m.10/4/
4/2)
nwéfmo d¡ gådËga: ...Ÿ&&1Ÿ&&
Xe d¡ ghòmÊ`mï>m¡ M eVm{Z gådËgañ` _whÿÎmm©:Ÿ& `mdÝVmo _whÿÎmm©ñVmdpÝV
n#mXeH¥$Îd: {jàm{UŸ& `mdpÝV {jàm{U, VmdpÝV n#mXeH¥$Îd: EVhu{UŸ&
`mdÝË`oVhu{U, VmdpÝV n#mXeH¥$Îd BXmZr{ZŸ& `mdÝVrXmZr{Z,VmdÝV:
n#mXeH¥$Îd: àmUm:Ÿ& `mdÝV: àmUm:, VmdÝVmo@Zm:Ÿ& `mdÝVmo@Zm:, VmdÝVmo
{Z_ofm:Ÿ& `mdÝVmo {Z_ofm:, VmdÝVmo bmo_JÎmm©:Ÿ& `mdÝVmo bmo_JÎmm©:, Ÿ VmŸdpÝV
ñdoXm`Zm{ZŸ& Ÿ`mŸdpÝV ñdoXm`Zm{Z, VmdÝV EVo ñVmoH$m df©pÝVŸ&(eVnW ~«m.12/
3/2/5)
AWm©V² ,1 gådËga _| {OVZo bmo_JÎm© h¢Ÿ,CVZo hr nwêf _| hm|J|Ÿ& nwéf ^y{_ H$m
10 JwUm h¡(nwéf-gyº$-1,g ^yq_ {dídVmo d¥ÎdmË`{Îmð>Ôem“xb_²)Ÿ& _whÿÎm© H$mo
H«$_e: 15 go {d^m{OV H$aZo na {jà,EV{h©, BX_², àmU,AZ,{Z_of, bmo_JÎm©,
ñdoXm`Z hmoVo h¢Ÿ& AV:,bmo_JÎm©=_whÿÎm© x 15-7=1 goH$ÊS> H$m àm`: 75,000
^mJŸ& 1 gådËga _| àm`: 10 12 bmo_JÎm© h¢Ÿ& AV: ~«÷mÊS> _| 1011 ZjÌ
hm|Jo&bmo_JÎm© goH$ÊS> H$m 11,20,000 ^mJ h¡ {Og_| àH$me
10 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
{H$aU 270 _rQ>a OmVm h¡,dfm© H$s ~yÝX àm`: CVZr Xyar VH$ AnZm AmH$ma pñWa
aIVr h¢Ÿ&
(3) gm¡a-_ÊS>b _| 60,000 ~mb{Ië` h¢, {OZH$m AmH$ma A“xð> (n¥Ïdr ê$n
nwéf H$m 96 ^mJ,AWm©V² 135 {H$._r.ì`mg)Ho$ ~am~a h¡Ÿ& `yaZo g VH$ H«$Vw
AWm©V² `k h¡(^mJdV nwamU, ñH$ÝY 5), Omo 100 H$mo{Q> `moOZ H$m AbmoH$ ^mJ
h¡Ÿ& BgH$m AmYm 50 H$mo{Q> `moOZ H$m bmoH$(àH$m{eV) ^mJ `m {à`d«V h¡Ÿ& Bg
ZjÌ-_ÊS>b H$s Xyar gy`© VwbZm _| 60 JwUm h¡(gy`-© {gÕmÝV, 12/80)Ÿ& BZ
ZjÌm| H$m à^md joÌ hr _Z h¡Ÿ& AbJ-AbJ H$U _Z Ho$ na_mUw h¢, CZH$m
g_wÐ gañdVr h¡Ÿ& Cg _mZg-gamoda _| MÝÐ Ho$ n[a^«_U go bha CR>Vr h¡, dh
{MÎm H$s d¥{Îm h¡Ÿ& AV: nwéf-gyº$ _|-MÝX«_m _Zgmo OmV:-H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
(4) gy`© VWm MÝÐ go gVV²$ gånH©$ Ûmam AmË_m (~w{Õ) VWm _Z({MÎm-d¥{Îm)
H$m {Z`ÝÌU hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Bg_| AÝ` J«hm| Ho$ à^md go gyú_ n[adÎm©Z hmoVo h¢- `h
gy`© go CgHo$ ghò ì`mg Xya VH$(e{Z-H$jm) hr AZw^d-Jå` h¡Ÿ& `h ghòmj
(BÝÐ) joÌ H$m Amaå^ h¡Ÿ-Aj=Mjw,ghòmj=BÝÐ-Mjmo: gy`m} AOm`V (nwéf-
gyº$)Ÿ& dht VH$ H$m à^md BpÝÐ`m| Ûmam J«hU hmoJmŸ&
(5) J«hm| H$m à^md AÝ` Ma-AMa àm{U`m| na ^r n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ, nwZ: CZH$m h_mao
D$na& ^m¡{VH$ dmVmdaU Ho$ n[adÎm©Z _mÜ`_ go ^r J«hm| H$m à^md _Zwî` na
n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ&
ja-nwéf-MaH$-g§{hVm(emara-ñWmZ 5/2) Ho$ nyd© CÕ¥V dmŠ` Ho$ AZwgma
bmoH$ Ho$ {OVZo ^mJ h¢, nwéf Ho$ ^r CVZo hr ^mJ hmoJŸ| & eara Ho$ 5 H$mof {díd Ho$
5 ndm} Ho$ g_Vwë` h¢Ÿ& MaH$-g§{hVm,emara-ñWmZ, AÜ`m` 5 Ho$ AZwgma-
bmoH H$s 6 YmVw-1.AmË_m(Aì`º$), 2.AmH$me, 3.dm`w, 4.VoO, 5.Ob,
6.n¥{Wdr$Ÿ& _Zwî` H$s 6 YmVw-1. AmË_m(Aì`º$), 2.{N>Ð-g_yh(AmH$me),
3.àmU(dm`w), 4.emar[aH$ CîUVm(VoO), 5.ŠboX `m JrbmnZ(Ob), 6.nwéf-
_y{Îm© `m eara(n¥{Wdr)Ÿ&

AÝ`- bmoH$ nwéf


1. n«Omn{V _Z
2. BÝÐ Ah§H$ma
1. {díd-d¥j Am¡a doX 11
3. Am{XË` AmXmZ(ag J«hU H$aZo H$s e{º$)
4. éÐ amof
5. gmo_ àgmX(àgÞVm)
6. dgw gwI
7. ApídZr-Hw$_ma H$mpÝV
8. _éÒU CËgmh
9. {dídoXdo BpÝÐ` Am¡a CZHo$ {df`
10. AÝYH$ma _moh
11. Á`mo{V kmZ
12. MVw`w©J ~më`-`m¡dZ-dmZàñW-d¥Õ.........Am[XŸ&
eara H$m ñWyb ê$n {Og òmoV go {Z{_©V hmoVm h¡, Cgr _| {_b OmVm h¡Ÿ& nm{W©d
eara A{¾-Ob-n¥Ïdr-dm`w go g§ñH$ma hmoH$a n¥Ïdr _| {_b OmVm h¡Ÿ& n«oV
eara(n«kmZ+_hmZ) MÝÐ-_ÊS>b _| OmVm h¡ -{dYyÜd©^mJo {nVamo dgpÝVŸ&
dhm§ VH$ H$s J{V Ho$ {b`m _m{gH$ lmÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& _hmZ-AmË_m gm¡a _ÊS>b H$mo
nma H$aVm h¡-
Ûm{d_m¡ nwéfm¡ bmoH$o gy`-© _ÊS>b ^o{XZm¡Ÿ&
n[ad«mS²> `moJ`wº$mo dm aUo Mm{^_wI§ hV_²({dXwa-JrVm,ewH$« -Zr{V4/7/302)
gm¡a _Êhb gm¡a dm`w(àH$me VWm D$‚mm© H$m a¡{IH$ àdmh=JmoOm-F$H²$1/102/
6,`m B©fm-B©fo Ëdmo‚m} Ëdm dm`dñW:-`Ow:1/1) Ho$ X~md go Yrao-Yrao 60 dfm]
_| nma hmoVm h¡-Am{XË`míM h dm Am{“agíM ñdJ} bmoH$o @ñnÕ©ÝV-d`§ nyd} Eî`m_mo
d`{_{VŸ& Vo hm@@{XË`m:nyd} ñdJª bmoH§$ O½_w:,níModm{“ag:,fîR>çm§ dm
df}fŸw &(EoVao` ~«m÷U 18/3/17)
Am{XË`míMm{“agíM gwdJ} bmoH$o @ñnÕ©ÝV, d`§ nyd} gwdJª bmoH${_î`m_:,d`§ nyd}
B{VŸ& V Am{XË`m EV§ n#mhmoVma_ní`Z²Ÿ& V§ nwam àmVaZwdmH$mXm¾rY«o@Owhþdw:Ÿ&
VVmo d¡ Vo nyd} gwdJª bmoH$_m`Z²Ÿ& `: gwdJ©H$m_: ñ`mV², g n#mhmoVma§ nwam
àmaZw d mH$mXm¾rY« o @ Ow h þ ` mV² Ÿ & gådËgamo d¡ n#mhmo V m, gådËga:, gw d Jm}
bmoH$:Ÿ&(V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U2/2/3/5-6)
`hm§ 60 dfm] Ho$ MH«$ H$mo Am{“ag H$hm J`m h¡, d¥hñn{V hr Am{“ag h¡, AV:
`h Á`mo{Vf H$m Jwé-df© MH«$ h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ 5 hmoVm 12 dfu` Jwé n[aH«$_m-H$mb
12 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
h¡Ÿ& 5-5 dfm] Ho$ ^r 12 `wJ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
gmV bmoH$-${díd Ho$ 5 ndm] _| 4 _ÊS>b h¢-MmÝÐ _ÊS>b n¥Ïdr H$m hr à^md-
joÌ h¡Ÿ& 4 _ÊS>b Am¡a CZHo$ ~rM Ho$ 3 AÝV[aj-`o 7 bmoH$ H$hbmVo h¢Ÿ& 7 bmoH$
3-3 bmoH$m| _| ~§Q>o hþE h¢-~rM Ho$ Xmo bmoH$ Xmo {Ìbmo{H$`m| _| h¢Ÿ&^y _ÊS>b ^y bmoH$
h¡, dh AnZo AmH$me gm¡a _ÊS>b _| h¡, Omo CgH$m ñd: bmoH$ hþAmŸ& gm¡a _ÊS>b
ê$nr ^y-bmoH$ Ho$ {b`o CgH$m AmH$me na_oîR>r ñd: hþAm [Ogo OZ: bmoH$ H$hm
OmVm h¡Ÿ& na_oð>r ê$n ^y Ho$ {b`o ñd`å^y ñd: hþAmŸ& Bg àH$ma BZH$r gmaUr h¡-
1 2 3 4 5
_ÊS>b- ^y (MmÝÐ) gm¡a na_oð>r ñd`å^y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
bmoH$ ^y ^wd: ñd: _h: OZ: Vn: gË`

{ÌbmoH$s amoXgr H$«ÝXgr g§`Vr


g_wÐ AU©d gañdmZ² Z^ñdmZ²
Ym_ Ad_ _Ü`_ na_
XodVm {ed {dîUw ~«÷m
Xodr _hmH$mbr _hmbú_r _hmgañdVr
5 _ÊS>bm| Ho$ ~mX _Zwî` 6R>m {díd h¡Ÿ& 7 N>mQo >o {díd-
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
{díd-H${bb Ord Hw$ÊS>{bZr OJV² Xod-XmZd {nVa F${f
cell atom nucleus particles quarks prototype string
AmH$ma-10-5m,10-10m,10-15m, 10-20m, 10-25m, 10-30m, 10-35m
{Q>ßnUr-(1)-dmbmJ«(H$oe H$m AJ«^mJ) ^r EH$ {díd h¡-
AZmÚÝV§ H${bbñ` _Ü`o {dídñ` òï>ma_ZoH$ ê$n_²Ÿ&
{dídñ`¡H$§ n[ado{ï>Vma§ kmËdm Xod§ _wÀ`Vo gd©nme¡:(ídoVmídVa C.5/13)
BgH$m AmH$ma dmbmJ« h¡-
dmbmJ«_m̧ öX`ñ` _Ü`o {díd§ Xod§ OmVê$n§ daoÊ`_²Ÿ&(AWd©{ea C.5)
Bgrgo _Zwî` H$m OÝ_ hmoVm h¡, AV: Bgo OmVê$n H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& J^© _| AmVo hr
`h YmVwAm| H$m H$bZ(collection) Amaå^ H$aVm h¡, AV: `h H${bb (cell)
1. {díd-d¥j Am¡a doX 13
h¡-VÌ àW_o _m{g H$bb§ Om`Vo(gwlVw emarañWmZ 3/9)
g gd©JU w dmZ² J^©Ëd_má: àW_o _m{g gå_y{N>V© :
gd© YmVw H$bZrH¥$V: .....Aì`º$ {dJ«h: .....(MaH$ emarañWmZ 4/9)
~¥hËg§{hVm (56/2) _| dmbmJ« H$m AmH$ma {X`m h¡-
na_mUw aOmo-dmbmJ-«{bjm-`yH$§ `dmo@“xb§ Mo{V Aï> JwUm{Z `WmoƒaZ² A“xb_oH$§
^d{V g§»`mŸ&
AWm©V² A“xb H$mo 8 go ^mJ XoZo na H«$_e: `d, `yH$, {bjm, dmbmJ« hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
24 A“xb = hñV = 45 go._r.Ÿ&
AV: dmbmJ«=45/(24 x 8 4)=4 x 10-4 go._r.=4 _mBH«$moZŸ&
(2) dmbmJ« Am¡a Cggo N>mQo >o {díd H«$_e: 1 bmI ^mJ N>mQo >o h¢-
dmbmJ« eVgmhò§ Vñ` ^mJñ` ^m{JZ:Ÿ&
Vñ` ^mJñ` ^mJmYª VËj`o Vw {ZaÄOZ_²Ÿ&&(Ü`mZ{~ÝXw.Cn.4)
N>mQo >o {díd F${f go Amå^ hmoH$a,{nVa, Xod-XmZd hmoVo h¢Ÿ& XmZd go Hw$N> Zht
hmoVm,Xod go OJV² H$U 3 àH$ma Ho$ h¢-Ma(J{Verb hëHo$=Lepton), ñWmUw(pñWa
^mar= Baryon), AZwndy e © :(AmJo-nrN>,o OmoS‹ >Zdo mbo=Meson)-
F${fä`: {nVamo OmVm: {nV¥ä`mo Xod XmZdm:Ÿ&
Xodäo `íM OJËgdª Ma§ ñWÊdZwndy e © :Ÿ&&(_Zwñ_¥{V 3/201)
(3) H${bb go N>mQo >m {díd Ord h¡, CgH$m AmH$ma AUw Ho$ ~am~a h¡ VWm `h H$ën
`m amgm`{ZH$ {H«$`m _| Zï> Zht hmoVm-
dmbmJ« eV ^mJñ` eVYm H$pënVñ` MŸ&
^mJmo Ord: g {dko`: g MmZÝË`m` H$ënVoŸ&&(ídoVmídVa C.5/9)
(4) Hw$ÊS>{bZr H$m AmH$ma dmbmJ« H$m H$mo{Q> ^mJ h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ^rVa Xmo 10-10
^mJ N>mQo >o AmdaU h¢Ÿ& ^rVar AmdaU dmbmJ« H$m 100 H$mo{Q> ^mJ `m na_mUw H$s
Zm{^(nuceus) Ho$ ~am~a h¡-EVñ`m _Ü`Xoeo {dbg{V na_m@nydm©{Zdm©Ue{º$:
H$moQ>çm{XË` àH$mem§ {Ì^wdZOZZr H$mo{Q>^mJ¡H$ê$nmŸ& Ho$emJ«ñ`m{VJwøm {Zad{Y
{dbgV ...Ÿ&9Ÿ&
AÌmñVo {eew-gy`©gmoXaH$bm MÝX«ñ` gm fmoS>er ewÕm ZraOgyú_VÝVw eVYm
^mJ¡H$ê$nm namŸ&7Ÿ&(fQ²>MH«${Zê$nU,7)
14 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$

(5) Hw$ÊS>{bZr VH$ H$s _mn hmoVr h¡Ÿ& Cggo N>mQo >o H$U àH$me-nXmW© XmoZm| ê$n _|
h¢Ÿ& _mnXÊS> H$m g~go N>mQo >m ê$n dhr h¡ AV: CgH$s _mn Zht h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw na_mUw
Ho$ _ybH$U VWm CZHo$ òmoV ¹$mH©$ H$m {gÕmÝV Am¡a à`moJ Ûmam kmZ h¡Ÿ& Cggo
N>mQo >o Xmo ñVam|-{nVa VWm F${f H$m {H$gr àH$ma H$m kmZ gå^d Zht h¡Ÿ& AV:
BÝh| AgV² H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& Ho$db gV² {JZZo na BZ {dídm| H$s e{º$ 5 àmU h¢,
AgV² {_bmZo na 7 àmU h¢-
n#mòmoVmo@å~w§ n#m`moÝ`wJ«dH«$m§ n#màmUmo{_ª n#m~wX>² Ü`m{X_ybm_²Ÿ&
(ídoVmídVa C. 1/5)
gá àUm: à^dpÝV Vñ_mV² gám{M©f: g{_Y: gá hmo_m:Ÿ&
gá B_o bmoH$m `ofw MapÝV àmUm Jwhme`m {Z{hVm: gá gá &&
(_wÊS>H C.$2/1/8)
(6) F${f AgV² àmU h¢ {OZgo g¥{ï> hþ`r h¡Ÿ& `o l_ Am¡a Vn go ItMVo h¢, AV:
F${f (añgr) H$hbmVo h¢-
AgÛm@BX_J«@AmgrV²Ÿ& VXmhþ:-qH$ VXmgr{X{VŸ& F$f`mo dmd Vo@J«@o gXmgrV²Ÿ&
VXmhþ:-Ho$ Vo F$f` B{VŸ& Vo `Ënwam@@ñ_mËgd©ñ_m{XX{_ÀN>ÝV: l_oU
Vngm[afZ²-Vñ_mÑf`:Ÿ&(eVnW ~«m.6/1/1/1)
(7) _Zwî` Ho$ AmH$ma(bå~mB© Mm¡S‹ >mB© H$m Am¡gV) 1.3 _rQ>a H$m H$mo{Q> JwUm
H$aZo na 13,000 {H$._rQ>a n¥Ïdr H$m ì`mg h¡Ÿ& CgH$m bmI ^mJ 10-5 _r.
H${bb `m eara H$mof H$m AmH$ma h¡Ÿ& CgH$m bmI ^mJ na_mUw 10-10 _r. VWm
na_mUw H$m bmI ^mJ CgH$s Zm{^ h¡Ÿ& _Zwî` AmH$ma H$m 7 ~ma bmI ^mJ H$aZo
na F${f H$m AmH$ma 1.3x10-35 _rQ>a h¡Ÿ& Bgo ¹$mÊQ>_ _oH$m{ZŠg _| g~go
N>mQo >r Xyar ßbm§H$ Xyar H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& `h pñQ´>J¨ {gÕmÝV Ho$ g^r 5 d¡H$pënH$
dU©Zm| H$m AmYma h¡Ÿ& F${f H$s n[a^mfm VWm _mn XmoZm| AmYw{ZH$ _mÝ`VmAm| H$o
AmYma h¢Ÿ&
(8) {nVa Ho$ g_mZ {H$gr nXmW© H$m dU©Z Zht h¡Ÿ& `h ~mX H r aMZmAm| H$m
AmYma hmoZo Ho$ H$maU {nVa (Prototype) H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& Bggo Xod-
XmZd hþE {OZ_| Ho$db Xod go g¥{ï> hþ`rŸ& 33 Xod gm¡a _ÊS>b Ho$ 33 Ym_m| Ho$
1. {díd-d¥j Am¡a doX 15
n«mU h¡§, {OZH$s MMm© ~mX _| hmoJrŸ& n«Ë`oH$ joÌ _| 3 Agwa hmoZo go BZH$s g§»`m
99 Ÿh¡& `h V_ `m ~mYH$ hmoZo go Bggo g¥{ï> Zht hmoVrŸ& AV: Ho$db 1 nmX `m
MVwW© ^mJ go hr nyam {díd h¡, VrZ nmX {~Zm {Z_m©U Ho$ pñWa(A_¥V) h¢-
nmXmo@ñ` {dídm ^yVm{Z {ÌnmXñ`m_¥V§ {X{dŸ&3Ÿ&
[ÌnmXyÜd© CX¡V² nwéf: nmXmo@ñ`ohm^dV² nwZ:Ÿ&4Ÿ&(nwéf gyº$,F$H²$ 10/
90,dm `Ow.31, AWd© 19/6, gm_.619, V¡{Îmar` Am.3/12)

-******-
16
AÜ`m`-2
Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn
1. g§»`m H$m Cn`moJ-gm§»`-Xe©Z {dkmZ H$s _mn H$m Xe©Z h¡Ÿ& _mn Ho$ Xmo
AmYma h¢-EH$ g§»`m VWm _mn H$s BH$mB©Ÿ& CXmhaUmW©, 5 {_ZQ> _| 5 g§»`m h¡
VWm {_ZQ> _mn H$s BH$mB© h¡Ÿ& doX Ho g§»`mdmMH$ eãX gm§»` Ho$ AZwgma dJuH$aU
h¢ `m {H$gr nXmW© H$s _mn h¢Ÿ& BZH$m AW© g_PZo Ho$ {b`o _mn H$s {H$Z BH$mB`m|
H$m à`moJ hþAm h¡, `h OmZZm Oê$ar h¡Ÿ& gå^dV: g^r àH$ma H$s BH$mB`m| H$m
à`moJ h¡, {H$ÝVw CZH$m ahñ` g_PmZo dmbo emó CnbãY Zht h¢Ÿ& àm`: à{V
F$Mm _| N>mQo >r-~‹S>r H$B© àH$ma H$s g§»`mAm| H$m à`moJ h¡, dh _mn H$s ewÕVm
{XImVo h¢, Cgo {~Zm g_Po Ho$db H$ënZm na AmYm[aV _mZZm AnZr AkmZVm
H$mo doX Am¡a F${f`m| na S>mbZm h¡Ÿ& `hm§ {g\©$ Xoe(bå~mB©) VWm H$mb(g_`)
H$s _mn H$m dU©Z {H$`m Om ahm h¡ {OZHo$ ~mao _| Á`mo{Vf J«ÝWm| _| MMm© h¡ {H$ÝVw
H$m\$s ^«_ h¡Ÿ& BgH$m H$maU h¡¡ {H$ H$B© àH$ma H$s BH$mB`m| H$m ì`dhma hþAm h¡,
{H$ÝVw g~H$mo EH$ hr _mZH$a ì`m»`m H$s OmVr h¡Ÿ& `{X EH$ go A{YH$ _mn-
BH$mB© H$s MMm© H$s Om` Vmo H$hm OmVm h¡ {H$ doX _| {g\©$ ^«_ Am¡a H$ënZm h¡Ÿ&
gm{hË` Ho$ AÜ`oVm `h OmZVo hr Zht h¢, {dkmZ Ho$ N>mÌ ^r ^yb OmVo h¢ {H$
AmYw{ZH$ {dkmZ _| ^r EH$ hr _mn Ho$ {b`o H$B© gw{dYmdmXr BH$mB`m§ h¢ {OZH$s
n[a^mfm ~XbVr ahVr h¡Ÿ& CZH$s VwbZm _| doX _| _mn H$s BH$mB`m| H$m Á`mXm
VH©$g§JV AmYma h¡Ÿ& VwbZm Ho$ {b`o ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ H$s AmYw{ZH$ BH$mB`m| H$s ^r
MMm© H$s J`r h¡Ÿ& doX _| 7 àH$ma Ho$ `wJ VWm 7 `moOZm| H$m CëboI h¡Ÿ& `wJ VWm
`moOZ XmoZm| `wO² YmVw go ~Zo h¢, Omo {H$ doX _o§ 7 àH$ma Ho$ H$ho J`o h¢-
gá `wÄOpÝV aW_oH$ MH«$_oH$mo Aídmo dh{V gáZm_m(F$H²$ g§.1/164/2)Ÿ&
H$mb Ho$ 9 _mZ h¢ Š`m|{H$ g¥{ï> Ho$ 9 gJ© nwamUm| _| d{U©V h¢, CZHo$ AZwgma gy`©
{gÕmÝV _| 9 H$mb_mZ h¢ Ÿ& doX _| ^r 9 Ûmam g¥{ï> H$hr J`r h¡-
Zdmo Zdmo ^d{V Om`_mZ:(F$H²$ 10/85/19,AWd©7/81/2,14/1/24;
V¡.g§.2/3/5/3,4/14/1)
AWd© doX Ho$ Xmo H$mb-gyº$m| (19/53,54) _| 10+5 gyº$ h¡§Ÿ& dhm§ 7 apí_
$
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 17
7 MH«$, 7 Aídm| H$m AW© 7 `wJ h¡-§
H$mbmo Aídmo dh{V gáapí_: ghòmjmo AOamo ^y[aaoVm:Ÿ&
V_m amohpÝV H$d`mo {dnpíMVñVñ` MH«$m ^wdZm{Z {dídmŸ&&1Ÿ&&
gá MH«$mÝ dh{V H$mb Ef gámñ` Z^ra_¥V§ Ýdj:Ÿ&
g B_ {dídm ^wdZmÝ`ÄOV² H$mb: g B©`Vo àW_mo Zw Xod:Ÿ&&2Ÿ&&
nyU:© Hw$å^mo@{Y H$mb Am[hVñV§ d¡ ní`m_mo ~hwYm Zw gÝV:Ÿ&..Am{XŸ&
2. ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ H$s _mn nÕ{V - n[a^mfm`| -
am{e-{H$gr KQ>Zm, dñVw `m AmH¥${V Ho$ JwU H$mo am{e H$hm OmVm h¡ Ÿ&
{deof ê$n go CZHo$ n[a^m{fV `m _mn `mo½` JwU h¢ Ÿ& O¡go nXmW© H$s _mÌm `m
{dÚwV² Amdoe am{e h¢ Ÿ& MÝÐ_m H$s _mÌm `m àmoQ>moZ H$m Amdoe H$s _mn am{e H$s
_mn h¡ Ÿ& Á`mo{Vf _| d¥Îmr` J«h nW na 300 A§e H$m joÌ am{e h¡ Ÿ&
^m¡{VH$ am{e dh am{e h¡ {Ogo {dkmZ Am¡a `mpÝÌH$s Ho$ J{UVr` g_rH$aUm|
_| ì`dhma {H$`m OmVm h¡ Ÿ&
BH$mB© dh ^m¡{VH$ am{e h¡ Omo ì`dhma _| n[a^m{fV Am¡a ñdrH¥$V h¡ VWm
CgH$s VwbZm Ûmam Cgr àH$ma H$s AÝ` ^m¡{VH$ am{e`mo§ H$s _mn hmoVr h¡ Ÿ&
^m¡{VH$ am{e H$s _mn EH$ g§»`m VWm BH$mB© H$m JwUZ\$b h¡ Ÿ& `h g§»`m
CgH$m gm§[»`H$ _mZ h¡ Omo BH$mB© Ho$ ì`dhma na {Z^©a h¡ Ÿ& O¡go {H$gr _Zwî` H$s
D§$MmB© 1.67 _rQ>a, 167 g|ÝQ>r_rQ>a `m 5 \w$Q> 6 B§M `m 1 JO 21/2 \w$Q> H$hr Om
gH$Vr h¡ Ÿ&
_yb BH$mB© VWm ì`wËnÞ BH$mB© - `mpÝÌH$s _| VrZ àH$ma H$s am{e`m| Ho$
_mn Ho$ Ûmam g^r BH$mB`m± _mnr Om gH$Vr h¢, ~mH$s am{e`m| H$s BH$mB© BÝht Ho$
{d{^Þ àH$ma Ho$ JwUZ h¢ Ÿ& ì`dhma _| bå~mB©, _mÌm, g_` H$s _mn BH$mB`m|
H$mo _yb BH$mB© _mZZm gw{dYm OZH$ h¡, ~mH$s BH$mB`m± BZHo$ {d{^Þ KmVm| Ho$
JwUZ\$b h¢ Ÿ& 1901 _| {O`moJu Zo à_m{UV {H$`m {H$ BZHo$ gmW EH$ {dÚwVr`
BH$mB© (O¡go à{VamoY, `m Ymam Ho$ {bE Amo_, Apån`a) {_bmH$a g^r {dÚwV²
Mwå~H$s` am{e`m| H$s ^r _mn H$s Om gH$Vr h¡Ÿ§ & BgHo$ A{V[aº$ {dÚwV Am¡a
Mwå~H$s` JwUm| H$m gå~ÝY {XImZo Ho$ {b`o AmH$me Ho$ _yb^yV JwU go gå~Õ EH$
BH$mB© br OmVr h¡, O¡go àH$me H$s J{V, AmH$me H$m _mÜ`_ JwU Am{X Ÿ& AV…
gm§»` Xe©Z Ho$ 5 VÝ_mÌmAm| Ho$ g_mZ 5 BH$mB`m§ n`m©á hmoVr h¡§Ÿ& ì`dhma _|
18 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
AZoH$ àH$ma H$s BH$mB`m| H$m n«`moJ hmoVm h¡ -
(1) àm_m{UH$ _mnXÊS> g~ OJh g~ g_` gwb^ Am¡a ñWm`r hmo Ÿ&
(2) _mn H$s nÕ{V gwb^ Am¡a gyú_ hmo Ÿ&
(3) AbJ àH$ma Ho$ à`moJm| Ho$ {b`o AbJ n[a^mfm Am¡a _mnXÊS> Ÿ&
(4) ghO VwbZm Ho$ {b`o N>moQ>r g§»`m H$m à`moJ hmo... Am{X Ÿ&
AV… ì`dhma _| AÝVmam{ï´>` g§ñWm (SI) Zo 7 _yb Am¡a 2 A{V[aº$
BH$mB`m§ ñdrH¥$V H$s h¢ -
bå~mB©- _rQ>a, _mÌm - {H$bmoJm« _, g_`-goH$ÊS>, {dÚwV² Ymam- Aånr`a,
VmnH«$_- Ho$ pëdZ `m gopëg`g, nXmW© H$s _mn- _mobŸ&
A{V[aº$-H$moU-ao{S>`Z, AmH$meH$moU-ñQ>ao {o S>`ZŸ&
_mn H$s BH$mB`m| Ho$ ~‹S> o Am¡a N>mQo >o _mZm| Ho$ {b`o hOma Ho$ AZwnmV _|
10- go 1018 VH$ Ho$ CngJ© à`wº$ hmoVo h¢ Ÿ&
18

bå~mB© H$s BH$mB`m§ - (1) nwamZr BH$mB`m§ - _Zwî` Ho$ nX H$s _mn `m
nX-ÌmU (OyVm) H$mo \w$Q> H$hm J`m Ÿ& \w$Q> - n¡a `m 30.48 goÝQ>r_rQ>a Ÿ& Bg_|
12 B#m h¢ Ÿ& 3 \w$Q> H$m EH$ JO Ÿ& JO H$m AW© hmWr `m _mnXÊS> XmoZm| hmoVm h¡ Ÿ&
2 JO H$m \¡$X_ (nwéf - hmW D$na H$aZo na CƒVm) 220 JO H$m \$bmªJ 8
\$bmªJ H$m _rb hmoVm h¡ Ÿ&
(2) gm_w{ÐH$ _rb - n¥Ïdr H$s Y«dw r` n[a{Y H$m 1 H$bm H$moU AW©mV²
360 x 60 ^mJ= 1852 _rQ>a `m 6076.115 \$sQ>Ÿ&
(3) _rQ>a H$s Mma n[a^mfm`|- 18 dt eVmãXr _| Xmo n[a^mfm`| Xr
J`t-1 goH$ÊS AY©MH«$> Ho noÊSw>b_ H$s bå~mB©Ÿ& `h n¥Ïdr H$s AmH$f©U e{º$
-
Ho$ gmW ~XbVm h¡Ÿ& Xygar n[a^mfm h¡-n¥Ïdr Ho$ Y«dw r` n[a{Y nmX H$m H$mo{Q>
^mJŸ& 1791 _| Xygar n[a^mfm \«$o ÄM {dkmZ AH$mX_r Zo ñdrH¥$V H$sŸ-norag go
JwOaZo dmbr `må`moÎma aoIm na {dfwd go Y«dw Xyar H$m H$mo{Q> ^mJŸ& BgH$m _mnXÊS>
1/5 {_br _r. N>mQo >m ah J`m, AV: Bg N>mQo >o _mnXÊS> H$mo hr 1889 _| _rQ>a
H$hm J`mŸ& 1927 _| no[ag _| aIo ßb¡{Q>Z_-Bar{S>`_ N‹S> na 00> Vmn na Xmo
{M•m| Ho$ ~rM H$s Xyar H$mo _rQ>a H$hm J`mŸ&1960 _| {H«$ßQ>Z J¡g Ho$ 86 ^ma dmbo
na_mUw Ho$ (2 nr10) go (5-S>r-5) Ho$ ~rM BboŠQ´>Z ñWmZmÝVa go CËnÞ
àH$me Ho$ V§aJ- X¡¿`© H$m 16,50,763.73 JwUm Xyar H$mo _rQ>a H$hm J`m Ÿ&
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 19
1983 go n[a^mfm h¡ - eyÝ` AmH$me _| goH$ÊS> Ho$ 29,97,92,458 ^mJ _|
àH$me Ûmam V` H$s J`r Xyar Ÿ&
(4) Á`mo{Vfr` BH$mB© -gy`© Ho$ÝÐ go n¥Ïdr Ho$ÝÐ H$s _Ü`_ Xyar
= 1.496 x 1011 _rQ>a= A
Bg Xyar Ûmam {OVZr Xyar na 1 goH$ÊS> H$moU ~ZVm h¡ Cgo "nagoH$' H$hVo
h¢ Ÿ& 1 nagoH$ = 3.0856 x 1016 _rQ>a Ÿ& ~‹S> o _mn Ho$ {b`o {H$bmo (103) VWm
_oJm (106) nagoH$ H$m à`moJ hmoVm h¡ Ÿ&
1 df© _| àH$me Ûmam V` H$s J`r Xyar àH$me df© h¡ Ÿ& `h F$Vw df© h¡ Ÿ&
1 àH$me df© = 9.4605 x 1015 _rQ>aŸ&
1 nagoH$ = 3.26 àH$me df©&
g_` H$s _mn - goH$ÊS> H$s n[a^mfm Wr 1 _Ü`_ gm¡a {XZ H$m 86,400
^mJ Ÿ& gm¡a {XZ gy`© Ho$ CƒV_ ñWmZ na Xw~mam AmZo H$m g_` h¡ Ÿ& ^maV _o§
ì`mdhm[aH$ gm¡a {XZ gy`m}X` go gy`m}X` H$m H$mb h¡ Ÿ& n¥Ïdr H$s H$jm _| H$B©
àH$ma Ho$ n[adÎm©Z hmoVo h¢ VWm n¥Ïdr H$m YyU©Z ^r Yr_m hmo ahm h¡, AV… 1900
B©.H$o gm¡a df© H$mo à_m{UH$ _mZm J`m Wm Ÿ& n¥Ïdr Ho$ KyU©Z VWm n[a^«_U _| H$B©
A{Z`{_V AÝVam| Ho$ H$maU 1967 _| Z`r n[a^mfm ñdrH$ma H$s J`r-gr{O`_-
133 AUw Ho$ {ZåZ AmYma ñVam| Ho$ ~rM BboŠQ´>Z n[adÎm©Z go CËnÞ àH$me Ho$
H$ånZ H$mb H$m 9,19,26,31,770 JwUm g_` goH$ÊS> h¡ Ÿ&
(3) gá `moOZ -
F$½doX Ho$ Añ`dm_r` gyº$ _| "gá `wÄOpÝV' H$m à`moJ h¡ Ÿ& Cgr gyº$ _|
VWm AÝ` H$B© ñWmZm| na 7 N>ÝXm| Ûmam dmH²$ (eãX `m eãX Ûmam ì`má AmH$me)
H$s _mn H$m C„oI h¡ Ÿ& `wO² `m `w{Oa² (`moJ AW© _|- nm{U{Z YmVwnmR> 7/7) go
Bg eãXH$s ì`wËn{Îm h¡ Ÿ& H$_©{U H¥$Ë`ë`wQ>m.o .. (3/3/113) `w{Oa²+ë`wQ>² =`moOZ
OmoS‹ > Zm Ÿ& {H$gr nXmW© `m AmH$me Ho$ {dñVma H$mo _mnXÊS> go OmoS‹ > H$a _mnm
OmVm h¡ `m àH$me J{V go VwbZm H$a _mnVo h¢, AV… `moOZ H$hm OmVm h¡ Ÿ& `wJ
^r Bgr YmVw go ~Zm h¡-`wO² + KÄm² = `wJ Ÿ& AÝ` ê$n `w½_ `m `wJnV² H$m AW© 2
h¡, `wJ Ho$ 4 nmXm| Ho$ AZwgma `wJ eãX Á`mo{Vf _| 4 AW© _| {bIm OmVm h¡ Ÿ& 7
àH$ma Ho$ `moOZm| Ho$ g_mZ 7 àH$ma Ho$ `wJ ^r h¢, `h Xmo H$mb-MH«$m| H$m
20 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
g_Ýd` h¡ Ÿ& 9 àH$ma Ho$ H$mb_mZm| go 7 àH$ma Ho$ `wJ hm|J| Ÿ& A^r 7 àH$ma
Ho$ `moOZm| H$m dJuH$aU {X`m OmVm h¢ -
1) Za `moOZ -
J{UV Á`mo{Vf Ho$ ì`m»`mH$mam| Zo Xmo àH$ma Ho$ `moOZ H$s MMm© H$s h¡ -
Am`©^Q> `moOZ VWm ^mñH$a `m {gÕmÝV `moOZ & Am`©^Q>r` _| n¥Ïdr H$m ì`mg
1050 `moOZ VWm ^mñH$a 2 Ho$ {gÕmÝV[eamo_{U `m gy`© {gÕmÝV _| 1600
`moOZ _mZm J`m h¡ Ÿ& AWm©V² n¥Ïdr ì`mg H$m CVZm ^mJ Ÿ& `h dJuH$aU ^«_mË_H$
h¡ Š`m|{H$ EH$ hr boIH$ ^mñH$amMm`© Zo AnZo Xmo J«ÝWm| _| Xmo àH$ma H$m `moOZ
ì`dhma {H$`m h¡ Ÿ& {gÕmÝV {eamo_{U _| 5000 `moOZ H$s n[a{Y `m 1581
`moOZ ì`mg n¥Ïdr H$m _mZm J`m h¡ Ÿ& n¥Ïdr ì`mg = 12,756.280 {H$._r. gy`©
{gÕmÝV _| 1600 `moOZ h¡ Ÿ& gy`© {gÕmÝV H$m `moOZ = 12756.18 ÷ 1600 =
7.9727 {H$._r.Ÿ&
^mñH$amMm`© Zo 5000 {H$._r. n[a{Y Ho$ {b`o 1581 (1591 hmoZm Mm{h`o)
`moOZ ì`mg {b`m h¡ Ÿ&
brbmdVr _| 32,000 hmW H$m `moOZ H$hm J`m h¡ Ÿ& `h _Zwî` Ho$ H$m_
AmZodmbm `moOZ h¡, BgHo$ AmYma na IoV, O_rZ H$s _mn -OmoI H$s OmVr h¡ Ÿ&
BgH$m _yb AmYma A§Jbw An[a^m{fV h¡ Ÿ& 24 A§Jwb H$m hmW AmOH$b 18 B#m
`m 45 go. _r. H$m _mZm OmVm h¡ Ÿ& AV… 1 AJw§b = 45•24 = 1.875 go.
_r. Ÿ& Bggo N>mQo >r BH$mB© dmbmJ« (Ho$e H$s _moQ>mB©) H$m ì`dhma h¡ VWm g~go N>mQo >o
Ñí`H$U H$mo ÌgaoUw H$hm J`m h¡ Ÿ& _mZ-H«$_ _| g~go N>mQo >m _mZ na_mUw H$hm
J`m h¡, AWdm na_mUw H$s _mn Ho$ {b`o à`wº$ _mZ H$mo ^r na_mUw H$hm h¡Ÿ&
damh{_{ha H$s d¥hËg§{hVm Ho$ AZwgma-
8 na_mUw = 1 aO (_mZgma Ho$ AZwgma aWaoUw)
8 aO = 1 dmbmJ«, 8 dmbmJ« = 1 {bjm, 8 {bjm = 1 `d,
`d (_mZgma _| 4) = 1 A§Jw{b (~‹S> r),
24 A§Jw{b = 1 hñV (18 B§M)Ÿ& AV: dmbmJ«=1.875d 8 4 go._r.
=4.578c10-4 go._r.,`m 4.5 _mBH«$moZŸ&
na_mUw=4.578 c10-4d82=7.153c10-6 go._r.Ÿ&
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 21
lrn{V Ho$ AZwgma `h dmñVd _| gy`© àH$me _| {XIZo dmbo Yy{b H$Um|
H$m AmH$ma h¡ Ÿ& `h ÌgaoUw h¡ {Og_| Am`wd}X Ho$ AZwgma 60 AUw h¢ Ÿ&
AV… AUw H$m AmH$ma = 1.2 x10-7 go._r.
b{bV {dñVa Ho$ AZwgma na_mUw aO = A§Jwb x 7-10 = 0.6 x10-8
go._r. Omo dmñVd _| hmBS´>moOZ na_mUw H$s {ÌÁ`m h¡ Ÿ&
{Vbmo` nÞ{V H$m ÌgaoUw = A§Jwb x 8-9=1.4 x 10-8 go._r.
EH$ hr ~«÷ H$m AmH$ma ~VmZo Ho$ {b`o A§Jðw > H$m ì`dhma h¡ Ÿ&
nwéf gyº$ _| nwéf A§Jbw Ho$ A{V[aº$ ^y{_ (n¥Ïdr, ~«÷mÊS>, gm¡a _ÊS>b
Am{X _ÊS>bm|) H$s _mn H$mo ^r A§Jbw H$hm J`m h¡-
g ^yq_ {dídVmo d¥ÎdmË`{Îmð>Ôem“xb_² (1)
^y{_ = ^y (H$ go 24 dm§ Aja, 24 ^mJ `m àH¥${V Ho$ 24 VÎd)+ {_
(25 dm§ Aja, 25 dm§ ^mJ `m gm§»` H$m nwéf VÎd)
n¥Ïdr Ho$ àg§J _| ^y `m n¥Ïdr H$s {ÌÁ`m H$m 24 ^mJ H$aZo na 1 ^mJ
dm`w_ÊS>b H$s C§MmB© hmoJr Ÿ& nwéf Ho$ ghò erf© hmoZo na 2000 Am§I| Am¡a n¡a
hm|Jo Ÿ& A§Jwb _mn _| `h dm`w_ÊS>b g{hV n¥Ïdr H$s n[a{Y hmoJr Ÿ& AV…
^y n[a{Y = 24/25 x 1000 x 2000 x 2000 A§Jwb
= 24/25 x 1/96 x 4 x 109 XÊS> = 4 x 107 (4 H$mo{Q>) XÊS>Ÿ&
_rQ>a H$s _yb n[a^mfm Ho$ AZwgma n¥Ïdr H$s Y«dw r` n[a{Y ^r 4 H$mo{Q> _rQ>a h¡ Ÿ&
AV… `hm± XÊS> = _rQ>a&
(2) ^y `moOZ -
n¥Ïdr H$s _mn Ho$ {b`o Zm¡{Q>H$b _rb H$s Vah n¥Ïdr Ho$ ì`mg `m n[a{Y Ho$ IÊS>m|
Ho$ AZwgma `moOZ H$m _mZ h¡ Ÿ-
gy`© {gÕmÝV(1/59) ì`mg =1600 `moOZŸ&
nÄMgÕm{VH$m(1/18)-n[a{Y=3200 `moOZŸ&
Am`©^Q>r`(1/10) VWm bëb-ì`mg=1050 `moOZŸ&
{gÕmÝV{eamo_{U JmobmÜ`m`,^wdZH$mof 52, ì`mg = 1581 1/24 `moOZ;
n[a{Y=4967 `moOZŸ&
22 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
nwamUm| _| n¥Ïdr H$mo ghòXb nÙ H$hm J`m h¡, AWm©V² n¥Ïdr Ho$ ì`mg H$m hOma
^mJ `moOZ h¡-Vpñ_pÝhaÊ_`o nÙo ~hþ`moOZ {dñV¥VŸo &
gd© VoOmo JwU_`o nm{W©d¡b©jU¡d¥©Vo&VÀM nÙ§ nwam^yV§ n¥{Wdr ê$n_wÎm__²&
Zmam`U g_wX^ ² Vy § àdXpÝV _hf©`:Ÿ& (nÙ nwamU, g¥{ï>IÊS> 40/2-3)
Ëdm_¾o nwîH$amXÜ`Wdm© {Za_ÝWVŸ& _yÜZm} {dídñ` dmYV:Ÿ&
V_wËdmXÜ`L²> F${f nwÌ B©Yo AWd©U:Ÿ& d¥ÌhU§ nwaÝXa_²(F$H²$6/16/13-14)
dm`w_ÊS>b {_bmZo na n¥Ïdr H$m hOma ^mJ àm`: Am`©^Q> `moOZ Ho$ ~am~a
hmoJmŸ& Bg_| 1 `moOZ=12.75628 {H$._r.Ÿ& Bgr _mn go ^mJdV nwamU _|
`yaZo g VH$ H$s J«h H$jm H$mo 50 H$mo{Q> `moOZ H$s n¥Ïdr H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& BgHo$
_ÊS>bm| H$m {dñVma hOma `moOZ BH$mB© _| Bg àH$ma h¡-
H«$_ {ÌÁ`m Mm¡S‹ >mB© Zm_
1 50 50 Oå~yÛrn
2 150 100 bdUg_wX«
3 350 200 ßbj Ûrn
4. 550 200 Bjwag gmJa
5 950 400 emë_[b Ûrn
6. 1350 400 _Ú g_wÐ
7 2150 800 Hw$e Ûrn
8. 2950 800 K¥V g_wÐ
9. 4550 1600 H«$m¡ÄM Ûrn
10. 6150 1600 jra gmJa
11. 9350 3200 eH$Ûrn
12. 12,550 3200 X{Y g_wÐ
13. 15,750 3200 _mZgmoÎma nd©V
14. 18,950 3200 nwîH$a Ûrn
15. 25,350 6400 _Ywa Ob g_wÐ
16. 41,100 15,750 bmoH$ df© (àH$m{eV ^mJ)
17. 1,25,000 83,900 {haÊ` df©
18. 2,50,000 1,25,000 A-bmoH$ df©({~Zm àH$me H$m)
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 23
Bg_| Oå~y-Ûrn n¥Ïdr H$m AmH$f©U joÌ h¡, {Og_| àm`: 30,000 `moOZ
{ÌÁ`m H$s H$jm _| MÝÐ_m h¡ (Am¡gV Xyar 3,84,000 {H$._r.)Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX
Hw$e-Ûrn H$moo damh-joÌ H$hm J`m h¡, {OgH$s {ÌÁ`m n¥Ïdr H$s 4000 JwUr
(ewH«$-H$jm H$s Xyar H$m 60% ^mJ) _mZr J`r h¡Ÿ(`hm§ 50 go 1500 JwUm)&
Bggo n¥Ïdr H$s CËn{Îm hþ`r h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ^rVa ^r 7 joÌ _mZo J`o h¢Ÿ&AÝ` joÌ
n¥Ïdr Ho$ Mmamo Va\$ J«h H$jmAm| go ~Zo h¢Ÿ& `hm§-
{H$gr J«h H$s {ZH$Q>V_ Xyar= n¥Ïdr Am¡a J«h H$jm H$m AÝVa
~mhar db` H$s {ÌÁ`m= n¥Ïdr Am¡a J«h H$jm H$m `moJ
n¥Ïdr Am{X R>mgo J«hm| H$mo X{Y H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& AV: gy`© H$m n[a^«_U joÌ X{Y
g_wÐ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& 1 `moOZ =8.575 _rb _mZZo na H${b Amaå^(3101
B©.ny.) H$s J«h H$jmAm| Ho$ AZwgma Ûrn db`m| H$m AmH$ma h¡-
H«$_ J«h {dÝXw {ÌÁ`m Ûrn-{ÌÁ`m Aew{Õ% joÌZm_
1. ~wY {ZH$Q> 5976.0 6,150 2.1 jragmJa
2. ~wY Xya 15,701.1 15,750 0.3 _mZgmoÎma nd©V
3. ewH«$ {ZH$Q> 2851.0 2,950 3.5 K¥V gmJa
4. ewH«$ Xya 18,813.0 18,950 0.7 nwîH$a Ûrn
5. _§Jb {ZH$Q> 4,090.0 4,550 11.2 H«$m¡ÄM Ûrn
6. _§Jb Xya 25,736.5 25,350 -1.5 Obg_wÐ
7. Jwé {ZH$Q 43,422.8 41,100 -5.3 OZñWmZ
8. e{Z Xya 1,21,599.6 1,25,000> 2.8 {haÊ` df©
9. gy`© _Ü`_ 10,840.4 10.950 1.0 X{Yg_wÐ H$m _Ü`
*
10.{g[ag {ZH$Q> 16,312.8 15,750 -3.4 _mZgmoÎma nd©V
*
11.{g[ag Xya 42,683.2 41,100 -3.7 OZñWmZ
12.`yaZo g Xya 2,29,811.0 2,50,000 8.8 AbmoH$ df©
{Q>ßnUr*-_§Jb VWm ~¥hñn{V Ho$ ~rM Ho$ AdmÝVa J«hm| _| _w»` {g[ag h¡Ÿ&
CgH$s H$jm H$m AmH$ma 2,000 B©. H$s JUZm Ho$ AmYma na h¡Ÿ&
AmH$me-J“m H$mo nam bmoH$ `m na_oð>r H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& `h {nVm gy`© H$m {nVm
hmoZo go {nVm_h h¡Ÿ& nam H$m AW© 1017 hmoVm h¡& AV: `h n¥Ïdr ì`mg H$m
24 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
1014 JwUm `m 1.2756c1018 {H$._r. `m 1,30,000 àH$me df© h¡ (AmYw{ZH$
AZw_mZ 1,00,000 àH$me df©)Ÿ& BgH$m Xg JwUm joÌ Hy$_© H$hm J`m h¡-_mZoZ
Vñ` Hy$_©ñ` H$W`m{_ à`ËZV:Ÿ&&7Ÿ&&
e‘>mo: eVghòm{U `moOZm{Z dnw: pñWV_²(Zan{V O`M`m© _| Hy$_©-MH«$)
`h g¥{ï> H$aVm h¡, AV: Hy$_© h¡-
g `ËHy$_m} Zm_Ÿ& EVÛ¡ ê$n§ H¥$Ëdm àOmn{V: àOm Ag¥OVŸ& `Xg¥OV AH$amoV² VV²
`X² AH$amoV² Vñ_mV² Hy$_©:(eVnW ~«m.7/5/1/5)
AmYw{ZH$ Á`mo{Vf _| Bgo AmH$meJ“m H$m Am^m_ÊS>b H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ ~mX
e¹$ar(am{Ì `m g¥{ï> H$m`© _| gj_-F$½doX H$m am{Ì-gyº$ 10/10/127) h¡,
AV: Bg joÌ H r _mn H$m N>ÝX e¹$ar h¡(14c4=56 Aja) `m n¥Ïdr H$m 253
JwUm,Am¡a Bg g§»`m H$s _mn e§Hw$=1013 _o§ hmoVr h¡-
e‘x> ^dË`•mo Y¥Ë`¡ `Ûm AY¥V§ e‘x>Zm VÔmYma(VmÊS>ç 11/10/11)
`{X_mZ² bmoH$mZ² àOmn{V: g¥îQ²dXo § gd©_eŠZmoX² VV² e¹$arUm§ e¹$arËd_²(EoVao`
~«m.5/7)
(3) ^-`moOZ-n¥Ïdr Ho$ AmH$f©U Ho$ÝÐ _| hr MÝX« h¡Ÿ& AV: MÝÐ H$jm VH$ H$s
_mn ^y-`moOZm| _| _mZZm C{MV h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw gm¡a n[a{Y H$s _mn Ho$ {b`o gm¡a ì`mg
Am¡a Xyar H$s dÎm©_mZ _mn go VwbZm H$aZr Mm{h`oŸ&
gy`© ì`mg=13,92,000 {H$._r.=6,500 `moOZ(gy`© {gÕmÝV 4/1)Ÿ&
AV: 1 `moOZ=13,920d65=214.1538 {H$._r.Ÿ&
`h gy`© {gÕmÝV Ho$ ^y-`moOZ 7.9727 {H$._r.H$m 26.86 `m 27 JwUm h¡Ÿ& AV:
Bgo ^-`moOZ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& ^=ZjÌ `m 27Ÿ&
gy`© H$jm=43,31,500 `moOZ(gy`© {gÕmÝV 12/86)n[a{YŸ&
{ÌÁ`m=1.47c108 {H$._r.(AmYw{ZH$ _V 1.50c108 {H$._r.)Ÿ&
ZjÌ H$jm=gy`© H$jm c 60 (gy`© {gÕmÝV 12/80)Ÿ&
g^r J«hm| H$s H$jm BgH$o ^rVa hr h¡Ÿ& AmYw{ZH$ Á`mo{Vf Ho$ AZwgma ZonMyZ gy`©
go 30 JwUm Xyar na h¡ VWm ßbyQ>mo 39 JwUmŸ& ßbyQ>mo MÝÐ_m go ^r ~hþV N>moQ>m h¡Ÿ&
36-44 JwUm Xyar na 100 {H$._r. go ~‹S>o AmH$ma Ho$ àm`: 70,000 {nÊS> gy`© H$m
MŠH$a bJm aho h¢Ÿ& nhbr ~ma 1992 _| BZH$m nVm MbmŸ& Bgo ^mJdV
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 25
_| 100 H$mo{Q> ì`mg H$m AbmoH$ ^mJ H$hm J`m h¡(nÄM_ ñH$ÝY)Ÿ& gy`© H$jm H$o
60 JwUm Xyar na `hr gm¡a _ÊS>b H$s ZjÌ H$jm h¡Ÿ& BZH$m AmH$ma A“xîR> Ho$
~am~a AWm©V² n¥Ïdr H$m 96 ^mJ `m 135 {H$._r. ì`mg h¡Ÿ& BZH$s g§»`m 60,000
h¡ {OZH$s CËn{Îm `k(H«$Vw) go hþ`r h¡-
H«$VmoíM gÝV{V^m©`m© dmb{Ië`mZgy`VŸ&f{ï>nwÌ ghòm{U _wZrZm_yÜd©aoVgm_²&
A“xð> nd© _mÌmUm§ ÁdbX²^mñH$a VoOgm_² ({dîUw nw.1/10/11)
VWm dmb{Ië`m§ F$f`mo@“xð> nd©_mÌm: f{ï> ghòm{U nwaV: gy`© gyº$ dmH$m`
{Z`wº$m: g§ñVwdpÝVŸ&(^mJdV nw.5/21/17)
~«÷mÊS> H$m H$s n[a{Y = 1.87c1016 ^-`moOZ(gy`© {gÕmÝV 12/90)
ì`mg=1.87c1016 c 214.1538 d p (=3.14159) {H$._r.
=1.27c1018 {H$._r.=1.3c105 àH$me df©Ÿ&
AmYw{ZH$ AZw_mZ 10 5 àH$me df© H$m h¡Ÿ&
gy`-© {gÕmÝV(12/86-89) _| MÝÐ-H$jm go MH«$-^«_U H$mb Ho$ AZwnmV _|
J«h H$jm`| ~‹T>m`r J`r h¢Ÿ& `hm§ grYm AZwnmV _mZZm C{MV Zht h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw
dmñV{dH$ JUZm Ho$ {b`o erK«-n[a{Y _| J«h-H$jm H$m ghr _mZ h¡-
~wY,ewH$« H$s n[a{Y = erK«-n[a{Y
gy`© H$jm 3600
~wY, ewH$« H$s N>mQo >r H$jm hmoZo Ho$ H$maU BÝh| erK n[a{Y H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& _§Jb,
Jwé, e{Z Ho$ {b`o gy`© H$jm hr erK« n[a{Y h¡Ÿ& CZH$o {b`o-
J«h H$jm = 3600
gy`© H$jm erK«-n[a{Y
gy`© {gÕmÝV(2/34-37) Ho$ AZwgma erK« n[a{Y`m| Ho$ _Ü`_-_mZ-
Vmam-J«h _Ü`_ erK«-n[a{Y J«h-H$jm AmYw{ZH$ _mZ
(XmoZm| gy`© H$s VwbZm _o§)
~wY 133.5 0.368 0.386
ewH«$ 261 0.725 0.723
_§Jb 233.5 1.54 1.524
Jwé 71 5.070 5.2028
26 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
e{Z 39.5 9.114 9.55
4. Ym_-`moOZ-Ym_ Xmo àH$ma Ho$ h¢-ja-Ym_ Am¡a Aja-Ym_Ÿ& BgHo AZwgma
gy`© Ho$ 30 Ym_m| H$s Xmo àH$ma H$s ì`m»`m h¡-
qÌeÕm_ {damO{V dmH²$ nV“m` Yr`Vo(F$H²$ 10/189/3)
(H$) ja-Ym_-`h n¥Ïdr n[a{Y Ho$ AZwgma a¡{IH$ _mn h¡Ÿ& n¥Ïdr ja h¡ VWm
`h Ym_ ~XbVm ahVm h¡, AV: Bgo ja Zm_ {X`m J`m h¡(boIH$ Ûmam)Ÿ& `h
Cfm gyº$ _| d{U©V h¡ {H$ Cfm H$mb gy`m}X` ñWmZ go 30 Ym_ npíM_ (déU
{Xem _|) VH$ ahVm h¡-
gÑeraÚ gÑer[aXw ídmo XrKª gMÝVo déUñ` Ym_Ÿ&
AZdÚmqóeV§ `moOZmÝ`oH$¡ H$m H«$Vw§ n[a`pÝV gÚ:Ÿ&(F$H²$ 1/123/4)
AmYw{ZH$ Á`mo{Vf _| gÝÜ`m H$mb 180 _mZm OmVm h¡, {H$ÝVw ^maVr` nwamUm| _|
{XZ `m am{Ì H$m 12dm§ ^mJ =150 gÝÜ`m _mZm J`m h¡Ÿ& `Wm 1200 {Xì` df© Ho$
H${b`wJ _| 100 df© H$s gÝÜ`m h¡Ÿ& Ohm§ gy`m}X` hþAm h¡, Cggo 150 npíM_ VH$
Cfm _mZm Om`oJmŸ& 150 n[a{Y _| 30 Ym_ h¢, AV: 1 Ym_ 10/2 H$m hþAmŸ& `h
ha Ajm§e na AbJ-AbJ hmoJm, {dfwdV aoIm na AmYo A§e H$s Xyar H$mo Ym_
`moOZ H$hm Jm gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
1 Ym_ `moOZ={dfwd-n[a{Y d720 =40,000d720=55.5 {H$._r.Ÿ&
Bg `moOZ _mZ go AmH$me-J“m H$mo na_-namY© H$hm J`m h¡-
F$V§ {n~ÝVm¡ gwH¥$Vñ` bmoHo$,Jwhm§ à{dï>m¡ na_o namY}Ÿ&
N>m`mVnm¡ ~«÷{dXmo dXpÝV,nÄMm¾`mo `o M {ÌUm{MHo$Vm:(H$R> C.1/3/1)
AmH$meJ“m H$s n[a{Y = 105 àH$me df© &
=105 c 1016 d 55.5 = 0.55 c 1017 {H$._r.Ÿ&
(I) Aja-Ym_-gy`© Ho$ 30 Ym_m| H$m AmH$me _| AW© h¡ {H$ n¥Ïdr H$mo 30 ~ma
2 JwUm H$aZo go Omo joÌ hmoJm dhm§ VH$ gy`© H$m àH$me AÝ` Vmam| H$s VwbZm _|
A{YH$ ahVm h¡Ÿ& Bg _mn H$m AmYma n¥Ïdr H$m AmH$ma h¡-
_m N>ÝX:, VV² n¥{Wdr-.. (_¡Ìm`Ur g§.2/14/93, H$mR>H$ g§.39/39)
n¥Ïdr H$mo _mn-XÊS> _mZH$a H«$_e: 2-JwUo AmH$ma Ho$ Ym_ h¡ &§ n¥Ïdr Ho$ ^rVa 3
ñVam| H$mo {JZZo na Ym_-g§»`m N>ÝX Ho$ Aja-g§»`m Ho$ ~am~a hmoVr h¡,
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 27
AV: Bgo Aja-Ym_ Zm_ [X`m J`m h¡(boIH$ Ûmam)Ÿ&
V

3
2 1

AhJ©U 4=2V 5=4V 6=8V

gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m ì`mg = n¥Ïdr ì`mg • 230= 6378.14 {H$._r.• 230 =1.448
àH$me df© (AmYw{ZH$ _mZ 1-2 àH$me df©)
N>ÝXm| Ho$ AZwgma _mn H$aZo Ho$ {b`o n¥Ïdr Ho$ ^rVa Xmo ~mø n¥Ïdr H$s à{V_mê$n
Xmo joÌ _mZo J`o h¢Ÿ&àW_ joÌ n¥Ïdr H$m 1/4 h¡ Omo ~«÷mÊS> H$s à{V_m h¡Ÿ&
{ÛVr` joÌ n¥Ïdr H$m AmYm h¡ Omo gm¡a _ÊS>b Ho$ n¥Ïdr H$s à{V_m h¡Ÿ&VrZ n¥Ïdr
(^y{_, _mVm) VWm VrZ Úw({nVm)-
{Vòmo _mV¥órZ² {nV¥Z² {d^¥XoH$ D$Üd©VñWm¡ Zo_d½bmn`pÝVŸ&
_ÝÌ`ÝVo {Xdmo A_wî` n¥ð>o {díd{_X§ dmM_{díd{_Ýdm_²(F$H²$ 1/123/8)
{Vòmo ^y_rYm©a`Z² ÌréVÚyÝÌr{U d«Vm {dXWo AÝVaofm_²Ÿ&
F$VoZm{XË`m _{h dmo _{hËd§ VX`©_Z² déU {_Ì Mmé(F$H²$ 2/27/8)
n¥Ïdr Ho$ ^rVa 3 bmoH$-
n¥{Wì`m{__o bmoH$m:(n¥Ïdr,AÝV[aj,Úm¡)à{VpîR>Vm:(O¡. ~«m.C.1/10/2)
^rVa Am¡a ~mha n¥Ïdr go _mn-
Vñ`m EVV² n[a{_V§ ê$n§ `XÝVd}{X(^y{nÊS>:) AW¡f ^y_m@n[a{_Vmo `mo
~{hd}[X:(_hmn¥{Wdr)-EoVao` ~«m.(8/5)Ÿ&
n¥Ïdr go {JZZo na Ym_ g§»`m H$mo AhJ©U H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& nÄMm“ JUZm _|
AhJU H$m AW© {XZ g§»`m h¡Ÿ& `hm§ AhJ©U H$m AW© 2 H$m KmV h¡Ÿ& AhJ©U
bå~mB© H$s _mn h¡Ÿ& Cg {ÌÁ`m joÌ Ho$ Jmobo H$m Am`VZ ñVmo_ VWm CgH$s gVh
H$m joÌ\$b n¥ð> H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& n¥Ïdr H$s gVh na Ho$ÝÐ go Vrgam AhJ©U hmoVm h¡
{OgH$s Xyar n¥Ïdr H$s {ÌÁ`m Ho$ ~am~a h¡Ÿ&
AV: H$ AhJ©U=V • 2(H$-3), Ohm§ V = n¥Ïdr H$s {ÌÁ`mŸ&
28 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
AhJ©U _mn go gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m {dñVma 33 h¡; n¥Ïdr Ho$ ^rVa 3 VWm ~mha 30&
BgHo$ àmU XodVm ^r 3 Am¡a 30 AWm©V² 33 H$ho J`o h¢-B{VñVwVmgmoAgWm [agmXemo
`oñW Ì`íM [̧eÀM _ZmoXd} m `{k`mg:(F$H²$8/30/2)Ÿ&
Aï>m¡ dgd EH$mXe éÐm ÛmXe Am{XË`m: àOmn{VíM dfQ²>H$maíMŸ&
(EoVao` ~«m.2/18,3/7,3/22)
Cgr Ho$ AZwgma Aja hmoVo h¢, AV: H$ go h VH$ 33 ì`ÄOZ dU© h¢Ÿ& `h {M• ê$n
_| 33 Xodm| H$m ZJa h¡, AV: {b{n H$mo XodZmJar H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& AhJ©U _mn _|
n¥Ïdr H$s gVh (3 AhJ©U) go gm¡a _ÊS>b H$s gVh (33 AhJ©U) Ho$ joÌ H$mo 6-
6 AhJ©U Ho$ AÝVa go 6 joÌm| _| ~m§Q>m J`m h¡Ÿ& `h 6 dmH²$(eãX `m AmH$me) H$m
n[a_mU h¡, AV: dfQ²>H$ma H$hm J`m h¡-
Ef Ed dfQ²> H$mamo ` Ef:(gy`:© ) Vn{V (eVnW ~«m.1/7/2/11,11/2/
2/5)Ÿ&
dm½d¡ dfQ²>H$mamo f{S>Ë`¥Vdmo d¡ fQ²> Vñ_mXod§ dfQ²>H$amo{V (eVnW ~«m.1/7/2/11)Ÿ&
AmYw{ZH$ Á`mo{Vfr` JUZmAm| Ho$ gyú_V_ _mZ BZ nwñVH$m| _| h¡-
(1)Solar system Dynamics-C.D.Murray, S.F.Dermott-
Cambridge University Press-1998
(2) The Nine Planets, The Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud-
W.Arnett
(3) Appendix of the commn textbook ‘Fundamentals of Phys-
ics’ by Halliday, Resnick and Walker.
(4) Introduction to Cosmology-J.V.Narlikar, Cambridge Uni-
versity Press-First chapter, appendix.
d¡{XH$ gm{hË` _| ha ñWmZ na AhJ©U _mn _| joÌm| H$s _mn h¡Ÿ& n¥Ïdr Ho$ gm_ h¢-
aWÝVa, d¡ê$n, eŠdaŸ& gy`© Ho$ h¢-~¥hV², d¡amO, a¡dVŸ&
`Û¡ aWÝVa§ gÛ¡ê$n§, `X² ~¥hV² VÛ¡amO_²Ÿ& `ÐWÝVa§ VÀN>mŠda_²Ÿ& `X² ~¥hV² VV²
a¡dV_² (EoVao` ~«m.17/7/13)
BgHo$ A{V[aº$ EoVao` ~«m.(19/6/1), V¡{Îmar` ~«m.(1/4/6) ^r XoI|Ÿ&
aWÝVa gm_ Ho$ ñVmo_ h¢-9,15,17,21-àmUmo d¡ {Ìd¥V,² AY©_mg: nÄMXe:,
g§dËga: gáXe, Am{XË` EH$qde§-EVo d¡ ñVmo_m:(VmÊS>`² _.~«m.6/2/2)
17 dm§ ñVmo_ àOmn{V (gy`© {nÊS>) h¡-
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 29
gáXe Ed ñVmo_mo ^d{V à{Vð>m`¡ àOmnË`¡(VmÊS>ç _.~«m.12/6/13)Ÿ&
49 _éV²-gá gá {h _méVm JUm:(7•7=49,dm.`Ow.17/80-85,39/7,
eVnW ~«m.9/3/1/25)
~«÷ Vn: bmoH$ _| h¡ VWm ~«m÷r _| 64 Aja h¢-
~«÷m Vn{g(à{V{ð>V_²)-EoVao` ~«m.(3/6), JmonW ~«m.CÎma(3/2)
{Ìf{ï>: MVw:f{ï>dm© dUm©: eå^w_Vo _Vm:(nm{UZr` {ejm 3)
33 AhJ©U ñdJ©(ZmH$) H$s gr_m h¡-
V_²(Ì`qóe§ ñVmo_§) C ZmH$ BË`mhþ:(VmÊS>ç _.~«m.10/1/18)
N>ÝXmo_m ñVmo_-Jm`Ì_`Z§(24) ^d{V ~«÷dM©gH$m_ñ`, Ì¡ï>w ^_`Z§(44) ^d{V
AmoOñH$m_ñ`, OmJV_`Z§(48) ^d{V newH$m_ñ`(Vm.14/1/10)
VÚÀN>ÝXmo{^{Z©{_©Vm: Vñ_mV² N>ÝXmo_m:(H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m.26/7)Ÿ&
Hy$_© MH«$ H$m AmH$ma 1018 `moOZ h¡Ÿ& e§Hw$=1013 Ÿ&
_mZoZ Vñ` Hy$_©ñ` H$W`m{_ à`ËZV:(7)
e‘>mo: eVghòm{U `moOZm{Z dnw:pñWV_²Ÿ&&
(Zan{V O`M`m©,ñdamoX` _| Hy$_© MH«$)
e‘x> eŠda gm_ H$m AmYma h¡, Bgr _| g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡, {Ogo ~«÷ d¡dÎm© nwamU
àH¥${V IÊS>, AÜ`m` 3 _|> JmobmoH$ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& doX _| `h Hy$_© h¡-
VX² (e‘x> gm_) CgrXpÝV B`{_Ë`_mhþ: (12)Ÿ&
e‘x> ^dË`•mo Y¥Ë`¡ `Ûm AY¥V§ e‘x>Zm VÔmYma(11)-VmÊS>ç _.~«m.11/10
`{X_mZ² bmoH$mZ² àOmn{V: g¥ï>² dXo § gd©_eŠZmoX² VX² eŠdarUm§ eŠdarËd_² (EoVao`
~«m.5/7)
g `ËHy$_m} Zm_m EVÛ¡ ê$n§ H¥$Ëdm àOmn{V: àOm Ag¥OV, `Xg¥OV AH$amoV-² VX²
`X² AH$amoV² Vñ_mV² Hy$_©:(eVnW ~«m.7/5/1/5)Ÿ&
dfQ²>H$ma joÌ-(1) 9 AhJ©U= nm{W©d joÌ `m A{¾_ÊS>b=26 `m 64 {ÌÁ`m
AmYw{ZH$ _mZ go MÝÐ H$s _Ü`_ Xyar=60.27 {ÌÁ`m(55.5-63.25)
(2)15 AhJ©U damh joÌ `m dm`w ^mJ=212 {ÌÁ`m=2.6125•107 {H$._r.Ÿ
n¥Ïdr Am¡a ewH«$ H$jmAm| H$m AÝVa=(150-108)• 106 {H$._r.Ÿ&
AV: damh ^mJ=(26.125•42)•100=62.2%Ÿ&
30 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$

BgHo$ _Ü` ^mJ H$s gy`© go Xyar=150-13=137•106 {H$._r.Ÿ&


dm`w nwamU(6/12) H$o AZwgma damh 100 `moOZ D§$Mm VWm 10 `moOZ {dñVma
H$m h¡Ÿ & 15 AhJ©U H$m damh hmoZo Ho$ H$maU 150 CÎma Ajm§e na {Vén{V _|
^y -damh joÌ h¡Ÿ&
gy`© ì`mg=1.392•106 {H$._r.Ÿ&
AV: damh joÌ H$m _Ü` ^mJ gy`© go àm`: 100 gy`© ì`mg H$s Xyar na h¡Ÿ& 109
gy`© ì`mg H$s Xyar na n¥Ïdr H$jm h¡ Omo 110 ì`mg VH$ OmVr h¡Ÿ&
(3) 21 AhJ©U-Am{XË` `m gy`© joÌ=218 {ÌÁ`m=1672•106 {H$._r.Ÿ&
`h n¥Ïdr H$jm go ~‹S>m h¡ AV: BgH$s _mn gy`© Ho$pÝÐV _mZr Om`oJr & n¥Ïdr H$jm
go _Ü`_ Xyar CgHo$ Ho$ÝÐ gy`© go Xyar hmoJrŸ& e{Z H$jm VH$ gy`© aW H$m MH«$ _mZm
J`m h¡Ÿ, {OgH$s {ÌÁ`m=1430•106 {H$._r.Ÿ& Bg aW H$mo nma H$aZo Ho$ H$maU
Bgo aWÝVa gm_ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ ^rVa 200 CÎma Ajm§e na nwar _| aW `mÌm
hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
BZ VrZ joÌm|-A{¾, dm`w, a{d _| `k AWm©V² g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡, AV: _Zwñ_¥{V (1/
23) _| BZgo `kê$n doX H$s CËn{Îm _mZr J`r h¡Ÿ&
(4) 27 AhJ©U= _¡Ìo` _ÊS>b = n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m • 224=1.07•1011 {H$._r.Ÿ
=gm¡a {ÌÁ`m H$m 1.537•105 JwUmŸ&
àm`: AmYm AhJ©U H$_ na `h gm¡a {ÌÁ`m H$m bmI JwUm `m n¥Ïdr H$m H$mo{Q> JwUm
hmoVm h¡Ÿ& n¥Ïdr go 231/2 AhJ©U A{YH$ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU Bgo _mn Ho$ AZwgma
Jm`Ìr `m g¥{ï> {H«$`m Ho$ H$maU gm{dÌr H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& AV: 24 Aja Ho$ N>ÝX
Jm`Ìr Ûmam bmoH$m| H$s _mn hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
(5) 33 AhJ©U=gm¡a _ÊS>b H$s gr_mŸ& BgH$s {ÌÁ`m=n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m•230
=6.848•1012 {H$._r.=_Ü`_ gm¡a Xyar H$m 45,778.58 JwUmŸ&
AmYw{ZH$ AZw_mZ(1992) Ho$ AZwgma 50 go 100 hOma gy`© Xyar na D$Q>© _oK h¡
Omo gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m JmobmH$ma Qw>H$‹S>m| go ~Zm AmdaU h¡Ÿ& Hw$N> Yy_Ho$Vw `hm§ go
{ZH$bVo h¢Ÿ& BgH$s ~mhar gr_m 34 AhJ©U na àOmn{V hmoJmŸ& 33 AhJ©U Ho$
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 31
~mX gy`© VoO _ao AÊS>o Ho$ g_mZ h¡, AV: 330 CÎma Ajm§e na H$í_ra _| _mÎm©ÊS>
_pÝXa(_Å>Z gmh~) h¡Ÿ&
{Ìïw>n² N>ÝX-gm¡a Ho$ÝÐ go {JZZo na gm¡a _ÊS>b H$mo {Ìïw>n² N>ÝX (11•4 Aja)
Ho$ MaUm| Ho$ AmYma na 11, 22, 33 AhJ©U joÌ _| ~m§Q>m J`m h¡Ÿ&
11 AhJ©U= 16,31,803.4 {H$._r.= gy`© {ÌÁ`m • 2.346
=gy`© H$m Am^m_ÊS>b (Corona)Ÿ&
22 AhJ©U=n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m • 219=3344•106 {H$._r.Ÿ& `yaZo g H$jm H$s {ÌÁ`m
2870•106 {H$._r.h¡, AV: `h ^mJdV d{U©V MH«$mH$ma n¥Ïdr H$m AmbmoH$
^mJ h¡Ÿ&{Ìïw>n² N>ÝX H$m nyU© _mn _hbm}H$ h¡Ÿ& {Ìïw>n² N>ÝX Ho$ 44 Ajam| Ho$ ~Xbo
_mhoída gyÌ Ho$ 43 Aja boZm Á`mXm C{MV hmoJmŸ&
AV:, _hbm}H$ H$s {ÌÁ`m = n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m • 240=7.013•1015 {H$._r.
= 741.28 àH$me df©©Ÿ&
`h AmH$meJ“m H$s gnm©H$ma ^wOm H$s _moQ>mB© h¡ Ohm§ gy`© pñWV h¡Ÿ& Bg {ÌÁ`m Ho$
joÌ _| àm`: 1000 Vmao h¢ {Og_| EH$ Vmao gy`© Ho$ joÌ _o§ ~hþV N>moQ>o H$U Ho$ g_mZ
n¥Ïdr h¡Ÿ& AmH$meJ“m H$s gnm©H$ma ^wOm H$mo hr eofZmJ H$hm J`m h¡, {OgHo$
hOma {gam| (gy`©) _| go EH$ na n¥Ïdr h¡Ÿ&
N>ÝXmo_m ñVmo_-AmH$me-J“m H$s _mn N>ÝXm| `m ñVmo_ go h¡Ÿ& Jm`Ìr N>ÝX gy`©
H$m gm{dÌ `m _¡Ì`o _ÊS>b h¡Ÿ& {Ìïw>n² _hbm}H$ h¡Ÿ& OJVr N>ÝX ~«÷mÊS> h¡Ÿ& BgHo$
48 Ajam| Ho$ ~Xbo 49 _éV² Ho$ H$maU 49 AhJ©U boZo Mm{h`oŸ&
~«÷mÊS> `m AmH$me-J“m H$s {ÌÁ`m=n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m • 246
=4.488 • 1017 {H$._r.=47,441.65 àH$me df©Ÿ&
AmYw{ZH$ AZw_mZ àm`: 50,000 àH$me df© h¡Ÿ&
~«÷mÊS> go ~‹S>o ñVa-~«÷mÊS> H$m Am^m_ÊS>b, JmobmoH$ `m Hy$_©-MH«$ H$m {dñVma
A{VOJVr N>ÝX Ho$ 52 Aja h¢Ÿ&
BgH$s {ÌÁ`m=n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m • 249 =3.59• 1018 {H$._r.=3,79,533 àH$me
df© (AmYw{ZH$ AZw_mZ 4-5 bmI àH$me df©=52.5 AhJ©U)
~«÷mÊS> Ho$ 49 AhJ©U Ho$ AZwgma XodZmJar {b{n _| 49 Aja h¢ VWm Hy$_©
32 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
=H$Îmm© `m joÌk Ho$ {b`o 3 A{V[aº$ j,Ì,k h¢Ÿ&
eŠdar N>ÝX Ho$ 56 AhJ©U ñWmZr` g_yh(Local clusture) h¡Ÿ&
BgH$s {ÌÁ`m=n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m • 1053=5.745 • 1019 {H$._r.
=5.96•106 àH$me df© =1.82 _oJmnagoH$&
AmYw{ZH$ AZw_mZ 2.5 _oJmnagoH$ `m 56.4 AhJ©U h¡Ÿ&
A{Ve¹$ar = 60 AhJ©U= n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m • 1057=29.78 _oJmnagoH$Ÿ (àm`:
970 bmI àH$me df©)Ÿ& ñWmZr` ~¥hV² g_yh (Local Super Clusture) H$s
{ÌÁ`m àm`: 25 _oJmnagoH$ AZw_m{ZV h¡Ÿ&
A{ï>(64 AhJ©U) Bggo 16 JwUm ~‹S>m àm`: 476.5 _oJmnagoH$ hmoJmŸ& 50-
100 _o.n.{ÌÁ`m Ho$ eyÝ`ñWmZ VWm ~¥hV² AmH$f©H$ H$m AmH$ma h¡Ÿ& àm`:1000
_oJmnagoH$ Šdmga H$s Xyar h¡Ÿ&
AË`{ï> =68 AhJ©U=2.353 • 1023 {H$._r.=2.487•1010 àH$me-df©Ÿ&
BgH$m AmYm ^mJ n¥Ïdr gVh go 64 AhJ©U na h¡ AWm©V² 12.44 Aa~ àH$me df©
H$s Xyar naŸ& ~«m÷r [b{n Ho$ 63 `m 64 dUm] Ho$ H$maU `h Vn: bmoH$ H$m AmH$ma
h¡Ÿ& ~«÷m H$m 8.64 Aa~ df© H$m AhmoamÌ 63.5 AhJ©U Xya hmoJmŸ& `h Vn:
bmoH$ `m AmYw{ZH$ ^mfm _| Ñí` OJV² H$s gr_m h¡Ÿ {OgH$m AmYw{ZH$ AZw_mZ 8
go 15 Aa~ àH$me df© VH$ H$m h¡Ÿ& Y¥{V 72 AhJ©U H$m h¡ Omo gË`bmoH$ `m
ñd`å^y _ÊS>b H$m H$mën{ZH$ _mZ h¡Ÿ&
(5) gm¡a `moOZ-gm¡a _ÊS>b H$s _mn Ho$ {b`o gm¡a ì`mg H$mo hr `moOZ _mZm J`m
h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ AZwgma gm¡a _ÊS>b _§o éÐ _y{Îm© dm_Z gy`© {nÊS> h¡ {OgH$m ì`mg
13,92,000 {H$._r. h¡Ÿ& gm¡ ì`mg H$s Xyar na damh h¡ {OgHo$ 10 `moOZ _moQ>o
eara _| 1/109 `moOZ H$s n¥Ïdr h¡Ÿ& `hm§ éÐ joÌ emÝV hmo OmVm h¡, AV: Bgo
eVé{Ð`(emÝV=eV=100) H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& 100 VH$ Vmn VWm 1000 `moOZ
VH$ apí_ joÌ h¡Ÿ& dhm§ e{Z H$m Ho$ nmg gy`© Vm_«-AéU a§J H$m XrIVm hŸ¡& `hm§
VH$ Am{XË` H$m _w»` joÌ h¡ Š`m|{H$ BpÝÐ`m| Ûmam BÝÐ joÌ VH$ H$m hr AZw^d
hmoVm h¡Ÿ& BÝÐ H$mo ghòmj H$hm J`m h¡, VWm gy`© Aj h¡-
Mjmo: gy`m} AOm`V(nwéf gyº$-13)Ÿ& Aj H$m AW© Mjw(Am§I) VWm Ywar
(Axis) XmoZm| hmoVm h¡Ÿ& AV: gy`© H$mo Ywar `m Ho$ÝÐ _mZH$a Cggo ghò
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 33
(1000) Aj H$s Xyar na BÝÐ hmoJmŸ& CgHo$ ~mX bj ì`mg VH _¡Ì`o _ÊS>b
hmoJmŸ& BZHo$ CXmhaU h¢-
Vmn-joÌ-eV`moOZo h dm Ef (Am{XË`) BVñVn{V (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m.8/3)
g Ef (Am{XË`:) EH$eV{dYñVñ` aeV_`: eV§ {dYm Ef Ed¡H$eVV_mo `
Ef Vn{V(eVnW ~«m.10/2/4/3)
VÚXoV§ eVerfm©U§ éÐ_oVZo me_`§ñVñ_ÀN>Verf©éÐe_Zr`§ eVerf©éÐ e_Zr`§
h d¡ VÀN>Vé{Ð`{_ñ`mMjVo namo@j_²(eVnW ~«m.9/1/1/7)
apí_-joÌ-`wº$m øñ`(BÝÐñ`) ha`: eVmXeo{VŸ& ghò§ h¡V Am{Xñ`ñ`
aí_`:(BÝÐ:=Am{XË`:)-O¡{_Zr` ~«m.C.(1/44/5)
Vm_«-AéU a§J-Agm¡ `ñVm_«mo AéU CV ~^«:w gw_“b:Ÿ&
`o M¡Z§ éÐm A{^Vmo {Xjw {lVm:ghòemo@d¡fm§ hoS> B©_hoŸ&&(dm.`Ow.16/6)
gy`© H$m aW 9,000 `moOZ H$m h¡ AWm©V² CgH$s {ÌÁ`m 4,500 ì`mg `moOZ h¡Ÿ
(àm`: ßbyQ>mo H$jm VH$)Ÿ& CgH$m B©fmXÊS> BgH$m XyZm h¡ AWm©V² dmb{Ië` ZjÌm|
H$s gr_m-BZH$m _Ü`_ _mZ 6750 `moOZ `m gy`© go àm`: 60 JwUm Xyar H$r
ZjÌ-H$jm(gy`{© gÕmÝV 12/80) h¡Ÿ& BZH$s CËn{Îm H«$Vw(`k) go hþ`r h¡ {OgH$m
joÌ 27 AhJ©U=n¥Ïdr {ÌÁ`m • 224 =76,876 ì`mgŸ& gy`© aW H$m {dñVma 157
bmI `moOZ = 2.310 àH$me df© h¡Ÿ& AmYw{ZH$ Á`mo{Vf _| dmb{Ië` ZjÌm| Hmoo
Hw$Bna db`(Kuiper Belt) VWm gm¡a _ÊS>b H$s gr_m H$mo dyQ>© _oK (Woort
Cloud) H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
(6) àH$me `moOZ-AmH$me _| n¥Ïdr H$mo hr ghòXb H$_b H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ(n¥ï>
25-^y `moOZ)& BgHo$ 1 Xb AWm©V² ì`mg Ho$ hOmad| ^mJ H$mo àH$me {OVZo
g_` _| nma H$aVm h¡ Cg g_` H$mo Ìw{Q> H$hm J`m h¡-
H$_bXbZ Vwë`: H$mb Cº$ów{Q>ñVÀN>V{_h bdg§kñVÀN>V§ ñ`m{Þ_of:Ÿ&
(dQ>ío da {gÕmÝV,_Ü`_m{YH$ma,7)
`mo@úUmo{Z©_fo ñ` Iam_ ^mJ: g VËnañVÀN>V ^mJ Cº$mŸ&
Ìw{Q>{Z©_of¡Y¥©{V{^íM H$mð>m VV² qÌeVm gX²JUH¡$: H$bmoº$mŸ&&
({gÕmÝV {eamo_{U,_Ü`_m{YH$ma,26)
OmbmH©$ aíå`dJV: I_odmZwnVÞJmV²Ÿ&
34 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
ÌgaoUw {ÌH§$ ^wL>² º$o `: H$mb: g Ìw{Q>: ñ_¥V:(^mJdV nw.3/11/5)
n¥Ïdr H$s n[a{Y àm`: 3000 Ìw{Q> hmoJr Omo {Z_of Ho$ ~am~a h¡Ÿ& ~«÷m H$s g¥{ï>
H$m AmYma `m nX(nÙ) n¥Ïdr h¡, Bgo _Ë`© ~«÷m H$hVo h¢, ñdm`å^wd A_¥V ~«÷
h¡Ÿ-nX²ä`m§ ^y{_:(nwéf gyº$,13)Ÿ& `hr gy`© ê$nr {dîUw H$m Zm{^-H$_b h¡Ÿ&
AV: {dîUw Ho$ 1 {Z_of _| ~«÷m H$s 2 namÕ© Am`w nyar hmoVr h¡-
H$mbmo@`§ {ÛnamYm©»`mo {Z_ofmo CnM`©VoŸ&
Aì`mH¥$V ñ`mZÝVñ` AZmXoOJ© XmË_Z:Ÿ&(^mJdV nw.3/11/37)Ÿ&
Ìw{Q> goH$ÊS> H$m 33,750 ^mJ h¡Ÿ&1 goH$ÊS> _| àH$me 2,99,792.456 {H$._r.
OmVm h¡Ÿ& AV: àH$me `moOZ= 299792.456•33750=8.88274 {H$._r.Ÿ&
gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m à[Vê$n _Zwî` eara _| {dkmZ AmË_m h¡ Omo öX` _| ahH$a ~w{Õ
H$m {Z`ÝÌU H$aVr h¡Ÿ&~«÷aÝY« ê$nr AUwnW go hmoH$a gy`© VH$ àH$me Ho$ _hmnW
go BgH$m gånH©$ hmoVm h¡Ÿ(n¥ð> 11,12)& `h gånH©$ àH$me H$s J{V go 8 {_ZQ>
_| gy`© VH$ nhþM§ Jo mŸ& AV: F H²$ (3/53/8) _| H$hm J`m h¡ [H$ `h EH$ _whÎÿ m©
_| 3 ~ma gy`© VH$ OmH$a bm¡Q>Vm h¡Ÿ& Bgr AW© _| Am{XË`([Og joÌ go gy`© H$s
CËn{Îm hþ`r-Am{X hþAm) H$mo gådËga H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& Ohm§ VH$ 1 df© `m gådËga
_| àH$me OmVm h¡ dh 1 àH$me df© H$m gy`© Ho$pÝÐV joÌ Am{XË` h¡Ÿ-
g§dËga: ñdJm© (gm¡a joÌ) -H$ma:(V¡{Îmar` ~«m.2/1/5/2)
dmH²$(=gy`© joÌ) g§dËga:(VmÊS>ç _.~«m.10/12/7)
Bg àOmn{V _| hr Xod CËnÞ hmoVo h¢-g§dËga: àOmn{V:(eVnW ~«m.1/6/
3/35,10/2/6/1,EoVao` ~«m.1/1,13,28;2/17,4/25 ,Am{X)
g§dËgamo d¡ XodmZm§ OÝ_(eVnW ~«m.8/7/3/21)Ÿ&
BgHo$ ~mX déU joÌ h¡-g§dËgamo déU:(eVnW ~«m.4/4/5/18 Am{X)
~«÷m Ho$ AhmoamÌ _| àH$me Ohm§ VH$ OmVm dh Ñí` OJV² `m Vn:bmoH$ h¡Ÿ&
~«÷m Vn{g(à{V{ð>V_²)-(EoVao` ~«m.3/6,JmonW~«m.C.3/2)
Vnmo@{g bmoHo$ {lV_²Ÿ& VoOg: à{Vð>mŸ&(V¡{Îmar` ~«m.3/11/1/2)
(7) à_mU `moOZ-nwamU({dîUw2/7,~«÷mÊS> 3/6,7, dm`w, ~«÷ Am{X) _|
bmoH$m| H$s _mn Bg àH$ma h¡-
^ybmoH$-ghò `moOZŸ&
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 35
^wd: bmoH$-1 bmI `moOZŸ&
ñd: bmoH$=gy`-© aW 157 bmI `moOZ `m AÝ` _mn go gy`-© Y«dw Xyar 14 bmIŸ&
_hbm}H$-1 H$mo{Q> `moOZ {ÌÁ`mŸ&
OZ: bmoH$-2 H$mo{Q> `moOZ {ÌÁ`mŸ&
Vn:bmoH$-8 H$mo{Q> `moOZ {ÌÁ`mŸ&
gË` bmoH$-12 H$mo{Q> `moOZ {ÌÁ`mŸ&
n«W_ 3 H$¥VH$ (doX H$r amoXgr) {ÌbmoH$s h¢, CZH$m _Ü` `m AÝV[aj ^wd: bmoH$
h¡Ÿ& ApÝV_ 3 AH¥$VH$ (g§`Vr) {ÌbmoH$s h¢, CZH$m _Ü` `m AÝV[aj Vn: bmoH$
h¡Ÿ& XmoZm| {ÌbmoH$s Ho$ ~rM _h: ^r AÝV[aj bmoH$ h¡Ÿ& VrZ AÝV[ajm| Ho$ nyd© Ho$
bmoH$m| ^y:, ñd:, VWm OZ: bmoH$m| H$mo n¥{Wdr H$hm Om`oJm VWm CZHo$ ~mX ñd:,
OZ:, gË` H$mo ñd: H$hm Om`oJmŸ&
N>ÝX H«$_ _| _m H$mo n¥{Wdr VWm à_m H$mo AÝV[aj H$hm J`m h¡-
_m N>ÝX:,VV² n¥{Wdr..Ÿ& à_m N>ÝX:,VXÝV[aj_²Ÿ&(_¡Ìm`Ur g§.2/14/93,
H$mR>H$ g§.39/39)Ÿ&
O¡Z-doX H$r EH$Vm-BgHo$ AZwgma O¡Z Á`mo{Vf _| (Jain Astronomy-By
Sajjan Singh Lishk-Vidya Sagara Pulication,B-5/263, Yamuna
Vihar, Delhi-53-Pages28,29)-
1 à_mU `moOZ=500 AmË_m `moOZ= 1000 CËgoY `moOZŸ&
`hm§ gy`© {nÊS> H$mo AmË_m _mZZm Mm{h`o-
gy`© AmË_m OJVñVñWwfíMŸ&(dm.`Ow.7/42)
CgHo$ ~mX H$m AÝV[aj à_m h¡ {OgH$s _mn à_mU `moOZ _| hmoJrŸ& Bgr àH$ma
àË`oH$ bmoH$ H$s EH$ AmË_m h¡, _mn Ho$ {b`o CgH$m AJbm bmoH$ AÝV[aj hmoJm,
{OgH$s _mn 500 JwUm ~‹S>o à_mU `moOZ _| hmoJrŸ& CËgoY `moOZ AmË_m Ho$
1000 IÊS> h¢, O¡go n¥Ïdr ì`mg H$m 1000 ^mJ CËgoY `moOZ hmoJmŸ& Bgr àH$ma
gy`© {nÊS> Am{X H$o 1000 ^mJ H$mo ^r CËgoY `moOZ _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& `hm§ 3
n¥Ïdr h¢ Omo gy`-© MÝÐ go àH$m{eV h¡-§ 1. gy`-© MÝÐ XmoZm| go àH$m{eV n¥ÏdrŸ&2.gy`©
go àH$m{eV gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m _¡Ì`o `m `k ^mJŸ& 3.gy`© àH$me H$s ApÝV_ gr_m
~«÷mÊS>Ÿ(n¥ð> 6-{dîUw nw.1/2/3-4,gy`© {gÕmÝV 12/86, F$H²$ doX 1/
164/10,2/27/8-n¥ð> 26)&
36 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
`hm§ O¡Z Á`mo{Vf Ho$ AmYma na d¡{XH$ AW© Am¡a nm¡am{UH$ _mn boZo na Amn{Îm
hmo gH$Vr h¡ {H$ do nañna {déÕ h¢Ÿ& dmñVd _| do EH$ hr dñVw H$m AbJ-AbJ
n«g§Jm| _| dU©Z H$a aho h¢Ÿ& ñd`§ doX VWm nwamU _| EH$ _mn H$m àg§Jde H$B© AWm]
_| à`moJ {H$`m J`m h¡-(1) nwéf-gyº$-1 _| ^y{_ g§nU y © {díd H$mo H$hm J`m h¡
VWm CgH$m 10 JwUm n¥Ïdr H$mo H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& `hm§ {díd hr 1 A§Jwb h¡Ÿ& `hm§
_Zwî` A§Jwb CgH$s VwbZm _| ZJÊ` hmoJm Am¡a CgH$m H$moB© AW© Zht h¡Ÿ&
(2) gyú_ AÝVamË_m H$mo ^r A§Jðw > AmH$ma H$m H$hm J`m h¡ (ídoVmídVa> C. 4/
21, 5/8; H$R> C.6/17,4/12; _¡Ìm`Ur Am.6/38)(3) g^r bmoH$m| H$m
AmH$ma 1 {dVpñV([~Îmm) H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& `h {ZpíMV ê$n go _Zwî` hmW H$m Zht
h¡ VWm g^r bmoH$m| Ho$ {b`o AbJ-AbJ h¡-
¹$mh§ V_mo _hXh§ IMam{¾dm^y:© g§d{o ï>VmÊS> KQ> gá-{dVpñV-H$m`:Ÿ&
(^mJdV10/14/11)
(3) AmH$me _| g^r {nÊS> JmobmH$ma h¢Ÿ& {H$ÝVw nwñVH$ Ho$ n¥ð> na Cgo g_Vb _|
d¥ÎmmH$ma {XIm`m OmVm h¡Ÿ& EH$ Jmobo H$s _mn(Map) Xmo d¥Îmm| Ûmam hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
nwñVH$ Ho$ {b`o O¡Z Á`mo{Vf _| 2-2 gy`©,MÝÐ, 27•2 ZjÌ {XIm`o OmVo h¡§Ÿ&
n¥Ïdr gVh na gy`© J{V CÎma _| H$H©$ aoIm VH$ hmoVr h¡, MÝÐ Cggo 50 A§e CÎma
VH$ OmVm h¡Ÿ& AV: Bg nÕ{V go nwamUm| _| ^r MÝÐ H$mo gy`© Ho$ D$na H$m J`m h¡Ÿ&
O¡go Á`mo{Vof _| H$hm Om` {H$ {Xëbr go _Wwam 30 `moOZ h¡, Cgo `{X 240
{H$._r. H$hm Om` Vmo Cg_| H$moB© {damoY Zht h¡Ÿ&
(4) O¡Z Y_© F$f^ Xod Ûmam Amaå^ hþAm Wm Omo Hy$_©, dm`w nwamUm| _| 11d| ì`mg
H$ho J`o h¢Ÿ& AV: O¡Z emóm| H$m AÝVa Hw$N> H$mën{ZH$ h¡, Hw$N> ~mX _| AnZr
{deofVm {XImZo Ho$ {b`o ~Zm`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
(5) _hbm}H$ gm¡a _ÊS>b go ~‹S>m h¡ Bgr{b`o _h: H$hm OmVm h¡ na CgH$m
AmH$ma gm¡a go N>moQ>m H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
~‹S>o bmoH$-_Zwî` Ho AZwnmV _| Omo n¥Ïdr H$m AmH$ma h¡, n¥Ïdr Ho$ AZwnmV _|
CgHo$ AmH$me H$m dhr AmH$ma hmoJmŸ({dîUw nw.1/2/7/4)Ÿ& n¥Ïdr Ho$ Mmamo
Va\$ H«$_e: dm`w Ho$ 10-10 JwUo 7 ñVa h¢Ÿ& AV: CgH$m AmH$ma n¥Ïdr H$m H$mo{Q>
(107) JwUm hmoJmŸ& d¡go ^r Á`mo{Vf J«ÝWm| _o§ n¥Ïdr H$m AmH$ma ñnï> ê$n go {X`m
J`m h¡ Omo _Zwî` H$m H$mo{Q> JwUm h¡Ÿ& AWm©V²-
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 37
107= n¥Ïdr ì`mg = _¡Ì`o _ÊS>b = ~«÷mÊS = ñd`å^y _ÊS>b
_Zwî` n¥Ïdr ì`mg _¡Ì`o _ÊS>b ~«÷mÊS
1 bmI ^y `moOZ H$m gm¡a _¡Ì`o _ÊS>b h¡-BgHo$ 2 AW© h¢-n¥Ïdr Ho$ ì`mg H$mo
1000 `moOZ _mZZo na gy`© H$m ì`mg 1 bmI `moOZ h¡Ÿ& AWdm, gy`© {nÊS> go
Amaå^ H$a Cg ì`mg H$m 1 bmI JwUm Xyar VH$ _¡Ì`o _ÊS>b h¡Ÿ& gy`© {nÊS> H$m
CËgoY `moOZ CgH$m hOma ^mJ hmoJm, Cg _mn go gy`© go 1 bmI `moOZ na MÝÐ
H$jm h¡Ÿ& MÝÐ H$s VwbZm _| 1 bmI JwUm Xyar na(60,000 gy`© ì`mg) ZjÌ
_ÊS>b (gm¡a H$m dmb{Ië`) h¡Ÿ&
ZjÌ _ÊS>b H$m Ho$ÝÐ gy`© h¡Ÿ& dhm§ go ~wY, ewH$« , _§Jb, Jwé, e{Z H$mo H«$_e: 2-
2 bmI `moOZ Xyar na H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& gy`© go BZ J«hm| H$s Xyar boZo na 1 `moOZ H«
_e: 290, 270, 380, 973, 1430 {H$._r. hmoJmŸ& 2-2 J«hm| Ho$ ~rM H$m ^mJ
boZo na 1 `moOZ 290, 250, 600, 2750, 3260 {H$._r. h¡Ÿ& `h {H$gr H«$_ _|
Zht h¡ VWm {g\©$ {MÌ H$s g_ê$nVm {XImZo Ho$ {b`o ~Zm`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
gy`© aW H$m dU©Z gm¡a ì`mg H$s BH$mB© _| h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ ~mX AÝV[aj bmoH$m| _| `moOZ
_mZ H«$_e: 500 JwUm ~‹T>mZo na bmoH$m| H$m AmH$ma h¡-
_hbm}H$ {ÌÁ`m = 1 H$mo{Q> `moOZ = 107 • 500 gy`© ì`mg
= 6.96 • 1015 {H$._r. = 735 àH$me df©Ÿ&
gy`© go Y«yd(Jmobo H$m Y«wd, Vmam Zht) H$s Xyar VH$ gm¡a _ÊS>b h¡Ÿ& `h 500 n¥Ïdr
ì`mg H$s BH$mB© _| 14 bmI `mo O Z h¡ =14•10 5 •500• n¥ Ï dr
ì`mg=8.92•1012 {H$._r. = 0.49 àH$me df©Ÿ&
_hbm}H$ go OZ: bmoH$ 2 JwUm VWm 500 JwUm ~‹S>r BH$mB© _| h¡Ÿ&
OZ: bmoH$ H$s {ÌÁ`m=6.96•1018 {H$._r.=73,500 àH$me df©Ÿ&
Vn: bmoH$ H$s {ÌÁ`m 500 JwUm ~‹S>r BH$mB© _| OZ: bmoH$ H$m 4 JwUm AWm©V² 8
H$mo{Q> `moOZ h¡Ÿ& 14.7 H$mo{Q> àH$me df©© `m 45.1 _oJm nagoH$ {ÌÁ`m H$m joÌ
ñWmZr` gwna ŠbñMa H$s Xyar h¡Ÿ&
gË` bmoH$ Bggo 500 JwUm ~‹S>r BH$mB© _| 12 H$mo{Q> `moOZ AWm©V² 98 Aa~ àH$me
df© h¡Ÿ&
38 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
nwéf-gyº$(1) Ho$ AZwgma nwéf {díd go 10 JwUm ~‹S>m h¡, AV: Ñí` OJV² H$s
{ÌÁ`m 9.8 Aa~ àH$me df© hmoJrŸ&
_mn-gmaUr-(1) ^wd: bmoH$-(H$) n¥Ïdr Ho$pÝÐV 10 gy`© ì`mg H$m damhŸ&
(I) n¥Ïdr • 2 12 (J) gy`© Ho$pÝÐV 4500 `moOZ Xyar VH$ aW `m XyZm ~‹S>m
B©fmXÊS>Ÿ&
damh 5 àH$ma Ho$ h¢-(H$) Am{X damh-`h ag ê$n ~«÷ h¡ {Oggo ñd`å^y
_ÊS>b ~Zm h¡Ÿ&(I) `k damh-`h Hy$_© MH«$ `m JmobmoH$ H$m nydê© $n h¡ {Oggo
na_oð>r _ÊS>b Ho$ gmW `k H$m Amaå^ hþAmŸ&(J) ídoV damh-Am{XË` joÌ(`m
CgH$m B©fm XÊS>) h¡ {Oggo gm¡a _ÊS>b ~ZmŸ&(K) ^y damh- n¥Ïdr Ho$ 4000
JwUm ~‹S>m joÌ {OgHo$ nXmW© (_Yw-H¡$Q>^ H$m _oX) go n¥Ïdr ~ZrŸ (L>) E_yf damh
-n¥Ïdr Ho$ Mmam| Va\$ H$m dm`w_ÊS>b {OgH$s C§MmB© {ÌÁ`m H$m 24dm§ ^mJ h¡Ÿ&
(2) gm¡a¡ _ÊS>b-(H$) 1 àH$me df© (g§dËga) {ÌÁ`m H$m gy`© Ho$pÝÐV JmobmŸ&
(I) gy`© ì`mg H$m 157 bmI JwUm ~‹S>mŸ&
(J) 500 n¥Ïdr ì`mg H$m 14 bmI JwUm {ÌÁ`mŸ&
(K) n¥Ïdr Ho$ ~mha H«$_e: 10-10 JwUo ~‹S>o dm`w Ho$ 7 ñVaŸ&
(L>) n¥Ïdr H$m 2 30 JwUmŸ&
(M) n¥Ïdr H$m H$mo{Q> JwUm _¡Ì`o _ÊS>bŸ(gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m {H«$`mË_H$ ^mJ)&
(3) _hbm}H$-(H$) 500 gy`© ì`mg H$m H$mo{Q> JwUm {ÌÁ`mŸ&
(I) eof ZmJ Ho$ 1000 {ga `m gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m 1000 JwUmŸ&
(J) n¥Ïdr • 2 40 Ÿ&
(K) ^y VWm gË`(10 20 JwUm) H$m _Ü` `m 1010 JwUm ~‹S>mŸ&
(4) OZ:bmoH$(AmH$me-J§Jm)-
(H$) gy`©{gÕmÝV _| 1.87•1016 ^-`moOZ(=216 {H$._r.)Ÿ&
(I) n¥Ïdr • 2 46, JmobmoH$ `m Hy$_©= n¥Ïdr • 2 49Ÿ&
(J) _¡Ì`o _ÊS>b `m gm{dÌr H$m 224=107 JwUmŸ&
(K) Zan{V O`M`m© _| Hy$_©-MH«$=10 18 `moOZŸ&
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 37
(L>) 55.5 {H$._r. Ho$ Ym_ `moOZ go n[a{Y=0.5• 1017 (namY©) `moOZŸ&
(M) 500•500 gy`© ì`mg H$o `moOZ go 2 H$mo{Q> `moOZ {ÌÁ`mŸ&
(5) Vn:bmoH$-(H$) n¥Ïdr H$m 2 64 JwUmŸ&
(I) 500 3 gy`© ì`mg go 8 H$mo{Q> `moOZ [ÌÁ`mŸ&
(J) ~«÷m H$o AhmoamÌ 864 H$mo{Q> àH$me df© H$s {ÌÁ`mŸ&
(K) n¥Ïdr H$jm = Vn bmoH$
n¥Ïdr AmH$meJ“m
(6) gË`bmoH$-(H$) AmH$meJ“m • 2 24 (`m 10 7 )
(I) 500 4 gy`© ì`mg go 12 H$mo{Q> `moOZ {ÌÁ`mŸ&
(J) $_hbm}H • n¥Ïdr = gË`bmoH$• _hbm}H Ÿ= 1014 &
(4) gyú_ _mn-n¥îR> 20 na damh{_{ha H$s ~¥hËg§{hVm Ho$ g~go N>mQo >o _mn
dmbmJ« H$m AmH$ma 4 _mBH«$moZ {X`m J`m h¡Ÿ& `hm§ g~go N>moQ>m _mn hr na_mUw
H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw na_mUw H$m dmñV{dH$ AmH$ma ^r O¡Z Am¡a ~m¡Õ J«ÝWm| _|
{X`m J`m h¡Ÿ& na_mUw go N>mQo >o _ÊS>b H«$_e: 1 bmI ^mJ N>mQo >o h¡,§ AV: CZH$m
_mnXÊS> ^r Cgr AZwnmV _| N>mQo >m hmoZm Mm{h`o, {H$ÝVw CgH$m CXmhaU Zht
{_bmŸ& àg§J go bJVm h¡ {H$ g^r N>moQ>o _mnm| H$mo A“xð> H$hm OmVm Wm Am¡a CZHo$
IÊS> H$m AmH$ma ~Vm`m OmVm WmŸ&
(5) H$mb Ho$ 9 _mZ-gy`© {gÕmÝV (14/1) Ho$ AZwgma 9 àH$ma Ho$ H$mb
_mZ h¢- ~«m÷§ {nÍ`§ VWm {Xì`§ n«mOmnË`§ M Jm¡ad_²Ÿ&
gm¡a§ gmdZ§ MmÝÐ_mjª _mZm{Z d¡ ZdŸ&&
~‹S>o _mZ go Amaå^ H$aZo na BZH$m H«$_ h¡-~«m÷,àmOmnË`, {Xì`, Jwé, MmÝÐ,
gm¡a, gmdZ, ZmjÌŸ&{dîUw nwamU(1/5/19-25) _| 9 gJ© H$ho J`o h¡ -§
àmH¥$V-1._hÎmËd, 2.VÝ_mÌm, 3.d¡H$m[aH$ (BpÝÐ` gå~ÝYr)&
d¡H$¥ V- 4._w»` (nd©V d¥j Am{X ñWmda), 5.{V`©H²$òmoV (H$sQ>-nV§J Am{X),
6. D$Üd© òmoV (XodgJ©), 7.Adm©H$² òmoV(_Zwî`-gJ©),8.AZwJh« gJ©(gmpËdH$
Am¡a Vm_{gH$)Ÿ&
àmH¥$V VWm d¡H$¥ V-9.H$m¡_ma gJ©Ÿ&
40 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
^mJdV nwamU(3/10) _| Aì`º$ H$mo {_bm H$a 10 gJm] H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
gJ© Ho$ gmW VwbZm H$aZm H${R>Z h¡Ÿ& 9 H$mb_mZ g¥{ï> Ho$ {d{^Þ MH«$m| Ho$ _mn
h¢Ÿ& gy`© {gÕmÝV(1/10) _| Xmo àH$ma Ho$ H$mbm| H$m dU©Z h¡-{ZË`, OÝ`-
bmoH$mZm_ÝVH¥$ËH$mb: H$mbmo@Ý`: H$bZmË_H$:Ÿ&
BZH$s {deX ì`m»`m {VÏ`m{X VÎd _| h¡-
AZm{X{ZYZ: H$mbmo éÐ: g§H$f©U: ñ_¥V:Ÿ&
H$bZmV² gd©^Vy mZm§ g H$mb: n[aH$s{Îm©V: Ÿ&&
H$mbñVw {Ì{dYmo ko`mo@VrVmo@ZmJV Ed MŸ&
dÎm©_mZñV¥Vr`ñVw dú`m{_ ûm¥Uw bjU_²Ÿ&
H$mb: H$b`Vo {díd§ VoZ H$mbmo@{^Yr`VoŸ&&
H$mbñ` deJm: gd} Xod{f© {gÕ {H$Þam:Ÿ&
H$mbmo {h ^JdmZ² Xod: g gmjmV² na_oída:Ÿ&&
gJ© nmbZ g§hÎmm© g H$mb: gd©V; g_:Ÿ&
H$mboZ H$ë`Vo {díd§ VoZ H$mbmo@{^Yr`VoŸ&&
`oZmoËn{ÎmíM Om`oV `oZ d¡ H$ë`Vo H$bmŸ&
gmo@ÝVdÀM ^doV² H$mbmo OJXwËn{Îm-H$maH$:Ÿ&&
`: H$_m©{U àní`oV àH$f} dÎm©_mZHo$Ÿ&
gmo@{n àdÎm©H$mo ko`: H$mb: ñ`mV² à{VnmbH$:Ÿ&&
`oZ _¥Ë`w de§ `m{V H¥$V§ `oZ b`§ d«OoV²Ÿ&
g§hÎmm© gmo@{n {dko`: H$mb: ñ`mV² H$bZmna:Ÿ&&
H$mb: g¥O{V ^yVm{Z H$mb: g§haVo àOm:Ÿ&
H$mb: ñd{n{V OmJ{Îm© H$mbmo {h Xwa{VH«$_:Ÿ&&
H$mbo Xodm {dZí`pÝV H$mbo Amgwa nÞJm:Ÿ&
ZaoÝÐm: gd©OrdmíM H$mbo gdª {dZí`{VŸ&&
{ÌH$mbmV² naVmo ko` AmJÝVwJ©V-Moï>H$:Ÿ&
VWm dfm© {h_moîUm»`mó`: H$mbm B_o _Vm:Ÿ&&
VWm Ì`mo@Ý`o@{n ko`m CÚÝ_Ü`mñVê${nU:Ÿ&
gyú_mo@{n gd©J: g d¡ ì`º$mX²ì`º$Va: ew^:Ÿ&&
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 41
g§jno _|-{ZË` H$mb bmoH$m| H$m jaU H$aVm h¡ , AV: _¥Ë`w ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
OÝ` H$mb `k H$o MH«$s` H«$_ H$s _mn h¡ Am¡a Bggo JUZm H$s OmVr h¡Ÿ& BgHo$
A{V[aº$ JrVm _| Aj` H$mb ^r H$hm J`m h¡ , Omo Aì`` nwéf H$m H$mb h¡Ÿ&
bmoH$m| Ho$ j` (Disorder, decay) H$s {Xem _| Omo ~‹T>Vm h¡ dh {ZË`H$mb
h¡Ÿ& O~ H$mb {ZË` hmoVm h¡ V~ nwéf({díd) A{ZË` `m ja hmo OmVm h¡-
H$mbmo@pñ_ bmoH$j`H¥$V² àd¥Õ:(JrVm 11/32)
OÝ` H$mb `k go gå~pÝYV h¡ , Omo MH«$s` H«$_ _| Cn`moJr CËnmXZ h¡-
gh`km: àOm: g¥îQ‰>m nwamodmM àOmn{V:Ÿ&
AZoZ àg{dî`Üd_of dmo@pñËdï>H$m_YwH²$Ÿ&&10Ÿ&
Ed§ àd{V©V§ MH«§$ ZmZwdV©`Vrh `:Ÿ&16Ÿ&(JrVm 3)
Bg H$s JUZm g~go H${R>Z h¡, AmO ^r BgH$m dmñV{dH$ ê$n V` Zht h¡, AV:
JUZm H$aZo dmbm| _| g~go H${R>Z H$mb hr H¥$îU H$m ê$n h¡-
H$mb: H$b`Vm_h_² (JrVm 10/30)Ÿ&
Aì`` nwéf H$m Z j` hmoVm h¡ Z MH«$s` H«$_ _| n[adÎm©Z hmoVm h¡, CgH$o {b`o-
Ah_odmj`: H$mbmo (JrVm 10/33)Ÿ&
Bgo hr J«ÝW gmh~ _| AH$mb-nwéf H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& {d{^Þ MH«$m| H$s _mn Ho$
AZwgma 9 àH$ma Ho$ H$mb-_mZm| H$m dU©Z-
(1) ~«m÷-Aì`º$ go ì`º$ H$s g¥{ï> H$mo ~«÷m H$m {XZ VWm CgHo$ b` H$mo am{Ì
H$hm OmVm h¡ (JrVm 8/18)-
Aì`º$mX²ì`º$`: gdm©: à^dÝË`hamJ_oŸ& amÍ`mJ_o àbr`ÝVo VÌ¡dmì`º$g§kHo$Ÿ&
nwamUm| Am¡a gy`{© gÕmÝV Am{X Á`mo{Vf J«ÝWm| Ho$ AZwgma 12,000 {Xì` dfm] H$m
1 `wJ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& n«{V {Xì` df© 360 gm¡a dfm] H$m h¡Ÿ& AV:
~«÷m H$m {XZ=1000 `wJ -1000•360•12000=432 H$mo{Q> df©&
CVZo hr _mZ H$s am{Ì h¡Ÿ& AmYw{ZH$ ^m¡{VH$ Á`mo{Vf Ho$ AZwgma Ñí` OJV² H$s
gr_m àm`: CVZr hr h¡ {OVZr Xya VH$ ~«÷m H$s Ahmoam{Ì _| àH$me Om gH$Vm
h¡, AWm©V² 864 H$mo{Q> àH$me df© {ÌÁ`m H$m joÌŸ&
2. àmOmnË`-àOmn{V Zo `k Amaå^ {H$`m(JrVm 3/10)Ÿ& AV: àOmnË`
_mZ Cg MH«$ H$m _mZ h¡ {Oggo `k H$m Amaå^ hþAmŸ& {díd _| aMZm H$m Amaå^
AmH$meJ§JmAm| go hþAmŸ& CZH$s {ZéÔoí` J{V H$_© h¡, `k ZhtŸ& {H$ÝVw
42 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
CZH$m Aj ^«_U `k MH«$ H$m Amaå^ H$aVm h¡Ÿ& AV: dh àmOmZË` _mZ `m
_ÝdÝVa h¡Ÿ& nwamUm| Ho$ AZwgma ~«÷m Ho$ {XZ _| 14 _ÝdÝVa h¢, AV: 1 _ÝdÝVa
71 `wJm| `m 31 H$mo{Q> 68 bmI dfm] H$m h¡Ÿ& AmH$me J§Jm H$m n[a^«_U H$mb
AmYw{ZH$ Á`mo{Vf _| R>rH$ Vah go kmV Zht h¡Ÿ& na AmH$meJ§Jm Ho$ÝÐ go {ÌÁ`m
H$s 2/3 Xyar na gy`© h¡ Omo àm`: 20-25 H$mo{Q> df© _| Cg Ho$ÝÐ H$s n[aH«$_m
H$aVm h¡Ÿ& AV: AmH$meJ§Jm H$m n[a^«_U H$mb àm`: _ÝdÝVa Ho$ ~am~a hmoZm
Mm{h`oŸ&
3.{Xì` _mZ-{Xì` df© 360 dfm] H$m hmoVm h¡Ÿ& `h VrZ àH$ma go n[a^m{fV h¡Ÿ&
dm`w nwamU Ho$ 28 ì`mgm| H$s gyMr _| Bgo n[adÎm© `wJ H$hm J`m h¡, AWm©V²
Eo{Vhm{gH$ n[adÎm©Z H$m MH«$ h¡Ÿ& 100 H$mo{Q> `moOZ H$m bmoH$mbmoH$ ^mJ H$s
gr_m na `{X H$moB© H$mën{ZH$ J«h ahoJm Vmo CgH$m n[a^«_U H$mb àm` 360
df© hmoJmŸ& Cggo Hw$N> H$_ Xyar na ßbyQ>mo H$m MH«$ 248 df© H$m h¡Ÿ& Vrgar ì`m»`m
h¡ {H$ {H$gr ñWmZ na CX`-AñV MH«$ Ho$ {XZ-amV hmoVo h¢Ÿ& Cgr àH$ma CÎma-
X{jU J{V H$mo ^r {Xì` {XZ-amV (JrVm 8/24,25) _mZZo na gm¡a df© hr
{XZ Ho$ ~am~a hmoJmŸ& AV: 360 {XZ Ho$ gmdZ df© H$s Vah 360 {Xì` {XZm| H$m
{Xì` df© hmoJmŸ&
4.Jwé _mZ-Jwé df© 12 df© H$m MH«$ h¡ Ÿ{Og_| Jwé J«h gy`© H$s EH$ n[aH«$_m H$aVm
h¡Ÿ& _Ü`_ Jwé J«h EH$ am{e {OVZo g_` _| nma H$aVm h¡ dh 361.0486 {XZ
(gy`© {gÕmÝV,AÜ`m` 14) H$m Jwé df© H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& X{jU ^maV _| n¡Vm_h
{gÕmÝV Ho$ AZwgma gm¡a df© H$mo hr Jwé df© H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
5. gm¡a _mZ-gy`© H$s 10 J{V 1 {XZ, 1 am{e J{V 1 _mg VWm n[a^«_U H$mb
1 df© hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
6.MmÝÐ _mZ-gy`© H$s VwbZm _| MÝÐ J{V AWm©V² MÝÐ_m H$s H$bm (àH$m{eV
^mJ) H$m MH«$ àm`: 29.5 {XZ H$m MmÝÐ _mZ h¡Ÿ& Xe© go ny{U©_m VH$ ewŠb nj
_| 15 {V{W (àm`: 15 {XZ) VWm CgHo$ ~mX ny{U©_m go Xe© VH$ H¥$îU nj _| 15
{V{W hmoVr h¢Ÿ& 12 MmÝÐ _mg AWm©V² àm`: 354 {XZ H$m MmÝÐ df© hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Cg_| 31 _hrZm| Ho$ AÝVa go A{YH$ _mg OmoS‹ > H$a Bgo gm¡a df© Ho$ ~am~a {H$`m
OmVm h¡Ÿ&
7. {nVa _mZ-MÝÐ_m Ho$ D$nar ({dnarV)^mJ _| {nVa ahVo h¢Ÿ& AV: MmÝÐ
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 43
_mg H$mo {nVam| H$m {XZ-amV H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& {dnarV ^mJ(n¥Ïdr go Xya) _| ahZo Ho$
H$maU H¥$îU nj {nVam| H$m {XZ VWm ewŠb nj {nVam| H$s am{Ì hmoVr h¡Ÿ&30
MmÝÐ _mg H$m {nVa _mg VWm 30 MmÝÐ _mg H$m {nV¥ df© hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
8.gmdZ _mZ-gy`m}X` go AmJm_r gy`m}X` VH$ H$m gmdZ {XZ, 30 {XZ H$m _mg
Am¡a 12 _mg H$m df© hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
9. ZmjÌ _mZ-pñWa ZjÌm| H$s VwbZm _| n¥Ïdr H$m Aj ^«_U H$mb (23 KÊQ>m
56 {_ZQ>) ZmjÌ {XZ h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ {hgm~ go 30 {XZm| H$m _mg, 360{XZm| H$m
df© hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
6. `wJ-Xmo àH$ma Ho$ MH«$m| Ho$ `moJ go `wJ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& _wZrída Zo {gÕmÝV
gmd©^m¡_ _| 5 àH$ma Ho$ `wJ ~Vm`o h¢-
(1) 5 df©, (2) 12•5=60 df©, (3) 12•60=720 df©, (4) 600 • 720
= 432000 df© H$m H${b`wJ, (5) H${b • 10 = `wJŸ&
7 àH$ma Ho$ `moOZ H$s Vah 7 àH$ma Ho$ `wJ hmoZo Mm{h`oŸ& `k `m g¥{ï> {H«$`m H$s
nyUV© m Ho$ AZwgma 7 àH$ma Ho$ `wJ Bg àH$ma h¢-
(1) g§ñH$ma `wJ-4 go 19 dfm] _| {ejm Ho$ H«$_ nyao hmoVo h¢Ÿ& `h 5 àH$ma Ho$ h¢-
(H$) JmonX `wJ-4 df© Ho$ brn B©`a H$s nÕ{V _| 365 1/4 df© H$s {XZ g§»`m
nyU© hmoVr h¡Ÿ& `h {XZ Am¡a df© Ho$ MH«$m| H$m `moJ h¡ŸVWm EoVao` ~«m. Ho$ {ZåZ{b{IV
íbmoH$ na AmYm[aV h¡-
H${b: e`mZmo ^d{V, g§{OhmZñVw Ûmna:Ÿ&
C{Îmð>Z² ÌoVm ^d{V, H¥$V§ gånÚVo MaZ²Ÿ&&(7/13)
n«W_ df© (H${b=JUZm H$m Amaå^) H$s Jmo-Yy{b dobm `{X 1 OZdar gÝÜ`m 6
~Oo Amaå^ hþAm Vmo CgH$s nyUV© m [ÛVr` df© 1 OZdar H$mo am{Ì 12 ~Oo hmoJrŸ&
AV: H${b H$mo gmo`m hþAm H$hm h¡Ÿ& {ÛVr` `m Ûmna df© Vrgao df© 2 OZdar H$mo
àmV: 6 ~Oo nyU© hmoJm O~ g§{OhmZ (OJZo H$m g_`) hmoJmŸ& V¥Vr` df© ÌoVm
Mm¡Wo df© 2 OZdar {XZ 12 ~Oo nyU© hmoJm O~ bmoJ I‹S>o hm|JoŸ& Mm¡Wm df© H¥$V
(nyU©) 2 OZdar gÝÜ`m 6 ~Oo g_má hmoJm O~ bmoJ Ka bm¡Q>Vo hm|JoŸ& Bg_| 1
brn B©`a hmoZo go 4 dfu` `wJ nwZ: 1 OZdar H$mo hr nyU© hmoJmŸ&
(I) 5 dfu` `wJ-`mOwf Á`mo{Vf _| 5 dfm] H$m `wJ _mZm J`m h¡ Omo _mK ewŠb
à{VnXm go Amaå^ hmoVm Wm Š`m|{H$ CgHo$ ~mX Cgr {V{W ZjÌ _| gy`©-MÝÐ
44 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
H$s `w{V hmoVr WrŸ-ñdamH«$_oVo gmo_mH$m£ `Xm gmH§$ gdmgdm¡Ÿ&
ñ`mV² VXm@@{X `wJ§ _mKñVn: ewŠbmo@`Z§ øwXH²$Ÿ&(`mOwf² Á`mo{Vf² 6)
BZ dfm] Ho$ Zm_ dËga _|-g_², n[a, BXm, AZw, Cn-CngJ© bJmZo go hmoVo Wo&
{g\©$ dËga `m BX² dËga H$m AW© 360{XZm| H$m gmdZ df© h¡Ÿ&
(J) 12 dfu` `wJ-Jwé H$m n[a^«_U H$mb h¡Ÿ& MmÝÐ _mg Ho$ AZwH$aU na 12
dfu` `wJ _| dfm] Ho$ Zm_ M¡Ì, d¡emI Am{X h¢Ÿ&
(K) 19 dfu` `wJ-à^mH$a hmobo H$s doXm“-Á`mo{Vf ì`m»`m (AmßQ>o ^dZ,
ZmJnwa) Ho$ AZwgma F$H²$ Á`mo{Vf H$m `wJ 19 df© H$m hmoVm h¡Ÿ& dhm§ “ nÄM
gådËga_`§ `wJ_²” (àW_ íbmoH$) H$m AW© h¡ {H$ 19 dfu` `wJ _| 5 df©
gådËga h¢ VWm ~mH$s 14 df© AÝ` 4 àH$ma Ho$ h¢Ÿ& `mOwf Á`mo{Vf _| ^r 5 `wJm|
Ho$ 5•5=25 dfm] _| 6 j` df© hmoZo go 19 dfm] H$m `wJ hmoVm h¡-
j`§ gådËgamUm§ M _mgmZm§ M j`§ VWm(_hm^maV, empÝVnd©,301/46)Ÿ&
(L>) J«hU `wJ- gy`© -amhþ H$s g§`wº$ J{V go 18 gm¡a df© 10.5 {XZm| _| J«hU
MH«$ nyU© hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Bg_| 19 dfu` F$H²$ `wJ H$s 371 {V{W`m| _| àË`oH$ Ho$ 9 ^mJ
H$aZo na 371•9=3339 ^m§e hmoVo h¢-
Ìr{U eVm{Z ÌrghòmÊ`q¾ qÌeÀM Xodm Zd Mm gn`©Z²Ÿ&
(F$H²$ 3/9/9, 10/52/6, dm.`Ow.33/7)
3339 {V{W = 111 MmÝÐ _mg + 9 {V{WŸ&
`h 223 MmÝÐ _mg Ho$ gamog MH«$ H$m AmYm h¡Ÿ&
(2) _Zwî` `wJ-_Zwî` OrdZ H$m H$_© g_` àm`:60 dfm] H$m hmoVm h¡ Omo Jwé
dfm] H$m MH«$ h¡Ÿ& Bg_| Jwé H$s 5 VWm e{Z H$s 2 n[aH«$_m`| hmoVr h¢Ÿ& `h g^r
Á`mo{Vf J«ÝWm|| VWm H$B© nwamUm| _| h¡Ÿ& Bgo doX _| A{“am H$mb H$hm J`m h¡-
Am{XË`míM h dm Am{“agíM ñdJ} bmoH$o ñnY©ÝV-d`§ nyd} Eî`m_mo d`{_{VŸ& Vo
hm@@{XË`m: nyd} ñdJª bmoH$§ O½_w:, níModm{“ag:, fîQ>çm§ dm df}fw (EoVao`
~«m.18/3/7)Ÿ& Am{XË`míMm{“agíM gwdJ} bmoH$o @ñnY©ÝV ...V Am{XË`m EV§
nÄM hmoVma_ní`Z²(V¡{Îmar` ~«m.2/2/3/5)Ÿ&
`hm§, Am{XË`=12, nÄM hmoVm=5•12=60 df©Ÿ&
eVmãXr -H$mb _| gá{f© 1 ZjÌ MbVo h¢Ÿ& F$H²$ Á`mo{Vf Ho$ 19 dfu` `wJ
g_má hmoZo na nwZ: dhr ZjÌ AmVm h¡Ÿ& 5 `wJm| Ho$ 19•5 dfm] Ho$ ~mX 5 dfm]
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 45
H$m `mOwf `wJ boZo na MÝÐ_m 1 ZjÌ A{YH$ Mbm OmVm h¡Ÿ& H$ëhU H$s
amOVa{“Ur _| Bgo hr bm¡{H$H$ df© H$hm h¡Ÿ&
360 dfm] Ho$ {Xì` df© H$m 1/3 ^mJ 120 df© ^r J«hXem MH«$ _| _Zwî` Am`w
_mZr J`r h¡Ÿ&
(3) n[adÎm© `wJ-1 {Xì` df© `m 360 gm¡a df© _| Eo{Vhm{gH$ n[adÎm©Z hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
AV: `h n[adÎm© `wJ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& dm`w nwamU(23/114-226) _| 28 ì`mgm|
H$s JUZm Ho$ g_` H$^r Cgo Ûmna H$^r n[adÎm© H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& AV: `wJm| H$m
{d^mJ ^r BÝht n[adÎm© IÊS>m| _| h¡Ÿ& CÝh| hr 10dm§ `m 15 dm§ ÌoVm Am{X H$hm
J`m h¡Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma H$m dU©Z Hy$_©(AÜ`m` 52), ~«÷mÊS> nwamUm| _| ^r h¡Ÿ&
~«÷mÊS> nwamU (1/2/29/19) _| 26,000 dfm] H$m `wJ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& Cgo
hr (1/2/9/36,37) _| 71 `wJm| H$m _ÝdÝVa H$hm J`m h¡-
fS²> qde{V ghòm{U dfm©{U _mZwfm{Z VwŸ& dfm©Um§ Vw `wJ§ ko`-§ 2/9/19
Vñ`¡H$gá{V `wJ§ _ÝdÝVa{_hmoÀ`Vo-2/9/37
71•360 =25,560 `m àm`: 26,000 df©Ÿ&
(4) ghò `wJ-^mJdV nwamU(1/1/4) _o§ em¡ZH$ F${f Ho$ hOma df© Ho$ gÌ
H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& EH$ _Zwî` gm¡ df© VH$ hr OrVm h¡ na Y_© g§ñH$ma Am{X Ho$
_mZXÊS> hOmam| dfm] VH$ MbVo h¢Ÿ& em¡ZH$ gÌ Ho$ ~mX nwamUm| H$m nwZ: gånmXZ
3000 df© ~mX {dH«$_m{XË` Ho$ g_` hþAm Omo A^r 2000 dfm] go Mb ahm h¡
(^{dî` nwamU 3/3/1/2-4)Ÿ&
àm`: ghò df© 2 {Xì` dfm] (720 df©-_wZrída) `m 3 {Xì` dfm] (1,080
df©) H$m hmoJmŸ& 2700 {Xì` df© `m 3030 _Zwî` df© H$m gá{f© `wJ hmoVm h¡-
Ìr{U df© ghòm{U _mZwfU o à_mUV:Ÿ& qÌeX{YH$m{Z Vw _o _V:gá{f© dËga:Ÿ&
(~«÷mÊS> nw.1/2/29/16, dm`w nw.57/17)
gáqde{V n`©ÝVo H¥$ËñZo ZjÌ _ÊS>boŸ& gáf©`ñVw {Vð>ÝVo n`m©`oU eV§ eV_²Ÿ&
(dm`w nw.99/419)Ÿ&
`hm§,_mZwf df ©=
MmÝÐ-n[aH«$_m df© =27.3 {XZ MÝÐ n[aH«$_m •12=327.5364 {XZŸ&
3030 _mZwf df© =2717 gm¡a df© (365.25 {XZ H$m)
Vmao àm`: pñWa hmoVo h¢, AV: CÝh| ZjÌ (jÌ=MbZm) H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
46 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
{H$ÝVw gá[f© _ÊS>b Ho$ nyd© ^mJ _| pñWV nwbñË`, H«$Vw Vmam| H$mo {_bmZo dmbr aoIm
[dnarV J{V go ZjÌ H$mo 100 dfm] _| nma H$aVr h¡-
gáfuUm§ Vw `m¡ nydm} Ñí`oVo øw{XVm¡ {X{dŸ&
V`mo@ñVw _Ü`o Zj̧ Ñí`Vo `ñV_§ {Z{eŸ&&105Ÿ&&
VoZ gáf©`mo `wº$m {Vð>ÝË`ãXeV§ Z¥Um_²({dîU w nw.4/24/105; dm`w nw.99/
421,412; ~«÷mÊS> nw.2/3/74/233,234)Ÿ&
amo_H$ {gÕmÝV H$m `wJ 2850 (19 df© H$m F$H²$ `wJ•150) dfm] H$m h¡-
damh{_{ha H$s nÄM{gÕmpÝVH$mŸ&
5.Y«dw `m H«$m¡ÄM `wJ-`h gá{f© `wJ H$m 3 JwUm `m A`Z MH«$(26000 df©)
H$m àm`: 1/3 h¡Ÿ& Bg_| 9090 _mZd df© `m 8100 gm¡a df© hm|J|-
Zd `m{Z ghòm{U dfm©Um§ _mZwfm{Z VwŸ&
AÝ`m{Z Zd{VíM¡d Y«dw : gådËga: ñ_¥V:Ÿ&&
(~«÷mÊS> nw.1/2/29/18; dm`w nw.57/18 _| H«$m¡ÄM gådËga)
àm`: Bgr AmH$ma H$m Jwé _hm`wJ ^r _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& gm¡a _V go _Ü`_
Jwé J{V H$m Jwé df© boZo na 85 df© _| 1 df© H$_ AWm©V² 84 gm¡a df© hmoVo h¢Ÿ& 60
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6. A`Z `m B{Vhmg `wJ- AmYw{ZH$ Á`mo{Vf Ho$ AZwgma àm`: 26,000 dfm] _|
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2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 47
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2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 49
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(àW_) 49,902 H${b
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18,702 gË`
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ÌoVm {_bmH$a dh 24d| ÌoVm _| WoŸ(dm`w nw.70,86,98 AÜ`m`)& XÎmmÌo` 10d|
ÌoVm _| Wo {OgH$m AÝV 18702 B©.ny. _| hþAmŸ&naewam_ 19d| ÌoVm AWm©V² {ÛVr`
MH«$ Ho$ 9d| IÊS> _| WoŸ, AWm©V² 5502+2•360= 6222 go 6582 B©.ny. VH$Ÿ&CZHo$
H$mb go 6177 B©.ny._| H$moëb_ g§dV² Amaå^ hþAmŸ& _mÝYmVm 15d| ÌoVm AWm©V²
Xygao ÌoVm Ho$ 5d| IÊS> _| Wo=9102•4•360=7662 go 7302 B©.ny. VH$Ÿ&
CZHo$ 18 nr‹T>r ~mX ~mhþ Wm {Ogo `dZm| Zo nam{OV {H$`m WmŸ-
ééH$mÎmw d¥H$: nwÌñVñ_mX² ~mhþ{d©O{kdmZ²Ÿ&119Ÿ&
h¡h`¡ñVmbO§K¡íM {ZañVmo ì`gZr Z¥n:&
eH¡$`©dZH$må~moO:¡ nmaX¡: n‡d¡ñVWm Ÿ&120&(~«÷mÊS> nw.2/3/63)
_oJmñWZrO Ho$ AZwgma OwbmB©(nwé `wÕ Ho$ g_` dfm© H$mb) 326 B©.ny.Ho$ {gH$ÝXa
AmH«$_U Ho$ 6451 df© 3 _mg nyd© àW_ `dZ AmH«$_U hþAm Wm, AWm©V² Aà¡b
6777 B©.ny. `m _mÝYmVm go 8-9 gm¡ df© ~mXŸ& CgHo$ ~mX ~mhþnÌw gJa Zo
`dZm| H$mo ^Jm`m & `o ``m{VnwÌ AZw Ho$ d§eOWo AV: AmZd(Ionian) H$hbmVo
WoŸ& gJa Ho$ 70 nr‹T>r ~mX ~¥h×b Wm Omo 3138 B©.ny. Ho$ _hm^maV `wÕ _§o _mam
J`mŸ& CgHo$ ~mX 30 nr‹T>r VH$ gy`d© e § gw{_Ì VH$ Mbm {OgH$m 1634 B©n.y _|
_hmnÙZÝX Zo AÝV {H$`mŸ& ZÝX Am¡a CgHo$ 8 nwÌm|(2 nr‹T>r) Zo 100 df© VH$
emgZ {H$`mŸ& V~ 12 _m¡`©+10 ew§J+4 H$Êd+30 AmÝY« amOmAm| Zo
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 53
emgZ {H$`mŸ& CgHo$ ~mX Jwá H$mb Ho$ MÝÐJwá-1 Ho$ g_` 326 B©.ny. _| {gH$ÝXa
H$m AmH«$_U hþAmŸ& Bg àH$ma 160 nr‹T>r hmoVr h¡, {H$ÝVw _oJmñWZrO Zo 153
H$hm h¡Ÿ& g§^dV: ~rM H$s Hw$N> nr‹T>r Ho$ ì`{º$ amOm Zht hþ`o Wo, `m AmÝY« d§e
Am{X _| EH$ hr nr‹T>r Ho$ 2 ì`{H$V amOm hþ`Ÿo & Bg H$mb _| 2 ~ma JUVÝÌ Wm-
120 df© Ho$ {b`o naewam_ H$mb _|(21 JUVÝÌ `m 21 ~ma j{Ì`m| H$m {dZme),
VWm 300 df© H$o {b`o _mbdJUŸ& `h 756 B©.ny. Ho$ eyÐH$ eH$ go 456 B©.ny. Ho$
lrhf© {dH«$_ g§dV² VH$ Wm& `ëb`mMm`© H$o Á`mo{Vf-Xn©U _| 2345 H${b df© `m
(3101-2345)=756 B© . ny . go ey Ð H$ g§ d V² H$m Amaå^ h¡ -
~mUmpãYJwUXòmoZm(2345) eyÐH$mãXm: H$boJ©Vm:&71Ÿ&
^{dî` nw.à{VgJ©(3/6/44-47) Ho$ AZwgma Bg H$mb _| npíM_ E{g`m Ho$
Agwam| Ho$ AmH«$_U Ho$ à{VH$ma Ho$ {b`o A~wX© nd©V na 4 _w»` amOHw$bm| H$m g§K
~Zm-na_ma,à{Vhma,MmbwŠ`,Mmh_mZŸ& 4 Hw$bm| H$mo EH$Ì H$aZm H$o H$maU eyÐH$
(_yb Zm_ BÝÐmUrJwá-AdpÝVgwÝXar H$Wm 4/175) H$mo eyÐH$ VWm 725B©.ny.Ho$
Bg df© H$mo H¥ $ V g§ d V² (_ÝXgm¡ a {ebmbo I -lr_m© b dJUmåZmVo àeñVo
H¥$Vg§{kVo)H$hm J`mŸ& _mbd(^maV _o npíM_ ^mJ _| _mbm H$s Vah) joÌ H$m
g§K hmZo go `h _mbd-JU hþAmŸ& A{¾ Ho$ gm_Zo 4 Hw$bm| Ûmam Xoeajm H$m àU
boZo `m AJ«Ur(A{J«)hmoZo go BÝh| A{¾Hw$b VWm eyÐH$ H$mo A{¾{_Ì H$hm
J`m(A_aH$mof H$s jrañdm_r Q>rH$m-eyÐH$ñËd{¾{_Ìm»`mo,2/8/1)Ÿ&
damh{_{ha Zo 612 B©.ny.H m eH$-H$mb ~¥hËg§{hVm(13/3) _| H$hm h¡-
AmgZ² _Kmgw _wZ`: emg{V n¥Ïdt `w{Y{ð>ao Z¥nVm¡Ÿ&
fS²>-{ÛH$-nÄM-{Û(2526 `w{Y{ð>a eH$36 H${bnyd© go)eH$H$mbñVñ`amkñ`
n[ahma-à{Vhma Hw$bm| Zo Agwa AmH$«_U amoH$m, {H$ÝVw 612 B©.ny. _| CgH$m nyU©
{dZme Mmh_mZ Zo {H$`m(Agr[a`m H$s amOYmZr {ZZodo ÜdñV hþ`r)Ÿ& Bg H$mb
_| _JY Ho$ ~«m÷U d§e _| A{OZ-nwÌ ~wÕ H$m OÝ_ hþAm Omo {dîUw AdVma WoŸ&
e{ŠV AdVma emH$å^ar ^r hþAm(XwJm©gáeVr 11/49), AV: emH$å^ar Ho$
Mm¡hmZ H$ho OmVo h¢Ÿ& ~mX _| na_ma d§er lrhf© Zo ^r 457 B©.ny. _| eH$m| H$mo
nam{OV H$a AnZm g§dV² Mbm`m(Ab~ê$Zr H$m-^maV)Ÿ& `h hf©- {dH« _
e§H$amMm`© Ho$ Jwé Jmo{dÝXnmX Ho$ {ÛVr` nwÌ WoŸ&
54 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
(4) H$í`n Am¡a _ÝdÝVa-dm`w, Hy$_©, ~«÷mÊS> nwamUm| _| 28 ì`mgm| H$s gyMr
h¡, {Og_| àW_ ñdm`å^wd _Zw ~«÷m WoŸ& {ÛVr` H$í`n ^r ~«÷m Wo, AV: XmoZm|
Ho$ ~rM n`m©á g_` ~rVm hmoJmŸ& 28d| ì`mg H¥$îUÛ¡nm`Z _hm^maV H$mb _|
Wo&Á`mo{Vfr` H$ën _| 14 _Zw EH$ Ho$ ~mX EH$ AmVo h¢Ÿ& nhbo 7 _Zw H$m H$mb
gy`m}X` go _Ü`m• H$s Vah h¡Ÿ& Cgr àH$ma AJbo 7 _Zw _| õmg hmoVm h¡, AV:
BÝh| gmd{U©(=EH$ g_mZ) _Zw H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& Eo{Vhm{gH$ `wJ _|, gmd{U© _Zw
àW_ 7 _Zw Ho$ ^mB©(EH$ dU© `m JmoÌ Ho$) VWm EH$ hr H$mb Ho$ h¢Ÿ&
H«$_ _w»` _Zw gmd{U© _Zw
1. ñdm`å^wd _oé gmd{U©
2. ñdmamo{Mf Xj gmd{U©
3. CÎm_ ~«÷ gmd{U©
4. Vm_g Y_© gmd{U©
5. a¡dV éÐ gmd{U©
6. Mmjwf am¡À`
7. d¡dñdV ^m¡Ë`
~«÷mÊS> nwamU(1/2/36/65) Ho$ AZwgma 4 _Zw-ñdmamo{Mf,CÎm_, Vm_g,
a¡dV-ñdm`å^wd Ho$ Á`oð> nwÌ {à`d«V Ho$ d§eO WoŸ& BZ_| ñdmamo{Mf H$s _mVm
ñdm`å^wd _ZwH$s nwÌr AmHy${V WrŸ {OgH$m {ddmh é{M àOmn{V(am¡À` _Zw H$o
{nVm) go hþAm WmŸ& AÝ` 3 {à`d«V Ho$ nwÌ Wo-
ñdmamo{MfíMmoÎm_mo@{n Vm_gmo a¡dVñVWm&
{à`d«VmÝd`møoVo MËdmamo _Zd: ñ_¥Vm:Ÿ&&
5 gmd{U© _Zw Xj nwÌr {à`m(`m {H«$`m) H$s gÝVmZ Wo-
gmdU© _ZdñVmV nÄM Vm§íM {Z~moY _oŸ&(~«÷mÊS> nw.3/4/1/23,24)
na_o{ð>gwVmñVmV _oé gmdU©Vm§ JVm:Ÿ& Xjñ`oVo Xm¡{hÌm: {à`m`m: VZ`: Z¥nŸ&
h[ad§e nwamU(2/15) Ho$ AZwgma Y«wd Ho$ nm¡Ì [anw H$m nwÌ Mmjwf _Zw WoŸ& CgHo$
~mX am¡À` VWm ^m¡Ë` _Zw hþ`-o
Mmjwf ñ`mÝVo@VrVo àmáo d¡dñdVñ` MŸ&
éMo:àOmnVo:nwÌmo am¡À`mo Zm_m^dËgwV:(dm`w nw.100/54)
dm`w nw.(4/100,58/30) _| àm`:`hr dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 55
nwamUm| _| ñdm`å^wd go Mmjwf VH$ 40 VWm CgHo$ ~mX d¡dñdV _Zw VH$ 12 nr‹T>r
Xr hþ`r h¡ Omo ñnï>V:AnyU© gyMr h¡Ÿ& H$í`n(~«÷gmd[U©) H$m H$mb Mmjwf go n¥Ww
VH$ 5 nr‹T>r H$m h¡Ÿ& ~rM _| d¥,A§J,doZ hþ`oŸ&
ñdm`å^wd.................Mmjwf.................d¡dñdV
40 nr‹T>r 12 nr‹T>r
52 nr‹T>r (AnyU© gyMr)= 15,120 df©Ÿ&
AV: 1 nr‹T>r = 15120•52=290 df©Ÿ&
Mmjwf H$mb=29102(ñdm`å^wd)-40•290=17,500 B©.ny.
n¥Ww=17,5005•290=16,050 B©.ny.
AV: H$í`n H$mb 17,500 go 16,050 B©.ny. VH$ h¡Ÿ&
BgHo$ ~mX 11d| ì`mg F$f^ VH$ àË`oH$ H$m H$mb 2 n[adÎm© _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
fð> ì`mg d¡dñdV `_ H$m g_` 4 n[adÎm© _mZm J`m h¡ Š`m|{H$ Cg g_` ObßbmdZ
hþAm WmŸ& ~mH$s ì`mgm| H$m H$mb 1-1 n[adÎm© h¡Ÿ&
(5) ObßbmdZ H$m H$mb AmYw{ZH$ J«ÝWmo§ O¡go _ra àH$meZ, _mñH$mo H$m The
Earth h¡Ÿ& `o g^r ÌoVm _| h¢Ÿ,AV: nwamUm| H$m gmdZ `wJ {dkmZ-gå_V h¡Ÿ&
BgHo$ ~mX `k `m {dkmZ H$m `wJ AmVm h¡, CXmhaUV: AmYw{ZH$ `wJ _| ÌoVm
1700 B©.go d¡km{ZH$ {dH$mg ewé hþAm Omo gÝÜ`m nyU© hmoZo na 2000 B©.go gyMZm
H«$mpÝVH$m `wJ hþAmŸ&
(6) gá{f© `m bm¡{H$H$mãX H$m Amaå^ 3076 B©.ny.(H${b 25) _| hþAm O~
`w{Y{ð>a H$m H$í_ra _| XohmÝV hþAm (amOVa{“Ur, Va“ 1)-
H$b¡JV© :¡ gm`H$-ZoÌ (25) df£: `w{Y{ð>amÚm{ó{Xd§ à`mVm:Ÿ&
amOVa{“Ur {Z_m©U Ho$ g_` bm¡{H$H$mãX 24 Wm {Og_| eVmãXr A‘> Zht {bIo
OmVo h¢Ÿ& Cg g_` eH$ Amaå^ go 1070 df© ~rVo Wo-
bm¡{H$H$mãXo MVw{dªeo eH$H$mbñ` gmåàV_²Ÿ&
gáË`ä`{YH§$ `mV§ ghò n[adËgam:(amOVa{“Ur,1/52)Ÿ&
eH$H$mb 78 B©._| hþAm,CgHo$ 1070 df© ~mX,3074+78+1070=4224 `m
eVmãXr df© N>mo‹S>Zo na 24 df© hþ`o WoŸ& `w[Y{ð>a XohmÝV VH$ gá{f© _Km _| Wo
CgHo$ 2700 df© Ho$ AÝVa go gá{f© MH«$ Mbm h¡Ÿ& 3 gá{f© MH«$ `m 8100 df©
H$m Y«dw df© h¡Ÿ& Bg H«$_ go Y«dw MH«$ H$m Amaå^ 27,376 B©.ny. _| hþAm
56 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma$
Omo R>rH$ bJVm h¡ Š`m|{H$ do ñdm`å^wd Ho$ nwÌ CÎmmZnmX Ho$ nwÌ WoŸ&
8.ì`mg-gyMr-Bg àH$ma Hy$_©,dm`w,~«÷mÊS> nwamUm| H$o 28 ì`mg H$mb h¢-
1.ñdm`å^wd _Zw (~«÷m)-(29,100-17,500 B©.ny.) Bgr H$mb _| ñdmamo{Mf,
CÎm_, Vm_g, a¡dV ^r hþ`oŸ&
2.H$í`n(~«÷gmd{U© _Zw)-(17,500-16,050 B©.ny.)-Mmjwf VWm AÝ` 6
gmd{U© _Zw H$m H$mbŸ&
3. CeZm H$mì` `m ewH$« mMm`©(16,050-15,330 B©.ny.)-^¥Jw nwÌŸ& ^¥J-w A{“am
Ûmam AWd© doXŸ& Agwa,X¡Ë`,XmZdm| Ho$ JwéŸ& amOZr{V, YZwdX} , Am`wdX} , nwamUm|
H$m àU`ZŸ&
4. ~¥hñn{V(15,330-14,610 B©.ny.)-doXm| H$m nyU© ê$nŸ& nX-H«$_ H$m ì`mH$aU
Omo A^r ^r MrZ _| àM{bV h¡-à{V eãX H$m AbJ {M•Ÿ&
5. {ddñdmZ²(g{dVm)-(14,610-13,900 B©.ny.)-_` Agwa H$mo gy`-© {gÕmÝV
H$m CnXoeŸ& `_ Am¡a _Zw Ho$ A{V[aº$ ApídZr Hw$_ma ^r BZH$s gÝVmZ WoŸ&
ewH$« nwÌ Ëdï>m Ho$ nwÌ {dídH$_m© H$o JwéŸ& Bg H$mb Ho$ ~mX gË`, ÌoVm, Ûmna H$s
g_m{á 3102 (àm`:3100) B© . ny . _| hþ ` r-13,900-
(4800+3600+2400)=3100Ÿ&
6.d¡dñdV `_ (13,900-12,460 B©.ny.)-OoÝX-AdoñVm Ho$ Ahþa-_ÁXm (Agwa
_hmXod)Ÿ& Bg H$mb _| Ob-àb` hþAm WmŸ& BZHo$ ~mX BZHo AZwO d¡dñdV _Zw
H$m H$mb WmŸ&$`h lmÕXod H$ho OmVo h¢, AWm©V² _¥Ë`w H$m ahñ` g_Pm`m Wm Ÿ&
BZH$m ñWmZ `_Z,Aå_mZ,amOYmZr g§`_Zr (gZm) Am{X WmŸ&
7. BÝÐ-eVH«$Vw (12,460-11,740)-100 H«$Vw AWm©V² `k H$m AW© h¡ 100
df©(g§dËgamo d¡ `k:-eVnW ~«m.11/1/1/1 Am{X, g§dËgamo dm BÝÐ
ewZmgra:-V¡{Îmar` ~«m.1/7/1/1)Ÿ& 14 BÝÐ ZmaX Am{X nwamUm| _| d{U©V
h¢Ÿ& do 14 eVmpãX`m| Ho$ _w»` BÝÐ h¢-à{V 100 df© _| gá{f© 1 ZjÌ MbVo h¢Ÿ&
dO« {Z_m©U VWm dm`w (=_éV²) H$s ghm`Vm go XodZmJar {b{n (49 _éVm| Ho$
49 Aja) VWm EoÝÐ-dm`d ì`mH$aU H$m {Z_m©UŸ& d¡H$w ÊR> BÝÐ H$mb H$o H$B© gyº$
F$H²$ doX _| h¢Ÿ&
8.d{gð>-(11,740-11,020 B©.ny.) {_Ì (gy`©) VWm déU (Ahþa _ÁXm)
XmoZm| Ho$ nwÌ-XmoZm| naånamAm| H$m g_Ýd`Ÿ& F$H²$ H$m 8_ _ÊS>bŸ&
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 57
9. AnmÝVaV_m (11,020-10,300 B©.ny.) `m gmañdV- XÜ`L²> AWd©U VWm
gañdVr Abå~wfm Ho$ nwÌŸ& gå^dV: Ob-àb` Ho$ ~mX doXm| H$m nwZéÕmaŸ&
10. {ÌYm_m (10,300-9,580 B©.ny.) `m _mH©$ÊS>o`(?)Ÿ& XÎmmÌo` Ûmam `moJ-
VÝÌ VWm _mH©$ÊS>`o Ûmam nwamUŸàU`Z&
11.F$f^ (9,580-8,860 B©.ny.)-Hw$N> nwamUm| Ho$ _V go eaÛmZ² Am{“ag `m
Jm¡V_ Bg `wJ Ho$ ì`mg WoŸ& àW_ O¡Z VrW©‘>a VWm g§Ý`mg _mJ© Ho$ àdÎm©H$Ÿ& {Û-
Om{V`m| Ho$ {b`o VrZ àH$ma Ho$ `kmondrVŸ(O¡Z-emó)& d¥f^-Xod Ho$ ê$n _|
gå^dV: _Zwî` ê$nr _hmXod `m dm_Xod, Omo ñd`§ `kmondrV nhZVo h¢Ÿ&
12. A{Ì (8,860-8,500 B©.ny.)-gm§»` A{Ì npíM_moÎma {Xem _| J`o Ohm§
gm§»` AmYm[aV 25 (`m 26) Ajam| H$s {b{n àM{bV h¡Ÿ& ^m¡_ A{Ì Ûmam gy`-©
J«hU H$s JUZm, Am`wdX} Ho$ ^r AmMm`©Ÿ&
13. Y_© `m Za-Zmam`U (8,500-8,140 B©.ny.)-~ÐrZmW (~X[aH$ml_) _|
doXm| H$m CnXoeŸ& gå^dV: e‘>amMm`© H$s Jwé- naånam H$m Amaå^Ÿ& H$mÊd
_oYm{V{W F${f, Xwî`ÝV, VWm CZHo$ nwÌ ^aV H$m H$mbŸ&
14. gwajU `m gwMjw (8,140-7,780 B©.ny.)-amOm _éÎm, A{d{jV, H$aÝY_
VWm F${f Om¡V_, dm_Xod Am{XŸH$m H$mb &
15. Í`méU(7,780-7,420 B©.n.)-BúdmHw$ d§er amOm-_mÝYmVm VWm JmÝYma
amOm A“ma H$m H$mbŸ&
16. YZÄO`(7,420-7,060 B©.ny.) F${f ^aÛmO BZHo$ g_H$mbrZ Wo VWm
17.H¥$VÄO`(7,060-6,700 B©.ny.) Bg H$mb _| XmeamO `wÕ hþAm Wm-
18.F$VÄO`(6,700-6,340 B©.ny.) àm`: 7,200 B©.ny. _|Ÿ& 6,777 B©.ny._|
J`mgwa `m A{gVYÝdm Ûmam ^maV na AmH«$_U(_oJmñWZrO Ho$ _V go S>m`mo{Zgg)
19.^aÛmO (6,340-5,980 B©.ny.)-g_«mQ²> Mm`_mZ VWm H$mer amO {XdmoXmg
XmoZm| Ho$ nwamo{hVŸ&
20. Jm¡V_ (5,980-5,620 B©.ny.)-JmoXmdar `m Jm¡V_r VQ>Ÿ& O_X{¾, h[aíMÝÐ,
naewam_, H$mV©dr`© AOwZ© H$m H$mbŸ& Ý`m`- Xe©Z gyÌŸ&
21. dmMñn{V (5,620-5,260 B©.ny.) `m {Z`©ÝVa-amOm gJa Ho$ Ûmam `dZ
~{hîH¥$V,gmJam| na à^wËd VWm CZHo$ ànm¡Ì ^JraW Ûmam J“mdVaUŸ&
58 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
22. gwH$ë`mU `m gmo_ewîU (5,260-4,900 B©.ny.)-nwbñË` VWm {dldm F${fŸ&
ÌoVm AÝV (5,500 B©.ny.) _| naewam_ H$m XohmÝVŸ&
23. V¥U{~ÝXw (4,900-4,540 B©.ny.)-g_«mQ²>Ÿ& BZHo$ O_mVm nwbñË` H$o O_mVm
amdU VWm Hw$~oaŸ&
24. dmë_r{H$(4,540-4,180 B©.ny.)-XeaW nwÌ am_ (4,433-4,262 B©.ny.
VH$),amdU, hZw_mZ Am{X H$m H$mbŸ&
25. e{º$-dm{gð>(4,180-3,820 B©.ny.)-doXnmR> {d{YŸ&
26. OmVyH$Ê`© (3,820-3,460 B©.ny.)-namea {eî`Ÿ{H$ÝVw Cggo nyd&© H$UmXŸ&
27. namea (3,460-3,100 B©.ny.)-{dîUw nwamU H$m àU`Z, 100 H$mo{Q>
íbmoH$m| Ho$ nwamU H$m 4 bmI íbmoH$m| Ho$ 18 nwamUm| _| {d^mOZŸ&
28. doXì`mg (3100 B©.ny.-A^r VH$)-gË`dVr (~mX _| emÝVZw nËZr) Ûmam
namea nwÌ-H¥$îU-Û¡nm`ZŸ& ^mJdV nwamU, ~«÷-gyÌ, nmVÄMb `moJ H$s ì`m»`m,
doXm| H$m emIm {d^mOZŸ& BZHo$ ~mX Am¡a H$moB© ì`mg Zht hþAm, AV: A^r ^r
H${b _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
9.H${b nyd© Ho$ amOd§e-nwamUm| _| d¡dñdV _Zw Ho$ ~mX gy`© d§e H$s nyU©
d§emdbr Xr J`r h¡Ÿ& MÝÐ d§e H$m ~rM _| bwá ^mJ h¡Ÿ& H${bdf© 1468 (1634
B©.ny.) _| XmoZm| amOd§em| H$m _hmnÙZÝX Ûmam {dZme hþAmŸ& AdoñVm Ho$ AZwgma
d¡dñdV `_ Zo àm`: 1200 df© amÁ` {H$`m Am¡a Cg H$mb _| Obàb` hþAmŸ&
CZHo$ ^mB© d¡dñdV _Zw Ho$ gmW gË``wJ H$m Amaå^ hþAm, AV: CZH$m H$mb
3101 B©.ny. _| Ûmna AÝV go 10,800 (=2400+3600+4800) df© nyd©
AWm©V² 13,900 B©.ny. {bIm J`m h¡& CgH$m ~mX BúdmHw$ amOm hþ`o {OZHo$ nwÌ
{dHw${j H$mo BamH$ Ho$ {H$e _| àmá boIm| _| CHw$gr H$hm J`m h¡ VWm àW_ amOm Ho$
ê$n _| CgH$m H$mb 8,320 B©.ny. {X`m h¡ & Obàb` H$o ~mX amO-ì`dñWm nwZ:
ñWm{nV hmoZo _| àm`: 4000 df© bJoŸ&
gy`© d§e-{ddñdmZ²(gy`)© -F${f,1.d¡dñdV _Zw(amOm),2.BúdmHw$, 3.{dHw${j,
4. nwaÄO` `m H$Hw$ËñW (Am‹S>r~H$=~¡b H$s nrR> H$m Hy$~‹S>)-BÝhm|Zo fð> Xodmgwa
g§J«m_ _| à‡mX Ho$ {ÛVr` nwÌ gwOå^ H$mo nam{OV {H$`mŸ& 5.AZoZm, 6.n¥Ww,
7.{dídJíd, 8.AmЩ, 9.`wdZmíd-1, 10.lmdñV(lmdñVr ZJa),
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 59
11.~¥hXíd-BÝhm|Zo g§Ý`mgr hmoZo H$s BÀN>m H$s Vmo CX‘> Zo H$hm {H$ YwÝYw Agwa
H$mo _maZm A{YH$ Oê$ar h¡Ÿ& CZHo$ nwÌ (12) Hw$db`míd Zo `h H$m`© {H$`mŸ&
XmZd amO YwÝYw H$mo _maZo Ho$ H$maU BÝh| YwÝYw_ma ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& {\$aXm¡gr Ho$
emhZm_m _| BÝh§o Ho$amñn H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& Bg `wÕ _| 21,000 g¡{ZH$ _mao J`oŸ&
13. Ñ‹ T >>míd, 14.à_mo X , 15,h`© í d-1, 16.{ZHw $ å^, 17.g§ h Vmíd,
18.H¥$emíd, 19.àgoZ{OV, 20. `wdZmíd-2, 21. _mÝYmVm gmd©^m¡_ amOm
Wo , {OZHo$ ~mao _| n«{gÕ Wm {H$ CZHo$ amÁ` _| gXm gy`© H$m CX` Am¡a AñV hmoVm
ahVm h¡-`mdV² gy`© CX`{V `mdV² M à{V{Vð>{VŸ&
gdª VX² `m¡dZmídñ` _mÝYmVw: joÌ _wÀ`VoŸ&
(dm`w. 88/68, {dîUw. 4/2/65, _hm^maV, ÐmoU nd©.62/11)
_hm^maV,empÝVnd© A.28,ÐmoU A.62 Ho$ AZwgma `o amOm _mÝYmVm Ho$ AYrZ
Wo-A“ma(JmÝYma),_éÎm,A{gV(eVnW ~«m.13/4/3/12-A{gVYÝdm
Dionysus Agwa amOm Wm), J`, A“-~¥hÐW,OZ_oO`, gwYÝdm, Z¥JŸ&
_mÝYmVm Ho$ VrZ nwÌ
22.nwéHw$Ëg Aå~arf _wMHw $w ÝX
23.ÌgXñ`w `wdZmíd-3
24.gå^yV hmarV(~«m÷U)
nwéHw$Ëg XmeamO `wÕ Ho$ amOm gwXmg H$m g_H$mbrZ WmŸ& gå^yV nwÌ (25)
AZaÊ` go amdU H$m `wÕ hþAm Wm Omo am_ H$mb Ho$ nyd© H$m AÝ` amOm WmŸ&
26,ÌgXíd, 27.h`©íd-2, 28.dgw_mZ, 29.{ÌYÝdm, 30.Í`méUŸ&
31.gË`d«V `m {Ìe§H$w -{dídm{_Ì Ho$ `k Ûmam ñdJ© J_Z,~rM _| BÝÐ Ûmam
amoH$m J`mŸ& 32.h[aíMÝÐ-{dídm{_Ì H$mo ^y{_XmZ Ho$ ~mX í_emZ _| MmÊS>mb
H$m H$m`© {H$`mŸ& 33.amo{hVmíd, 34.h[aV, 35.MÄMw, 36.{dO`, 37.ééH$,
38.d¥H$, 39. ~mhþ-`h h¡h`,`dZ Am{X Ho$ gpå_{bV AmH«$_U _| _mam J`m-
h¡h`ñVmbO§K¡íM {ZañVmo ì`gZr Z¥n:Ÿ&
eH¡$: `dZ¡: H$må~moO:¡ nmaX¡: nëbd¡ñVWmŸ&(~«÷mÊS> 2/3/63/120)
_oJmñWZrO Ho$ AZwgma `h `dZ amOm S>m`mo{Zgg Wm (6777 B©.ny.Aà¡b)Ÿ&
40.gJa-`h MH«$dÎmu amOm hþAm, AnZo {nVm H$m am` dmng boH$a g_wÐm| na
à^wËd ñWm{nV {H$`m, {Oggo CZH$m Zm_ gmJa n‹S>mŸ& BgHo$ 60,000 nwÌ
60 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
Ûmam ^ñ_ hmo J`oŸ& `h H${nb gm§»` àdÎm©H$ H${nb Ho$ d§eO hmo gH$Vo h¢Ÿ& BgZo
AnZo nwÌ (41) Ag_ÄOg H$mo {ZîH$m{gV H$a nm¡Ì (42) A§e_w mZ H$mo amOm
~Zm`mŸ& dh AnZo nwÌ (43) {Xbrn H$mo amÁ` XoH$a dZ Mbm J`mŸ& {Xbrn nwÌ
(44) ^JraW Zo {h_mb` Ho$ Ob H$mo J“m ê$n _| g_Vb _| àdm{hV {H$`mŸ&
AV: J“m H mo ^mJraWr H$hVo h¢Ÿ& BZHo$ ~mX nwÌ (45) lwV VWm gå~ÝYr
(46) Zm^mJ amOm hþ`oŸ& Zm^mJ nwÌ (47) Aå~arf (_mÝYmVm nwÌ go AbJ) Ho$
d§eOm| H$m amÁ` MbmŸ& 48. {gÝYw, 49.A`wVm`w, 50.F$VwnU©, 51.gd©H$m_,
52.gwXmg, 53,H$ë_f nmX (d{gð> nwÌ e{º$ Ho$ emn go BgH$m n¡a H$mbm hmo J`m
Wm)Ÿ& 54.Aí_H$, 55.CéH$m_, 56._ybH$, 57.eVaW, 58. BS>{dS, 59.
H¥$eH$_©, 60.gd©H$m_, 61.AZam`>, 62.{Z¿Z, 63.AZ{_Ì `m aKw-1, 64.
XwbrSw>h, 65.{díd_hV, 66.{Xbrn, 67.aKw- `h H$m{bXmg Ho$ _hmH$mì` aKwde §
Ho$ {d»`mV Zm`H$ h¢ {OZHo$ Zm_ na gy`©d§e H$mo aKwd§e ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& BZHo$
AYrZ `o amÁ` Wo-gw÷, d§J, CËH$b, H$qbJ, X{jUmnW, nmÊS>ç, `dZ,
nmagrH$, H$å~moO, nmd©Vr`-JU,H$m_ê$nŸ& aKw Ho$ ~mX-68.AO, 69.XeaW
hþ`Ÿo & XeaW nwÌ (70) am_ (4433-4372 B©.ny.) Zo amdU H$m dY H$a gmd©^m¡_
amÁ` ñWm{nV {H$`m VWm AmMaU Am¡a emgZ H$s _`m©Xm ñWm{nV H$sŸ& CgHo$
~mX 71.Hw$e, 72.A{V{W, 73.{ZfY, 74.Zb ({ZfY amO Zb go {^Þ),
75.Z^, 76. nwÊS>arH$, 77.jo_YÝdm, 78.XodmZrH$, 79.A{hZJw, 80.éé,
81.n[a`mÌ, 82.eb, 83.Xb, 84.~b, 85.CŠW, 86.ghòmíd, 87.
MÝÐmdbmoH$, 88. VmamnrS>, 89.MÝÐ{J[a, 90.^mZwMÝÐ `m ^mZw{_Ì, 91.
lwVm`w, 92.CbyH$, 93.CÞm^, 94.dO«Zm^, 95.e§IZ, 97.ì`w{fVmíd, 98.
{haÊ`Zm^-`mkdëŠ` go `moJ {ejm boH$a CgH$m àgma {H$`mŸ& 99.H$m¡eë`,
100.~«{÷ð>, 101.nwwÌ, 102.nwÊ`, 103.AW©{g{Õ, 104.gwXe©Z, 105.
A{¾dU©, 106.erK«J, 107._é, 108.àgwlwV, 109.gpÝY, 110.à_f©U,
111._hñdmZ², 112.ghñdmZ², 113.{díd^d, 114.{dídñd, 115.àgoZ{OV,
116.VjH$, 117.~¥hX²~b-`h 3138 B©.ny. Ho$ _hm^maV `wÕ _| A[^_Ý`w
Ûmam _mam J`mŸ& BgH$m AmYma S>m° Hw$d§abmb O¡Z H$s nwñVH|$ h¢ -‘nwamUm| _|
d§emZwH$« {_H$ H$mb-H«$_’ VWm ‘nwamUm| _| Eo{Vm{gH$ n[adV© -`wJ’-B{Vhmg
{dÚm àH$meZ, {Xëbr, 1990Ÿ&
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 61
MÝÐ d§e-A{Ì nwÌ (1) gmo_ Ho$ nwÌ ~wY Wo-gm¡_m`Zmo ~wY:-(VmÊS>ç _hm ~«m.
24/18/6Ÿ), VWm _hm^maV,CÚmoJ nd© (147/3)-gmo_: àOmn{V: nydª
Hw$ê$Um§ d§edY©Z:Ÿ& 2.~wY H$m {ddmh Bim go hþAm-EoS>ríM dm B_m: àOm:-
(_¡Ìm`Ur g§. 1/5/10Ÿ)& Bim d¡dñdV _Zw H$s nwÌr WrŸ& ~wY -Bim H$m nwÌ
(Eob) nwéadm g_«mQ> hþAmŸ& gmo_ `m MÝÐ H$m nm¡Ì hmoZo go `h MÝÐ-d§e H$hbm`mŸ&
3.nwéadm
4. Am`w Yr_mZ A_mdgw {dfm`w
5. Zhþf jÌd¥Õ aå^ a{O AZoZm
`{V 6. ``m{V g§`m{V AÝ`
5.Zhþf Zo BÝÐ nX ^r YmaU {H$`m Wm O~ d¥Ì dY Ho$ ~mX ~«÷hË`m Ho$ H$maU
BÝÐ H$mo AnZm nX N>mS‹o >Zm n‹S>m WmŸ& ~mX _| Zhþf H$mo ^r F${f emn go gn© ~ZZm
n‹S>mŸ& Zhþf nwÌr é[M H$m {ddmh AnÝdmZ² F${f go hþAm Omo ^¥Jw Ho$ nwÌ WoŸ&
^¥Jw
{haÊ`H${enw nwÌr {Xì`m AÝ` nwÌr nm¡bmo_r
ewH« =CeZm `m H$mì` À`dZ + nËZr gwH$Ý`m
Ëdï>m eÊS> _H© XYr{M AnÝdmZ+é{M
{Ì{eam {dídê$n({dídH$_m©) $ F$MrH$+gË`dVr
O_X{¾
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hmo J`m AV: {ÛVr` nwÌ(6) ``m{V amOm hþAmŸ& CgH$r EH$ nËZr Xod`mZr
ewH«$mMm`© H$s nwÌr Wr {Oggo `Xw, Vwd©gw- Xmo nwÌ hþ`oŸ& AÝ` nËZr AgwaamO
d¥fndm© (d¥f=Taurus, nd©V=mountain , VwH$s© _|) H$s nwÌr e{_©ð>m Wr
{Oggo 3 nwÌ hþ`-o Ðøw,AZw,nwéŸ& YmoIo go Xygam {ddmh H$aZo Ho$ H$maU ewH$« mMm`©
Zo ``m{V H$mo ~wT‹ >mno H$m emn {X`mŸ& CZH$m ~wT‹ >mnm boZo Ho$ {b`o H${Zð> nwÌ nwé
V¡`ma hþAm, AV: dhr amOm ~Zm Am¡a CgHo$ Zm_ na `h nwé d§e ^r H$hm OmVm
h¡Ÿ& `Xw H$mo nyd-© CÎma ^mJ {_bm {OZgo {d»`mV `Xw d§e Mbm {Og_| ^JdmZ²
H¥$îU CËnÞ hþ`Ÿo & npíM_ _| Ðwø,w CÎma _| AZw(`dZ), VWm X{jU nyd© _| Vwdg© w
H$mo ^oOmŸ&
62 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
7. nwé, 8. OZ_oO`-3 Aíd_oY `kŸ& 9.àMrZdmZ² `m A{dÕŸ& 10.àdraŸ&
11. _Zñ`w `m Z_ñ`w-{gÝYw go nyd© g_wÐ VWm {h_mb` go {dÝÜ` VH$ amÁ`Ÿ&
12. A^`X `m gw^,y« 13.gwÝdÝV `m YwÝYw, 14.`dw`mZ `m ~hþ½d, 15.g§`m{V,
16.Ah§`{V, 17, am¡Ðmíd, 18. éMo`Ÿw - BgH$s 10 ~hZm| _| EH$ H$m {ddmh A{Ì
go hþAm {OgH$m nwÌ ñdpñV Wm Ÿ& CgHo$ 3 nwÌ Wo- gmo_ (MÝÐ d§e Ho$ _yb go
AÝ`), XÎm(XÎmmÌo`), VWm Xwdm©gmŸ& nwÌr Anmbm ^r F$½doX Ho$ _ÝÌm| H$s Ðï>m
h¡Ÿ& 19. _{VZma, 20. AàVrW©-BgHo$ nwÌ F${f H$mÊd _oYm{V{W H$B© _ÝÌm| Ho$
Ðï>m WoŸ& BgH$s ~hZ Jm¡ar Ho$ nwÌ MH«$dÎmu _mÝYmVm WoŸ& 21. V§gw `m gw_{VŸ&
22. B©{bZ `m gwÚåw Z, 23. Xwî`ÝVŸ& BgH$s nËZr eHw$ÝVbm go (24) MH«$dÎmu
^aV hþ`o Omo H$m{bXmg Ho$ ZmQ>H$ A{^kmZ-emHw$ÝVb_² Ho$ Zm`H$ h¢Ÿ& BZHo$
g_H$mbrZ F${f Wo-F$MrH$, O_X{¾, {dídm{_Ì VWm ^aÛmOŸ& H$mer amO
gd©gZo H$s H$Ý`m gwZÝXm go ^aV H$m ^y_Ý`w nwÌ CZHo$ ~mX amOm hþAmŸ&
(25) ^y_Ý`w (^aÛmO Ûmam {Z`moJ go CËnÞ)
(26) ~¥hËjÌ Za JJ© _hmdr`©
(27)gwhmoÌ g§H¥${V {e{Z Céj`
(28)hpñV JwédrV apÝVXod Ìæ`mé{U nwîH$[aZ² H${n
28. hpñV Ho$ Zm_ na hpñVZmnwa ZJa ~Zm VWm Bg amOYmZr Ho$ H$maU MrZ _|
^maV H$mo hpñV-amÁ` H$hm OmVm WmŸ& CgHo$ ~mX CgH$m nwÌ (29) {dHw$ÊR>Z
amOm hþAm {OgHo$ VrZm| nwÌ-AO_r‹T>, nwé_r‹T>, {Û_r‹T>-~«m÷U hþ`Ÿo & {H$ÝVw
^aÛmO Ho$ AmXoe go Á`oð> nwÌ (30) AO_r‹T> Zo amÁ` {b`mŸ& `h {d»`mV amOm
gy`d© e
§ r {ÌYÝdm H$m g_H$mbrZ WmŸ&BgHo$ ~mX gyMr AnyU© h¡, {H$ÝVw `o Zm_
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33.gd©^m¡_, 34.O`ËgoZ,35.AdMrZ, 36.AY©, 37._hm^m¡_, 38.A`wVZ`r,
39.AH«$moYZ, 40.Xod{V{W, 41. A[ahŸ& dm`w nwamU Ho$ AZwgma gyMr h¡-AO_r‹T>,
31.F$j, 32.nar{jV, 33.OZ_oO`, 34.gwaW, 35.^r_goZ, 36.Oh²Zw,
37.gwaW, 38.{dXyaW, 39.gd©^m¡_, 40.O`ËgoZ, 41.Amam{YV `m AH«$moYZ,
42._hmgËd, 43.A`wVm`w, 44.AH«$moYZ, 45.Xod{V{W, 46.F$j, 47.{Xbrn,
48.àVrn, 49.emÝVZwŸ& _{VZma _mÝYmVm Ho$ gmW àm`: 7300 B©.ny. _| Wm VWm
emÝVZw àm`: 3200 B©.ny. _| nmÊS>dm| Ho$ à{nVm_h Wo Ÿ& 4000 dfm] _| H$B©
2 .Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn 63
AÝ` amOm ^r hm|Jo {OZH$m Zm_ bwá h¡Ÿ& g§daU VWm CZHo$ nwÌ Hw$é H$m Zm_ ^r
Bg gyMr _| Zht h¡, {OgHo$ Zm_ na `h Hw$é d§e H$hbmVm WmŸ& g§daU {H$gr
nmÄMmb amOm go nam{OV hmoH$a {gÝYw VQ> na ahVm Wm Ohm§ CgH$m {ddmh
{_Ì(gy`©) nwÌr VnVr go hþAmŸ& CZHo$ nwÌ Zo {\$a go gm_«mÁ` ñWm{nV {H$`mŸ&
`hm§ go H$mbH«$_ {_bVm h¡Ÿ&
g§daU-nËZr VnVr (4159-4071 B©.ny.)
Hw$é-nËZr ew^m§Jr (4071-3999 B©.ny.)
A{^ñdmZ² `m {MÌaW gwYÝdm(3999-3919 B©.ny.) Oh²Zw
^mJdV Ho$ AZwgma gwhmoÌ(3919-3826 B©.ny.)
9 amOm À`dZ(3826-3788 B©.ny.)
H¥${_ `m H¥${V(3788-3751)
nar{jV Cn[aMa dgw(3751-3709B©.ny.)(àVrn `m M¡Ú)
OZ_oO` ~¥hÐW(3709-3637 B©.ny.)-amOYmZr {J[ad«O
Hw$emJ«(3637-3567)
^r_goZ F$f^(3567-3497)
gË`{hV(3497-3437)
àVrn(3370-3310) nwÊ` `m nwîndÝV(3427-3394)
emÝVZw(3310-3251) Xodm{n ~m‡rH$ gË`Y¥{V(3394-3351)
J§Jm gË`dVr (npËZ`m§) gwYÝdm(3351-3308)
{MÌm§JX(3248) {d{MÌdr`©(3238VH$) gd©(3308-3265)
^rî_(3238-3218) gå^d(3265-3222)
nmÊSw>(3218-3213) OamgÝY (3222-3180)
Y¥Vamï´>(3213-3174) ghXod(3180-3138)
Xw`m}YZ(3174-3138) (_JY H$m ~mh©ÐW d§e)
Y_©amO `w{Y{ð>a(3138-3102)
(_hm^maV 1/95/74-82-àVrn go)
AÝ` _w»` d§e-(1) {_{Wbm-BúdmHw$ Ho$ 10d| nwÌ {Z{_ go Amaå^ hþAm &
d{gð> Am¡a {Z{_ Zo EH$ Xygao H$mo {dXoh(eara-a{hV) hmoZo H$m emn {X`mŸ&
CZHo$ eara _ÝWZ go CËnÞ nwÌ {_{W H$hm J`mŸ& AV: Bg joÌ H$mo {_{Wbm
64 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
Am¡a `hm§ Ho$ amOm {dXoh Am¡a OZH$ H$ho OmVo WoŸ& BgHo$ _w»` amOm Wo-{Z{_,
{_{W, graÜdO(grVm Ho$ {nVm), Ho${eÜdO, Y_©ÜdO(~«÷doÎmm), Y_©amO,
OZXod, _IXod, EoÝÐÚwpåZŸ& H$ambOZH$ Ho$ gmW _hm^maV Ho$ nyd© Bg amÁ` H$m
AÝV (g§^dV: OamgÝY Ûmam) hþAmŸ&
(2) H$mÝ`Hw$ãO-nwéadm Ho$ {ÛVr` nwÌ A_mdgw goŸ& à_wI amOm-Oh²Zw (^JraW
H$mb _| J§Jm H$m _mJ© àeñV {H$`m),Hw${eH$,Jm{Y,{dídm{_Ì,_YwÀN>ÝXmŸ&
(3) e`m©V-_Zw-nwÌ e`m©{V go-BZH$s nwÌr gwH$Ý`m H$m {ddmh F${f À`dZ go
hþAmŸ& BZHo$ nwÌ AmZV© H$m Zm_ na JwOamV H$m `h Zm_ hþAmŸ&
(4) H$mer-MÝÐd§er Zhþf (5) Ho$ ^mB© jÌd¥Õ goŸ& BgHo$ d§eO àH$m{eaV Ho$
Zm_ na `h H$mer hþAmŸ& jÌd¥Õ Ho$ nm¡Ì J¥Ëg_X F${f, YÝdÝV[a, {XdmoXmg,
àVX©Z _w»` ì`{º$ WoŸ&
(5) ~mh©ÐW d§e H$m Hw$é nwÌ gwYÝdm go Amaå^ {bIm Om MwH$m h¡Ÿ& H${b Ho$ ~mX
`h g~go à_wI amÁ` WmŸ&
(6) M¡Ú-{dX^© H$o nwÌ Mo[X ÛmamŸ& Bg d§e Ho$ {emwnmb H$m H¥$îU Ûmam dY Ÿ&
(7) nmÄMmb-AO_r‹T>(MÝÐd§e 30) Ho$nwÌ Zrb go CÎma nmÄMmb,~¥hÛgw go
X{jU nmÄMmbŸ& _hm^maV H$mb _| ÐwnX XmoZm| ^mJ Ho$ amOm Wo na ÐmoU Zo {eî`m|
H$s ghm`Vm go X{jU ^mJ na A{YH$ma {H$`mŸ& XmeamO `wÕ (7200 B©.ny.) _|
gwXmg `hm§ H$m amOm WmŸ&
(8) AZw-``m{V Ho$ VrZ nwÌm|-AZw, Ðþøw, Vwd©gw-go `dZ amÁ` ~Zo-AZw go
Am`mo{Z`m, `dZ, `yZmZ hþAm h¡Ÿ& AÝ` Xmo X{jU VWm nyd© J`o Wo dhm§ go {_l
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ApÝV_ ñVa h¡-àW_ ê$n erf© h¡ (D$Üd© _yb§-JrVm 15/1)Ÿ& Cn{ZfX² _| ^r
ApÝV_ {ZîH$f© h¡ , Omo nyd© dU©Zm| H$m pñWa {gÕmÝV h¡Ÿ-
AaÊ`[_`mÞnwZao`mV²-BË`wn[ZfV² (~«÷gyÌ 3/4/40-em‘>a ^mî`)
ZmZm Vw {dÚm A{dÚm MŸ& g `Xod {dÚ`m H$amo{V, lÕ`m Cn{ZfXmo VXod
dræ`©dÎma§ ^d{V (N>mÝXmo½` C. 1/1/10)
Vñ`mon{ZfXh[a{V, Vñ`mon{ZfXh{_{V(~¥hXmaÊ`H$ C.6/5)
Vñ_mÛm An Cnñn¥e{V-BË`wn{ZfV² (eVnW ~«m.1/1/1/1)
Vñ` dm EVñ`m¾odm©Jod Cn{ZfV², AWmXoem Cn{ZfXm_² (eV.10/4/5/1)
AW Ipëd`§ gd©ñ`¡ dmM Cn{ZfV² (EoVao` Am. 3/2/5)
VÌ {d{XVo gm§»`o Am¡n{ZfXo ~«m÷{U {df`:(JrVm 2/31,ZrbH$ÊR>r ì`m»`m)
doXñ`mon{ZfV² gË`_², gË`ñ`mon{ZfÔ_:& X_ñ`mon{ZfÔmZ§,XmZñ`mon{ZfÎmn:Ÿ&
Vngmon{ZfÎ`mJñË`mJñ`mon{ZfËgwI_²& gwIñ`mon{ZfËñdJ©:ñdJ©ñ`mon{ZfÀN>_:
(_hm^maV,empÝVnd©,_moj nd©,251/11,12)
nm¡éfo`Vm-doX H$s aMZm nwéf Ûmam hþ`r h¡, AV: `h àm`: nwéf h¡-
doXm§íM¡H$o g{ÞH$f© nwéfm»`m (_r_m§gm gyÌ 1/1/27)Ÿ&
1.nyU© {díd 16 H$bm Ho$ nwéf Ûmam {Z{_©V h¡Ÿ& doX Am¡a {díd EH$ hr h¡Ÿ&
2.doX F${f`m| Ûmam {Z{_©V h¡& VWm{n `h gm_mÝ` nwéfm| H$s j_Vm Ho$ nao h¡,
AV: Anm¡éfo` h¡Ÿ&`h {ZË` gË` AW© _| ~«÷ Ho$ g_Vwë` h¡Ÿ&{damQ²> nwéf ^y{_
({díd) go 10 JwUm ~‹S>m h¡ VWm doX nwéf H$s 16 _| 15 H$bm H$m hr dU©Z H$aVm
h¡-namËna dU©Z go nao h¡Ÿ& eãX ê$n _| ^r g¥{ï> à{H«$`m Ho$ g_Vwë` hmoZo go doX
{ZË` h¡Ÿ&
F$[f H¥$V Am¡a ~«m÷U Am{X A“m| H$m CëboI-
› ~«÷m XodmZm§ àW_: gå~^yd,{dídñ` H$Îmm© ^wdZñ` JmoámŸ&
g ~«÷{dÚm§ gd© {dÚm à{Vð>m_Wdm©` Á`oð> nwÌm` àmhŸ&1Ÿ&
VÌmnam F$½doXmo `OwdX} : gm_doXmo@Wd©dXo : {ejm H$ënmo ì`mH$aU§ {Z麧$ N>ÝXmo
Á`mo{Vf{_{VŸ&5Ÿ&(_wÊS>H$ C.1/1/1,5)
84 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
`m_¥f`mo _ÝÌH¥$Vmo _Zr{fU AÝd¡ÀN>Z² XodmñVngm l_oUŸ&
Vm§ Xodt dmM h{dfm `Om_ho gm Zmo XYmVw gwH$¥ Vñ` bmoH$o (V¡{Îm.~«m.2,8,8,5)
Z_mo F${fä`mo _ÝÌH$¥Xä² `mo _ÝÌn{Vä`:Ÿ&
Z_mo F${fä`mo _ÝÌH$¥Vmo _ÝÌH¥$V: àmhþXd£ r dmM_² (daXmnydV© m{nZr Cn{ZfX²)
F$fo _ÝÌH¥$Vm ñVmo_:¡ H$í`nmoÛY©`X² {Ja:Ÿ&
gmo_§ Z_ñ` amOmZ§ `mo Oko dréYm§ n{V:Ÿ&(F$H²$ 9/114/2)
gmjmV² H$¥V Y_m©U F$f`mo ~^ydw:Ÿ& Vo@daoä`mo@gmjmËH¥$VYå_©ä`-CnXoeoZ
_ÝÌmZ² gåàXw:Ÿ& CnXoem` ½bm`ÝVmo@dao {~ë_J«hUm`o_§ J«ÝW§ g_måZm{gfw:& doX§
M doXm“m{Z M(`mñH$ {Zéº$ 1/20)
Ed§ dm Aao@ñ` _hVmo^Vy ñ` {Z:íd{gV_oVÚX²-F$½doXmo `OwdX} : gm_doXmo AWdm©
{“ag:, B{Vhmg:, nwamU§, {dÚm:, Cn{ZfX², íbmoH$m:, gyÌm{U, AZwì`m»`mZm{Z,
ì`m»`mZm{ZŸ& Añ`¡XV¡ m{Z {Z:íd{gVm{ZŸ&(~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn.2/4/10)
_ÝÌ ~«m÷U`modX} Zm_Yo`_² (AmnñVå~ lm¡VgyÌ 24/1/31)
_ÝÌ ~«m÷U doX BË`mMjVo(~m¡Ym`Z J¥ø gyÌ 2/6/2)
AmåZm`: nwZ_©ÝÌmíM ~«m÷Um{Z M(H$m¡{eH$ gyÌ 1/3)
Ûo ~«÷Ur do{XVì`o eãX~«÷ na§ M `V²Ÿ&
eãX~«÷{U {ZîUmV: na§ ~«÷m{YJÀN>{VŸ&(_¡Ìm`Ur Cn.6/22, AmaÊ`H$)
d¡e{o fH$ gyÌ-~w{Õnydm© dmŠ` H¥${Vd}Xo (6/1/1)
~«m÷Uo g§km H$_© {g{Õ {b“_² (6/1/2)
Amf© {gÕ Xe©Z§ M Y_}ä`:(9/2//13)
doX A{ZË` H$s ì`m»`m H$aVo h¢ -A{ZË` Xe©ZmÀMŸ(_r_m§gm gyÌ 1/1/28)
Ý`m` gyÌ-AmámonXoe:eãX:(1/17), g {Û{dYmo Ñï>mÑï>mW©ËdmV²(1/18),
F$H²$(1/83)-AmX{“am: àW_§ X{Yao d`§ BÕm½Z`: eå`m `o gwH$¥ Ë``mŸ&4Ÿ&
`k¡aWdm© àW_: nWñVVo VV gy`m} d«Vnm doZ AmO{ZŸ&5Ÿ&
F$H²$(8,75,25)Vñ_¡ ZyZ_{^Údo dmMm {dê$n {ZË``m&d¥îUo MmoXñd gwï>w {V_²ŸŸ
{díd H$m 10 JwUm-g ^yq_ {dídVmo d¥ËdmÎ`{Îmð>Ôem“xb_²(nwéf gyº$ 1)
Ef doXmo {dídH$_m© _hmË_m gXm OZmZm§ öX`o g{Þ{dï>: (ídoVmídVa.4/17)
Vñ_mÑM: gm_ `Oy{§ f Xrjm `kmíM gd} H«$Vdmo X{jUmíM(_wÊS>H$ C.2/1)
ghòYm nÄMXemÝ`wŠWm `mdX²> Úmdm n¥{Wdr Vmd{XÎmV²(F$H²$10/114/8)
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 85
AV: ~«÷ doX Ho$ 4 nmX-F$H²$, `Ow:, gm_, AWd©Ÿ&
~«m÷U(~«÷ H$m {ddÎm©)-_ÝÌ, ~«m÷U, AmaÊ`H$, Cn{ZfX²Ÿ&
eãX ê$n _| doX F${f`m| Ûmam {Z{_©V hmoZo na ^r ~«m÷U Ûmam Anm¡éfo` hmoVo h¢
1.{d{^Þ F${f`m| Ûmam AbJ àg§Jm| _| ì`döV eãXm| H$m ~«m÷U J«ÝWm| Ûmam
EH$sH¥$V AW© {H$`m OmVm h¡ , {Oggo ì`{º$JV é{M, ^yb, àd¥{Îm Xya hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
2._ÝÌ {dMma Ho$ IÊS> `m H$U h¢, Bg Ñ{ï> go do nyU© Zht h¢Ÿ& 3 àH$ma Ho$ ~«m÷U
J«ÝWm| Ûmam do nyU© hmoVo h¢-~«m÷U J«ÝW Ûmam H$_©(^m¡{VH$ {H«$`m) H$s ì`m»`m,
AmaÊ`H$ Ûmam ^{º$(H$_©+kmZ)& {díd Ho$ H$mb-MH«$ Ho$ AZwgma h_ H$m`©
H$aVo h¢Ÿ& Cn{ZfX Ûmam kmZ ({gÕmÝV) H$s ì`m»`m hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
2.Xe©Z H$m H$m`©,^oX-AbJ AbJ àg§Jm| H$s nyU© ì`m»`m ~«m÷U J«ÝWm| Ho$
Ûmam h¡Ÿ& gånyU© H$s EH$ gmW ì`m»`m Xe©Z h¡Ÿ& doX H$mo lw{V H$hVo h¢Ÿ& ldm H$m
AW© gab aoIm `m {Xem h¡-{H$gr {Xem _| kmZ nmZm lw{V h¡Ÿ& g^r {XemAm| H$m
gm_mÝ` kmZ Xe©Z h¡Ÿ& doX H$o {H$gr gyº$ H$m {Z_m©U ^r Xe©Z h¡-F${f _ÝÌ H$m
Ðï>m h¡Ÿ& Xe©Z H$s Xmo Ymam`| h¢-AmpñVH$(doX `m ^JdmZ _| {dídmg H$aZo dmbm),
VWm ZmpñVH$ (doX H$mo à_mU Zht _mZZodmbm)& `h n[a^mfm ^«m_H$ h¡ , Š`m|{H$
H$m¡Ëg Ho$ AZwgma doX Ho$ eãXm| H$m H$moB© {ZpíMV AW© Zht h¡-CZHo$ AW© ^«m_H$ `m
{dnarV h¡, AV: CZH$m {ZîH$f© ~oH$ma h¡Ÿ& na `mñH$ Ho$ AZwgma doX Ho$ eãXm| H$m
Zht , ì`m»`m H$aZo dmbo H$m Xmof h¡-`{X EH$ AÝYm Iå^o go Q>H$amVm h¡ , Vmo
Cg_| Iå^o H$m Xmof Zht h¡Ÿ-
A{dñnï>mW©ÎdmV², AZW©H$ÎdmV², {dà{V{fÕmW©H$ÎdmÀM, {d{Y_ÝÌ`mod}XmW©
àË``m` emómaå^mo {ZaW©H$:(H$m¡Ëg-1/15)Ÿ& Z øof ñWmUmoanamYm o `XoZ_ÝYmo
Z ní`{V, nwéfmnamY: g ^d{V(`mñH$ H$m {Zéº$ 1/16)
na `mñH$ Zo ^r d¡H$pënH$ AW© ñdrH$ma {H$`m h¡-
A{n dm C^`{dYm: ñ`w: (7/8/7)Ÿ& A{n dm nwéf {dÚmZm_od gVm§ H$å_m©Ë_mZ
EVo ñ`w:,`Wm `kmo `O_mZñ`(7/8/8)&
Ì`r (3 doX VWm _yb AWd©) _| g~H$m _yb ApñV `m A_¥V H$hm J`m h¡ , Š`m|{H$
BgH$m Zme Zht hmoVm-
AW gdm©{U ^yVm{Z næ`£jV²Ÿ& g Ìæ`m_od {dÚm`m§ gdm©{U ^yVmÝ`ní`V²Ÿ& AÌ
{h gd}fm§ N>ÝXgm_mË_m, gd}fm§ ñVmo_mZm§, gd}fm§ n«mUmZm§, gd}fm§ XodmZm_²Ÿ&
86 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
EVÛm ‘ApñV’Ÿ& EV{Õ ‘A_¥V_²Ÿ’& `{Õ ‘A_¥V_²’, V{Õ ‘ApñV’Ÿ& EVXwVV²,
`V²- ‘_Ë`©_Ÿ² ’& (eVnW ~«m.10/4/2/21)
àOmn{V ñdodXo § gdª `{XX§ {H$ÄM (eV.6/4/2/5)
`ñ_mÞ OmV: namo AÝ`mo ApñV ` Am{ddoe ^wdZm{Z {dídmŸ&
àOmn{V: àO`m g§aamUór{U Á`moVt{f gMVo g fmoS>er (dm.`Ow.8/36)
A_¥V Ho$ A{V[aº$ AÝ` ^mJ _Ë`© h¡-`h g_má hmoVm h¡ , AV: ‘ZmpñV’ h¡Ÿ&
àOmn{V hr g~H$mo CËnÞ H$aVm h¡Ÿ& ñWm`r gd©ì`mnr VÎd ag h¡, Cg_| j{UH$
H$ånZ ~b h¡Ÿ& ag Ho$ 3 VÎd h¢-_Z(MoVZm H$m H$ånZ), àmU (e{º$),
dmH²$({H«$`m `m CgH$m joÌ)Ÿ& ~b Ho$ H$maU {díd aMZm Ho$ ^r 3 VÎd h¢-ê$n
(AmH$ma), H$_©, Zm_Ÿ& BZH$o AmYma na 3-3 Xe©Z h¢-
àOmn{V
AmË_m {díd
(ag, A_¥V, ApñV) (~b, _Ë`©, ZmpñV)
1.emaraH$-_Z ê$n-O¡Z `m Amh©V²
2.àmYm{ZH$-àmU H$_©-~m¡Õ
3.d¡e{o fH$-dmH²$ Zm_-Mmdm©H$
3.XedmX-XodVmAm| Ho$ nyd© gmÜ`-`wJ Wm Omo `k `m CËnmXZ {dkmZ H$mo hr
_w»` _mZH$a Cgr H$s CnmgZm H$aVo Wo-
`koZ `k_O`ÝV XodmñVm{Z Y_m©{U àW_mÝ`mgZ²Ÿ&
Vo h ZmH§$ _{h_mZ: gMÝV `Ì nyd} gmÜ`m: gpÝV Xodm:Ÿ&
(nwéf gyº$-16,F$H²$ 1/164/50, 10/90/16, dm.`Ow.31/16, Am{X)
`h `wJ AmÚ `wJ Ho$ nyd© _{UOm gä`Vm H$m H$mb WmŸ(`wJ-MH«$, n¥ð> 49)&
gmÜ`m| _| ~«÷m CËnÞ hþ`Ÿo & `k Ho$ AmYma na {díd CËn{Îm Ho$ 10 H$maU _mZo
J`o {OZH$m CëboI ZmgXr` gyº$ (F$H²$.10/129/1-7, V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U
2/8/9/3-9) _| h¡ VWm 10 àH$ma Ho$ Xe©Z hþ`-o
ZmgXmgrÞmo gXmgrV² VXmZt ZmgrÐOmo Zmo ì`mo_m namo `V²Ÿ&
{H$_mdard: Hw$h H$ñ` e_©Þå^: {H$_mgrX²JZ§ J^ra_²Ÿ&1Ÿ&
Z _¥Ë`wamgX_¥V§ Z V{h© Z amÍ`m A• AmgrV² àHo$V:Ÿ&
AmZrXdmV§ ñdY`m VXoH$§ Vñ_mÕmÝ`Þ na: qH$ M ZmgŸ&2Ÿ&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 87
V_ AmgrV² V_gm Jyùh_J«o@àHo$V§ g{bb§ gd©_m BX_²Ÿ&
VwÀNçoZmäd {n{hV§ `XmgrV² VngñVÝ_{hZmOm`V¡H$_²Ÿ&3Ÿ&
H$m_ñVXJ«o g_dV©Vm{Y _Zgmo aoV: àW_§ `XmgrV²Ÿ&
gVmo ~ÝYw_g{V {Za{dÝXZ² ö{X àVrî`m H$d`mo _ZrfmŸ&4Ÿ&
{VaíMrZmo {dVVmo apí_aofm_Y: pñdXmgr3Xwn[a pñdXmgr3V²Ÿ&
aoVmoYm AmgZ² _{h_mZ AmgZ² ËñdYm AdñVmV² à`{V: nañVmV²Ÿ&5Ÿ&
H$mo AÕm doX H$ Bh à dmoMV² Hw$V AOmVm Hw$V B`§ {dg¥{ï>:Ÿ&
Adm©½Xodm Añ` {dgO©ZoZm@Wm H$mo doX `V Am~^ydŸ&6Ÿ&
B`§ {dg¥{ï>`V© Am~^yd `{X dm XYo `{X dm ZŸ&
`mo Añ`mÜ`j: na_o ì`mo_Z² Ëgmo A“ `{X dm Z doXŸ&7Ÿ&
BZHo$ AmYma na n§. _YwgXy Z AmoPm Zo XedmX-ahñ` VWm g^r dmXm| na AbJ
AbJ nwñVH|$ {bItŸ& {dkmZ H$s n¥ð>^{y _ ê$n _| B{Vd¥ÎmdmX (g¥{ï> H$m dmñV{dH$
H«$_) VWm {ZîH$f© ê$n _| {gÕmÝV dmX {_bmH$a AhmoamÌdmX J«ÝW Ho$ AÝV _| 12
dmXm| H$s JUZm H$s h¡-
B{Vd¥Îm§ gXgX² dm aOmo {d`X² dmna§ VWmdaU_²Ÿ&
Aå^mo@_¥V_¥Ë`y dm@hmoamÌmo X¡dg§e`mo ~«÷Ÿ&&
EVo ÛmXe dmXm: emóo@pñ_Z² ~«÷{dkmZoŸ&
1.B{Vd¥ÎmdmX, 2.gXgÛmX, 3.aOmodmX, 4.ì`mo_dmX, 5.AnadmX, 6.AmdaU
dmX, 7.Aå^modmX, 8.A_¥V-_¥Ë`wdmX, 9.AhmoamÌdmX, 10.X¡ddmX, 11.
g§e`dmX, 12.{gÕmÝVdmXŸ&
n§. _moVrbmb emór, dmgwXod eaU AJ«dmb, n§. {J[aYa e_m© Am{X Ho$
gmam§em| Ho$ AZwgma 10 dmXm| H$m g§{já n[aM` Bg àH$ma h¡-
1.gXgÛmX-gV² H$m AW© h¡ XrIZodmbm `m AZw^d hmoZo bm`H$Ÿ& AZw^d gr_m
Ho$ nao AgV² h¡-A{V gyú_, {ZamH$ma , A{VXya, àH$me hrZ Am{XŸ& AWd©dXo Ho$
ñH$å^-gyº$ (10/7/21-25) _| BZH$mo gV² Am¡a AgV² emIm H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
eVnW ~«m.(6/1/1/1) Ho$ AZwgma g¥pîQ> H$m _yb F${f AgV² àmU h¡Ÿ&
V¡{Îmar` Cn.(2/7/1) _| ^r-AgÛm BX_J« AmgrV²Ÿ& VVmo gXOm`VŸ&
_Zwñ_¥{V(3/201) _| AgV² F${f go g¥{ï> H«$_ h¡-F${fä`: {nVamo OmVm:
{nV¥ä`mo XodXmZdm:Ÿ& Xodoä`íM OJËgdª Ma§ ñWÊdZwnyd©e:Ÿ&&
88 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
`hr _V F$H²$(1/9/5) _| h¡-Ag{XÎmo {d^w à^w:Ÿ& F$H²$ 9/8/86,10/
72/3/V¡.~«m.2/2/9 _| ^r h¡Ÿ&
EH$ AÝ` {dMma h¡ {H$ gV² H$s CËn{Îm AgV² go Zht hmo gH$Vr, _yb ^r gV²
hmoZm Mm{h`o-gVmo Aä`m gÁOOmZ(V¡{Îmar` g§.4/6/2/3)F$H²$ 1/96/
7,8/101/11,9/31/6,9/86/5,10/53/1, V¡{Îmar` C.(2/6)
^rŸ g¥{ï> _| n[adV©Z Am¡a pñWaVm XmoZm| XrIVo h¢, AV: gV²-AgV² `w½_ _yb h¡-
gVíM `mo{Z_gVíM {díd: (dm.`Ow. 13/3)Ÿ& eVnW10/4/1 _| ^rŸ&
gXgÛmX J«ÝW H$s ^y{_H$m _| n§. _YwgXy Z AmoPm Zo BZ 3 dmXm| Ho$ 7 àH$ma Ho$
{d_em] Ûmam 21 ^oX ~Vm`o h¢ ,Omo g^r Xe©Zm| H$m _yb h¡-
{d_e© gV²/AgV²/gXgV²-dmX _V
1.àË`` {ZË`{dkmZmÛ¡V ~«m÷U
j[UH${dkmZmÛ¡V l_UH$
AmZÝX{dkmZmÛ¡V d¡km{ZH$
2.àH¥${V H$å_m©Û¡V d¡Zm{eH$
~«÷mÛ¡V A{dZm{eH$
Û¡VmÛ¡V d¡Zm{eH$dmX{dZm{e
3.VmXmËå` {^Þm{^ÞËd Yå_m©Yå_u ag-~b H$m A^oX
~bgmaËd ~b H$s àYmZVm
aggmaËd agàmYmÝ`
4.A{^H$m`© AgËH$m`©dmX d¡e{o fH$
gËH$m`©dmX àmYm{ZH$
{_Ï`mH$m`©dmX emaraH$
5.JwU AgÝ_ybmg¥{ï> àmU_ybH$g¥{ï>
gÝ_ybmg¥{ï> dmL²>_ybH$g¥{ï>
gXgX¡H$mËå`_ybmg¥{ï> _Zmo_by H$g¥{ï>
6.gm_ÄOñ` àmJ^mdg_wpÀMVH$maUdmX A^mdnydH© $^mdmoËn{Îm
gå^y{V{dZmedmX CËn{Îm{dZmeàdmh
{dÚm-A{dÚmdmX gd©OJX^mdmË_H$^md_ybH$g¥{ï>
7.Aja gm¡JV g¥{ï>~rOñ`mjañ`mì`º$~bê$nËd
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 89
(7.Aja) H${nb g¥{ï>~rOñ`mjañ`O‹S>àYmZê$nËd
~mXam`U g¥{ï>~rOñ`mjañ`MoVZnwéfê$nËd
2.aOmodmX-aO H$m AW© Yy{b H$U,J{V,YZ Am{X h¡Ÿ& g^r bmoH$(AH$meJ§Jm,
Vmam, `m J«h) Yy{b H$Um| Ho$ g_mZ AmH$me _| {dMaU H$a aho h¢Ÿ, AV: CÝh| ^r
aO H$hm J`m h¡-aOm§{g d¡ bmoH$m:(dm.`Ow.11/6, eVnW ~«m.6/3/1/18)Ÿ&
J{V Ûmam hr g§gma H$r aMZm hþ`r h¡Ÿ& àH¥${V Ho$ 3 JwUm| _| gËd kmZ h¡, V_moJwU
O‹S> h¡, Ho$db {H«$`merb aOmoJUw Ûmam hr g¥{ï> hmo gH$Vr h¡Ÿ& aOmodmX Ho$ g_W©H$
dmŠ`-`: nm{W©dm{Z [d__o g EVemo aOm§{g Xod: g{dVm _{hËdZm (F$H²$.5/
81/3)Ÿ& VrZ YmVw-AH©$póYmVw aOgmo {d_mZ:(F$H²$.3/26/7)
{ddV}Vo aOgr (F$H²$.6/9/1)Ÿ& AÝ` h¢-F$H²$(1/164/6,14;1/35/
2,9; 10/32/2), eVnW ~«m.(6/3/18)Ÿ&
3.ì`mo_dmX-gyú_ AmH$me hr g¥{ï> H$m _yb h¡Ÿ& ì`mo_ H$m AW© Á`mo{Vf _| eyÝ`
hmoVm h¡Ÿ& na_ ì`mo_ g¥pîQ> H$m _yb ê$n `m Aja h¡-F$Mmo Ajao na_o ì`mo_Z²
(F$H²$.1/164/39)Ÿ& BgHo$ ghò ê$n ~ZVo h¢-ghòmjam na_o ì`mo_Z²
(F$H²$.1/164/41)Ÿ& `h AmYma h¡-na_o ì`mo_Þ AmYma`ÐmoXgr gwX§gm:
(F$H²$.1/62/7)Ÿ& AÝ`-F$H²$(1/143/2; 10/129/7;6/8/2)
4.AnadmX-na H$m AW© h¡ AmË_m , Am¡a Ana àH¥${V h¡Ÿ& BZ XmoZm| go CËnÞ hmoZo
Ho$ H$maU Bgo na-Ana dmX ^r H$hVo h¢Ÿ& ^m¡{VH$ OJV² àmH¥${VH$ h¡, AV:
BgH$m CX²J_ ^r àH¥${V go hr h¡Ÿ& àH¥${V H$mo ñd^md, {Z`{V(n[aUm_ dmX),
`ÑÀN>m(AmH$pñ_H$) ^r H$hVo h¢Ÿ& àH¥${V Ho$ _hmZ, Ah§H$ma Am{X ê$nm| go g¥{ï>
H$m dU©Z gm§»` H$m {df` h¡Ÿ& Añ`-dm_r` gyº$ (F$H²$.1/164/17-19) _|
na-Ada Ûmam g¥{ï> H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& AÝ`-H¥$Umo{V nyd_© na§ eMr{^:(F$H²$.6/
47/15)Ÿ& H$m`©-H$maU H$m A^oX eVnW ~«m.(6/1/2/27) _| g_Pm`m
h¡-C^`§ h¡VX²^d{V-{nVm M nwÌíMŸ& àOmn{VíMm{¾íM, A{¾íM àOmn{VíM,
àOmn{VíM XodmíM, XodmíM àOmn{VíMŸ& AÝ`-F$H²$.(10/18/5),(8/
27/14) Am{XŸ&
5.AmdaUdmX-AmdaU H$m AW© h¡ nXmW© H$m ~mø ê$nŸ& AmdaU H$mo d`wZ H hm
J`m h¡Ÿ& {d{^Þ VÎdm| Ho$ nañna {_bZ H$mo d`Z(dó ~wZZm) H$hVo h¢-d`m§{g
VX² ì`mH$aU§ {d[M̧ _Zw_Z© rfm _ZwOmo {Zdmg:-^mJdV nw.w (2/1/36)
90 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
d`wZ `m AmdaU N>ÝX h¡-`h Xoe-H$mb H$s _mn h¡; Bgo AÜ`m` 2 _| g_Pm`m
J`m h¡Ÿ&AmdaU go T>§H$m nXmW© d`moZmY h¡, VWm Cgo ~mÝYZo dmbm àmU d` h¡
(eVnW ~«m.8/2/2/8)Ÿ& AV: d` H$m AW© Am`w ^r h¡Ÿ& AmdaU `m N>ÝX
_m`m h¡-Bggo ^rVar nXmW© {N>n OmVm h¡, AV: _m`m H$m AW© ^«_ h¡Ÿ& _m`m go
g¥{ï> hmoZo go `h _mVm h¡Ÿ& AmdaU H$mo M_© `m e_©(eVnW.3/2/1/8) ^r
H$hm J`m h¡& _m`m ê$nr V_ go g¥{ï>-V_ AgrÎm_gmJyùh_J«o(F$H²$10/129)
AÝ`-F$H²$-(1/143/6;1/55/8;2/87/4;9/74/2), _Zwñ_¥{V
(1/51)-Amgr{XX§ V_mo^yV_àkmV_bjU_²Ÿ& AàVŠ`©_{ZXo©í`§ àgwá{_d
gd©V:Ÿ&
6.Aå^modmX-g¥{ï> H$m _yb nXmW© g_ê$n hmoZo go ag(V¡{Îmar` Cn.2/7/2)
`m An² H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& Bg_| H$ånZ hmoZo go `h Aå^ h¡, Cg_| bha AmZo go g{bb,
CËnÞ nXmW© Ðßg(drops) `m ~wb~wbm h¡Ÿ& _yb go {ZH$bZo Ho$ H$maU `h ñH$ÝX
`m À`wV h¡Ÿ& An² H$m {dñVma g_wÐ h¡, {OgHo$ ê$n Z^ñdmZ², gañdmZ², AU©d
VWm CZH$m Am{XË`(Am{X H$aZodmbm) àmU A`©_m, déU, {_Ì VrZ Ym_m|-
ñd`å^y, na_oð>r, gm¡a _ÊS>b-_| h¢Ÿ& g_wX« O¡gm {dñVma _mVm H$m J^© h¡, Cg_|
{Z_m©U H$m Ho$ÝÐ {nVm h¡Ÿ& Amnmo {h ð>m _`mo ^wd:(F$H²$.10/9/1,dm.
`Ow.11/50, 36/14), à gwd Amnmo _{h_m_wÎm__²(F$H²$.10/75/1)Ÿ&
AÝ`-F$H²$.6/50/7; 1/100/1; eVnW 11/1/6/1; 1/1/1/14;
6/1/1/8; 10/5/4/15; 10/5/4/14; 4/5/2/14Ÿ&
7.A_¥V-_¥Ë`wdmX-ag ê$n ñWm`r `m A_¥V h¡; Cggo CËnÞ g¥{ï> j{UH$ `m
_¥Ë`w h¡Ÿ& A_¥V ag Ho$ g_wÐ go _wº$ hmoZo go `h _wÀ`w h¡, {Ogo namoj _| _¥Ë`w H$hm
J`m h¡ (JmonW ~«m.ny.1/7)Ÿ& g^r g¥ï> nXmW© ja `m _¥Ë`w VWm _yb òmoV A_¥V
h¡-nmXmo@ñd {dídm ^yVm{Z {ÌnmXñ`m_¥V§ [X{d(nwéf gyº$ 3)Ÿ& gV² ^md _¥Ë`w
h¡; AgV² A^md {H$ÝVw A_¥V h¡Ÿ& XmoZm| gmW-gmW ahVo h¢-AÝVa§ _¥Ë`moa_¥V§
_¥Ë`md_¥Vm_{hV_²(eVnW 10/5/2/4)Ÿ& {Zdoe`Þ_¥V§ _Ë`©ÄM (dm.`Ow.
34/31)Ÿ& AÝ`-F$H²$1/83/5; 3/1/14; eV.(10/1/4/1)
8.AhmoamÌdmX-_yb Aì`º$ go ì`º$ H$s g¥{ï> ~«÷m H$m {XZ VWm CgH$m nwZ:
Aì`º$ _| brZ hmoZm am{Ì h¡-Aì`º$mX² ì`º$`: gd} à^dÝË`hamJ_oŸ&amÍ`mJ_o
àbr`ÝVo VÌ¡dmì`º$ g§kH$o(JrVm8/18Ÿ)Ÿ& {d{^Þ àH$ma Ho$ {Z_m©U MH«$ hr
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 91
H$mb H$s _mn h¢Ÿ& AWd© g§.(19/53,54) Ho$ Xmo gyº m| _| H$mb H$m {dñVma go
dU©Z h¡Ÿ& {Z_m©U {H«$`m H$mo gå^y{V, gÄMa VWm b` H$mo Agå^y{V, à{VgÄMa
Am{X ^r H$hVo h¢Ÿ& BZH$m MH«$ Xe©-nyU_© mg `k h¡-Xe© (A_mdmñ`m) go ny{U©_m
VH$ MÝÐ Ho$ àH$m{eV ^mJ H$m {dñVma {Z_m©U VWm {dnarV H«$_ b` h¡Ÿ& `k _|
Ap½Z(gr_m _| KZr^yV) VWm gmo_({dH$sU© nXmW©) H$m {_bZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&A{¾ _|
[dñVma H$s àd¥{Îm A§{Jam VWm gmo_ Ho$ g§H$moM H$s àd¥{Îm ^¥Jw h¡Ÿ&
9.XoddmX-àmU e{º$ Ho$ ñVa XodVm h¢, CZH$m Aì`º$ A{Z`{_V {dñVma Agwa
h¡Ÿ& àmU H$m KZr^yV Ho$ÝÐ gy`© h¡-CgHo$ gm_ `m à^md-joÌ _| COm© Ho$ 33 ñVa
33 XodVm h¢(AÜ`m` 2)Ÿ& à{V Xod-joÌ _| 3 àH$ma Ho$ Agwa h¢-AWm©V² 99
AgwaŸ& XodVmAm| go hr g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡, Agwam| go ZhtŸ& AV: g¥ï> {díd 4 nmX _| 1
nmX h¡-F${fä`: {nVamo OmVm: {nV¥ä`mo Xod-XmZdm:Ÿ& Xodäo `íM OJËgdª Ma§
ñWmÊdZwnyd©e:Ÿ&(_Zwñ_¥{V 3/201) nmXmo@ñ` {dídm ^yVm{Z {ÌnmXñ`m_¥V§
{X{d(nwéf gyº$ 3)
10.g§e`dmX-H$B© àH$ma Ho$ dU©Zm| Ho$ H$maU g§gma Ho$ dmñV{dH$ ê$n Ho$ ~mao _|
gÝXoh ahVm h¡Ÿ& BgH$m {ZíM` Zht {H$`m Om gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ Cg g_` Xod ^r
CËnÞ Zht hþ`o WoŸ&(ZmgXr` gyº y $ 6,7) VH©$ H$s gr_m Ho$ nma OmZo Ho$ H$maU ^r
g§e` ahVm h¡-A{MÝË`m: Ibw `o ^mdm Z Vm±ñVH}$U gmY`oVŸ² &
àH¥${Vä`: na§ `ñVw VX{MÝË`ñ` bjU_²Ÿ&(_hm^maV^rî_.5/12, dm`wnaw mU)
BZHo$ A{V[aº$ AmYma ê$n ({dkmZ-) B{Vd¥ÎmdmX Ho$ AZwgma {dkmZ Ûmam hr
{díd Ho$ {Z_m©U H$m H«$_ {ZYm©[aV hmoVm h¡Ÿ& _Zwî` ^r `k-{dkmZ Ûmam Hw$N> ^r
~Zm gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&{dídm{_Ì Ûmam ~«÷m go ñdVÝÌ g¥{ï> H$m dU©Z nwamUm| _| AmVm
h¡Ÿ& Ah§ Vm {díd§ MH$a_² (F$H²$4/42/6) AÝ`-F$H²$ 10/49/1,9; 10/
48/1,4; 10/19/2; 10/184/3; 4/26/1 Am{X h¢Ÿ&
BZ g^r {gÕmÝVm| H$m g_Ýd` ~«÷-{gÕmÝV _| h¡Ÿ& Bg H$m {dñVma go n§.
_YwgXy Z AmoPm Zo ~«÷-{gÕmÝV _| dU©Z {H$`m h¡ ,{OgH$s n§.{J[aYa e_m© MVwdX} r
Ûmam g§ñH¥$V ì`m»`m hþ`r VWm CgH$m {hÝXr AZwdmX CZHo$ nwÌ XodrXÎm MVwdX} r Zo
[H$`m h¡ (amOñWmZ n{ÌH$m àH$meZ)Ÿ& BgHo$ AZwgma ~«÷ hr {díd H$m _yb
òmoV, AmYma, CnH$aU, {Z_m©Vm g~ Hw$N> h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ 6 ñVa Ho$ {ddÎm© _m`m Ûmam
hmoVo h¢Ÿ& CgHo$ 4 nmX h¡-namËna, Aì``, Aja, jaŸ&
92 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
4.Xg Am`m_m| Ho$ 6 Xe©Z-{díd Ho$ 10 Am`m_m| H$o H$maU Xe(10),
Xem(pñW{V), {Xem Am{X g_ê$n eãX hþ`o h¢Ÿ& {H$gr pñW{V Ho$ EH$ {Xem _|
_mn H$mo Am`m_ H$hVo h¢Ÿ&10 Am`m_m| H$m _yb h¡-3 {H«$`mË_H$ bmoH$ VWm 7
g§aMZmË_H$ bmoH$Ÿ& `m, AmH$me Ho$ 3 Am`m_ VWm 7 F${f `m 7 àmUm| Ho$ 7
Am`m_Ÿ& `m 5-5 Am`m_ 2 àH$ma Ho$ h¢-(1) gVV VWm H$U g_yh, (2) AZÝV
a¡{IH$ `m gr{_V Jmobr` `m ~obZmH$maŸ& BZH$m ê$n h¡-
5 gVV 1.aoIm(J{V {Xem)
`m AZÝV 2.n¥ð>(gVh) AmH$me Ho$ 3 Am`m_
3.Am`VZ(ñVmo_,Am`w)
4.nXmW©-MVw_I w© ~«÷m-gmnojdmX _| AmH$me-H$mb H$m n[aUm_
5.H$mb-nÄM_wI {ed-_hmH$mb ñdê$nŸ&
5 gr{_V 6.MoVZm -Omo M`Z `m {M{V H$ao-MoVZ nwéf-fð> Am`m_
`m H$U- 7.F${f(=añgr,AgV² àmU H$s ~b-aoIm)-gá_ Am`m_
g_yh 8.ZmJ(d¥Ì)-ñWmZr` KyUZ© -~b,AZÝV D$Om© H$mo gr{_V H$aoŸ&
9.aÝY«(ZÝX)-{N>Ð-Ag_ KZËd Ho$ H$maU {Z_m©U
10.AmZÝX(ag)-g¥pîQ> H$m _yb ê$n,nXmW©/D$Om© ñVa Ho$ AZwgma
KZËd _| AÝVaŸ&
AmYw{ZH$ ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ _| H$mb-AmH$me Ho$ 4 Am`m_m| Ûmam hr nXmW© H$s
CËn{Îm _mZr J`r h¡ , {H$ÝVw _mn H$s _yb BH$mB`m§ 5 hr h¢-AV: ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ
H$m `mpÝÌH$-g§gma 5 Am`m_r h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX Ho$ 5 Am`m_ MoVZm Ho$ 5 ñVa h¢-
Ho$db ^m¡{VH$ Am`m_m| Ûmam aMZm {~Ia OmVr h¡ (Cî_m-J{VH$s H$m {ÛVr`
{Z`_), Cgo g§J{R>V H$aZo Ho$ {b`o MoVZm Oê$ar h¡Ÿ& H$_ go H$_ 5 Am`m_mo§ Ûmam
`mpÝÌH$ {díd H$m nyU© dU©Z hmoVm h¡, nwéf Ho$ AÝ` ê$nm| H$m dU©Z AJbo 5
Am`m_m| H$mo H«$_e: {_bmZo go hmoVm h¡Ÿ& nwéf Ho$ 6 Am`m_m| H$mo H$maU 6 Xe©Z
VWm 6 Xe©-dmH²$({b{n) hmoVr h¡Ÿ-
fQ²> nX§ VyîUt e§g§ e§g{V, fS²>{dYmo d¡ nwéf: fS>“ AmË_mZ_od fS>“§ {dH$amo{V
(EoVao` ~«m.10/39)
EH$ {ZamH$ma go 6 Ñí` bmoH$ (gË` go AÝ` 6 bmoH$) `m EH$ _yb F${f go 6 AÝ`
F${f OmoS‹ >o _| CËnÞ hmoVo h¢-
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 93
gmH$ÄOmZm§ gáW_mhþaHo $O§ f{S>Ú_m F$f`mo XodOm B{VŸ&
Vofm{_ï>m{Z {d{hVm{Z Ym_e: ñWmÌo aoOÝVo {dH¥$Vm{Z ê$ne:Ÿ&
(F$H²$ 1/16/15; AWd© 9/9/16; V¡{Îmar` ~«m.1/3/1)
7 F${f EH$ gmW ahVo h¢-EH$ go 6 F${f OmoS‹ >o _o§ hþ`,o CZgo Xod Ym_ Am¡a H$B©
n«H$ma Ho$ ê$n hþ`oŸ&
A{M{H$ËdmpÄM{H$VwfpíMXÌ H$drZ² n¥ÀN>m{_ {dÙZo Z {dÛmZ²Ÿ&
{d`ñVñVå^ f{S>_m aOm§{g-AOñ` ê$n {H$_{n pñdXoH$_²Ÿ&
(F$H²$ 1/64/6, AWd©.9/9/7)
Aì`º$ go ì`º$ H$s CËn{Îm Ho$ ~mao _| {dÛmZm| Zo ~Vm`m {H$ EH$ hr AO Ho$ 6
àH$ma Ho$ bmoH$ h¢Ÿ&
3, 5, 7 H$m {d^mOZ gm§»` H$s ì`m»`m _| {dñVma go H$hm Om`JmŸ& MoVZ nwéf
Ho$ 2 ê$n-ja(ZmedmZ,_Ë`©) VWm Aja (3 A_¥VnmX-Aja, Aì``, namËna)
Ho$ AZwgma 3-3 ZmpñVH$ VWm AmpñVH$ Xe©Z h¢Ÿ& ZmpñVH$ _V H$m ^r doX _|
CëboI h¡, dh Ad¡{XH$ Zht h¡ O¡gm Cg _V dmbo H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
5.fS²>Xe©Zm| H$m ñdê$n-n§._YwgXy Z AmoPm Ho$ ~«÷-{gÕmÝV Ho$ AmYma na-
1.bmoH$m`V `m Mmdm©H$-àË`j hr à_mU h¡, AÑí` AmH$me H$mo N>mSo‹ > ~mH$s 4
_hm^yVm| H$mo VÎd _mZm J`m h¡-CÝht go MoVZ nwéf Am¡a {díd H$m {Z_m©U hmoVm
h¡; H$moB© AmË_m Zht h¡Ÿ& `h ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ, H¥${f, dm{UÁ`, amOZr{V Ho$ {b`o
Cn`moJr h¡Ÿ& bmoH$ Cn`moJr hmoZo go `h bmoH$m`V h¡-BgHo$ {Z_m©Vm ~¥hñn{V ^r
bm¡Š`(F$½doX Ho$ F${f) H$ho OmVo h¢-bmoH$ H$m nwÌ `m bmoH$mon`moJr XmoZm| AWm] _|Ÿ&
amOZr{V(`m H¥${f,dm{UÁ` ^r) _| Ma(godH$) Ho$ dmH²$ Ûmam H$m`© hmoVm h¡-AV:
Bgo Mmdm©H$ ^r H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
2.d¡Zm{eH$ `m ~m¡Õ-BgHo$ 2 AmYma h¢-àË`j VWm VH©$Ÿ& ^mfm H$s CËn{Îm
H$mb go hr VH©$ H$m Amaå^ h¡Ÿ& Bgo `m BgHo$ àUoVm H$mo Jm¡V_ H$hm J`m h¡ Š`m|{H$
dmUr (Jmo) Ho$ VrZ ñVa _pñVîH$ Jwhm Ho$ ^rVa nyU© ê$n go ahVo h¢ AV: Jm¡ar
(àH$m{eV,CObm) dmH²$ h¡Ÿ& MVwW© nX ì`º$ dmH²$(CÀMmaU `m boIZ) _| Hw$N>
{N>n OmVm h¡ ,AV: Bgo V_(AÝYH$ma) H$hVo h¢Ÿ& AV: boIZ H$mo ídoV-í`m_
H$hVo h¢Ÿ& Ý`m`mb`m| _| BgH$m à`moJ hmoVm h¡ , Ohm§ CObm H$mo H$mbm Am¡a H$mbm
H$mo CObm {H$`m OmVm h¡, AV: `h Ý`m` Xe©Z h¡Ÿ& {gÕmW© Zo Bg nÕ{V
94 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
H$m AZwgaU {H$`m, AV: CZH$m Zm_ Jm¡V_ hþAmŸ& _Zwî`m| Ho$ 4 ñVa Ho$ H$maU
BgH r 4 emIm`| h¢-(H$)_mÜ`{_H$-{díd H$m nyU© `moJ eyÝ` h¡ (eyÝ`dmX)Ÿ&
(I) {dkmZmpñV-~w{Õ Ûmam {díd H$m {Z_m©U hþAmŸ& gyÌm| na AmYm[aV hmoZo go
gm¡ÌmpÝVH$ ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
(J) `moJmMma-~mhar {díd _Z H$s H$ënZm _mÌ h¡Ÿ& _Z H$o {Z`ÝÌU Ho$ H$maU
Bgo `moJmMma H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
(K) d¡^m{fH$-{d^mfm ({dH$ën) go ^rVar-~mhar XmoZm| {díd H$s gÎmmŸ&
3.O¡Z `m ñ`mÛmX-~m¡Õ Xe©Z Ho$ 4 AmYma {ZUm©`H$ Zht h¢Ÿ& 6 Xe©Zm| H$s
AnyUV© m Xya H$aZo Ho$ {b`o O¡Z _V _| gÎmm Ho$ 7 {dH$ënm| H$s H$ënZm H$s J`r h¡Ÿ&
g^r {dH$ën OmZZo go nyU©Vm AmVr h¡, AV: Bgo gd©k `m Amh©V² H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
4.d¡e{o fH$-9 àH$ma Ho$ Ðì`m| Ho$ H$Um| Ho$ g§`moJ go ~Zo ja {díd _| Ðì`m| go Hw$N>
{deof JwU ^r CËnÞ hmoVm h¡ Omo Ad`dm| _| Zht WmŸ& AV: Bgo d¡eo{fH$ H$hm
OmVm h¡Ÿ& {díd H$Um| Ho$ ^moOZ(AX) go ~Zm h¡; `h {dMma XoZo dmbo Xme©{ZH$
H$mo H$UmX H$hm J`mŸ&
5.àmYm{ZH$ `m gm§»`-àYmZ `m _yb àH¥${V go CËn{Îm VWm h a dJ© Ho$ VÎdm§o
H$r g§»`m H$s JUZm H$aZo Ho$ H$maU Bgo àmYm{ZH$ `m gm§»` H$hVo h¢Ÿ& `h 4
àH$ma H$m h¡-
(H$) Amf© àmYm{ZH$-gm§»`-`h H${nb Ho$ VÎd-g_mg VWm gm§»` gyÌ na
AmYm[aV h¡Ÿ& `h Ho$db àH¥${V H$m dJuH$aU ~VmVm h¡, B©ída Ho$ ~mao _| Zht;
AV: Bgo {Zarída gm§»` ^r H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
(I) `moJ àmYm{ZH$-AmpË_H$ CÞ{V Ho$ {b`o Bg_| gm§»` VWm AÝ` kmZ H$m
Cn`moJ h¡Ÿ& à{UYmZ(g_n©U) Ho$ {b`o Bg_| B©ída H$mo bú` _mZm J`m h¡Ÿ&
(J) amO àmYm{ZH$-AmJ_ `m VÝÌ _| 3 _yb VÎdm| go g¥{ï> _mZr J`r h¡-{ed,
e{º$, {dÝXwŸ& 5 VÝ_mÌm Ho$ AmYma na gm§»` _| 5•5=25 VÎd h¢Ÿ& AmJ_ `m
e¡d Xe©Z _| MoVZm H$mo N>R>m VÎd _mZm J`m h¡; AV: Bg_| 6•6= 36 VÎd h¢Ÿ,
{Og_| gm§»` Ho$ g^r 25 VÎd h¢&
(K) nwamU àmYm{ZH$-nwamUm| _| nmÄMamÌ Xe©Z h¡ , {Og_| gm§»` Ho$ AZwgma
g¥{ï> H$m H«$_ ~Vm`m J`m h¡Ÿ& _yb AmH$me `m dmg-ñWmZ dmgwXdo h¡Ÿ& {díd Ho$
H$Um| _| nañna AmH$f©U g§H$f©U h¡Ÿ& AmH$f©U Ho$ g§H$moM Ho$ H$maU àH$me_mZ
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 95
Vmam| H$m {Z_m©U hwAm-`h n«Úåw Z h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX g¥pîQ> Ho$ Agr{_V ê$n A{ZéÕ
h¢Ÿ&
6.emaraH$(eara H$m ñdm_r ~«÷)-~mXam`U ì`mg Zo doX H$m gma `m doXmÝV
H$mo ~«÷-gyÌm| _o§ nm[a^m{fV {H$`mŸ& doX Ho$ AbJ-AbJ dU©Zm| H$s EH$Vm 6
àH$ma go H$hr OmVr h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ {ed-e{º$ H$s EH$Vm 2 àH$ma go
~Vm`r OmVr h¡-(H$) e§H$a H$m AÛ¡V dmXŸ&
(I) dëb^mMm`© H$m ewÕmÛ¡V, (J) am_mZwO H$m {d{eï>mÛ¡V,
(K) ^mñH$a Am¡a {Zå~mH©$ H$m Û¡V-AÛ¡V, (L>) _Üd H$m Û¡V,
(M) M¡VÝ` H$m A{MÝË` ^oX-A^oXŸ&
BZ g^r Zo AnZo {gÕmÝV H$s ñWmnZm Ho$ {b`o 3 _yb òmoV-J«ÝWm| `m àñWmZ
(Ohm§ go `mÌm Amaå^ hmo) H$s ì`m»`m H$s-JrVm, 10 _w»` Cn{ZfX², VWm
~«÷-gyÌŸ&lr dëb^mMm`© Zo {gÕmÝV H$mo Am¡a nwï> H$aZo Ho$ {b`o MVwW© àñWmZ
^{º$ Ho$ {b`o lr_X² ^mJdV nwamU H$s ^r ì`m»`m H$sŸ&
(N>) A{^ZdJwá H$m àË`{^km,(O) VÝÌ `m e{º$ AÛ¡VŸ&
6.{dñV¥V dJuH$aU-gmYmaUV: 6 AmpñVH$ Xe©Zm| H$mo doX H$m 6 Cnm§J
H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& BZHo$ 3 `w½_ h¢-
1.gm§»`-`moJ, 2.d¡e{o fH$-Ý`m`, 3.(nyd)© _r_m§gm-(CÎma _r_m§gm)doXmÝVŸ&
BZ `w½_m| H$m àW_ ^mJ JUZmË_H$ kmZ h¡ ,{OgH$m ê$n JUoe h¡Ÿ& Xygam
^mJ Aì`º$ `m ag-ê$n h¡, {OgH$m àVrH$ gañdVr h¡Ÿ& AbJ-AbJ nwa H$Um|
H$s JUZm H$m kmZ nwéf ê$n _| JUoe h¢Ÿ& ag H$m {dñVma joÌ ór ê$nr gañdVr
h¡Ÿ& `moJ H$moB© AbJ Xe©Z Zht h¡, AnZr CÞ{V Ho$ {b`o `h g^r _mJm] H$m gma
h¡Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma Ý`m` Xe©Z empãXH$ VH©$ Ho$ ê$n _o§ g^r {b{IV kmZ H$m AmYma
h¡ŸŸ&Bggo Jm¡ar dmH²$(_pñVîH$ Jwhm Ho$ ^rVa dmH²$ Ho$ 3 nX-nam, ní`ÝVr, _Ü`_m)
H$m MVwW© nX d¡Iar Ho$ ê$n({b{IV `m H${WV eãX) _| àH$Q>rH$aU h¡Ÿ& Bg_|
Hw$N> VÎd bwá hmo OmVm h¡, AV: `h V_ h¡Ÿ& AV: `h Jm¡V_ Xe©Z h¡Ÿ& Ý`m`mb`m|
_| BgH$m à`moJ hmoVm h¡ Ohm§ CObm H$mo H$mbm VWm H$mbm H$mo CObm {H$`m OmVm
h¡Ÿ&
6 ZmpñVH$ Xe©Zm| H$s JUZm _| ~m¡Õ Xe©Z Ho$ 4 ^mJm| H$mo AbJ AbJ {JZm OmVm
h¡Ÿ&
96 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AmpñVH$ Xe©Zm| H$m Vrgam `w½_ _r_m§gm H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& àW_ ^mJ H$_© _r_m§gm
h¡ Omo d¡{XH$ dmŠ`m| VWm {H«$`mAm| H$s ì`m»`m H$aVm h¡Ÿ& na BZ H$o Ûmam ~«÷ H$s
ì`m»`m hr BgH$m ApÝV_ CÔoí` h¡Ÿ& AV: `h ^r EH$ Xe©Z h¡Ÿ& {ÛVr` ^mJ
doXmÝV ~«÷ Ho$ AbJ AbJ Zm_m| H$s EH$Vm {XImVm h¡Ÿ& _r_m§gm H$m _Ü` ^mJ
^{º$ H$hm OmVm h¡ {OgH$m AmYma ZmaX Am¡a empÊS>ë` Ho$ ^{º$ gyÌ h¢Ÿ&
{dñVma _| Xe©Zm| Ho$ 6•6=36 dJ© h¢ (n§. _moVrbmb emór)-
1.ZmpñVH$-(1) bmoH$m`{VH$(Mmdm©H$), (2) d¡^m{fH$, (3) gm¡ÌmpÝVH$, (4)
d¡km{ZH$ `m j{UH$, (5) _mÜ`{_H$, (6) ñ`mÛm[XH$Ÿ&
2.B©ída_m{ÌH$-(1) gm§»`, (2)e¡d, (3)ZHw$bre nmewnV, (4) H$méH$
{gÕmÝV, (5) H$mnm{bH$, (6) d¡e{o fH$Ÿ& ~rM Ho$ 4 _mhoída _V h¢Ÿ&
3.~«÷-àH¥${V gå~ÝY-(1) e§H$a H$m {Z{d©eof AÛ¡V, (2) am_mZwO H$m
{d{eï>mÛ¡V, (3) _Üd H$m Û¡V, (4) dëb^ H$m ewÕmÛ¡V, (5) {Zå~mH©$ H$m
Û¡VmÛ¡V, (6) M¡VÝ` H$m A{MÝË` ^oXm^oXŸ& _Ü` Ho$ 4 ^mJdV Xe©Z h¢Ÿ&
4.B©ída-{d^y{V-(1) gm¡a, (2) emº$, (3) e¡d, (4) d¡îUd, (5)JmUnË`,
(6) ñ_mÎm©Ÿ& ~rM Ho$ 4 ànÞ(eaUmJV) h¢Ÿ&
(5) VÝÌ (AåZm`)-(1) D$Üd©, (2) nyd©, (3) X{jU, (4) npíM_, (5)
CÎma, (6) AYaŸ& ~rM Ho$ 4 X¡{eH$ h¢Ÿ&
(6) EH$Ëd-(1) empãXH$(ì`mH$aU), (2) _r_m§gH$, (3)Ý`m` (4)
Ab‘>m[aH$ (5) nm¡am{UH$, (6) Eo{Vhm{gH$Ÿ& _Ü` Ho$ 4 VH©$ AmYm[aV h¢Ÿ&
7.doX-emIm`|-g¥{ï> hr _yb doX h¡; CgHo$ 10 Am`m_m| Ho$ AmYma na doX H$s
emIm`| h¢Ÿ&F$½doX _y{Îm© ê$n h¡Ÿ&AmH$ma H$s _mn Ho$ {b`o 21 emIm`| h¢-10 YZmË_H$
{Xem, 10 {dnarV F$UmË_H$ {Xem, VWm 1$ _yb Amaå^ {dÝXwŸ& `Owd}X _| J{V
Ho$ Amaå^ VWm n[aU{V Ho$ 10-10 ñWmZ h¢-AV: 10•10=100 J{V ê$n h¢,
1 pñWa gÝX^© {_bmH$a 101 emIm`| h¢Ÿ& J{V 2 àH$ma H$s h¡-~mha go Omo
XrIVr h¡ dh ewŠb VWm ^rVar J{V H¥$îU h¡Ÿ& ewŠb J{V 15 àH$ma H$s h¡-5
_hm^yVm| H$s 3-3 àH$ma H$s gmnoj J{V hmoJr-pñWa, Xya J_Z, AmJ_ZŸ& {díd
Ho$ ~mhar ê$n H$m dU©Z nwéf H$s 15 H$bmAm| go hmoVm h¡-{díd Ho$ 5 ndm] H$o 3-
3 _ZmoVm `m 3 dU©Zr` nwéfm| (Aì``, Aja, ja) H$s 5-5 H$bm`|Ÿ& EH$
g_Vb _| {H$gr {M• H$s 17 àH$ma H$s J{V Ûmam nyam Vb Koam Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 97
Bgo AmYw{ZH$ ~rOJ{UV(CXmhaU Ho$ {b`o _mBHo$b Am{Q>Z© H$s nwñVH$) _|
g_Vb _{U^ gmÜ` H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& MmXa `m Xrdmb na EH$ R>ßno go 17 àH$ma
Ho$ {M• ^ao Om gH$Vo h¢Ÿ& AV: Bgo dmb-nona {Z`_ ^r H$hVo h¢ VWm ^maVr`
Á`mo{Vf _| 17 H$mo KZ, _oK Am[X H$hVo h¢-17 àH$ma H$s J{V go _oK Ho$ g_mZ
T>§H$ boJmŸ& 5 _hm^yVm| Ho$ 5•17=85 ê$n Vb _| XrI|Jo, BgHo$ A{V[aº$ 1
Aì`º$ ^r AÑí` hmoZo Ho$ H$maU H¥$îU J{V _| {JZm Om`oJmŸ& H¥$îU `OwdX} H$s
86 emImAm| H$s Vah 86 ZaH$ Hw$ÊS>, fS>er{V-_mg(df© Ho$ 4 IÊS> 91 {XZm|
Ho$, CZ_| nmÄMamÌ Ho$ 5 {XZ H$_), {díd _| 1086 _yb-H$U h¢Ÿ& `OwdX} H$s
100 ì`º$ emIm`| hmoZo Ho$ H$maU BgHo$ ì`m»`m-J«ÝW H$mo eVnW ~«m÷U H$hm
OmVm h¡Ÿ&
gm_doX _{h_m `m à^md-joÌ H$m doX h¡Ÿ& 10pñW{V•10J{V•10 n«^md=
1000 emIm`| h¢Ÿ& AWd©dXo H$s 50(`m 9) emIm`| 5 _hm^yVm| H$m 10 Am`m_m| _|
{dñVma h¡Ÿ& AmH$me _| {nÊS> H$m à^md 1000 JwUm VH$ _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ& AhJ©U
_mn go `h 2 H$m 10 KmV h¡, 3 ^rVar joÌ {JZZo na 13 AhJ©U hm|JoŸ& gm_
Vn©U _| 13 emIm`| H$hr J`r h¢ Am¡a eãX ê$n _| CVZo H$o hr Zm_ h¢Ÿ& AWd© ^r
_yb {dñVma H$m doX h¡, 50 JwUm {dñVma Ho$ 6 AhJ©U ~mha (2 H$m 5 KmV 32
VWm 6 KmV 64 h¡, 6KmV H$s gr_m _| 50 hmoJm) VWm 3^rVa h¢Ÿ& AV: CgH$s 9
emIm`| h¢ Am¡a eãXê$n _| CVZr emImAm| H$m hr Zm_ h¡Ÿ&
AÝ` g_Vwë` ì`m»`m h¡ {H$ AWd©dXo H$m Amaå^ 3•7 àH$ma Ho$ {díd go h¡-`o
{Ìfám:n[a`pÝV {dídm:& AV: {díd_y{Îm© ê$n F$½doX H$s 21 emIm`| h¢& 3 doXm|
H$m nañna gå~ÝY 3•3=9 àH$ma H$m hmoZo go AWd© H$s 9 emIm`| h¢Ÿ&$
8.Hw$b Am¡a CnbãY emIm`|- F$½doX H$m ~«÷-gån«Xm`- n¡b
6.BÝÐà{_{V 1.~mîH${b
2.~moÜ` 3.A{¾_mVm 4.namea 5.`mkdëŠ` 21.em§Im`Z `m
_mÊSy>H$o ` gË`ldm gË`{hV gË`{l` H$m¡frV{H$
7.aWrVa 8.emH$ë` 9.^maÛmO
15.n¡bO 16.N>Ì~bmH$ 17.Amídb 18.VmnZmn 19.nÞJm[a 20.AmO©d
10._wX²Jb 11.JmoIb 12.gwVnm 13.dËg 14 e¡{e[a
98 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
~«÷-gåàXm` _| H¥$îU `OwdX} H$s 86 emIm`|-
1.d¡eånm`Z 25.bm¡{H$ 48-60 H$R> H$s CnemIm
2.bm¡{hË` 26.^y[aldm 48.{nÄOwbH$R>-H«$m¡ÄM Ûrn _|
3.emdY 27.gmo_m{d 49.Am¡Xb H$R>-emH$ Ûrn _|
4.nbmÊSw> 28.AmVwZmÝVŠ` 50.g{nÀN>d H$R>- Ÿ&&
5.Ambpå~ 29.Ym¡å` 51._wXJ² b H$R>-H$í_ra _|
6.H${b“(nb) 30.H$mí`n 52.ûm¥“b H$R>-g¥O Xoe _|
7.H$_bmh 31.Am¡»` 53.gm¡^a H$R>-qghb Xoe _|
8.F$Mm^ 32.BbH$ 54._m¡ag H$R>-Hw$e Ûrn _|
9.Amé{U 33.Cn_Ý`w 55.MwMHw $ H$R>-`dZ Xoe _|
10.VpÊS> 34.{dX 56.`moJ H$R>- Ÿ&&
11.í`m_b 35.^mJ©d 57.hm{nb H$R>- Ÿ&&
12.H$R> 36._YwH$ 58.Xm¡gb H$R>-qghb Xoe _|
13.H$bmn 37.{n“ 59.Ym¡f H$R>-H«$m¡ÄM Ûrn _|
14.Mwbm{^ 38.ídoVHo$Vw 60.O¥å^ H$R>-ídoV Ûrn _|
15.gw_{V 39.àOmXn© 61-71 MaH$ Ho$ 12 ^oX
16.Xodda 40.H$hmoS> 61.MaH$
17.AZwH$¥ îU 41.`mkdëŠ` 62.AmˆaH$
18.Am`w 42.em¡ZH$ 63.^«m{Oð>d H$R>
19.AZw^{y _ 43.em¡ZH$ 64.^¥ð> H${nð>b H$R>
20.AmàrV 44.C{Za 65.àmÀ` H$R>
21.H$emíd 45.Vmb 66.H${nð>b H$R>
22.gw_{y b 46.`mñH$(n¡{“) 67.dmam`U
23.dmîH${b 47.ImÊS>m`Z(H$R>{eî`)68. Mmam`U
24.ewH$ 69.ídoV
70.ídoVmídVa 71.nVpÊS> _¡Ì`o -72 go 77 _¡Ìm`Ur Ho$ 7 ^oX
72._Zw, 73.damh, 74.XwÝXw{^, 75.E{H$, 76.h[aÐþ, 77.í`m_ (11.í`m_m`Z)
78-81 H$bmn Ho$ 4 ^oX-78.hm[aÐþU, 79.N>mJ{b, 80.Vwå~wé, 81.Cbw{nŸ&
78.hm[aÐþU Ho$ 5 ^oX-82.Amgw[a, 83.JJ©, 84.eŠH©$amj, 85._¥J, 86.dgdŸ&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 99
Am{XË` gåàXm` Ho$ AÝVJ©V ewŠb `OwdX} emIm-Am{XË`
`moJrída `mkdëŠ`
emL²>Im`Z H$Êd _mÜ`pÝXZ Am{X gm_ldm `m H$m¡W_w em¡ZH$ Am{X
F$½doXr `OwdX} r gm_doXr AWd©doXr
1.Om~mb-Z_©Xm (O~bnwa)&
2.~m¡Y`o -aUmdQ> (X{jU JwOamV) &
3.H$Êd-H$U©dQ> `m H$Um©Q>H$(X{jU ^maV) &
4._mÜ`pÝXZ-àm`: gd©Ì(CÎma àXoe Ho$ ga`ynmarU Am{X) &
5.emno`-JwOamV Ho$ ZmJa &
6.Vmnm`Zr`-Z_©Xm Ho$ {ZH$Q> Zo_m‹S> (_Ü` àXoe) &
7.H$nmob-JwOamV Ho$ ^mJ©d&
8.nm¡ÊS´>dËg-nm¡ÊS´>dËg amÁ`,JwOamV Ho$ {Vdm‹S>r &
9.Amd{Q>H$m-lr_mbdr-JwOamV &
10.na_md{Q>H$m-AmÚ Jm¡S‹ >-_madm‹S> &
11.d¡ZYo`-H§$H$a ~m¡Ü` nd©V(? Amo[S‹ >em H$m ~m¡Y H$ÝY_mb) &
12.Jmbd-_mbdr-{dX^©, gm¡amï´> &
13.H$mË`m`Z-{dX^©&
14.namea-JwOamV, _madm‹S> &
15.~¡Odmn-Zmam`U gamoda(H$m{R>`mdm‹S>)&
MaU-ì`yh _| gm_doX Ho$ ^oX
amUm`Zr` gmb_w»` H$mbmn _hmH$mbmn H$m¡W_w bm“{bH$

gmam`Ur` dmVam`Ur` d¡Y¥V àmMrZ V¡Og A{Zï>H$

amUm`Zr` Ho$ 9 ^oX _| bm“b Am¡a H$m¡Ww_ H$ho J`o h¢Ÿ&AÝ` 7 ^oX h¢-
emQ>çm`Zr`,gmËdV,_m¡XJ² b,Iëdb,_hmIëdb,Jm¡V_,O¡{_Zr`Ÿ&
gm_-Vn©U-{d{Y Ho$ 13 ^oX Bg àH$ma h¢-1.amUm`U, 2.emQ>ç_wÝ`, 3.ì`mg,
4.^mJw[a, 5.Am¡bwpÊS>, 6.Jm¡ëJwbdr, 7.^mZw_mZ Am¡n_Ý`d, 8.H$mam{Q>,
9._eH$ Jm½`©, 10.dmf©JÊ`, 11.Hw$Ww_, 12.em{bhmoÌ, 13.O¡{_Zr`Ÿ&
100 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
~«÷-gåàXm` _| gm_doX emIm
O¡{_{Z gw_ÝVw gwËdm gwH$_m©
nm¡î`pÄO Hw${eH$nwÌ {haÊ`Zm^
bmoH$m{j Hw$Ww{_ Hw$er{V bm“{b H¥${V
gw{_Ìm VWm 15 16 1.amS> 13.n[aH¥$ï>
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amUm`Zr` 5 13 14 3.nÄM_ 15.`dr`
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gwHo${V+ûm¥{“ nwÌ d¡emIr 5.VmbH$ 17.A§Jwbr`
n¡b àmMrZ`moJ gwamb ghgmË`nwÌ 6.nmÊS>H$ 18.H$m¡{eH$
1 2 3 4 àmMrZ`moJnwÌ 7.H$m{bH$ 19.gm{b
nVÄO{b 8.amOH$ 20._ÄO[a
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^mbw{H$ H$m_hm{Z O¡{_{Z bmo^Jm_r H$ÊS> H$mobh em{bhmoÌ
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Am{XË` gåàXm` _| gm_doX emIm
gm_ldm Hw$Ww{_
agnmag nmamea ^mJ{d[Îm VoOñdr
Amgwam`U
d¡emIr
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BZ_| Ho$db amUm`Ur, H$m¡W_w r, VWm O¡{_Zr` emIm`| Cnb~Y h¢Ÿ& hOma
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3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 101
O¡{_Zr` emIm Ho$ _ÝÌ VWm JmZ {d^mJ {ZåZ{b{IV h¢Ÿ& nyU© ê$n _| Ho$db
O¡{_{Z emIm hr CnbãY h¡ {Ogo AmOH$b gm_doX H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
H$m¡Ww_r` emIm _ÝÌ O¡{_Zr` emIm_ÝÌ
nydm©{M©H$ 585 587
AmaÊ`H$ 59 59
CÎmam{M©H$ 1225 1041
_hmZmpåZ 6 6
`moJ 1875 1693
H$m¡Ww_r` JmZ O¡{_Zr` JmZ
J«m_Jo` JmZ 1197 1232
AmaÊ`H$ Jo` JmZ 294 291
D$h JmZ 1026 1802
Cø JmZ 205 356
`moJ 2722 3681
AWd©-doX H$s 9 emIm`| H$hr J`r h¢-n¡ßnb, XmÝV, àXmÝV, ñZmV, gm¡ËZ,
~«÷Xmdb, em¡ZH$, X¡drXe©Zr, MaU{dÚmŸ&
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AWd©dXo H$s _ÝÌ-g§»`m 12,300 h¡,{H$ÝVw dV©_mZ CnbãY em¡ZH$ emIm _|
20 H$mÊS>, 38 ànmR>H$, 760 gyº$ VWm 6000 _ÝÌ h¢Ÿ& {H$gr-{H$gr emIm _|
102 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
_| 80 AZwdmH$ ^r h¢Ÿ& {nßnbmX emIm H$s EH$ à{V H$í_ra amOm Ho$ nmg Oå_y
g§Jh« mb` _| Wr {Ogo MwamH$a O_©Zr Ho H¡$ga g§ñWm _| aIm J`m & EH$ AÝ` à{V
Amo{S‹ >em _o§ CnbãY Wr(_`ya^§O _|,_yb ñWmZ nwar Ho$ {ZH$Q> {nnbr)Ÿ& XmoZm| H$s
à{V`m| Ho$ AmYma na {díd^maVr Ho$ lr XrnH$ ^Å>mMm`© Zo 2 IÊS>m| _| BgH$m
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3.Amídbm`Z, 4.em§Im`Z, 5._mÊSy>H$o ` & BgH$s AÝ` emImAm| H$m ^r CëboI
h¡ -1.Jmbd, 2.embr`, 3.am¡{e[a, 4.namea, 5.OmVyH$Ê`©, 6.em§Im`Z,
7.H$m¡ f rV{H$, 8._hmH$m¡ f rV{H$, 9.emåã`, 10.~h² d ¥ M , 11.n¡ L ² > ½`,
12.CÔmbH$, 13.JO, 14.dmîH${b H$s 3 emIm`|, 15.EoVao`, 16.d{gð>,
17.gwb^, 18.em¡ZH$Ÿ&
dmîH$b H$s _ÝÌ-g§»`m 10,622 VWm emH$b H$s 10,381 h¡Ÿ& na doX H$m
A{YH$m§e bwá hmoZo H$o H$maU Bg_| _V^oX h¡Ÿ& _ÝÌ g§»`m 10,402 go 10,628
VH$, eãX g§»`m 1,52,826 VWm eãXm§e g§»`m 4,32,000 h¡Ÿ, Omo H${b-`wJ
H$s df© g§»`m h¡Ÿ& Bg H$maU `h ^r AZw_mZ {H$`m OmVm h¡ {H$ F$½doX Ho$ _ÝÌm|
_| Á`mo{Vf H$m {gÕmÝV VWm J«hm| H$s à{Vdf© `m `wJ Ho$ ~mX H$s pñW{V h¡Ÿ&
dV©_mZ `wJ _| Ho$db emH$ë` g§{hVm CnbãY h¡Ÿ, {Og_| 11 ~mb{Ië`m|
({Ib=n[a{eï> `m Cng§hma) H$mo {_bmH$a 1028 gyº$ h¢Ÿ& BgH$m 2 àH$ma go
{d^mOZ {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ& EH$ {d^mOZ _| 10 _ÊS>b, 85 AZwdmH²$ Am¡a 2008
dJ© h¢Ÿ& Xygao {d^mOZ Ho$ AZwgma 8 Aï>H$, 64 AÜ`m` VWm 1028 gyº$ h¢Ÿ&
ewŠb-`OwdX} H$s dmOgZo`r g§{hVm _| 40 AÜ`m`, 303 AZwdmH$, Ed§ 1975
H$pÊS>H$m h¢Ÿ& H$mÊd g§{hVm _| 4 XeH$, 40 AÜ`m`, 328 AZwdmH$ VWm 2086
_ÝÌ h¢Ÿ& H¥$îU `OydX} H$s _¡Ìm`Ur emIm _| 4 H$mÊS>, 54 ànmR>H$, 654
AZwdmH$ VWm 3,144 H$pÊS>H$m h¢Ÿ& H$R> emIm _| 5 IÊS>, 40 ñWmZH$, (+13
AZwdMZ), 843 AZwdmH$, 3091 _ÝÌ h¢Ÿ& _ÝÌ-~«m÷Um| H$s gpå_{bV g§»`m
18,000 h¡Ÿ& H${nð>b emIm H$m AYyam ê$n dmamUgr _| CnbãY Wm {OgHo$
AmYma na lr aKwdra Zo 1941 _| BgH$m g§ñH$aU àH$m{eV {H$`mŸ&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 103
F$½doX Ho$ g_mZ `h Aï>H$ VWm AÜ`m` _| {d^º$ h¡Ÿ& H¥$îU-`OwdX} H$s V¡{Îmar`
g§{hVm 7 H$mÊS>, 44 àíZ `m AÜ`m`, 651 AZwdmH²$ `m àH$aU VWm 2198
H$pÊS>H$m _| {d^º$ h¡ & 1 H$pÊS>H$m _| {Z`_V: 55 eãX hmoVo h¢Ÿ& Bg emIm Ho$
g^r J«ÝW CnbãY hmoZo Ho$ H$maU gm_mÝ`V: Bgo hr H¥$îU-`OwdX} H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
9. ~«m÷U J«ÝW-F$½doX-1.EoVao` ~«m÷U _| 40 AÜ`m` (8 n{Ä MH$m),
285 H$pÊS>H$m h¢Ÿ& 2. em§Im`Z ~«m÷U _| 30 AÜ`m`, VWm 226 IÊS> h¢Ÿ&
3. H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m÷UŸ&
`OwdX} -ewŠb-1. _mÜ`pÝXZ eVnW ~«m÷U _| 14 H$mÊS>, 100 AÜ`m`,
438 ~«m÷U VWm 7,624 H$pÊS>H$m h¢Ÿ& H$mÊd eVnW ~«m÷U _| 17 H$mÊS>,
104 AÜ`m`, 435 ~«m÷U, VWm 6,806 H$pÊS>H$m h¢Ÿ& _mÜ`pÝXZ _| 68
ànmR>H$ h¢, {H$ÝVw H$mÊd eVnW _| ànmR>H$ Zht h¢Ÿ& Om~mb ~«m÷U H$m CëboI
h¡, bo{H$Z CnbãY Zht h¡Ÿ&
H¥$îU-1. V¡{Îmar` ~«m÷U hr nyUê© $n go CnbãY h¡ , {Og_| 3 ^mJ `m H$mÊS>
h¢Ÿ& àW_ 2 H$mÊS>m| _| 8-8 AÜ`m` `m ànmR>H$ h¢, AV: Bgo Aï>H$ ^r H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
V¥Vr` H$mÊS> _| 12 ànmR>H$ h¢Ÿ, {OÝh| ^Å>^mñH$a Zo àíZ ^r H$hm h¡Ÿ& Bg_| Hw$b
353 AZwdmH$ h¢Ÿ& eVnW H$s Vah `h ^r gñda h¡Ÿ& H$mR>H$ ~«m÷U AnyU© h¡Ÿ&
AÝ` AZwnbãY-MaH$, ídoVmídVa, H$mR>H$, _¡Ìm`Ur, ImpÊS>H$o`Ÿ&
gm_doX-1. àm¡T‹ >(VmÊS>ç)-~«m÷U, 2. fS²>qde ~«m÷U, 3. gm_{dYmZ ~«m÷U,
4. Amf}` ~«m÷U, 5. XodVmÜ`m`~«m÷U, 6. N>mÝXmo½`mon{ZfX²-~«m÷U, 7.
g§{hVmon{ZfX²-~«m÷U, 8. d§e ~«m÷UŸ&
VmÊS>ç ~«m÷U H$moAÜ`m` g§»`m Ho$ AZwgma nÄ Mqde ~«m÷U VWm g~go ~‹S>m
hmoZo Ho$ H$maU _hm-~«m÷U ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& fS²>qde ~«m÷U VmÊS>ç H$m hr
CÎma ^mJ _mZH$a Bgo 26dm§ AÜ`m` H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& Bg_| 6 AÜ`m` h¢Ÿ& gm_{dYmZ
_| 3 AÜ`m` h¢Ÿ& Amf}` _| 6 AÜ`m`, XodVmÜ`m` _| 4 IÊS> h¢Ÿ& N>mÝXmo½`mon{ZfX²
~«m÷U Ho$ nhbo 2 ànmR>H$ _| {ddmh -H$_© Ho$ _ÝÌ h¢, ~mH$s 8 ànmR>H$ Cn{ZfX²
h¢Ÿ& g§{hVmon{ZfX² _| 5 VWm d§e _| 3 IÊS> h¢Ÿ&
O¡{_Zr` emIm _| Ho$db 3 ~«m÷U CnbãY h¢- O¡{_Zr`, O¡{_Zr`mon{ZfX² VWm
O¡{_Zr`mf}`Ÿ& AÝ` AZwnbãY- ^mëb{d, eQ>çm`Z, hm[aÐ{dH$Ÿ&
104 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AWd©dXo -n¡ßnbmX emIm H$m JmonW ~«m÷U CnbãY h¡ {OgHo$ nyyd© ^mJ _| 5
ànmR>H$, 135 H$[ÊS>H$m, VWm CÎma ^mJ _| 6 ànmR>H , 123 H$pÊS>H$m h¢Ÿ&
AmaÊ`H$-F$½doX-1.EoVao` _| 5 AmaÊ`H$ h¢-1.Jdm_`Z, 2._| àmU{dÚm VWm
nwéf(4-6 AÜ`m` EoVao` Cn{ZfX²), 3.g§{hVmon{ZfX², 4._hmZmåZr F$Mm,
5.{ZîH¡$dë` emóŸ&
2.em§Im`Z AmaÊ`H$ _| 30 AÜ`m` h¢Ÿ&
3. H$m¡frV{H$ AmaÊ`H$ _| 3 IÊS> VWm 15 AÜ`m` h¢Ÿ& 3-6 AÜ`m` H$m¡frV{H$
Cn{ZfX² h¡Ÿ&
`OwdX} -ewŠb-eVnW ~«m÷U H$m ApÝV_ (_mÜ`pÝXZ H$m 14dm§, H$mÊd H$m 17
dm§) H$mÊS> hr ~¥h XmaÊ`H$ h¡ & BgHm$ ApÝV_ 6 AÜ`m` Cn{ZfX² h¡Ÿ&
H¥$îU-V¡{Îmar` AmaÊ`H$Ÿ&
gm_doX-VdbH$ma AmaÊ`H$ H$mo O¡{_Zr`mon{ZfX² ~«m÷U ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
BgH$m EH$ ^mJ VdbH$ma Cn{ZfX² , h¡ Omo Ho$Z eãX go Amaå^ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU
Ho$Zmon{ZfX² ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& N>mÝXmo½` AmÊ`H$ H$mo Am aÊ`-JmZ ^r H$hm
OmVm h¡Ÿ&
AWd©dXo -Bg_| H$moB© AmaÊ`H$ CnbãY Zht h¡Ÿ&
Cn{ZfX²-1131 Cn{ZfXm| _| 108 H$mo _w{º$H$mon{ZfX² _| _w»` H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
BZ_| 10 F$½doX Ho$, 19 ewŠb-`OwdX} Ho$, 32 H¥$îU `OwdX} Ho$, 16 gm_doX Ho$
VWm 31 AWd© doX Ho$ h¢Ÿ& dmgwXdo bú_U nUerH$a Or Zo 108 Cn{ZfX²
àH$m{eV H$am`o h¢Ÿ({ZU©`gmJa)& AS>çma {W`mogmo{\$H$b gmogmBQ>r Ûmam 179
Cn{ZfX² àH$m{eV hþ`o h¢Ÿ& _wå~B© Ho$ JwOamVr {àpÊQ>¨J àog go àH$m{eV Cn{ZfX²
dmŠ` _hmH$mof _| 238 Cn{ZfXm| H$o CÕaUm| H$m g§Jh« h¡Ÿ& _w»` 13 h¢ {OZ na
^mî` {bIo J`o h¢- B©e, Ho$Z, H$R>, _wÊS> H$, _mÊSy> Š`, àíZ, EoVao`, V¡{Îmar`,
N>mÝXmo½`, ~¥hXmaÊ`H$, ídoVmídVa, H$m¡frV{H$, _¡Ìm`UrŸ&
ñ_¥{V-J«ÝW-d¡{XH$ gm{hË` H$mo lw{V VWm CgHo$ AmYma na g_mO ì`dñWm Ho$
{Z`_m| H$mo ñ_¥{V H$Vo h¢Ÿ& _Zwñ_¥{V g~go {d»`mV h¡Ÿ {Ogna _oYm{V{W H$s
{dñV¥V Q>rH$m h¡Ÿ& BgH$m A§JO
o« r AZwdmX lr J§JmZmW Pm Ûmam 9 IÊS>m| _| _moVrbmb
~ZmagrXmg Ûmam àH$m{eV h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ ZmJ àH$meZ Ûmam àH$m{eV
Aï>mXe- ñ_¥{V _| d{U©V ñ_¥{V Zm_ h¢ -1.A{Ì-g§{hVm, 2.{dîUw, 3.hmarV,
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 105
4.Am¡eZg, 5.Am{“ag, 6.g§dÎm©, 7. bKw `_-ñ_¥{V, 8. AmnñVå~,
9.d¥hñn{V, 10.H$mË`m`Z, 11.nmamea, 12.ì`mg, 13.e§I, 14.{b{IV,
15.Xj, 16.Jm¡V_, 17.emVmVn, 18.~wYŸ&
10.B{Vhmg-nwamU-doX Ho$ d{U©V {gÕmÝVm| H$s ì`m»`m B{VhmgnwamU Ho$
dmñV{dH$ CXmhaUm| go hr hmoVr h¡-
B{ghmg nwamUmä`m§ doX§ g_wn~¥§h`oV²Ÿ& {~^oË`ënlwVmÛoXmo _m_`§ àh[aî`{VŸ&
(_hm^maV,1/1/267)
g¥{ï> H$m d¡km{ZH$ aMZmH«$_ nwamU h¡- nwamU§ H$ñ_mV²Ÿ& nwam Zd§ ^d{VŸ(`mñH$
{Zéº$,3/19)Ÿ& AWm©V² nwamZm ê$n Z`m H¡$go hþAm BgH$m AÜ``Z nwamU h¡Ÿ&
Bggo {_bVm emó B{Vhmg h¡ {Og_| MoVZ _mZdm| H$m M[aÌ d{U©V h¡Ÿ& XmoZm| _|
B{Vd¥Îm H$s àYmZVm h¡Ÿ& B{Vhmg=B{V+h+Amg=Eogm hr hþAm WmŸ& nwamU Ho$ 5
`m 10 bjU H$ho J`o h¢Ÿ& 5 bjU-
1.gJ©-g¥{ï> {dkmZŸ&
2. à{VgJ©-g¥{ï> H$m {dñVma, b` VWm nwZ: g¥{ï>Ÿ&
3. d§e- {d{^Þ Om{V`m| Am{X H$s d§emdbrŸ&
4. _ÝdÝVa- à{V _Zw H$s Ad{Y Am¡a Cg g_` H$s KQ>Zm`|Ÿ&
5. d§emZwM[aV-gy`©, MÝÐ d§e Am{X Ho$ amOmAm| H$m dU©ZŸ&
10 bjU-
1.gJ©-g¥{ï> {dkmZŸ&
2.{dgJ©-g¥{ï> {dñVma, _mZg, X¡dr, _mZwfr Am{X g¥{ï>Ÿ&
3. ñWmZ- ~«÷mÊS> H$s pñW{VŸ&
4. nmofU- Ordm| H$m Y_©, H¥$Ë`, gXmMma, gm_m{OH$ {Z`_Ÿ&
5.D${V- Ord H$s H$_© dmgZm, ñdJ© ZaH$ Am{X dU©ZŸ&
6. _ÝdÝVa-_ZwAm| H$m H$mb, M[aÌ Am¡a d§e {dñVmaŸ&
7. AdVma- {dîUw Ho$ AdVma Am¡a M[aÌŸ&
8. {ZamoY- AmË_ g§`_ Ho$ e_, X_, `moJ Am{X _mJ©Ÿ&
9. _w{º$- kmZ-`moJ, Xe©Z emóŸ&
10. Aml`-^{º$ _mJ©Ÿ&
106 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
nwamUm| H$s 18 g§»`m Ho$ AZwgma 18 {Z`_ ^r H$ho J`o h¢-g¥{ï>, à{Vg¥{ï>, d§e,
d§emZwM[aV, _ÝdÝVa, JmWm, H$ënew{Õ, nwamU, g§{hVm, S>m_a, `m_b,
Á`mo{Vf MH«$, ^wdZH$mof, d¥{Îm, ajm, AÝVa, hoVw Am¡a Anml`Ÿ&
18 nwamUm| H$m H$B© àH$ma go dJuH$aU h¡-
gmpÎdH$-{dîUw, ZmaX, ^mJdV, Jé‹S>, nÙ, damhŸ&
amOg-~«÷mÊS>, ~«÷d¡dÎm©, _mH©$ÊS>`o , ^{dî`V², dm_Z, ~«÷Ÿ&
Vm_g-_Ëñ`, Hy$_©, {b“, {ed, ñH$ÝX, A{¾Ÿ&
XodVm AZwgma-
~«÷m-~«÷, nÙŸ&
gy`-© ~«÷d¡dÎm©Ÿ&
A{¾-A{¾Ÿ&
{ed-{ed, ñH$ÝX, {b“, Hy$_©, dm_Z,damh, ^{dî`, _Ëñ`, _mH©$ÊS>`o , ~«÷mÊS>
{dîUw- ZmaX, ^mJdV, Jé‹S>, {dîUwŸ&
{df` Ho$ AZwgma 5 ^oX h¢-
g¥{ï>dmX, _VdmX, AdVmadmX, Am`{VdmX, VWm Am`VZdmXŸ&
nwamUm| H$m H«$_ VWm H$ën_mZ Bgr H«$_ _| h¡Ÿ& Amaå^ Ho$ 6 nwamU CŠW h¢(CŠW
dh _yb h¡ {Oggo CËWmZ hmoVm h¡, ^moOZ H$m OyR>m)Ÿ& g~go nhbo ~«÷nwamU h¡
Š`m|{H$ ~«÷m g¥{ï> Ho$ àdÎm©H$ h¢Ÿ& ~«÷m H$m AmYma nÙ {ÛVr` nwamU h¡Ÿ& nÙ H$m
AmYma {dîUw H$s Zm{^ h¡, AV: Vrgam {dîUw nwamU h¡Ÿ& {dîUw ^JdmZ eofZmJ
na e`Z H$aVo h¢Ÿ& eofZmJ dm`w ê$n h¡Ÿ& {dîUw ê$nr gy`© AmH$meJ“m Ho$ AÝ`
(eof) Vmam| Ho$ AmH$f©U VWm MH«$s` J{V(ZmJ) Ûmam AmH$me _| {ñWV h¡Ÿ& AV:
dm`w nwamU H$m H«$_ Mm¡Wm h¡Ÿ& eofZmJ jragmJa (AmH$meJ“m-milkyway)
_| pñWV h¢, dhr JmobmoH$ h¡ {OgH$m dU©Z nm§Md| ^mJdV nwamU _| h¡Ÿ& ^mJdV H$s
àoaUm ZmaX Ûmam doXì`mg H$mo {_br, AV: ZmaX nwamU N>R>m h¡Ÿ&
g¥{ï> Ho$ Amapå^H$ CËWmZ Ho$ ~mao _| 4 _V h¢Ÿ& àW_ _V Ho$ AZwgma gÎd, aO,
V_-BZ VrZ JwUm| Ho$ {_lU go g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡-`h dU©Z _mH©$ÊS>`o nwamU _| h¡Ÿ&
Cgr nwamU _| 3 JwUm| Ho$ AZwgma Xodr Ho$ 3 ê$nm| H$m dU©Z XwJm© gáeVr _| h¡Ÿ&
Xygao _V Ho$ AZwgma A{¾ `m D$Om©(Primordial Fireball) Ûmam g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
AV: 8 dm§ A{¾-nwamU h¡Ÿ& nm{W©d g¥{ï> H$m _yb gy`© h¡ AV: Zd_ nwamU gy`©
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 107
(^{dî`) h¡Ÿ& doXmÝV Ho$ AZwgma BZ VrZm| H$m g_Ýd` _V h¡ {H$ `h g¥{ï> EH$ hr
{ZamH$ma ~«÷ H$m {ddÎm© ({d{dY XrIVm hþAm ê$n) h¡Ÿ& AV: Xgdm§ nwamU
~«÷d¡dÎm© h¡Ÿ&
{damQ²> ê$n {dîUw ^JdmZ Ho$ AdVma H«$_ Ho$ AZwgma AJbo 6 nwamU h¢- {b“,
damh, dm_Z, Hw$_ma(ñH$ÝX), Hy$_© Am¡a _Ëñ`Ÿ&
{b“ {ZamH$ma Ho$ gmH$ma ê$n H$mo H$hVo h¢-
_ybñdê$n{b“ËdmÝ_yb_ÝÌ B{V ñ_¥V:Ÿ&
gyú_ËdmËH$maUËdmÀM b`ZmX²J_ZmX{nŸ&9Ÿ&
bjUmËna_oeñ` {b“{_Ë`{^Yr`Vo(`moJ{eImon{ZfV² 2/9)
{b“=brZ_² J_`{V-{Og_| brZ hmo dh [b“ h¡Ÿ&
brZ§ J_`{V `pñ_Z² _ybñdê$no, g gyú_ê$nH$maU:-{díd H$m _yb gyú_ ê$n
H$maU h¡, {díd Cgr _| nwZ: brZ hmoVm h¡, AV: dh {b“ h¡Ÿ& `h ñd`å^y _ÊS>b
`m {b“ h¡Ÿ-{ZamH$ma go AmH$meJ“mAm| H$m g_yh ê$nŸ&
brZ§ J_`{V `pñ_Z² {Xem`m_²-{Og {Xem _| brZ hmo dh ^r {b“ h¡Ÿ& J{V H$s
{Xem H$mo ~mU go B§{JV {H$`m OmVm h¡, AV: `h ~mU qbJ h¡Ÿ& ñd`å^y qbJ EH$
hr h¡, na 3 Am`m_ Ho$ AmH$me _| J{V H$s 3 {Xem`| hm|Jr , AV: 3 ~mU qbJ h¡Ÿ&
AmH$meJ§Jm go hr J{V H$m Amaå^ hmoZo go `h ~mU qbJ h¡Ÿ&
brZ§ J_`{V `pñ_Z² ~mø AmdaUo(na_oída bjU:)-na_oída Ho$ bjU ê$n
{Og ~mhar AmdaU _| dñVw brZ hmo dh ^r qbJ h¡Ÿ& dñVwAm| H$m ê$n AZÝV
àH$ma H$m h¡, na gy`© Ho$ 12 am{e`m| _| 12 àH$ma H m VoO ê$n hmoZo go BZHo$ 12
dJ©(am{e=T>oa,g_yh)Ÿ& `h ê$n AbJ-AbJ h¢ , AV: Bgo BVa(other)qbJ
H$hVo h¢Ÿ& F$½doX _| ~mø ê$n(_y{Îm©) H$m dU©Z hmoZo go BgH$m ~«m÷U EoVao`
H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& ^m¡{VH$ ê$n _| `h gy`© Á`mo{V Ho$ dJm] na AmYm[aV hmoZo go Á`mo{V{b©“
h¡Ÿ& gm¡a _ÊS>b H$s {d{dY g¥{ï Am¡a nm{W©d ê$n BVa qbJ h¢Ÿ&>
eara _| _ybmYma MH«$ Ûmam _¡WwZr g¥{ï> hmoZo go `h ñd`å^y qbJ h¡Ÿ& dm`w Am¡a aº$
gÄMma H$m Ho$ÝÐ öX` ~mU qbJ h¡Ÿ& ~mø ê$nm| H$m kmZ _pñVîH$ Ho$ Amkm-MH«$
go hmoVm h¡, AV: Bgo BVa qbJ H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
^m¡{VH$ ê$n _| {ZamH$ma qbJ EH$qbJ(amOñWmZ Ho$ _odm‹S> _|) VWm gmH$ma ñd`å^y
qbJ qbJamO(^wdZoída _| nwar Ho$ OJÞmW Ym_ H$s gr_m na)Ÿ& BgHo$
108 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
{ZH$Q> ~mU ê$nr {ÌqbJ(Vobm§JZm) h¡Ÿ& nyao ^maV _| 12 Á`mo{V{b©“ h¢Ÿ&
AmH$me Ho$ 3 Ym_-ñd`å^y, na_oð>r(~«÷mÊS>), VWm gm¡a-_ÊS>bm| H$m Am{X
{Og {ZamH$ma _yb go hþAm dh Am{XË` h¡Ÿ& 3 _ÊS>bm| Ho$ Am{XË` h¢- A`©_m
(ñd`å^y H$m), déU (~«÷mÊS> H$m), {_Ì (gm¡a H$m)Ÿ& {ZamH$ma go nXmW© Ho$
^ÊS>ma ê$nH$mo damh H$hVo h¢ {Oggo g¥{ï> hþ`rŸ& ñd`å^y (AmH$meJ§Jm g_yh) H$m
_yb nXmW© Am{Xdamh h¡Ÿ& AmH$meJ§Jm go g¥{ï> ê$nm| Ho$ {Z_m©U H$m `k Amaå^
hþAm, AV: Bgo `kdamh H$hVo h¢Ÿ& gy`© g_mZ VmamAm| go àH$me H$m {d{H$aU
Amaå^ hþAm AV: BgH$m _yb ídoVdamh h¡Ÿ& n¥Ïdr J«h H$m {Z_m©U {Og joÌ Ho$
nXmW© go hþAm dh ^y damh h¡Ÿ& n¥Ïdr Ho$ A{V {ZH$Q> dm`w_ÊS>b _| dfm© Am{X go
O¡d OJV H$m nmbZ hmoVm h¡, A{V {ZH$Q> hmoZo Ho$ H$maU `h E_yf damh h¡Ÿ&
dm_Z-eara ê$nr aW _| AmË_m hr dm_Z h¡Ÿ& OJV² H$s AmË_m gy`© h¡-gy`© AmË_m
OJVñVñWwfíM-dm.`Ow.7/42,13/46)Ÿ& gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m {dñVma gy`© H$m
aW h¡Ÿ& Cg_| gy`-© {nÊS> dm_Z h¡Ÿ& R>mgo J«hm| H$m joÌ X{Y-dm_Z h¡-^mJdV
nÄM_ ñH$ÝY _| X{Y g_wÐ H$m AmH$maŸ&
n¥Ïdr na O¡d-g¥{ï> H$m¡_ma gJ© h¡Ÿ& `h 5 ndm] go {ZH$bZo Ho$ H$maU ñH$ÝX
h¡Ÿ& Hy$_©-joÌ AmH$meJ“m H$m Am^m-_ÊS>b (Nutrino corona) h¡ Omo CgH$m
10 JwUm h¡-
_mZoZ Vñ` Hy$_©ñ` H$W`m{_ à`ËZV:Ÿ&
e§H$mo: eVghòm{U `moOZm{Z dnw: pñWV_²Ÿ&
(Zan{VO`M`m©, ñdamX` _| Hy$_©-MH«$)
eyÝ` AmH$me Ho$ ag-g_wÐ _| ñdÀN>ÝX ê$n go V¡aVo ~«÷mÊS> hr _Ëñ` h¢Ÿ&
_Ëñ`,dm_Z,damh,`k, {damQ²>-`o 5 {ZË` AdVma h¢Ÿ& n¥Ïdr na _Zwî` ê$n _|
10 AdVma h¢; 24 H$s ~‹S>r gyMr ^r h¡Ÿ&
17d| Jé‹S> nwamU _| Am`{VdmX `m J{V H$m dJuH$aU h¡Ÿ& Bg_| gÄMa(gO©Z) `m
g¥{ï> {dH$mg, à{VgÄMa `m àb`, H$_©-nXmW© H$s CËn{Îm, CËH«$mpÝV (CËn{Îm),
AZwËH«$mpÝV (_yb ê$n _| dmng hmoZm) AWm©V² _¥Ë`w Ho$ ~mX J{V Am¡a nwZO©Ý_ H$s
ì`m»`m h¡Ÿ&
18d| Am`VZdmX H$m ~«÷mÊS> nwamU h¡Ÿ& {díd H$m ñdê$n ~«÷mÊS> h¡Ÿ& ~«÷mÊS> _|
{d{^Þ bmoH$m| H$s pñW{V H$mo Am`VZ H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 109
nwamU-Vm{bH$m
dmX nwamU H$ën íbmoH$g§»`m CnbãY^mJ
g¥{ï> 1.~«÷ gd© 10,000 14,000
(6) 2.nÙ {haÊ_` 55,000 48,452
3.{dîUw damh 23,000 6,000
4.dm`w({ed) ídoV 24,000 24,000
5.^mJdV gmañdV 18,000 18,000
6.ZmaX ~¥hV² 25,000 18,110
_V 7._mH©$ÊS>o` eHw$Z 9,000 6,900
(4) 8.A{¾ B©emZ 15,400 15,400
9.gy`©(^{dî`) AKmoa 14,500 4 àH$ma H$s à{V
10.~«÷d¡dÎm© aWÝVa 18,000 18,000
AdVma 11.{b“ Am¾o` 11,000 11,000
(6) 12.damh _mZd 24,000 10,000
13.dm_Z Hy$_© 10,000 10,000
14.Hw$_ma(ñH$ÝX)VËnwéf 81,100 7_|3IÊS>,AÝ` àH$ma
7IÊS>-81,000
15.Hy$_© bú_r 17,000 6,000
16._Ëñ` gá 24,000 15,000
Am`{V 17.Jé‹S> Jmé‹S> 19,000 9,000
Am`VZ 18.~«÷mÊS> ^{dî` 12,000 10,000
`moJ 4,10,000
dm`w nwamU _| {ed nwamU H$s íbmoH$ g§»`m Xr J`r h¡Ÿ& dm`w nwamU H$m íbmoH$
{_bmZo na Hwb íbmoH$ g§»`m 4,32,000 hmoJrŸ& H${b`wJ _| gm¡a df© H$s g§»`m
VWm F$½doX Ho$ eãXm| H$s g§»`m BVZr hr h¡Ÿ&
18 Cn-nwamU-1.gZËHw$_ma, 2.Zaqgh, 3.ZÝX, 4.{edY_©, 5.Xwdm©gm,
6.~¥hÞmaXr`, 7.H${nb, 8.CeZg², 9.déU, 10.H${d, 11._hoída,12. gm¡a,
14.namea, 15._marM, 16._mZd, 17.^mJ©d, 18.Xodr^mJdVŸ&
110 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
Xodr CnmgH$ bmoJ ^mJdV Ho$ ~Xbo Xodr ^mJdV H$mo hr _hmnwamU _mZVo h¢Ÿ&
CgH$s íbmoH$ g§»`m ^r 18,000 hr h¡Ÿ& Bg_| XwJm© gáeVr H$s {deX ì`m»`m
h¡Ÿ& nadÎmu g_` Ho$ Hw$N> Am¡a Cn-nwamU h¢- 1.H$m{bH$m, 2.ZpÝXHo$ída, 3.
d{gð>, 4.^mJ©d, 5.Am{X, 6._wXJ² b, 7._hm^mJdV, 8.~¥hÕ_m}Îma, 9. {dîUw-
Y_m}Îma(`h g§^dV: {dîUwnaw mU H$m bwá A§e h¡ {OgHo$ AZwgma ~«÷Jwá Zo AnZm
Á`mo{Vf J«ÝW ~«m÷-ñ\w$Q>-{gÕmÝV {bImŸ& ~«÷Jwá Am¡a ^mñH$a Am{X Ho$ J«ÝWm|
H$m ApÝV_ g§emo{YV ê$n MÝÐeo²Ia H$m {gÕmÝV-Xn©U h¡Ÿ&). 10.namZÝX,
11.newn{V, 12.h[ad§e(_hm^maV H$m n[a{eï>)Ÿ&
doXì`mg Zo doX na AmYm[aV EH$ hr nwamU g§{hVm Ho$ 18 ^mJ {H$`oŸ& Cg nwamU
g§{hVm H$m bmoH$ _| gyV Zo àMma {H$`mŸ& gyV Ho$ {eî`m| Zo Cº$ 18 {d^mJm| Ho$
A{V[aº$ 3 AÝ` g§{hVm`| ^r ~Zm`tŸ& àYmZ nwamU g§{hVm Ho$ àMmaH$ gyV
amo_hf©U Ho$ Zm_ go {d»`mV hþ`,o CÝhm|Zo 6 nwéfm| Ho$ nañna g§dmX H«$_ go 7
nwamUm| H$s aMZm H$s WrŸ& CgHo$ ~mX gyVnwÌ CJ«ldm Zo nwZ: {ÛVr` nÙnwamU,MVwW©
dm`wnaw mU,VWm nÄM_ AmnnwamU H$s AÝ` ZdrZ aMZm H$sŸ& ~mH$s Aï>_ Am{X
nwamU `WmdV ahoŸ& Bg H$maU nÙnwamU 2 àH$ma H$m, dm`w 2 àH$ma H$m, Am¡a Amn
ñWmZr` ^mJdV ^r 2 àH$ma Ho$ hþ`-o EH$ {dîUw gå~ÝYr ^mJdV, Xygam Xodr
^mJdVŸ& AÝ` nwamU 1-1 hr ahoŸ&
~mX _| {dH«$_m{XË` H$mb _| ~oVmb ^Å> Ûmam nwamUm| H$m nwZ: gånmXZ {dembm
ZJar _| hþAm(n¥ð> 80)Ÿ& ^{dî` nwamU _| n¥ÏdramO H$mb H$s KQ>Zm`| A{YH$ h¢
VWm {dŠQ>m[o a`m H$mb H$m dU©Z h¡, AV: BZ H$mbm| _| ^r Hw$N> OmoS‹ >m J`m h¡Ÿ&
11. doXm“-doX Ho$ 6 A“ VWm 6 Cnm“ (Xe©Z) h¢Ÿ&
doXm“-1.{ejm-`h doX H$s Zm{gH$m h¡Ÿ& BgH$m Cn`moJ XoX H$m ewÕ CÀMmaU
H$aZo _| h¡Ÿ& ñda, ì`ÄOZ dUm] Ho$ CÀMmaU ñWmeZ, à`ËZ, ñda (CXmÎm,g_mhma,
ñd[aV) Am{X Ho$ AZwgma CÀMmaU Ho$ {Z`_ Bg_| h¢Ÿ& Jm`Z Ho$ {b`o N>ÝX, b`
Am¡a amJm| H$m dU©Z ^r h¡Ÿ& à{V doX Ho$ CÀMmaU Ho$ {Z`_ AbJ-AbJ h¢Ÿ&
F$½doX Ho$ H«$_ nmR> H$s ì`dñWm O¡Jrfì` Ho$ {eî` nmÄMmb dm^«ì` `m Jmbd Zo
H$s WrŸ& ^maÛmO {ejm H$m àH$meZ nwUo Ho$ ^ÊS>maH$a BÝñQ>rÀ`yQ> Zo {H$`m h¡Ÿ&
àmo.H$sbhmZ© H$mo H$í_ra _| Mmam`Ur` {ejm H$s hñV{b{IV à{V {_br WrŸ&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 111
Am{ne{b (amOeoIa H$s H$mì`_r_m§gm _| CëboI) Ho$ ~mX nm{U{Z {ejm {bIr
J`rŸ& ñdm_r X`mZÝX Zo nm[UZr` {ejm H$m àH$meZ {H$`m WmŸ& BgH$m Cn`moJ
F$½doX Ho$ {b`o h¡Ÿ& dmamUgr g§ñH¥$V {díd{dÚmb` Ûmam àH$m{eV {ejm g§J«h _|
Jm¡V_, ZmaX(ZmaX nwamU H$m), _mÊSy>H$s` Am¡a ^maÛmO {ejm Am{X h¢Ÿ& `OwdX}
H$s `mkdëŠ` {ejm, gm_doX H$s ZmaX {ejm, Am¡a AWd© doX H$s _mÊSy>H$s {ejm
CnbãY h¢Ÿ&
2.H$ën-X¡{XH$ AZwð>mZm| Ho$ {b`o H$ën J«ÝWm| H$m {Z_m©U hþAm h¡Ÿ& ZmaX nwamU Ho$
nyd© ^mJ(2/51) Ho$ AZwgma 5 àH$ma Ho$ H$ën J«ÝW h¢-
1.ZjÌ H$ën _| ZjÌm| Ho$ ñdm_r Am{X H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
2.doX H$ën _| F$½doX Am{X H$m {dYmZ h¡ Omo 4 nwéfmW©-Y_©, AW©, H$m_, _moj
-H$s {g{Õ H$amVm h¡Ÿ&
3.g§{hVm H$ën _| _ÝÌm| Ho$ F${f, XodVm N>ÝX H$m {ZX}e h¡Ÿ&
4.Am{“ag H$ën _| ~«÷m Ûmam A{^Mma {d{Y Ho$ 6 H$_m] H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
5. empÝV H$ën _| {Xì`, ^m¡_ Am¡a AÝV[aj Ho$ CËnmVm| H$s empÝV {d{Y h¡Ÿ&
{d{^Þ `km| Ho$ {dYmZ Ho$ {b`o doX H$ën _| 3 àH$ma Ho$ gyÌ h¢-lm¡V gyÌ, J¥ø
gyÌ, Y_© gyÌŸ& `k doXr {Z_m©U Ho$ {b`o ewë~ gyÌ h¡Ÿ(lm¡V H$_© H$m A§J)&
~m¡Ym`Z, AmnñVå~, H$mË`m`Z, Am¡a _mZd ewë~ gyÌm| H$m A§JO o« r AZwdmX VWm
J{UVr` ì`m»`m Ho$ gmW ^maVr` {dkmZ AH$mX_r {Xëbr Ûmam àH$meZ hþAm h¡Ÿ&
lm¡V `k J¥h-`k
gmo_-g§ñWm h{d-g§ñWm `m nmH$-g§ñWm
1.A{¾ï>mo_ 1.A½Ý`mYo` 1.gm`§ hmoÌ
2.AË`{¾ï>mo_ 2. A{¾hmoÌ 2.àmVhm}Ì
3.CŠÏ` 3. Xe© 3.ñWmbrnmH$
4.fmoS>er 4.nm¡U©_mg 4. Zd `k
5.dmOno` 5.AmJ«`U 5.d¡ídXod
6.A{VamÌ 6.MmVw_m©ñ` 6.{nV¥`k
7.Amámo`m©_ 7.new~ÝY 7.Aï>H$m
BZ 21 `km| Ho$ Abmdm H$ën gyÌ _| 5 _hm`k Am¡a 16 g§ñH$ma `k(OÝ_,{ejm,
112 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
CnZ`Z, {ddmh Am{X)- Hw$b 42 H$_m] H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& doX g§{hVm Am¡a emIm Ho$
AZwgma 1131 H$ën gyÌ hmoZo Mm{h`o, {H$ÝVw AmOH$b àm`: 40 CnbãY h¢-
5 Y_© gyÌ-AmnñVå~, {haÊ`Ho$er, ~m¡Ym`Z, Jm¡V_, d{gð>Ÿ& BZ_| dUm©l_
Y_©, AmMma, amOY_©, g§ñH$ma, {Z`_ Am{X h¢Ÿ&
J¥ø gyÌm| _| N>mQo >o `k, 16 g§ñH$ma Am¡a Vrgao ^mJ _| {_l {df` O¡go J¥h {Z_m©U,
lmÕ, {nV¥ `k Am{X h¢Ÿ& CnbãY J¥ø gyÌ-
F$½doX-em§Im`Z, emå~ì`, Amídbm`ZŸ&
H¥$îU `OwdX} -AmnñVå~, {haÊ`Ho$er, ~m¡Ym`Z, ^maÛmO, _mZd, d¡ImZgŸ&
ewŠb `OwdX} -nmañH$aŸ&
gm_doX-Jmo{^b, Im{Xa, O¡{_{ZŸ&
AWd©dXo -H$m¡{eH$, d¡VmZŸ&
{ZåZ{b{IV lm¡V gyÌ àH$m{eV h¢-Amídbm`Z, em§Im`Z, d¡VmZ, bmQ>çm`Z,
H$mË`m`Z, AmnñVå~, AmnñVå~ `k-n[a^mfm-gyÌ VWm _mZd lm¡V-gyÌŸ&
(3) ì`mH$aU-F$H²$-VÝÌ-ì`mH$aU(1/4) Ho$ AZwgma ì`mH$aU CËn{Îm H$m
H«$_ h¡-~«÷m-~¥hñn{V-BÝÐ-^aÛmO-F${f-~«m÷UŸ& _hm^mî` Ho$ AZwgma
~¥hñn{V Zo BÝÐ H$mo à{V-nX-nmR> Ûmam eãX H$m CnXoe {X`m WmŸ& dhr ì`dñWm
A~ ^r MrZ Am¡a OmnmZH$s ^mfmAm| _| h¡Ÿ& BZ_| {g\©$ eãX-{M• h¢, AbJ-
AbJ Ajam| H$m {d^mOZ Zhr § h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma H$s ì`dñWm H${R>Z hmoZo Ho$ H$maU
empãXH$ AmMm`© dm`w H$s ghm`Vm go BÝÐ Zo bjUmË_H$ ì`m»`m H$sŸ-dmH²$ H$s
ì`m»`m Ho$ H$maU Cgo ì`mH$aU H$hm J`mŸ& Cg BÝÐ H$m g_` 13,000 df© go
A{YH$ nwamZm h¡ (Ob-ßbmdZ H$m g_` 11,000 df© nyd)© Ÿ& ì`mH$aU 3 àH$ma
Ho$ h¢Ÿ-
1.d¡{XH$ eãX [{df`H$-àm{Vem»` Am{XŸ&
2.bm¡{H$H$ eãX {df`H$-H$mVÝÌ Am{XŸ&
3.C^` eãX {df`H$-Am{ne{b, nm{U{Z Am{XŸ&
àm{Vem»` àdº$m-1.F$H²$ àm{Vem»`-em¡ZH$ àUrVŸ&
2.dmOgZo`r (ewŠb `Owd}X emIm) àm{Vem»`-H$mË`m`ZŸ&
3.V¡{Îmar` àm{Vem»` (H¥$îU `Owd}X emImŸ)4&
4.gm_ àm{Vem»`Ÿ&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 113
5. AWd© àm{Vem»`Ÿ&
6._¡Ìm`Ur` àm{Vem»` (H¥$îU `OwdX} emIm)Ÿ&
7.Amídbm`Z àm{Vem»` (F$H²$ emIm)&
8.dmîH$b àm{Vem»` (F$H²$ emIm)Ÿ&
9.Mmam`U àm{Vem»`(H¥$îU `OwdX} emIm)Ÿ&
AÝ` N>ÝXmo (d¡{XH$) ì`mH$aU-1.F$H²$ VÝÌ-emH$Q>m`Z `m Am¡X~² m« {O H¥$VŸ&
2.bKw F$H²$ VÝÌ, 3.gm_-VÝÌ, 4.Aja VÝÌ-Am{ne{b H¥$VŸ&
5.AWd© MVwamÜ`m`r-em¡ZH$ `m H$m¡Ëg àUrVŸ&
6.à{Vkm-gyÌ, 7.^m{fH$ gyÌŸ&
àm{Vem»` Am¡a d¡{XH$ ì`mH$aU J«ÝWm| _| nm{U{Z nyd© Ho$ 57 AmMm`m] H$m CëboI
h¡Ÿ& nm{U{Z ì`mH$aU _| 10 VWm AÝ` ì`mH$aUm| _| 13 AÝ` AmMm`m] Ho$ Zm_ h¢-
1.BÝÐ, 2.dm`w, 3.^aÛmO, 4.^mJw[a, 5.nm¡îH$agm{X, 6.Mmam`U, 7.H$me-
H¥$ËñZ, 8.d¡`mK«nÚ, 9._mÜ`pÝX{Z, 10.am¡{‹T>, 11.em¡ZH$, 12.Jm¡V_,
13.ì`m{S>, 14.Am{ne{b, 15.H$mí`n, 16.Jmbd, 17.Jm½`©, 18.MmH«$d_©U,
19.^maÛmO, 20.eH$Q>m`Z, 21.emH$ë`,22.goZH$, 23.ñ\$moQ>m`ZŸ&
àmMrZ ì`mH$aUm| _| ApÝV_ nm{U{Z H$m ì`mH$aU h¡Ÿ& `h {dH«$_ nyd© àm`: 2800
df© _| {bIm J`m WmŸ& BgHo$ 5 J«ÝW h¢-1.eãXmZwemgZ-8 AÜ`m`(Aï>mÜ`m`r),
à{V AÜ`m` _| 4 nmX, Hw$b 4,000 gyÌŸ& 2.YmVwnmR>, 3.JUnmR>, 4.CUm{X
gyÌ, 5.{b“mZwemgZŸ&
nm{U{Z Ho$ ì`m»`m-J«ÝW-
1.dm{Îm©H$-nm{U{Z gyÌ H$s ì`m»`m `m CgH$s H$_r H$s ny{Îm© Ho$ {b`o Omo gyÌ
{bIo J`o CÝh| dm{Îm©H$ H$hVo h¢Ÿ& nm{U{Z Ho$ nyd© dm{Îm©H$-H$mam| Zo nwamZo ì`mH$aU
J«ÝWm| H$s ì`m»`m H$s WrŸ& àmMrZ J«ÝWm| _| 7 dm{Îm©H$H$mam| Ho$ Zm _ {_bVo h¢-
1.H$mË`m`Z(àm`: 2700 df© {dH«$_ nyd-© g~go {d»`mV), 2.^maÛmO, 3.gwZmJ,
4.H«$moï>m, 5.dm‹S>d, 6.ì`mK«^{y V,7.d¡`mK«nÚŸ&
2._hm^mî`-nm{U{Z gyÌ Am¡a nyaH$ dm{Îm©H$m| (àm`: H$mË`m`Z Ho$) H$r Jå^ra
ì`m»`m JmoZX© (CÎmaàXoe Ho$ JmoÊS>m {Obm) Ho$ Jmo{UH$m-nwÌ nVÄO{b Zo H$sŸ&
`h doX-ì`mg Ho$ g_H$mbrZ Wo Š`m|{H$ BZHo$ `moJ-gyÌ na ì`mg H$m ^mî` h¡Ÿ&
nVÄO{b Zo MaH$g§{hVm, `moJ-gyÌ VWm ì`maU _hm^mî`-3 J«ÝW {bIo h¢-
114 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
`moJoZ {MÎmñ` nXoZ dmMm _b§ earañ` Vw d¡ÚHo$Z&
`mo@nmH$amoÎm§ àda§ _wZrZm§ nVÄOqb àmÄO{bamZVmo@pñ_Ÿ&(^moO H$m amOdm{Îm©H$)
_hm^mî` bwá hmoZo Ho$ ~mX Jm¡S‹ > nmX(CZHo$ àoV `m naånam Ûmam) Ho$ CnXoe go
MÝÐe_m (© MmÝÐ-ì`mH$aU Ho$ aM{`Vm) Zo nwZ: _hm^mî` {bIm (H$Wm-g[aËgmJa
VWm amOVa{“Ur)Ÿ& `h g§Ý`mg Ho$ ~mX Jmo{dÝXnmX hþ` o(e‘>amMm`© Ho$ Jwé-
àm`: 600 B©.ny)Ÿ& AV: Bg_| nwî`{_Ì ew“(1218-1158 B©.ny.) Ho$ Aíd_oK
`k H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
3._hm^mî` Q>rH$m-^Îm©h¥ [a(Jmo{dÝXnmX Ho$ nwÌ, 457B©.ny. Ho$ lrhf© {dH«$_ Ho$
~‹S>o ^mB©) H$s _hm^mî`-Xr{nH$m H$s nmÊSw>{b{n ~{b©Z nwñVH$mb` _| h¡Ÿ& CgHo$
A{V[aº$ àm`: 20 ì`m»`m`| hþ`tŸ& CZ_| g~go {d»`mV h¡ H¡$`Q> CnmÜ`m` H$m
_hm^mî`-àXrnŸ& ~mX_| àXrn H$s hr àm`: 15 Q>rH$m`| hþ`tŸ& ZmJoe ^Å> H$s
àXrnmoÚmoV ì`m»`m Mm¡Iå~m àog dmamUgr Ûmam àH$m{eV h¡Ÿ&
4.d¥{Îm-J«ÝW- ñd`§ nm{U{Z Zo AnZo gyÌm| H$s d¥{Îm (g§{já ì`m»`m) {bIr Wr
Omo A^r CnbãY Zht h¡Ÿ& _hm^mî` Ho$ nhbo Hw${U Am¡a _mWwa d¥{Îm hþ`r WrŸ&
~mX _| Mwpëb, ^{Å>, {Zbya© , Am{X d¥{Îm hþ`r WrŸ& g~go [d»`mV d¥{Îm h¡ H$m{eH$mŸ&
CgHo$ àW_ 5 AÜ`m` O`m{XË` Am¡a ~mH$s 3 AÜ`m` dm_Z Ûmam {b{IV h¢Ÿ&
gå^dV: CZH$s AbJ-AbJ nyU© ì`m»`m`| WtŸ& AÝ` CnbãY d¥{Îm`m§ h¢-
{d_b`{V, ^Îm¥h© [a H$s ^mJd¥{Îm, nwéfmoÎm_Xod H$s ^mfmd¥{Îm, eaUXod H$s XwKQ© >
d¥{Îm, AÞ_^Å> H$s {_Vmjam, Amoa_ ^Å> H$s ì`mH$aU Xr{nH$m, ñdm_r X`mZÝX
H$m Aï>mÜ`m`r ^mî`, ~«÷XÎm {Okmgw Ûmam {hÝXr Q>rH$mŸ& H$m{eH$m d¥{Îm H$s 2
ì`m»`m CnbãY h¢-{OZoÝÐ~w{Õ H$m Ý`mg VWm haXÎm H$r nmX_ÄOar-XmoZm| H$m
àH$meZ Cñ_m{Z`m {díd{dÚmb`, h¡Xam~mX go hþAm h¡Ÿ&
5.à{H«$`m-J«ÝW-Aï>mÜ`m`r H$m gyÌ-H«$_ N>mS‹o >H$a à{H«$`m (g§km, {H«$`m, àË``
Am{X) Ho$ AZwgma ì`m»`m hr àm`: 500 dfm] go àM{bV h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ _w»` J«ÝW h¢-
{dH«$_ 12 dt eVmãXr-Y_©H$s{Îm© H$m ê$nmdVmaŸ&
[dH«$_ 16 dt eVmãXr àW_ MaU-am_MÝÐH$s à{H«$`m-H$m¡_Xw rŸ&
[dH«$_ 16 dt eVmãXr 2,3 MaU-^Å>m{o O Xr{jV H$s {gÕmÝV-H$m¡_Xw rŸ&
[dH«$_ 16 dt eVmãXr MVwW© MaU-Zmam`U ^Å> H$m à{H«$`m-gd©ñdŸ&
à{H«$`m-H$m¡_Xw r na eofH¥$îU Am¡a {dÆ>b H$s Q>rH$m`| h¢Ÿ& {gÕmÝV H$m¡_Xw r H$s
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 115
Q>rH$m`|-J«ÝWH$ma Ûmam àm¡T‹ >-_Zmoa_m, dmgwXdo Ûmam ~mb-_Zmoa_m, kmZoÝÐ gañdVr
H$s VÎd-à~mo{YZr VWm ZmJoe ^Å> H$m bKweãXoÝXw-eoIaŸ&
6.nm{U{Z Ho$ ~mX Ho$ ñdVÝÌ J«ÝW-
H$mVÝÌ-ì`mH$aU- {dH«$_H$mbrZ H$mË`m`Z (daé{M) ÛmamŸ& A{¾ Am¡a Jé‹S>-
nwamU _| Bg ì`mH$aU H$mo H$m¡_ma Am¡a ñH$ÝX H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
MmÝÐ-ì`mH$aU-{dH«$_ go 1000 df© nyd© H$í_ra amOm A{^_Ý`w(1234-1182
B©.ny.) Ho$ AmXoe go ~m¡Õ {dÛmZ MÝÐJmo{^ Ûmam {bIm J`m WmŸ& {g\©$ 6 AÜ`m`
CnbãY h¢Ÿ&
O¡ZoÝÐ-{dH«$_ 500-550 _| AmMm`© XodZpÝX ÛmamŸ&BgH$s 4 Q>rH$m`| CnbãY h¢Ÿ&
{dlmÝV-{dÚmYa-dm_Z({dH«$_ nyd© 600 df©)
A{^Zd emH$Q>m`Z-A_moKdf©({dH«$_ 871-924) amÁ` _| O¡Z AmMm`©
nmë`H$s{Îm© ÛmamŸ&
gañdVr-H$ÊR>m^aU-Ymamn{V ^moO({dH«$_ 1075-1110) Ûmam EH$ Ab‘>ma
J«ÝW ^r Bgr Zm_ H$m h¡Ÿ&
ho_-eãXmZwemgZ-JwOamV Ho$ O¡Z AmMm`© ho_MÝÐ Ûmam({dH«$_ 1145-1220)
gmañdV-{d.g§.1300 _| AZw^y{Vñdê$nmMm`© ÛmamŸ&
Om¡_ma-H«$_Xrída Ho$ g§{jßgma na {dH«$_ 1200 _| Ow_amZÝXr H$s gañdVr
d¥{ÎmŸ&
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n[a{eï> J«ÝW-Am{ne{b Am¡a nm{U{Z Ho$ YmVwnmR>Ÿ& nm{U{Z YmVwnmR> H$s
jrañdm_r, _¡Ì`o a{jV, Am¡a gm`U d¥{Îm h¡Ÿ& MmÝÐ YmVwnmR>, emH$Q>m`Z, O¡ZÝo Ð,
ho_MÝÐ, Am{X Ho$ n[a{eï> h¢Ÿ& àm`: g^r Ho$ JUnmR>, CUm{X-gyÌ Am¡a
{b“mZwemgZ ^r h¢Ÿ&
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narjm h¡Ÿ&
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dmamUgr g§ñH¥$V {díd{dÚmb` go àH$m{eV h¡Ÿ&
bKw _ÄOyfmZmJmo{O ^Å> ÛmamŸ&
116 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
4.{Zéº$-_yb eãX-H$mof {ZKÊQw> h¡-BgH$s ì`m»`m {Zéº$ h¡Ÿ, Omo eãX H$m AW©
Am¡a ì`wËn{Îm ~VmVm h¡Ÿ& A^r Ho$db `mñH$ H$m {ZKÊQw> Am¡a {Zéº$ CnbãY h¡
{Ogna XwJm©Mm`© H$s ì`wËn{Îm h¡Ÿ& `mñH$({dH«$_ nyd© 2800) Ho$ nhbo H$m H$moB© ^r
{ZKÊQw> `m {Zéº$ CnbãY Zht h¡Ÿ& `mñH$ Ho$ ~mX nhbm Aja-H«$_ H$m eãXH$mof
lr MÝXeoIa CnmÜ`m` Ûmam 1940-55 _| {bIm J`m Omo 1995 _o§ ZmJ àH$meZ
{Xëbr Ûmam 3 IÊS>m| _| àH$m{eV hþAmŸ& BgHo$ nhbo _m¡[ag ãby_\$sëS> H$s d¡{XH$
eãX-gyMr VWm 1927 _| n§. h§gamO VWm ^JdÔÎm H$s ~«m÷U J«ÝW H$s eãXgyMr
d¡{XH$-H$mof Ho$ Zm_ go àH$mseV hþ`rŸ& ~Zmag {hÝXy {díd{dÚmb` Ûmam gy`H© $mÝV
H$m d¡{XH$ H$mof ^r 1970 _| àH$m{eV hþAmŸ&
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_| 7 d¡{XH$ N>ÝXm| H$m dU©Z h¡-Jm`Ìr go OJVr VH$Ÿ& doX H$m AÝ` Zm_ N>ÝXg h¡Ÿ&
bm¡{H$H$ Jmfm _| AZwïw>n² N>ÝX H$s àW_ aMZm dmë_r{H$ am_m`U(4500 B©.ny.)
h¡Ÿ& H$mË`m`Z Ho$ ~mX N>ÝX-emó Ho$ {d»`mV {Z_m©Vm {n“b hþ`,o {n“b eãX
N>ÝX-emó H$m n`m©m` ~Z J`m h¡Ÿ& {n“b Ho$ N>ÝX-emó _| 8 AÜ`m`, Am¡a 308
gyÌ h¢Ÿ& Cg_| CÕ¥V AÝ` AmMm`© h¢- EHo$, H$mí`n, H«$m¡ï>w {H$, VpÊS>, `mñH$,
amV, _mÊS>ì`, EoVH$Ÿ& N>ÝX-emó na hbm`wY ^Å> H$s ì`m»`m h¡Ÿ& A{¾, Jé‹S>
VWm ZmaX nwamUm| _| àm`: d¡gm hr N>ÝX dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
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(fîQ> eVmãXr Ho$ ^moOamO Ho$ g_H$mbrZ) H$m N>mQo >m J«ÝW lwV~moY h¡Ÿ&
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H$mZ-{Zéº$, ZmH$-{ejm, _wI-ì`mH$aU, hmW-H$ën, n¡a-N>ÝXŸ&
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hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Á`mo{Vf ê$nr ZoÌ Ho$ {~Zm doX n‹T>Zo dmbm dmñVd _| AÝYm h¡Ÿ& doX Ho$
àm`: à{V gyº$ Ho$ 3 àH$ma Ho$ AW© hmoVo h¢- AmH$me {nÊS> VWm bmoH$
gå~ÝYr(Am{YX¡{dH$), _mZd eara gå~ÝYr (Amû`mpË_H$), VWm Ñí`
dmVmdaU g_mO Am{X go gå~pÝYV (Am{Y^m¡{VH$)Ÿ& CgHo$ AZwgma Á`mo{Vf Ho$
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3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 117
J«h pñW{V H$m _mZd OrdZ Ho$ Cna à^md H$m AÜ``Z hmoVm h¡Ÿ& g§{hVm _| amï´>
H$m ^{dî`, ew^ _whÎÿ m©, nd© Cndmg Am{X H$m {ZU©` hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
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H$s JUZm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& dÎm©_mZ {gÕmÝV J«ÝWm| H$m AmYma gy`© {gÕmÝV h¡ {OgH$m
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a~=a{d `m gy`,© BgHo$ {ZH$Q> haHw$bg `m {dîUw gy`© H$m ñVå^ Wm) _| 9,223
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boH$a _opŠgH$mo VH$ Á`mo{Vf Ho$ Zm_, {Z`_, {gÕmÝV EH$ hr h¢Ÿ& Bg_| n¥Ïdr H$s
Aj-À`w{V, n¥Ïdr H$jm H$m XrK©dÎ¥ mmH$ma, X¡{ZH$ J{V H$m _mZ Am{X Ob-àb`
Ho$ ~mX Cgr H$mb Ho$ h¢Ÿ& ApÝV_ {gÕmÝV Amo{S>em Ho$ lr MÝÐeoIa gm_ÝV Ûmam
1870 _| {gÕmÝV Xn©U h¡ Omo H$bH$Îmm {díd{dÚmb` Ûmam 1899 _| àH$m{eV
hþAm VWm BgH$m AZwdmX Am¡a ì`m»`m AéU Hw$_ma CnmÜ`m` Ûmam 1998 _|
àH$m{eV hþAmŸ& VÝÌ J«ÝW _| `wJ `m H${b Amaå^ (17.18-2-3102 B©.ny.
CÁO¡Z _Ü`am{Ì) go ~rVo H$mb Ûmam J«h pñW{V H$s JUZm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& àW_ CnbãY
VÝÌ J«ÝW damh{_{ha(6-3-95 B©.ny. _| OÝ_) H$r nÄM{gÕmpÝVH$m h¡Ÿ& CgHo$
~mX Am`©^Q> Ûma 499 B©. _| Am`©^Q>r` {bIm J`mŸ& BgHo$ nhbo EH$ Am¡a Am`©^Q>
Wo {OZH$s aMZm CnbãY Zht h¡Ÿ& ~mX _| Vrgao Am`©^Q> H$m Am`©^Q> {gÕmÝV
CnbãY h¡Ÿ& H$aU J«ÝW _| {H$gr {ZH$Q> g_` go gab JUZm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& Bgo AmOH$b
gaH$mar H$m`m©b`m| _| h¡ÊS>~Hw $ `m _¡ZA
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~Mo g_`-F$Vweof H$s JUZm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& J«hm| H$s pñW{V, J{V, ZjÌ Am{X Ho$
AZwgma VmËH$m{bH$ AZwð>mZ hmoVo h¢- BgH$s JUZm {gÕmÝV Á`mo{Vf (`m VÝÌ,
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118 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
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3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 119
nmíMmË` Xe©Zm| _| OrdZ H$m AmMma emó Am¡a _moj AdñWm H$m {dMma Zht h¡,
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20dt eVmãXr _| ìhmBQ>hSo > VWm `yH$Z Ûmam B©ídadmX, ~O©gm§ VWm ~Q´>Ê© S>
agob Ûmam gÝVwbZdmX(Nihilism), {d{b`_ Ooåg Ûmam Û¡VdmX VWm E§Oëo g-
_mŠg© Ûmam ÛÝÛmË_H$ ^m¡{VH$dmX H$m {dH$mg hþAmŸ& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ ^m¡{VH$
{dkmZ H$s Xmo Z`r YmamAm| Ho$ H$maU {díd Ho$ ~mao _| d¡km{ZH$ YmaUm ~Xb
J`rŸ& ¹$mÊQ>_ _oH$m{ZŠg H$m {gÕmÝV h¡- nXmW©, COm©, g_` Ho$ _mn H$s Ý`yZV_
gr_m, nXmW© COm© H$m EH$Ëd, VWm A{ZíM` {gÕmÝV(hoOZo ~J©)Ÿ& AmBÝgQ>mBZ
Ho$ gmnojVmdmX H$m {ZîH$f© h¡-àH$me J{V A{YH$V_ h¡, AmH$me({XH²$) Am¡a
H$mb gå~pÝYV VWm gmnoj h¡Ÿ&
13. CndoX-MaU-ì`yh _| 4 CndoX H$ho J`o h¢-
F$H²$-Am`wdX} , `Ow:-YZwdX} , gm_-JÝYd©dXo , AWd©-AW©emñÌŸ&
{H$ÝVw gwlVw , ^mdàH$me VWm MaH$ Ho$ AZwgma Am`wdX} AWd©dXo H$m CndoX h¡Ÿ&
`h _V R>rH$ bJVm h¡ , Š`m|{H$ AWd© doX _| {M{H$Ëgm VÎd ^ao n‹S>o h¢Ÿ& AV:
AW©emó H$mo F$½doX H$m CndoX _mZZm C{MV h¡Ÿ&
AW©emó H$s naånam-{ÌdJ© (Y_©, AW©, H$m_) H$s ì`m»`m Ho$ {b`o ~«÷m Zo 1
bmI AÜ`m`m| H$m emó {bIm WmŸ(ñdm`å^wd29,000 B©.ny. `m Cggo nyd©)Ÿ&
CgHo$ ~mX 3 AbJ-Ab naånam`| Amaå^ hþ`t-
~«÷m-1 bmI AÜ`m` H$m {ÌdJ©
Y_©emó AW©emó H$m_emó
ñdm`å^wd_Zw {dembmj={ed Ûmam 12,000 AÜ`m` &
BÝÐ H$m ~mhþXÝVH$ J«ÝW(5 `m 12 hOma AÜ`m`)Ÿ&
XmZd nwbmo_m &
~¥hñn{V Ûmam ~mhþXÝVH$ H$m g§jno -3000 AÜ`m` _|&
CeZm H${d(ewH«$)-1000 AÜ`m`&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 121
ZmaX `m {newZ(MwJbr)
~wY nwÌ nwéadm
gwYÝdm Am{“ag
_éV²
_Zw-ñdm`å^wd, àmMoVg, d¡dñdVŸ&
d{gð> H$m MVw{dªe{V ì`dhma {ZU©`Ÿ&
^aÛmO H$m 700 AÜ`m` H$m AW©emóŸ&
Jm¡a{eam H$m 400 AÜ`m` H$m Ÿ&
namea H$m Z¥nemó, ì`mg Ûmam 300 AÜ`m` _| g§jonŸ&
^rî_, H$m¡UnXÝV, ÐmoU ^maÛmO, CÕd dmVì`m{YŸ&
emå~ì` (F$½doX H$m H$ën gyÌ, Am`wdX} Am¡a AW©emó)&
emb‘>m`Z-Z¥nemó&
{dîUwJwá H$m¡{Q>ë` H$m AW©emó (1625 B©.ny.)&
H$m¡{Q>ë` AW©emó g§nyU© VWm CeZm H$m ewH«$Zr{V g§{jáê$n _| CnbãY h¡Ÿ&
^rî_ H$m amOZr{V H$m CnXoe _hm^maV Ho$ empÝVnd© _| {dñVma go h¡Ÿ& AÝ`
H$B© {dXwa, Hw${UH$ Am{X H$s Zr{V _hm^maV VWm AÝ` J«ÝWm| _| CÕ¥V h¡Ÿ&
Am`wdX} naånam-gwlwV g§{hVm Ho$ AZwgma ~«÷m Zo 1000 AÜ`m` VWm 1 bmI
íbmoH$m| _| Am`wdX} emó {bIm WmŸ {OgHo$ 8 IÊS> Wo-1.eë` VÝÌ, 2. embmŠ`
VÝÌ, 3.H$m`{M{H$Ëgm VÝÌ, 4.^yV{dÚm VÝÌ, 5.H$m¡_ma^¥Ë` VÝÌ, 6.AJX
VÝÌ, 7.agm`Z VÝÌ, VWm 8.dmOrH$aU VÝÌŸ&
Bg Aï>m“ Am`wdX} _| XohVÎd, eara {dkmZ, eó {dÚm, ^ofO Am¡a Ðì`
JwUVÎd, {M{H$Ëgm VÎd VWm YmÌr -{dÚm ^r h¡Ÿ& AmYw{ZH$ {M{H$Ëgm àUmbr
Ho$ g_mZ gÑe {M{H$Ëgm (hmo{_`mon¡Wr), {damoYr {M{H$Ëgm (Ebmon¡Wr) Am¡a
Ob- {M{H$Ëgm ^r h¡Ÿ&
~«÷m go Xj àOmn{V, CgHo$ ~mX XmoZm| ApídZr-Hw$_ma-ZmgË` Am¡a Xò-
Am¡a CgHo$ ~mX BÝÐ Zo grImŸ& Agwam| _| ^mJ©d CeZm Am`wd}X Ho$ AmMm`© WoŸ&
nwZd©gw AmÌo`, YÝdÝV[a Am¡a ^aÛmO àm`: g_H$mbrZ WoŸ& amoJ ~‹T>Zo na {h_mb`
_| ^aÛmO H$s AÜ`jVm _| F${f`m| H$s g^m hþ`rŸ (MaH$ g§{hVm)& AmÌo` nwZd©gw
Ho$ AZwamoY na ^aÛmO BÝÐ Ho$ nmg Am`wdX} grIZo J`o Š`m|{H$ ^aÛmO Ho$ {nVm
122 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
Am{“ag ~¥hñn{V XodJwé WoŸ& nwZ: ^aÛmO go nwZd©gw AmÌo` VWm AÝ` F${f`m| Zo
Am`wdX} grImŸ& {XdmoXmg YÝdÝV[a Zo AnZo _mZd OÝ_ _| ^aÛmO go Am`wdX}
grImŸ& nydd© Îmu YÝdÝV[a g_wÐ-_ÝWZ Ho$ g_` ^JdmZ Ho$ AdVma Ho$ ê$n _|
àH$Q> hþ`o WoŸ&
nwZd©gw AmÌo` go 1. A{¾doe, 2.ídoV, 3.OmVyH$U©, 4.namea, 5.hmarV,
6.jmanm{U Zo Am`wdX} grImŸ&
OmVyH$U© Am¡a namea ^mB© Wo, namea Ho$ nwÌ ì`mg hþ`oŸ& A{¾doe ÐþnX VWm
ÐmoU Ho$ Jwé WoŸ Am¡a Am`wd}X Ho$ ^r AmMm`© WoŸ& hmarV gm§»` naånam _| nÄM{eI
Ho$ {eî` Wo VWm BgHo$ A{V[aº$ CZH$m Am`wd}X VWm Y_©gyÌ ^r h¡Ÿ&
A{¾doe go Am`wd}X VÝÌ H$m nwZb}IZ d¡eånm`Z Zo MaH$ g§{hVm Ho$ ê$n _|
_hm^maV `wÕ Ho$ Hw$N> ~mX {H$`mŸ& d¡eånm`Z H$mo MaH$ H$hm OmVm h¡, g§^dV:
CZHo$ g§ñWmZ _| nVÄO{b Zo {bImŸ&
{XdmoXmg YÝdÝV[a go CZHo$ {eî` gwlwV Zo Am`wd}X grIm VWm gwlwV-g§{hVm
{bIrŸ& CgHo$~mX _w»² `V: MaH$ Am¡a gwlVw g§{hVm H$s hr ì`m»`m hþ`rŸ& ì`m»`mAm|
H$m H$mb-H«$_ Bg àH$ma h¡-
1. Amfm‹T> d_m©, gwdra, ZpÝX, damh, h[aíMÝÐ, ñdm{_Xmg, MoëbXod, {h_XÎm,
H$m{Îm©H$ Hw$ÊS>Ÿ&
2. OoÁPQ> ({dH«$_ 100)
3. J`Xmg, ^mñH$a (XmoZm| npÄOH$m- H$ma), _mYdH$a (Amo{S‹ >gm Ho$)Ÿ&
4. ~«÷Xod , JmodÕ©Z (H$m¡_Xw r Am¡a aËZ_mbm), JXmYaŸ&
5. MH«$nm{U ({dH«$_ g§. 1100)
6. S>ëhU,d¥ÝXŸ&
7. ho_m{П&
OoÁPQ> Ho$ Jwé dm½^Q> H$m Aï>m“ g§Jh« , MH«$nm{U H$m MH«$XÎm Am¡a S>ëhU Am{X
Ho$ J«ÝW {d»`mV h¢Ÿ&
3.YZwdX} -~ñVr (CÎma àXoe) Ho$ n§. YZamO(1924) Ho$ AZwgma YZwdX} Ho$ 3
àmMrZ J«ÝW Wo- YZwdX} , YZwf-MÝÐmoX` VWm YZwf-àXrnŸ& àW_ Xmo J«ÝWm| _|
60-60 hOma íbmoH$ WoŸ&
_YwgXy Z gañdVr Ho$ àñWmZ-^oX Ho$ AZwgma {dídm{_Ì Ho$ YZwdX©o Ho$ 4 nmX Wo-
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 123
Xrjm, g§Jh« , {g{Õ Am¡a à`moJŸ& Xrjm nmX _| YZwf H$m AW© 4 àH$ma Ho$ Am`wY
h¢-1._wº$-MH«$ Am{X AóŸ& 2.A_wº$-IS²>J, JXm Am{X AóŸ& 3._wº$m_wº$-
eë` `m AmYw{ZH$ `wJ Ho$ Am¾o`mñÌ {OgH$m _w»` ^mJ à`moJH$Îmm© Ho$ nmg ah
OmVm h¡Ÿ& 4. `ÝÌ_wº$-[_gmBb `m `ÝÌ _wº$ {Xì`móŸ&
^maÛmO H$m `ÝÌ-gd©ñd H$m 40 dm§ AÜ`m` d¡_m{ZH$ àH$aU h¡ {Og_| 8 AÜ`m`,
100 A{YH$ma VWm 500 gyÌ h¢Ÿ& Bg_| `wÕ VWm AÝ` Cn`moJm| Ho$ {b`o {d_mZm|
H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& AÝ` nydd© Îmu AmMm`m] Ho$ Zm_ Bg_| h¢-Zmam`U(Za-Zmam`U F${f
~ÝYw) H$s {d_mZ-MpÝÐH$m, em¡ZH$ (nwamU gånmXH$) H$m ì`mo_-`mZ-VÝÌ,
JJ© (H¥$îU Ho$ Jwé) H$m `ÝÌ-H$ën, dmMñn{V H$m `mZ{dÝXw, MmH«$m`U (CfpñV)
H$m IoQ>`mZ-àXr{nH$m VWm KwpÊS>ZmW H$m ì`mo_`mZmH©$-àH$meŸ& AÝ` 25 J«ÝWm|
_| à_wI h¡-AJñË` H$m A§e_w VÝÌ, AmH$me-emó VWm `ÝÌ-gd©ñd, emH$Q>m`Z
H$m dm`wVÎd-àH$aU, ZmaX H¥$V d¡ídmZa VÝÌ, Yy_-àH$aU Am{XŸ& ^aÛmO H$s
A§e~w mo{YZr _| d{U©V ÜdmÝV-à_mnH$ `ÝÌ H$s d¡km{ZH$ ì`m»`m ñnoŠQ´>m_o rQ>a Ho$
ê$n _| BpÊS>`Z OZ©b Am¡\${hñQ´>r Am¡\$ gmBÝg Ho$ {Xgå~a, 1994 A§H$ _o§ H$s h¡Ÿ&
YZwdX} Ho$ AÝ` AmMm`©-^mJ©d CeZm H${d, A{¾doe, eaÛmZ² Am¡a CZHo$ nwÌ
H¥$n, ^aÛmO nwÌ ÐmoU, O_X{¾ Am¡a naewam_Ÿ&
4. JÝYd©dXo -`h gm_doX H$m Cnm“ h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ 4 AmMm`© à{gÕ h¢-gmo_ío da
({ed?), ^aV, hZw_mZ, Am¡a H$pëbZmWŸ&
^aV H$m ZmQ>ç-emó àW_ CnbãY J«ÝW h¡Ÿ& Bg_| F$½doX go nmR>çdñVw, gm_doX
go JmZ, `Owd}X go A{^Z` Am¡a AWd©doX go ag {b`m J`m h¡Ÿ (ZmQ>çemó 1/
17)& BgHo$ Am{X AmMm`© {ed h¢Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX ZmaX, hZw_mZ, JÝYd© Vwå~wé
Am{X Zo grImŸ&
14. AmJ_ `m VÝÌ-AmYw{ZH$ `wJ _| AmJ_ emó H$m àMma H$_ h¡, CgH$m
{dH¥$V ê$n A{YH$ XrIVm h¡Ÿ& {ZJ_ _yb kmZ h¡ Omo gy`© go n¥Ídr H$s Va\$ AmVm
h¡, AWm©V² ~mhar gË` H$m AÝVO©JV² _| AZw_d h¡Ÿ& AmJ_ ì`mdhm[aH$ emó-
nm{W©d kmZ h¡ AWm©V² dh AmÝV[aH$ e{º$ Ûmam ~mhar OJV² H$mo à^m{dV H$aVm
h¡Ÿ& {ZJ_ H$s AZw^y{V ñd`§ hmoVr h¡Ÿ, AmJ_ H$s {ejm Jwé naånam go hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
AmJ_ H$m \$b VwaV {_bVm h¡, Cg_| AnZr hr e{º$ àH$Q> hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
AmYw{ZH$àMbZ Ho$ AZwgma {ZJ_ H$mo gmBÝg VWm AmJ_ H$mo BÄOr{Z`[a¨J
124 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& XmoZm| nañna gå~pÝYV h¢Ÿ& AmJ_ gm{hË` Ho$ 6 _w»` IÊS>
VWm CgHo$ 120 CnIÊS> h¢Ÿ-
1.g§{hVm J«ÝW-18-B{Vhmg, VmpÎdH$ {df` Am{XŸ&
2.{gÕmÝV-14-agm`Z Am{X d¡km{ZH$ {df`Ÿ&
3.H$ën J«ÝW-6-6 AmåZm`Ÿ&
4.`m_b J«ÝW-10-d¥{ï> {dkmZ Am{X Z¡{_{ÎmH$ {dkmZŸ&
5. S>m_a J«ÝW-8-A{^Mma {dÚmŸ&
6.VÝÌ J«ÝW-64-_{U, _ÝÌ, AmofY-{dkmZŸ&
Bï> Xod ^oX go 3 àH$ma Ho$ AmJ_ h¢-1.d¡îUd, 2.e¡d, 3.emº$Ÿ&
BgHo$ A{V[aŠ 4.gm¡a VÝÌ VWm 5. JmUnË` VÝÌ ^r h¢ {H$ÝVw CZH$m àMma H$_
h¡Ÿ& Ad¡{XH$ AmJ_m| _| 6.~m¡Õ VWm 7.O¡Z VÝÌ h¢Ÿ&
d¡îUd AmJ_ _| nmÄMamÌ,d¡ImZg, Am¡a lr_X²^mJdV nwamU _w»` h¢Ÿ& nmÄMamÌ
Zm_ H$m {ZåZ{b{IV H$maU h¡-
1.gm¡a df© (gy`©={dîUw) _| 365 {XZ h¢, gmdZ df© _| 360 {XZ (12 _mg•30
{XZ) h¢Ÿ& ApÝV_ 5 {XZ dfm©ÝV H$s Nw>Å>r h¢ {Og_| `k hmoVm h¡Ÿ& {H«$g_g VWm
hO Bgr àH$ma dfm©ÝV Ho$ `k VWm Nw>Å>r h¢Ÿ& gmdZ df© Ho$ ~mX gm¡a df© Ho$ ~Mo 5
{XZ hr nmÄMamÌ h¢Ÿ& 4 df© _| EH$ ~ma 6 {XZ A{YH$ hmoVo h¢-`h EoVao` VWm
JmonW ~«m÷U Ho$ AZwgma fS>mh h¡Ÿ&
2.AkmZ=am{Ì,nÄM CgH$m ZmeH$ h¡Ÿ&
3.A{dÚm Ûmam 5 am{Ì hmoVr h¡, CZH$m Zme nmÄMamÌ H$aVm h¡Ÿ&({dîUwVÝÌ,1/
77-79)
4.^JdmZ Ho$ 5 Am`wY 5 F${f`m| Ho$ ê$n _| àH$Q> hþ`-o empÊS>ë`, Am¡nJm`Z,
_m¡ÄOm`Z,H$m¡{eH$, Am¡a ^maÛmOŸ& à{V H$mo 1-1 {XZ _| 1-1 emó H$m CnXoe
{X`m J`mŸ& 5 am{Ì`m§ h¢-~«÷am{Ì, {edam{Ì, BÝÐam{Ì, ZmJam{Ì, Am¡a F${fam{ÌŸ&
dm`wXdo Ûmam g§H$f©U H$mo doX Ho$ AZwgma 3 {Xì` emóm| H$m CnXoe {X`m J`m WmŸ-
gmËdV, nm¡îH$a, O`m»`Ÿ& gmËdV g§{hVm H$mo EH$m`Z doX H$hm OmVm h¡-dh doX
d¥j H$m EH$_mÌ _yb h¡Ÿ&
g§H$f©U Zo 7 F${f`m| Ûmam g§gma _| nmÄMamÌ H$m àMma {H$`m Wm-gZH$, gZV²,
gwOmV, gZÝX, gZãX, gZËHw$_ma, H${nbŸ&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 125
4 àH$ma Ho$ emó h¢-1.gmpËdH$-36-dmgwXdo Ûmam CnXoeŸ&
2.amOg-36-gmpËdH$ H$m AW© {dñVmaŸ&
3.Vm_g-36-F${f {Z{_©VŸ&
4._Zwî` {Z{_©VŸ&
{df` Ho$ AZwgma nmÄMamÌ Ho$ 4 ^oX h¢-
1. AmJ_ {gÕmÝV J«ÝW _| 4 ì`yh (dmgwXdo , g§H$f©U, àÚwåZ Am¡a A{ZéÕ) H$s
AmamYZm h¡Ÿ& `h Jwé naånam go Am`m h¡Ÿ&
2. _ÝÌ {gÕmÝV- Bg_| AÝ` XodVmAm| H$s CnmgZm h¡Ÿ Omo erK« \$b XoVr h¡Ÿ&
3. VÝÌ g§{hVm- dmH²$ _ÝÌ Ûmam ^JdmZ Ho$ ê$n, _y{Îm© H$s nyOmŸ&
4.VÝÌmÝVa {gÕmÝV- _y{Îm©, Xod-n[adma, Am`wY, ^yfU Am{X H$s nyOmŸ&
d¡ImZg AmJ_-dmZàñW AdñWm (50-75 df©) Ho$ {b`o d¡ImZg eãX H$m
ì`dhma hmoVm h¡Ÿ& nÄ Mqde ~«m÷U (14/4/7) Ho$ AZwgma nm¡am{UH$ F${f`m|
Ho$ EH$ Hw$b H$m Zm_ d¡ImZg WmŸ& V¡{Îmar` AmaÊ`H$ (1/23/3) _| ^r CgH$s
MMm© h¡Ÿ& H¥$îU `Owd}X Ho$ J¥ø gyÌ H$mo d¡ImZg J¥ø gyÌ H$hVo h¢Ÿ& d¡ImZg Y_©
gyÌ VWm lm¡V gyÌ ^r h¢Ÿ& d¡{XH$ d¡ImZg emIm H$m H«$_ Bg àH$ma h¡-
Zmam`U (damh ^JdmZ=d¡ImZg)
~«÷m
d¡ImZg F${f
H$í`n ^¥Jw A{Ì _ar{M
d¡ImZg AmJ_ _| _pÝXa {Z_m©U, _y{Îm© aMZm Am¡a à{Vð>m, AM©Zm Am {X H$m
{deX dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
2.e¡d AmJ_-{ed Ho$ 5 _| 3 _wI {MV², AmZÝX Am¡a kmZ ê$n h¢Ÿ& CZHo$ {d{^Þ
àH$ma {_bZ go 10 {ed AmJ_ hmoVo h¢Ÿ& BÀN>m Am¡a {H«$`m ê$n AÝ` Xmo _wI
{_bmZo go 5 _wIm| Ho$ {d{^Þ {_bZ Ûmam 18 am¡Ð AmJ_ hmoVo h¢Ÿ& 4 _wI ( B©emZ,
VËnwéf, gÚmoOmV, Am¡a dm_Xod) H$m 5d| _wI AKmoa _| b` hmoVm h¡Ÿ& b` `m
pñW{V àË`oH$ _wI _| 2 ^oX h¢Ÿ& AV: 4 _wIm| Ho$ 2•2•2•2=16 ^oX h¢Ÿ& dmUr
(eãX) Ho$ 4 àH$ma Ho$ ^oX-CËn{Îm H$s 2 AdñWm-nam Am¡a ní`ÝVr ê$n _| ~mha
{ZH$bZo Ho$ {b`o àñVwV VWm _Ü`_m Am¡a d¡Iar ê$n _| àH$Q>Ÿ& dmUr {ZH$bZo Ho$
~mX ^r 2 ^oX h¢- lmoVm Ûmam J«hU, à{V{H«$`mŸ& Hw$b 16•4=64 ^oXm| Ho$
126 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AZwgma 64 ^¡ad AmJ_ h¢Ÿ& àñWmZ ^oX Ho$ AZwgma ^r 8 gmXm{ed MH«$ VWm
à{V MH«$ Ho$ 8 ^oX h¢Ÿ& Bg àH$ma Hw$b 92 e¡d AmJ_ h¢-
10 e¡d AmJ_+18 am¡Ð AmJ_+64 ^¡adŸAmJ_&
_yb e¡d AmJ_m| H$s 8 àH$ma H$s gmåàXm{`H$ ì`m»`m h¡-
1.nmewnV {gÕmÝV- Ý`m` Am¡a d¡eo{fH$ Xe©Z Ûmam à^m{dVŸ& H$moB© nwñVH$
CnbãY Zhr § h¡Ÿ&
2.gÚmoÁ`mo{V (Û¡VdmX)-gÚmoÁ`mo{V Ho$ {eî`m| Ûmam àMma &
3.bHw$bre nmewnV (Û¡VmÛ¡V)-dm`w Am¡a {b“ nwamUm| Ho$ AZwgma JwOamV _| {ed
H$m bHw$bre Ho$ ê$n _| AdVma hþAm WmŸ& `h V¡{Îmar` AmaÊ`H$ Ûmam à^m{dV h¡Ÿ&
4.{d{eï>mÛ¡V e¡d {gÕmÝV- CËnbmMm`© H$s B©ída àË`{^km H$m[aH$m VWm
A{^ZdJwá H$s ì`m»`mna AmYm[aV h¡Ÿ& H$í_ra _| àM{bVŸ&
5.{deofmÛ¡V e¡d {gÕmÝV-`h X{jU ^maV _| {b“m`V ê$n _| àM{bV h¡Ÿ&
BgHo$ AÝ` Zm_ h¢-1.ewÔ Û¡VmÛ¡V, _mhoídamÛ¡V,3.{deofmÛ¡V,4.e¡dmÛ¡V, 5 gd©
lw{Vgma _mVm, 6.e{º${d{eï>mÛ¡V, 7.drae¡dŸ& Bg _V Ho$ AmYma h¢-AJñË`
H$m emº$ gyÌ, {Ìnwamahñ` Am¡a~«÷gyÌ ^mî`(e¡d _V AZwgma)Ÿ&
6.ZpÝXHo$ída e¡d {gÕmÝV-ZpÝXHo$ída Zo Ü`mZ _| {ed Ho$ S>_ê$ go 14 gyÌ gwZo
{OZH$r ì`m»`m VÝÌ Am¡a ì`mH$aU Ho$ AZwgma hþ`rŸ& Bgr _mhoída gyÌ Ho$ AmYma
na nm{U{Z Ho$ g§ñH¥$V ì`mH$aU Ho$ 8 AÜ`m`m| _| 4,000 gyÌ h¢Ÿ& ZpÝXHo$ída
H$m{eH$m _| gm§»` Xe©Z Ho$ 25 VÎd g{hV {ed, e{º$, 5 àmU, 3 JwU Am¡a
B©ída {_bmH$a 36 VÎd H$ho J`o h¢Ÿ& CgsH$s ì`m»`m h¡ Cn_Ý`w H$s VÎd{d_{e©Zr
(H$í_ra-B©.ny. MVwW© eVmãXr)Ÿ&
7.agoída e¡d {gÕmÝV-`h agm`Z {dkmZ H$m {gÕmÝV h¡Ÿ& nmaX VWm A^«H$ Ho$
à`moJ go eara H$mo XrK©Ordr H$aZo H$s {d{Y H$m Bg_| dU©Z h¡Ÿ& BgH$m _yb AmYma
F$½doX H$m n[a{eï> lrgyº$ h¡Ÿ& AmYw{ZH$ H$mb _| ì`mg (3,400 B©.ny.) Ho$ nwÌ
ewH$Xod Ho$ {eî` Jm¡‹S>nmX (àm`: 1500 B©.ny.) Zo BgH$m àMma {H$`mŸ& CZHo$
{eî`m| _| ~m¡Õ ZmJmOw©Z Am¡a e‘>amMm`© (509-476 B©.ny.) Ho$ Jwé Jmo{dÝXnmX
à{gÕ h¢Ÿ& Bg {gÕmÝV H$m dU©Z BZ nwñVH$m| _| h¡-dm½^Q> g§{hVm, agmU©d VÝÌ,
àíZmon{ZfX², ag _hmoX{Y Am{XŸ&
8. H$mí_ra e¡d {gÕmÝV- BgH$m _w»` AmYma e§H$a Ho$ g_H$mbrZ (500 B©.ny.)
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 127
A{^ZdJwá H$m B©ída-àË`{^km-{d_{e©Zr VWm VÝÌmbmoH$ h¡ {OZH$r ì`m»`m
amOmZH$ O`aW Zo H$s h¡Ÿ&
AÝ` e¡d gåàXm`m| H$mnm{bH$ Am¡a H$mbm_wIH$m gm{hË` Cnb ãY Zht h¡Ÿ&
3.emº$-AmJ_-Bg_| {ed VÎd H$mo nmZo Ho$ {b`o e{º$ H$mo AmYma ~Zm`m
OmVm h¡Ÿ& {dÚm Ho$ 2 ^oX h¢-{dÚm Am¡a A{dÚmŸ `m nam (ewÕ) {dÚm VWm Anam
(ì`mdhm[aH$) {dÚm& Anam {dÚm Ho$ 10 ê$n hr Xodr Ho$ 10 _hm{dÚm ê$n h¢Ÿ&
{ed Ho$ 5 _wI {díd Ho$ 5 Am`m_ h¢-à{V Am`m_ aoIm Ho$ 2 N>mao h¢Ÿ& 5 Am`m_m|
H$s 10 gr_m Ho$ ê$n _| 10 _hm{dÚmAm| H$s 5 nyaH$ OmoS‹ >r h¡-
1.H$mbr-~Jbm_wIr, 2.Vmam-H$_bm, 3.{ÌnwagwÝXar-{Ìnwa^¡adr,
4.^wdZoídar-Yy_mdVr, 5.{N>Þ_ñVm-_mV§JrŸ&
_hm{dÚmAm| Ho$ àVrH$mË_H$ JwU h¢-
1.H$mbr-àMÊS> e{º$Ÿ& 2.Vmam-eãX e{º$Ÿ& 3.{Ìnwa gwÝXar-gm¡ÝX`©, AmZÝXŸ&
4.^wdZoídar-Ðï>m e{º$Ÿ& 5.{N>Þ_ñVm-g§hma,_maUŸ& 6.Yy_mdVr-_yT‹ > AdñWmŸ&
7.7.~Jbm_wIr-ñVå^Z e{º$Ÿ& 8.H$_bm-g§`_ e{º$Ÿ& 9._mV§Jr-H«$s‹S>m e{º$Ÿ&
10.^¡adr-nwÊ` e{º$Ÿ&
gmYZm ^oX-nam gmYZm _| CÀM H$mo{Q> Ho$ XodVmAm| H$s gmYZm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& Cggo
{g{Õ {_bVr h¡ {H$ÝVw _w»` bú` h¡ BÀN>m H$s g_m{áŸ& _Ü`_ H$mo{Q> Ho$ XodVmAm|
H$s gmYZm Hmo Anam gmYZm H$hVo h¢- Bggo ì`{º$ H$s BÀN>m Ho$ AZwgma da
{_bVm h¡Ÿ& AmH$m§jm ewÕ hmoZo na ì`{º$ H$s CÞ{V hmoVr h¡, Zht Vmo nVZ hmoVm
h¡Ÿ& {ZåZ gmYZm go {ZåZ H$mo{Q> Ho$ XodVmAm|-^yV, ~oVmb, {nemM, `mo{JZr Am{X
H$s nyOm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& `h AmÜ`mpË_H$ _mJ© _| ~mYm h¡Ÿ&
3 àH$ma Ho$ gmYZm _V h¢-
H$m¡b `m emº$-Hw$b `m d§e H$m AW© ~m§g hmoVm h¡Ÿ& ^mJdV nwamU _mhmËå` _|
eara _| 7 MH«$ dmbo _oéXÊS> H$mo 7 Jm§R> H$m ~m§g H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& 1-1 Jm§R> H$mo ^oX
H$a 7 ñVam| Ho$ ~mX _w{º$ {_bVr h¡Ÿ& emº$ _V _| e{º$ H$mo Hw$ÊS>{bZr H$hm OmVm
h¡ Omo Hw$b _mJ© go CR>H$a 7 MH«$m| H$mo ^oXVr hþ`r ghòma _| na_{ed go {_b
OmVr h¡Ÿ& Hw$b _mJ© Ho$ àUoVm AmMm`© AëbH$ `m ^mbaËZ WoŸ& CZHo$ AZw`m{`Am|
H$mo H$m¡b `m emº$ H$hVo h¢Ÿ& H$m¡b gm{hË` _| AmU©d, `m_b, {ZU©` Am{X AZoH$
àH$ma Ho$ g§{hVm Am¡a J«ÝW h¢Ÿ {OZH$s g§»`m 64 `m 100 h¡Ÿ& CZ_| _w»` h¢-
128 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
H$m¡b {ZU©`, H$m¡b VÝÌ, Hw$bmU©d VÝÌŸ&
2.{_l _V-gm§»` Xe©Z H$m AmYma F$½doX, ídoVmídVa Cn{XfX² H$m gyº$ h¡-
AOm_oH$m§ bmo{hV ewŠb H¥$îUm_² .... Ÿ& AWm©V² àH¥${V EH$ h¡, {H$ÝVw CgHo$ 3 JwU
`m a§J Ho$ AZwgma 3 ê$n h¢-
H¥$îU-H$mbrŸ&
ewŠb-VmamŸ&
bmo{hV-lr{dÚm, fmoS>er `m {Ìnwa gwÝXarŸ&
AO `m {damQ²> nwéf Ho$ ^r 3 ê$n h¢-H¥$îU `m {dîUw, ~«÷m Am¡a {edŸ& 3 e{º$
ê$nm| Ho$ 3 _ÝÌ `m {dÚm h¢-
H$m{X {dÚm ( H$ go _ÝÌ H$m Amaå^)- H$ E B© b õt-H$mbrŸ&
hm{X {dÚm-h g H$ h b õt-{Ìnwa gwÝXarŸ&
gm{X {dÚm- g H$ b õt-VmamŸ&
H$m{X {dÚm H$m ~§Jmb, hm{X {dÚm H$m H$í_ra VWm gm{X {dÚm H$m {Vã~V _|
A{YH$ àMma Wm, AV: BÝh| CÎma AmåZm` (Am_Zm-gm_Zm) H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
3.g_` _V-`h ~«÷dmXr AmMma H$m dJ© h¡Ÿ& BgH$s 5 _w»` g§{hVm`| h¢-d{gð>
g§{hVm, ewH$ g§{hVm, gZV g§{hVm, gZÝXZ g§{hVm VWm gZËHw$_ma g§{hVmŸ&
à_wI J«ÝW h¡- ew^mJ_ nÄ MH$Ÿ&
Xg _hm{dÚmAm| Ho$ AbJ-AbJ _ÝÌ h¢, CZH$s CnmgZm MÝÐ_m H$s am{e Ho$
AZwgma hmoVr h¡Ÿ& BZHo$ _ÝÌ, ê$n, J«ÝW {ZåZ {b{IV h¢-
1.H$mbr-ñne©_{U, {MÝVm_{U, gÝV{VàXm, {g{ÕXm, Jwø, h§g, X{jU Am¡a
^ÐH$mbr ê$nŸ& H«$s¨ ~rOŸ& _ÝÌ-H«$s¨ H«$s¨ H«$s¨ õt õt õt hÿ§ hÿ§Ÿ&
H$m_H$bm H$mbr Ho$ 11 gmYH$ h¢-BÝÐ, déU, Hw$~oa, ~«÷m, _hmH$mb, ~mU,
amdU, `_, MÝÐ, {dîUw Am¡a _h{f©JUŸ&
BgHo$ àm`: 30 J«ÝW h¢ {OZ_| _w»` h¢-_hmH$mb g§{hVm, 2 IíS>m| _| H$m_H$bm
VWm JwøH$mbr IÊS>Ÿ&
2.Vmam-6 ê$n-CJ«Vmam, ZrbgañdVr, EH$OQ>m, ewŠbVmam, ZrbVmam, Am¡a
{MÌmŸ& › ~rOŸ& › õt õt hþ§ \$Q²>Ÿ&
BgHo$ àm`: 26 J«ÝW emó Am¡a g§{hVm h¢-Vmam VÝÌ, Zrb gañdVr VÝÌ Am{XŸ&
3.fmoS>er-Bgo {Ìnwa gwÝXar `m H$m_oídar ^r H$hVo h¢Ÿ& BgHo$ 3 ê$n h¢-~mbm,
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 129
gwÝXar Am¡a ^¡adrŸ& ~mbm, Hw$_mar Am¡a `wdVr ê$n gÎd, aO Am¡a V_ JwU Ho$
àVrH$ h¢Ÿ& VrZ Hy$Q>m| Ho$ AbJ-AbJ ~rO _ÝÌ h¢-dm½^d Hy$Q>-E|Ÿ& H$m_amO
Hy$Q>-ŠbtŸ& e{º$ Hy$Q>-gm¡:Ÿ&fmoS>er _ÝÌ Ho$ 3 ^mJ H$m{X, hm{X, gm{X BZ 3 Hy$Q>m|
Ho$ _ÝÌ h¢Ÿ& BgH$m `ÝÌ lr `ÝÌ g¥{ï> H$m àVrH$ h¡Ÿ& VrZ {dÚmAm| Ho$ J«ÝW h¢-
H$m{X {dÚm-{Ìnwamon{ZfX², ^mdZmon{ZfX²Ÿ&
hm{X {dÚm-{ÌnwaVm{nZr Cn{ZfX²Ÿ&
gm{X {dÚm-VÝÌamO VÝÌ, _mV¥H$mU©d VÝÌ, `mo{JZr öX` VÝÌ, {ÌnwamU©d VÝÌŸ&
4.^wdZoídar-gm§»` Xe©Z H$s àH¥${V, doX H$s A{X{VŸ& ~rO-õtŸ& J«ÝW-^wdZoídar
ahñ`, ^wdZoídar ñVmoÌ, ^wdZoídar nm[aOmVŸ&
5.{Ìnwa ^¡adr-`h {Ìnwa gwÝXar H$m àH$Q> ê$n h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ 3 Hy$Q>m| Ho$ ~rO _ÝÌ h¢-
h²ò¢, h²ñŠb¥§, h²g²lm¡:Ÿ& `h 3 _ÝÌ ~«÷ J«pÝW (_ybmYma, ñdm{Yð>mZ), {dîUw
J«pÝW (_{Unya, AZmhV, {dew{Õ) VWm éÐ J«pÝW (Amkm, ghòma) Ho$ _ÝÌ h¢Ÿ&
J«ÝW-{Ìnwa ^¡adr VÝÌ, {Ìnwa ^¡adr `m_b, {Ìnwa Vm{nZr VÝÌŸ&
6.{N>Þ_ñVm-naewam_ H$s _mVm aoUHw $m, àMÊS> MÊS>rŸ& 3 J«pÝW `m g§H$ën,
{H«$`m, \$b ê$nr H$_© ~ÝYZ Ho$ d¥j H$mo H$mQ>Zo dmbr e{º$Ÿ& ~rO-h§ `m hÿŸ§ &
_ÝÌ-gm AO`m gmo@h§Ÿ&
J«ÝW-e{º$g§J_ VÝÌ, {N>Þ_ñVm öX`, {N>Þ_ñVm IÊS>Ÿ&
7.Yy_mdVr-`moJ_m`m, V_g (H$mbam{Ì `m _moham{Ì), A{dÚmŸ& ~rO-YyŸ§ &
_ÝÌ-Yy§ Yy§ Yy_mdVr \$Q²> ñdmhmŸ& J«ÝW-Yy_mdVr VÝÌ, àmUVmo{fUr VÝÌŸ&
8.~Jbm_wIr-ñVå^Z e{º$Ÿ& ~rO-h²bŸ§¥ & g§»`m`Z VÝÌ, ~Jbm_wIr VÝÌ, emº$
à_moX, ~JbmH«$_ H$ëndëbrŸ&
9._mV§Jr-dm½dm{XZr, _pÝÌUr, gw_wIr, _hm[nem{MZrŸ& ~rO-ht, hÿ§Ÿ& _mV§Jr
VÝÌ, _mV§J öX`, emº$ à_moX, _mV§Jr ghòZm_Ÿ&
10. H$_bm-bú_rŸ& ~rO-lrŸ& VÝÌgma, emaXm{VbH$, H$_bmpË_H$m VÝÌŸ&
4.gm¡a VÝÌ-gy`© {dîUw H$m dh ê$n h¡ {Oggo g¥{ï> H$m nmbZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& gm¡a nyOm
H$m dU©Z gmå~ nwamU _| h¡Ÿ& H¥$îU Ho$ nwÌ gmå~ Zo Hw$ð> amoJ Xya H$aZo Ho$ {b`o
Amo{S‹ >gm Ho$ H$moUmH©$ _| gy`© nyOm H$s WrŸ& am_m`U b§H$mH$mÊS> _| amdU H$mo namñV
H$aZo Ho$ {b`o AJñË` Zo am_ H$mo Am{XË` öX` H$dM {X`m WmŸ& gy`© go e{º$ àmá
H$aZm hr N>mÝXmo½` Cn{ZfX² H$s _Yw{dÚm h¡Ÿ& gm¡a VÝÌ Ho$ _yb J«ÝW-
130 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
VÝÌ J«ÝW-30, VÎd J«ÝW-96, g§{hVm-4, Cng§{hVm-2, nwamU-5, H$ën-10,
S>m_a-2, `m_b-2, CÈ>re VÝÌ-2, CÈ>mb VÝÌ-2, H$jnw{Q>-2, {d_{e©Zr-3,
MyS‹ >m_{U-5, AdVma-2, A_¥V-3, Xn©U-3Ÿ&
gm¡a e{º$ VÝÌ H$mo Jm`Ìr VÝÌ ^r H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& gy`© go Omo e{º$ {ZH$bVr h¡
dh gm{dÌr h¡, Omo n¥Ïdr H$mo `m h_| àmá hmoVr h¡ dh Jm`Ìr h¡Ÿ& Jm`Ìr N>ÝX _|
8-8 Ajam| Ho$ 3 nmX `m 6 Ajam| Ho$ 4 nmX hmoVo h¢Ÿ& Jm`Ìr _ÝÌ Ho$ F${f
{dídm{_Ì h¡, XodVm g{dVm `m gy`Ÿ© & _yb _ÝÌ h¡- › VËg{dVwda© Êo `_², ^Jm}
Xodñ` Yr_{h, {Y`mo `mo Z: àMmoX`mV²Ÿ& › Ho$ ~mX 3 `m 7 ì`mö{V (bmoH$m| H$m
Zm_) bJmVo h¢-3 ì`mö{V-^y,^wd:,ñd:Ÿ&
7 ì`mö{V- ^y:, ^wd:, ñd:, _h:, OZ:, Vn:,gË`:Ÿ&
J«ÝW-Jm`Ìr ñVmoÌ, Jm`Ìr ahñ`, Jm`Ìr VÝÌŸ&
gm¡a VÝÌ _| gy`©nwÌ `_ VWm e{Z H$s ^r nyOm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
5.JmUnË` VÝÌ-84 bmI `mo{Z`m| H$mo JU VWm CgHo$ ñdm_r H$mo JUn{V H$hm
OmVm h¡Ÿ& ~rO _ÝÌ-J§Ÿ& Amkm MH«$ (^«_y Ü` Ho$ nrN>)o Jwé Am¡a JUn{V H$s
YmaUm H$s OmVr h¡Ÿ& Bggo gå~pÝYV 50 VÝÌ, 25 CnVÝÌ, 2 nwamU, 1 S>m_a,
VWm 8 nmÄ MamÌ h¢Ÿ&
6.~m¡Õ VÝÌ-Jwø g_mO VÝÌ, gmYZ_mbm, VWmJV JwøH$, Hw$Ñ{ï> {Z`m©VZ,
VÎd aËZmdbr, MVw_Щw m, àkmonm`, {d{ZíM` {g{Õ, kmZ {g{ÕŸ&
O¡Z VÝÌ-Ádm{bZr _V, {dÚmZwemgZ, ^¡ad nÙmdVr H$ën, Z_ñH$ma _ÝÌ
H$ën, H$m_ MmÊS>m{bZr H$ën, à{Vð>m H$ën, gañdVr _V H$ënŸ&
15.àmH¥$V {dÚm-AmJ_ Am¡a {ZJ_ Ho$ g§`moJ Ûmam 4 àH$ma Ho$ {dÚm {d^mJ
h¢Ÿ& Cg_| àË`oH$ Ho$ 2 IÊS> VWm à{V _| 4 {dÚm h¢Ÿ& Bg àH$ma 64 àmH¥$V
({ZJ_+ AmJ_) {dÚm h¢Ÿ&
1. _Zmo {dÚm-1.`moJ {dÚm (8), 2. {Xì` Ñ{ï> {dÚm (8)Ÿ&
2. kmZopÝÐ` {dÚm-1.Vnmo {dÚm (8), 2.Xod~b {dÚm (8)&
3.H$_}pÝÐ` {dÚm-1.H$_}pÝÐ` {dÚm (8), 2. AmJ_ _ÝÌ {dÚm (8)&
4.^yV {dÚm-1._hm¡f{Y {dÚm (8), 2.`ÝÌ {dÚm (8)&
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 131
_Zmo {dÚm
`moJ{g{Õ (_Z H$m g§`_) {Xì` Ñ{ï> (BpÝÐ` g§`_)
1.A{U_m 9.^yV ^{dî`, OÝ_mÝVa kmZ
2._{h_m 10. Xya, namoj kmZ
3.J[a_m 11. gd© ^yV éV kmZ
4.b{K_m 12._Zmo{dkmZ
5.àm{á 13. ^yJ^© kmZ
6.àmH$må` 14.^wdZ kmZ
7.B©{eËd 15.Amof{Y à^md kmZ
8.d{eËd 16.Vmam Á`mo{V à^md kmZ
kmZopÝÐ` {dÚm
Vnmo~b (öX` g§`_) Xod ~b (àmU g§`_)
17.Xod gmjmËH$ma-N>m`m nwéf 25. H$m` ì`yh
18.dëJm H¥$Ë`m 26. naH$m`m àdoe
19.AmË_moËH«$_ gmjmËH$ma 27.àmUhm[aUr
20._¥V nwéf gmjmËH$ma 28._¥Vg§Or{dZr
21.{dídê$n Xe©Z 29.ñWmUw g§Or{dZr
22._m`m {d_mohZ 30.N>m`m {ZJ«{hUr
23.Cnlw{V {dÚm 31.AmH¥${V n[ad{Îm©Zr
24.g§ñH$mamonYmZr 32.{b“ n[ad{Îm©Zr
{ZJ_ _ÝÌ H$_}pÝÐ` {dÚm AmJ_ _ÝÌ
33.gdm©H${f©Ur 41._maU
34.A{¾ Ob ñVpå^Zr 42._mohZ
35.Aj` H$aUr 43.CÀMmQ>Z
36.{ZJ«hmZwJ«{hUr 44.derH$aU
37.gyÌo{ï> 45.{dÛofU
38.Obd{f©Ur 46.ñVå^Z
39.AmnmoZßÌr` 47.AmH$f©U
40._Yw{dÚm 48. g§ajU
132 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
^yV {dÚm
_hm¡f{Y ~b _ÝÌ ~b
49._¥Vg§Or{dZr 57.{Xì` {d_mZ-{ÌMH«$ aWH$ma
50.g§OrdZ H$aUr 58.nwînH$ {d_mZ-h§g aW-~‹T>Zdo mbm
51.{deë` H$aUr 59.gm¡^ {d_mZ-ZJamH$ma
52.gmdÊ`© H$aUr 60.gyV {d_mZ-Zm¡H$mH$ma
53.gÝYmZ H$aUr 61.h`©íd {d_mZ-KmoS‹ >m g_mZ
54.A[aï> ^¡fÁ`m 62.ßbd {d_mZ-njr AmH$ma
55.{S>å^ àg{dZr 63.A_¥VJdr-{díd ê$nm
56.~bm-A{V~bm 64.{ebm gÝVaUr
eómó {dÚm-{Xì`mó
1.X¡dmó 2._m¡Zmó 3.^m¡Vmó 4.H$_m©ó
1.~«÷{ea 17.ñH$ÝXmó 33._H$amó 49.CÝ_mXmó
2.~«÷mó 18.à_Wmó 34.gm¡nUm©ó 50.ñVå^Zmó
3.nmewnV 19.d¡Zm`H$ 35.^méÊS>mó 51.H$ënmó
4.d¡îUd 20.Hy$î_mÊS>mó 36.CbyH$mó 52.O¥å^Umó
5.dméUmó 21.JUmó 37.JmbUmó 53.Oå^H$mó
6.Zmam`Umó 22.JmÝYdm©ó 38.H$mbHy$Q>mó 54._yÀN>mó ©
7.EoÝÐmó 23.amjgmó 39.MmH«$mó 55.{Z_rbZmó
8.àmOmnË` 24.n¡emMmó 40.EofrH$mó 56.CËnmVmó
9.Am¾o` 25.^m¡Vmó 41.~bmó 57.àñdmnmó
10.dm`ì` 26.d¡Vmbmó 42.A{V~bmó 58.Ádamó
11.H$m¡~ao 27.ea^mó 43.Am¡Xåw ~amó 59.^«m_H$mó
12.nmO©Ý` 28.Vmú`m©ó 44.amOgmó 60.AMoVmó
13.Ëdmï´>mó 29.em~amó 45.h¡_Zmó 61._mohZmó
14 .H$mbmó 30.^¡admó 46.nmfmUmó 62.d¡ÚVw mó
15.`må`mó 31._mV“mó 47.Jwømó 63.{V{_amó
16.XmZdmó 32.ZmJmó 48.Jm¡amó 64.V_gmó
3.doXm§J Am¡a gm§»` 133

_ÝÌàhma ^yVàhma
_ÝÌm`wY _ÝÌ_wº$ eó (18 bm¡{H$H$ eó)
gáeVr _| _Yw{dÚm(3/38) VWm _ÝÌ Am`wY H$m dU©Z h¡-hþ‘>mam{^hVm§
(3/12), hþ‘>maoUd¡ V§ ^ñ_ gm MH$mampå~H$m VV:(6/13)Ÿ&
_ÝÌm`wY VWm _ÝÌ_wº$ eó H$mo {Xì`mó H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ 4 dJ© h¢-X¡dmó,
`m¡Zmó, ^m¡Vmó, H$_m©óŸ& à{VdJ© _| 16-16 VWm Hw$b 64 {Xì`mó h¢Ÿ& dmë_r{H$
am_m`U _| 50 {Xì`mó VWm 50 {Xì`mó g§hma H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
bm¡{H$H$ Aó Xodr XodVmAm| Ho$ Am`wY Ho$ ê$n _| CZH$s {d{^Þ àH$ma H$s e{º$ Ho$
àVrH$ h¢Ÿ& 18 Aó h¢-
1.IS²>J-T>mb g{hV, 2.YZw ea, 3.n[aK-H$mbXÊS>, 4.n{Å>e, 5.Vmo_a,
6.Hw$ÝV, 7.IoQ>, 8.JXm, 9.naew, 10.MH«$, 11.eyb, 12.e{º$, 13._wÒa,
14.nme, 15._wgb-hb, 16.{^pÝXnmb, 17. Nw>[aH$m, 18.eV¿Zr-^wepw ÊS>Ÿ&
d¡í` {dÚm, {eën
64 {dÚm ~«m÷Um| Ho$ {b`o, 64 {Xì`mó j{Ì`m| Ho$ {b`o VWm 64 H$bm eyÐ Ho$
{b`o h¢Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma gmao g_mO Ho$ nmofU Ho$ {b`o d¡í`m| H$s H¥${f, Jmoajm Am¡a
dm{UÁ` {dÚm H$m {dñVma h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ H$B© A§e {d{^Þ nwamUm| _| {_bVo h¢Ÿ& {eën
H$m AW© h¡ {d{^Þ àH$ma Ho$ `ÝÌ, J¥h, CnH$aU, Am{X H$m {Z_m©UŸ& dÎm©_mZ `wJ
_| Bgo BÄ Or{Z`[a¨J H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
******
134 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AÜ`m`-4
VÎd-g_mg
1.gm§»` H$m àU`Z-gm§»` Xe©Z Ho$ àdÎm©H$ H${nb VWm `moJ Ho$ àdÎm©H$
{haÊ`J^© _mZo OmVo h¢Ÿ& _hm^maV empÝV nd©(349/65) _|-
gm§»`ñ` dº$m H${nb: na_{f©: g CÀ`VoŸ&
{haÊ`J^m} `moJñ` doÎmm ZmÝ`: nwamVZ:Ÿ&&
JrVm (10/26) _| ^JdmZ H¥$îU Zo H$hm h¡-{gÕmZm§ H${nbmo _w{Z:Ÿ& ^mJdV
Ho$ AZwgma {dÝXw ga VQ> na _h{f© H$X©_ Am¡a CZH$s nËZr Xodhÿ{V Ho$ nwÌ Ho$ ê$n
_| ^JdmZ Zo H${nb AdVma {b`mŸ& n¥ð> 57 na ì`mg JUZm _| 12 d| ì`mg A{Ì
Ho$ g_` gm§»` A{Ì hþ`o Wo O~ gm§»` Xe©Z àm`: 8,500 B©.ny._| ñWm{nV hmo
MwH$m WmŸ& gJa H$m g_` àm`: 6,760 B©.ny. h¡ O~ àW_ `dZ AmH«$_U-
H$m[a`m| H$mo ^Jm`m J`m Wm (_oJmñWZrO)Ÿ& gm§»` Xe©Z Cg g_` {ZíM` WmŸ&
H${nb Zo Cg H$mb _| gm§»` gyÌm| H$m {Z_m©U {H$`m VWm ~mX _| CZH$s naånam Ho$
AÝ` F${f Zo gJa nwÌm| H$mo Obm`mŸ& gJa Zo `dZm| H$mo XÊS> XoZo Ho$ {b`o `dZm| H$s
5 {eIm H$a Xr WrŸ& H${nb Ho$ {eî` nÄ M{eI Am¡a Amgw[a àm`: CZHo$ g_H$mbrZ
WoŸ& nÄM{eI H$m AW© 5 {eIm `m 5 ndm© gm§»` Xe©Z h¡Ÿ& H${nb H$mo {gÕ H$hm
J`m h¡Ÿ& gy`{© gÕmÝV (12/37-42) Ho$ AZwgma {gÕnwa CÁO¡Z go 1800 nyd©
h¡Ÿ& dmë_r{H$ am_m`U {H$pîH$ÝYm H$mÊS> (44/33) Ho$ AZwgma dhm§ bmb a§J Ho$
emoU ZX Ho$ {ZH$Q> {gÕ {Zdmg H$aVo h¢ VWm (44/64) Ho$ AZwgma nyd© {Xem H$s
gr_m na ~«÷m Zo nd©V na Ûma ~Zm`m WmŸ& `h _opŠgH$mo H$m {nam{_S> h¡Ÿ& CgHo$
{ZH$Q> H¡${b\$mo{Z©`m Hw$N> bmoJm| Ho$ _V go H${nbmaÊ` h¡Ÿ& ^maV H$m J§JmgmJa
dhm§ VH$ OmZo H$m g_wÐr _mJ© _mÌ h¡Ÿ& gJa nwÌ dhm§ go nmVmb(A_o[aH$m) VH$
J`o WoŸ& ^JdÔÎm Zo Eo{Vhm{gH$ à_mUm| go àm`: 11,000 df© nhbo H${nb H$m
g_` _mZm h¡Ÿ& ~m¡Õ J«ÝWm| Ho$ AZwgma BúdmHw$ d§er` emŠ` amOm Zo AnZr amOYmZr
H${nbdñVw dht ñWm{nV H$s Wr Ohm§ H${nb Vnñ`m H$a MwHo$ WoŸ&
H${nb H$m VÎd g_mg Ho$db 22 `m 25 gyÌm| H$m h¡Ÿ {OgH$m CnXoe CÝhm|Zo
Amgw[a H$mo {X`m WmŸ& BgH$s 5 ì`m»`m`| CnbãY h¢-lr {f_mZÝX(jo_mZÝX)-
gm§»`-VÎd-{ddoMZ_²Ÿ&^mdmJUoe-gm§»`-VÎd-`m²mÏ`©-XrnZ_²Ÿ& AkmV boIH$-
4.VÎd-g_mg 135
gdm}nH$m[aUr d¥{Îm, gm§»`-gyÌ-{ddaU_², H«$_Xr{nH$mŸ& H${nb H$m ~‹S>m gyÌ
J«ÝW gm§»` fS>mÜ`m`r `m H${nb gm§»`gyÌ H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& Bg_| 6 AÜ`m` VWm
164+47+84+32+130+71=528 gyÌ h¢Ÿ& Bg na 4 ì`m»`m`| à{gÕ h¢-
1.A{ZéÕ H$s d¥{Îm, 2._hmXod H$m d¥{Îmgma, 3.{dkmZ{^jw H$m gm§»`-àdMZ-
^mî`, 4.ZmJoe ^Å> H$m ^mî`-gma `m bKw-gm§»`-d¥{ÎmŸ&
Amgw[a H$m H$moB© J«ÝW `m CÕaU Zht {_bVmŸ& nÄ M{eI _w{Z Ho$ CnXoem| H$mdU©Z
(OZH$ H$mo) ZmaX nwamU VWm _hm^maV empÝVnd© _| {_bVm h¡Ÿ& BZH$m f{ï>VÝÌ
B©ídaH¥$îU Zo H$hm h¡Ÿ& MrZ H$s nwñVH$m| Ho$ AZwgma Bg_| 60,000 íbmoH$ WoŸ&
Bg_| 60 n[aÀN>Xo `m {df`m| H$m dU©Z hmoZo go ^r gå^dV: Bgo f{ï>VÝÌ H$hVo
WoŸ& Hw$N> bmoJ Bgo df©JÊ` H$s H¥${V _mZVo h¢Ÿ& BgH$m íbmoH$ df©JÊ` Ho$ Zm_ go
ì`mg Ho$ `moJXe©Z ^mî` _| h¡Ÿ& nÄ M{eI Ho$ Zm_ go AÝ` íbmoH$ `m gyÌ ì`mg^mî`
_|, dmMñn{V {_l H$s ^m_Vr, _hm^maV, `w{º$Xr{nH$m _| CÕ¥V h¢Ÿ&
BgHo$ ~mX B©ídaH¥$îU Zo gm§»`H$m[aH$m `m gm§»`-gá{V 70 íbmoH$m| _| f{ï>VÝÌ
Ho$ AmYma na {bIrŸ& ` fS>Ü`m`r Ho$ 528 gyÌm| H$m ^r g§jno h¡Ÿ& gab VWm ñnï>
hmoZo Ho$ H$maU Bgr H$mo H$B© bmoJ _yb gm§»` Xe©Z _mZVo h¢Ÿ VWm _mYdmMm`©,
dmMñn{V {_l Am{X Zo Bgr H$m CÕaU {X`m h¡Ÿ& fS>Ü`m`r go BgH$m g_Ýd` Bg
àH$ma h¡-
AÜ`m` {df` H${nbgyÌ B©ídaH¥$îU H$m[aH$m
1.gm§»`emó {df` 164 1-20
2.nwéf go g¥{ï> 47 21-37
3._hm^yV, ñWyb gyú_ eara 84 38-68
4.CXmhaU 32 --
5.Amjonm| H$m CÎma 130 --
6.{eî`m| H$m gÝXoh g_mYmZ 71 69-70
BgH$s à_wI Q>rH$m`| h¢-(1) _mR>a d¥{Îm g~go àmMrZ h¡Ÿ& (2) BgHo$ ~mX
e‘>amMm`© Ho$ na_ Jwé Jm¡S‹ >nmX H$m ^mî` h¡Ÿ& (3) Jm¡V_ H$s O`_“bm Q>rH$mŸ&
(4) dmMñn{V {_l H$s gm§»`-VÎd-H$m¡_Xw rŸ& (5) `w{º$Xr{nH$m, (6) MpÝÐH$mŸ&
BZ J«ÝWm| Ho$ AZwgma gm§»` Xe©Z Ho$ AmMm`© h¢-H${nb, Amgw[a, nÄ M{eI,
O¡Jrfì`, df©JÊ`, {dÝÜ`dmgr (é{Ðb), OZH$, namea (~mX[a ?), ì`mg,
136 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
B©ídaH¥$îU VWm Am`© ({dkmZ{^jw Ho$ AZwgma)Ÿ& _mR>a d¥{Îm Ho$ AZwgma AÝ`
AmMm`© h¢-^mJ©d, CbyH$, dmë_r{H$, hmarV, XodbŸ& `w{º$Xr{nH$m Ho$ AZwgma-
~mh{b, H¡$amV, nm¡[aH$, F$f^oída, nÄMm{YH$aU, H$m¡pÊS>Ý` VWm _yH$Ÿ&
O`_“bm Ho AZwgma$- JJ©, Jm¡V_Ÿ&
BZHo$ ~mX {dkmZ{^jw H$m gm§»`-gma-{ddoH$, VWm ^mdmJUoe H$m gm§»`-
gma$, gm§»`n[a^mfm VFWm gm§»`-VÎd-àXr{nH$m ñdVÝÌ J«ÝW h¢Ÿ&
25 VÎdm| H$s g§»`m go g¥{ï> CËn{Îm Ho$ {gÕmÝV Ho$ H$maU Bgo gm§»` Xe©Z
H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& AÝ` _V Ho$ AZwgma Aja nwéf Ho$ nydm©Õ© VWm CÎmamÕ©-àË`oH$ _|
432 H$mo{Q> ~rO-nwéfm| H$s JUZm Ho$ H$maU Bgo gm§»` Xe©Z H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& _oao
_V go g¥{ï> Ho$ AZÝV-àm` VÎdm| H$s g§»`mË_H$ `m J{UVr` ì`m»`m (Statis-
tical physics) Ho$ H$maU Bgo gm§»`Xe©Z H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& h[a^Ð gy[a Ho$ AZwgma
g§I H$m AW© nwéf h¡ {OgH$m dU©Z Bg Xe©Z _| h¡Ÿ& {VbH$ Ho$ JrVm-ahñ`, n¥ð>
180 Ho$ AZwgma gm§»` _V go 25 VÎdm| H$s CËn{Îm H$m H«$_ {ZåZ{b{IV h¡-
~«÷mÊS> H$m d§e-d¥j
1.nwéf (XmoZm| ñd`å^y, AZm{X) 2.àH¥${V
({ZJw©U,n`m©`-k,Ðï>m (gÎd,aO,V_moJwUr, n`m©`-àYmZ,
B©ída) Aì`º$,_m`mŸ& àgd-Y{_©Ur)
3._hmZ² `m ~w{Õ (ì`º$ Am¡a gyú_,
n`m©`-Amgwar, _{V, kmZ, »`m{V)
4.Ah‘>ma (ì`º$ Am¡a gyú_,n`m©`-
A{^_mZ,V¡Og)
gmpÎdH$ AWm©V² ì`º$ Am¡a Vm_g AWm©V² {Z[apÝÐ` g¥{ï>
gyú_ BpÝÐ`m§ 5 VÝ_mÌm`| (gyú_)
5 kmZopÝÐ`m§ 5 H$_}pÝÐ`m§ _Z(5) 5 {deof `m _hm^yV (ñWyb)
Am§I H$mZ ZmH$ Or^ M_© eãX ñne© ê$n ag JÝY
6 7 8 9 10 AmH$me dm`w A{¾ Ob n¥{Wdr
dmH²$ nm{U nmX nm`w CnñW (16,17) (18,19)(20,21)(22,23) (24,25)
11 12 13 14 15
à{V _hm^yV _| EH$ EH$ VÝ_mÌm `m JwU ~‹T> OmVm h¡Ÿ& AmH$me _| {g\©$ eãX h¡Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 137
dm`w _| eãX Ho$ gmW ñne© ^r h¡Ÿ& ê$n Omo‹S>Zo na A{¾ ^r hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ& AmYw{ZH$
^mfm _| eãX H$m AW© Va“ (Electromagnetic wave) h¡ Omo eyÝ`
AmH$me(Space) _| Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& dm`w H$m AW© J{Verb nXmW© h¡ {Og_|
AmÝV[aH$ J{V `m H$ånZ Ho$ H$maU Vmn(Temperature) H$m AZw^d hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
A{YH$ Vmn hmoZo na àH$me {ZH$bVm h¡ Omo ê$n JwU hþAmŸ& ag JwU Ðdm| H$s gVh
H$m VZmd (Surface tension) `m CZH$m Jm‹T>mnZ (Viscosity) hþAmŸ& JÝY
H$m AW© gyú_ H$Um| H$s CnpñW{V h¡Ÿ& _hm^yV n¥{Wdr H$m AW© _mÌm (Mass) `m
^ma (Weight) hþAmŸ&
`hm§ nwéf H$m AW© MoVZ VÎd h¡ Omo OrdmË_m h¡ VWm àË`oH$ eara _o {^Þ-
{^Þ h¡Ÿ& `h AZm{X, gyú_ h¡Ÿ {H$ÝVw gd©k B©ída Zht h¡Ÿ& AV: gm§»` H$mo {Zarída-
gm§»` VWm gm§»` Am¡a `moJ H$mo goída gm§»` H$hVo h¢Ÿ& nwéf Ho$ hr {damQ²> ê$n H$mo
B©ída H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& g^r doXm| H$m nwéf gyº$ h¡-ghòerfm© nwéf: ghòmj:
ghònmV²Ÿ& erf© 1•1000 • Am§I 2•1000 •n¡a 2•1000 = 4• 109 nwéf
Ho$ ^oX hþ`oŸ& 100 H$mo 108 {JZZo na `h 432 H$mo{Q> hmoVm h¡Ÿ, Omo D$na {bIm h¡Ÿ&
2.VÎd-g_mg gyÌ-VÎd g_mg H$mo g^r EH$ _V go H${nb H$m _mZVo h¢Ÿ&
{g\©$ BZ gyÌm| Ho$ AmYma na gm§»` Xe©Z Zht g_Pm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& `h gm§»` gyÌ
_| VÎdm| H$s {JZVr ñ_aU aIZo H$m hr gyÌ h¡Ÿ& BgH$s ì`m»`m Ho$ {b`o _yb
gm§»`-gyÌm|, CZH$m g§jno B©ídaH¥$îU H$s gm§»`-H$m[aH$m VWm gå~pÝYV Xe©Zm|
`moJgyÌ, `moJdm{gð>, `m doXmÝV-Xe©Z H$m ghmam boZm n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ& g_mg-gyÌm|
Ho$ 2 nmR> àM{bV h¢ {OZ_| 22 `m 26 gyÌ h¢, na XmoZm| _| dhr eãX h¢ Omo ZrMo
H$s gmaUr go ñnï> hmo Om`JmŸ&
22 gyÌ 26 gyÌ
1.AWmVñVÎd g_mg: --24.EVV² naåna`m `mWmVÏ`_²
2.Aï>m¡ àH¥$V`: 1.Aï>m¡ àH¥$V`:
3.fmoS>e {dH$mam: 2.fmoS>e {dH$mam:
4.nwéf: 3.nwéf:
5.Ì¡JwÊ`_² 4.Ì¡JwÊ` gÄMma
6.gÄMa: à{VgÄMa: 5.à{VgÄMma:
138 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
7.AÜ`mË__m{Y^yV_m{YX¡d§ M 6.AÜ`mË__², 7.A{^yV_², 8.A{YX¡d_²
8.nÄMm{^~wÕ`: 9.nÄMm{^~wÕ`:
9.nÄMѽ`moZ`: 10.nÄMH$_©`moZ`:
10.nÄMdm`d: 11.nÄMdm`d:
11.nÄMH$_m©Ë_mZ: 12.nÄMH$_m©Ë_mZ:
12.nÄMndm© A{dÚm 13.nÄMndm© A{dÚm
13.Aï>mqde{VYm@e{º$: 14.Aï>mqde{VYm@e{º$:
14.ZdYm Vw{ï>: 15.ZdYm Vw{ï>:
15.Aï>Ym {g{Õ: 16.Aï>Ym {g{Õ:
16.Xe _m¡{bH$mWm©: 17.Xe _y{bH$mWm©:
17.AZwJ«h: gJ©: 18.AZwJ«h: gJ©:
18.MVwX©e{dYmo ^yVgJ©: 19.MVwX©e{dYmo ^yVgJ©:
19.{Ì{dYmo ~ÝY: 20.{Ì{dYmo ~ÝY:
20.{Ì{dYmo _moj: 21.{Ì{dYmo _moj:
21.{Ì{dY§ à_mU_² 22.{Ì{dY§ à_mU_²
22.EVV² gå`J²kmËdm H¥$VH¥$Ë`:ñ`mV² 23.{Ì{dY§X:w I_²
Z nwZ{ó{dYoZ Xw:IoZm{^^y`VoŸ& 25.EVÁkmËdm H¥$VH¥$Ë`: ñ`mV²
26.Z nwZ{ó{dYoZ Xw:IoZm{^^y`VoŸ&
`hm§ ì`m»`m Ho${b`o 22 gyÌm| H$m à`moJ {H$`m Om`oJm VWm nmR>-^oX H$m CëboI
hmoJmŸ&
gyÌ-1.AWmVñVÎdg_mg:
AÝd`-AW AV: VÎd g_mg:Ÿ&
`h {df` H$m àmaå^ h¡Ÿ& 26 gyÌr nmR> _| {df` H$s MMm© 24 d| gyÌ _| h¡-24.
EVV² naåna`m `mWmVÏ`_²Ÿ&-AWm©V² naånam go gm§»` Xe©Z _| `hr (VÎd) h¢Ÿ&
eãXmW©-AW=AW©+C; Bg_| a H$m bmon hmoZo go AW hþAmŸ& BgH$m AW© `hm§, A~
=_“b, Amaå^ A{YH$maŸ& ~«÷m Ho$ _wI² go g¥{ï> Ho$ Amaå^ _| › Am¡a AW-`o Xmo
eãX {ZH$bo Wo, AV: BÝh| _“b H$m gyMH$ _mZm J`mŸ-
›H$maíMmWeãXíMÛmdoVm¡ ~«÷U: nwamŸ&
H§$R>§ {^Îdm {d{Z`m©Vm¡ Vñ_mÝ_m“{bH$mdw^m¡Ÿ&Ÿ& (ZmaX nw.51/10)
4.VÎd-g_mg 139
`hm§ VÎd g_mg H$m Amaå^ hþAm, AV: AW H$m ì`dhma hþAmŸ&
BgH$m Xygam AW© h¡-V~, CgHo$ níMmV²Ÿ& gm§»` gyÌ _| VÎdm| H$s ì`m»`m Ho$
~mX CZHo$ ñ_aU VWm g§jno _| g_PZo Ho$ {b`o `h AJbm dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
AV:-AVg²=BX_²+V{gb²=Bg H$maU goŸ& AV: eãX go AW H$m Xygam AW©,
níMmV² ñnï> hmoVm h¡Ÿ& nhbo {dñVma go gm§»`-gyÌm| H$mdU©Z hþAm, AV: A~
g§jon _| hmo ahm h¡Ÿ&
VÎd-VÎd=VV²+{¹$n², bwH$² -AWm©V² VV²+ËdŸ& H$^r-H$^r V² H$m bmon H$a VËd
^r {bIm OmVm h¡Ÿ& BgH$m AW© dmñV{dH$ pñW{V, VÏ`, `WmW© Am{X h¡Ÿ& g§gma
H$s dmñV{dH$ pñW{V `m VÎd {XImZm Bg {df` H$m CÔoí` h¡Ÿ&
AWmV: Ho$ ~Xbo AÝ` nmR> 24 d| gyÌ _| h¡-
AW+AV:=EVV² naåna`m=`h naånam Ho$ AZwgmaŸ&
VÎd=`mWmVÏ`_²=`WmW©+VÏ`Ÿ&
g§gma Ho$ _yb^yV H$maUm| H$mo VÎd H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& _yb VÎd EH$ hr h¡ {Ogo AmË_m
(_Zwî` H$s dmñV${dH$ àH¥${V), na_mË_m `m {damQ²> nwéf ({díd H$m dmñV{dH$
ê$n), _yb àH¥${V (g¥{ï> H$m _yb òmoV) Am{X H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
O‹S> Am¡a MoVZ `m nwéf Am¡a _yb àH¥${V Ho$ ê$n _| Xmo VÎd {d^mJ h¢Ÿ&
JwU Am¡a {H«$`m Ho$ AZwgma VrZ àH$ma Ho$ VÎd h¢Ÿ- g¥[ï>, pñW{V, b`-`m gÎd
AWm©V² VoO Am¡a nXmW© H$s pñW{V, aO AWm©V² J{V Am¡a àH$me, V_ AWm©V²
AÝYH$ma, J{VhrZVmŸ& nwéf Am¡a àH¥${V Ho$ VrZ AdñWmAm| Ho$ `moJ go {damQ²>
nwéf Ho$ 6 Am`m_ (dimensions) h¢Ÿ& Mmdm©H$ Xe©Z Ho$ AZwgma 4 ^m¡{VH$
nXmW© h¢-n¥Ïdr, Ob, A{¾, dm`wŸ& `{X nXmW©hrZ ñWmZ (AmH$me) H$mo {_bm`m
Om` Vmo 5 nXmW© hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
3 JwUm| Ho$ nañna {_lU go 2•2•2=8, àH¥${V Ho$ 8 ^oX hmoVo h¢Ÿ& VrZ JwU
gËd, aO, V_ h¢Ÿ&
4 nXmWm] Ho$ nañna {_lU go 24=16 {dH$ma h¢Ÿ& `m 4 Am`m_m| Ho$ g§gma Ho$
4•4 {dH$ma O‹S> àH¥${V _| hþ`oŸ& MoVZ AmË_m H$m VÎd {_bmZo go 5 nXmWm] Ho$
5•5=25 VÎd {damQ²> nwéf Ho$ hþ`oŸ&
140 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
e¡d Xe©Z _| {ed VÎd 6 Am`m_ Ho$ {damQ²> nwéf `m {dîUw H$m AmdaU h¡Ÿ& Bg_|
5 {ed VÎd (3 empÝV VWm 2 emÝË`mVrV-{ed, e{º$, gXm{ed, B©ída,
ewÕ{dÚm), _m`m VWm _m`m Ho$ 5 AmdaU-`o 11 VÎd A{YH$ h¢Ÿ& Bg àH$ma 6
Am`m_ Ho$ {dîUw Ho$ AZwgma 6•6=36 VÎd e¡dXe©Z Ho$ hþ`Ÿo & 3 JwUm| Ho$ 3-3
{d^mJmo§ go 9 {d^mJ hmoVo h¢ ,{OZ_| gr_mdÎmu 2 {d^mJ {_b H$a 7 {d^mJ hmoVo
h¢Ÿ& gËd _| gËd, aO,V_ VrZ {d^mJŸ& Bgr àH$ma aOg² VWm V_ XmoZm| Ho$
gËd,aO,V_; 3-3Ÿ& gËd-V_ VWm aO-gËd EH$ hr h¢Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma aO-V_
VWm V_-gËd EH$ hr h¢Ÿ& Bg àH$ma 7 {d^mJ h¢Ÿ& AÝ` _V h¡ {H$ EH$ EH$ JwU
go 3 ^mJ, 2-2 JwUm| Ho$ {_bZ go 3 ^mJ VWm 3 JwUm| Ho$ {_bZ go 1 ^mJ-Hw$b
7 ^mJ h¢Ÿ& AV: d¡eo{fH$ VWm Ah©V² Xe©Zm| _| 7 VÎd `m nXmW© h¢Ÿ& d¡eo{fH$ _|
nXmW© Ho$ 24 JwU `hm§ àH¥${V Ho$ 8 ^oX `m àH¥${V-{dH¥${V Ho$ 24 ^oX H$r Vah h¢-
nXmW© VWm àH¥${V XmoZm| O‹S> h¢Ÿ&
g_mg=g_+«g+ ² KÄm²Ÿ& BgHo$ AW© h¢-1.{_bZ `m {_lU, 2.eãX aMZm `m CZH$m
{_bZŸ& 3.g§J«h, g§KmVŸ& 4. _V^oX Xya H$aZmŸ& 5.nyU©Vm `m g_{ï>Ÿ & 6.
{gHw$S‹ >Zm `m g§jno Ÿ& `hm§ g_mg Ho$ g^r AW© Cn`wº$ h¢Ÿ-
1.{díd; nwéf VWm àH¥${V Ho$ 25 VÎdm| H$m {_lU h¡Ÿ&
2.eãXm| go VÎdm| VWm CZHo$ JwUm|, ê$n g^r H$m dU©Z hmo ahm h¡Ÿ&
3.VÎdm| H$m {_lU Ho$db EH$ gmW ahZm hr Zht, CZH$s à{V{H«$`m `m
g§KmV ^r h¡Ÿ&
4.g^r VÎd {_bH$a EH$ hr nyU© ~«÷ H$s ì`m»`m H$aVo h¢Ÿ& CZH$m ewÕ AbJ
ñdê$n Zht h¡Ÿ&
5.Bg kmZ H$m AÝ` Xe©Zm| go H$moB© ^oX Zht h¡Ÿ&
6.`h _yb H$m g§jon h¡Ÿ&
Bg àH$ma VÎd g_mg H$m AW© hþAm VÎdm| H$s g§h{V H$m dU©Z `m gm§»` Xe©Z
H$m g§jno _| dU©Z `m g^r Xe©Zm| VWm kmZm| H$m g_Ýd`Ÿ& VÎd H$m AW© kmZ ^r
h¡Ÿ& àW_ gyÌ H$m empãXH$ AW© hþAm- {dñVma go gm§»` gyÌm| Ûmam gm§»` VWm
gå~pÝYV Xe©Zm| H$m àg§Jde kmZ XoZo Ho$ ~mX A~ g§jno _| VÎdm| VWm kmZ H$m
g_Ýd` ~Vm`m Om ahm h¡Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 141
2. Aï>m¡ àH¥$V`:Ÿ&
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àH¥$V`:-àH¥${V=à+H¥$+{º$Z²Ÿ& 1.Z¡g{J©H$ pñW{V, _m`m, O‹S> -OJV²Ÿ&
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H$maU, CnmXmZ H$maU (~«÷gyÌ 1/4/23)Ÿ& 6.nwéf go {^Þ g¥{ï> H$m òmoV
{OgHo$ 3 àYmZ JwU h¢ŸŸ& 7._yb YmVw `m eãXŸ& 8.AmXe© `m Z_yZmŸ& 9.órŸ&
10.g¥{ï> Ho$ {b`o na_mË_m H$s BÀN>mŸ& 11. _mVmŸ&
ì`m»`m-àH¥${V H$m AW© h¡ , {OgHo$ ~mX H$moB© Z`r H¥${V `m VÎd CËnÞ hmoŸ&
AWm©V² àH¥${V {H$gr H$m _yb H$maU h¡Ÿ& {OgHo$ ~mX H$moB© Z`m VÎd CËnÞ Z hmo,
dh àH¥${V H$m CëQ>m {dH¥${V h¡Ÿ& _yb àH¥${V Ho$db àH¥${V h¡ ,{Ogo {H$gr Zo CËnÞ
Zht {H$`m h¡,{H$ÝVw Cggo AÝ` CËnÞ hþ`o h¢Ÿ& àH¥${V Ho$ AÝ` ^oX àH¥${V go CËnÞ
hmoZo Ho$ H$maU {dH¥${V h¢ VWm AÝ` VÎdm| H$mo CËnÞ H$aZo Ho$ H$maU àH¥${V ^r h¢Ÿ&
àW_ gyÌ _| VÎd g_mg H$m CëboI h¡, AV: nhbo VÎdm| H$m dU©Z-àH¥${V
Am¡a {dH¥${V VWm CgHo$ ~mX nwéf VÎd H$m dU©Z hmoJm Omo BZ g~Ho$ g_mg,
g_Ýd` `m nañna gå~ÝY H$m H$maU h¡Ÿ&
àH¥${V {Z_m©U H$m CnmXmZ H$maU h¡, AWm©V² {Z_m©U Ho$ {b`o Omo O‹S> dñVw`|
h¢, CZH$mo àH¥${V H$hVo h¢Ÿ& nm§Mdo gyÌ _| BgHo$ 3 JwUm| H$m dU©Z h¡-gÎd, aO
Am¡a V_Ÿ& VrZ JwUm| Ho$ ahZo go O‹S>- nXmW© Ho$ 8 ^oX hm|JŸo & àË`oH$ nXmW© _| gÎd
hmoJm `m Zht hmoJm, AV: àW_ JwU Ho$ AZwgma 2 ^oX h¢Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma aO JwU go
^r 2 ^oX `m 2•2 ^oX 2 JwUm| go hm|JŸo & Vrgao V_ JwU H$mo {_bmZo go 2•2•2=8
^oX hm|JŸo & 8 VÎdm| _| à{V Ho$ 3-3 ^oX hm|Jo Omo AÝ` VÎdm| Ho$ CnmXmZ H$maU
hm|JŸo & dh àH¥${V Ho$ hr ^oX hm|Jo Omo {H$gr AÝ` VÎd H$mo CËnÞ Z H$a ñd`§ H$m`©
H$a|JŸo & dh 2 àH$ma Ho$ h¢ -kmZ `m gÎd ê$n(kmZopÝÐ`) VWm {H«$`m `m aO ê$nŸ&
V_ JwU {ZpîH«$` hmoZo go CgH$m H$moB© ^oX Zht hmoVmŸ& Bg àH$ma {dH¥${V Ho$
8•2=16 ^oX h¢Ÿ&
_yb àH¥${V _| VrZ JwUm| H$s gmå`mdñWm hmoZo go H$moB© JwU Zht {XIm`r XoVmŸ&
Cggo _hmZ² VÎd CËnÞ hþAm {Og_| g^r JwU XrIVo h¢, {H$ÝVw {df_ hmoZo Ho$
H$maU EH$ Xygao H$mo gÝVw{bV Zht H$a Zï> Zht H$aVoŸ& _hmZ² `m _hV² Ho$ 3 ^oX
h¢- Vm_g Ah‘>ma _| V_ A{YH$ hmoZo go H$moB© {H«$`m Zht hmoVr Am¡a dh CnmXmZ
142 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
ê$n _| àH¥${V VÎd hr ah OmVm h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ 5 ^oX 5 VÝ_mÌm`| H$hbmVr h¢Ÿ-eãX,
ñne©, ê$n, ag, JÝYŸ& Bg àH$ma àH¥${V, _hV², Ah‘>ma (Vm_g) VWm 5
VÝ_mÌm`|-`o 8 àH¥${V Ho$ ^oX hþ`Ÿo &
gmpËdH$ Am¡a amOg Ah‘>ma go O‹S> VÎdm| Ho$ 16 ^oX àH$Q> hmoVo h¢, Omo {g\©$
{dH¥${V h¢, àH¥${V ZhtŸ& BZH$m dU©Z AJbo gyÌ _| h¡Ÿ&
3. fmoS>e {dH$mam:Ÿ&
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g§»`m nyar hmo OmVr h¡, Cgo Xe H$hVo h¢Ÿ& f=gmo+H$=gdm}Îm_Ÿ& e:=hm{Z,{dZme,
ŸAÝV, Ad{eï> & AV: fmoS>e=f:+Xe={OgHo$ ~mX Am¡a {H$gr VÎd H$m {Z_m©U
Zht hmo, Ohm§ àH¥${V H$m H$m`© nyU© `m AÝV hmo J`mŸ& {H$gr VÎd H$s nyU©Vm CgHo$
{dH$mg H$m AÝV h¡, AV: Cgo Cg VÎd H$s 16 H$bm H$hVo h¢Ÿ& AV: fmoS>e H$m
g§»`mdmMH$ AW© 16 h¡Ÿ& CUm{X 1/156 Ho$ AZwgma-Xgw Cnj`o, H${ZZ²Ÿ& AWm©V²
Xgw H$m AW© Zme h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma Xe= Xgw+H${ZZ²=Zme `m nyU©VmŸ& f: VWm
Xe-XmoZm| hr VÎd {Z_m©U {H«$`m H$s nyUV© m Am¡a AÝV ~VmVo h¢ {Ogo {dH$ma
H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
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1.ê$nmÝVaU, àH¥${V H$m ~XbZm, 2.n[adV©Z, gwYma, 3.~r_mar, 4. _Z `m
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H$s n[a^mfm- Omo nyd© òmoV `m àH¥${V go {dH${gV hmoŸ&
ì`m»`m-_hÎmÎd V_ go {_b H$a Ah§H$ma ~ZmVm h¡ {OgHo$ ^oX 5 VÝ_mÌm`| h¢Ÿ&
BZH$m dU©Z {nN>bo gyÌ _| hmo MwH$m h¡Ÿ& dh gÎd VWm aO Ho$ g_Ýd` go {_bH$a
_Z H$m {Z_m©U H$aVm h¡Ÿ& {g\©$ gÎd VWm _hV² {_bH$a 5 kmZopÝÐ`m§ VWm aO
Am¡a _hV² {_bH$a 5 H$_}pÝÐ`m§ CËnÞ H$aVo h¢Ÿ& Bg_o§ gÎd VWm aO H$m `moJ hmo
MwH$m h¡Ÿ& nwZ: V_ H$m `moJ hmoZo na BZ_| {ZpîH«$`Vm Ho$ H$maU H$moB© Z`m VÎd
Zht CËnÞ hmoVmŸ& Vm_g Ah§H$ma H$s 5 VÝ_mÌmAm| go aOmoJwU Ho$ H$maU 5
_hm^yV CËnÞ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
JwU g§`moJ dm`w kmZopÝÐ` H$_}pÝÐ` _hÎmÎd VÝ_mÌm
gÎd àYmZ àmU H$U© dmH²$ AmH$me eãX
aO: àYmZ CXmZ ËdH²$ nm{U dm`w ñne©
4.VÎd-g_mg 143
aO: àYmZ ì`mZ Mjw nmX VoO: ê$n
aOñV_g àYmZ g_mZ {Oˆm CnñW An² ag
V_: àYmZ AnmZ Zmgm nm`w n¥{Wdr JÝY
4.nwéf:
nwéf:-nw[a Xoho eooVo g: nwéf:Ÿ& AWm©V² nwa _| Omo ahVm h¡ dh nwéf h¡Ÿ& nwa² H$m AW©
^r `hr h¡-nw_mZ² a_{V `pñ_Z²-AWm©V² nwéf {Og_| ahVm h¡ dh nwa h¡Ÿ&BZ g_mg
ê$n ì`m»`mAm| H$m H$moB© ñnï> AW© Zht hmoVm h¡Ÿ& {damQ²> nwa `m {díd _| Omo MoVZ
VÎd h¡ dh nwéf h¡Ÿ& Cgr àH$ma N>moQ>o eara H$m ^r MoVZ VÎd nwéf h¡Ÿ& {damQ²>
nwéf EH$ hr h¡, AÝ` nwéf H$B© h¢Ÿ& nwéf H$s g^r n[a^mfm`| Bg íbmoH$ _| h¢-
nwg§ k§ o Vw earao@pñ_Z² e`ZmËnwéfmo h[a:Ÿ& eH$mañ` fH$mamo@`§ ì`Ë``oZ à`wÁ`VoŸ&
`Xm nwao earao@pñ_ÞmñVo g nwéfmo h[a:Ÿ& `{X dm nwédmgr{V nwéf: àmoÀ`Vo h[a:Ÿ&
`{X dm nyd_© do mg{_ho{V nwéf§ {dXw:Ÿ& `{X dm ~hþ XmZmÛ¡ {dîUw nwéf CÀ`VoŸ&
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`Ûm nwéf eãXmo@`§ ê$T>çm d{º$ OZmX©Z_²Ÿ&(nmÙnwamU)
ì`m»`m-1.àH¥${V-{dH¥${V•• BZ JwUm| Ho$ AZwgma 4 àH$m a H$o VÎd h¢-
Z àH¥${V, Z {dH¥${V- nwéf - XmoZm| AZm{X, AZÝV,gd©ì`mnrŸ&
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àH¥${V+{dH¥${V- àH¥${V Ho$ 7 ^oX-_hV², Ah‘>ma, 5 VÝ_mÌm &
{g\©$ {dH¥${V - àH¥${V Ho$ 16 ^oX-_Z, 5 H$_}pÝÐ`, 5 kmZopÝÐ`, VWm
5 _hm^yV &
2.doX VWm {edgyÌ Ho$ VÎd-{ed AmdaU VÎd h¡Ÿ& 5 Am`m_ `m {dñVma H$m
{ed ê$n {díd([ed={dídZmW) 6 Am`m_ Ho$ {damQ²> nwéf `m {dîUw Ho$ OJV²
({dîUw=OJÞmW) H$m AmdaU h¡Ÿ& 3 AmdaU H$s n¥Ïdr H$m AmdaU CgH$s
JmobmH$ma gVh h¡ Omo bå~mB©, Mm¡‹S>mB©-BZ Xmo Am`m_m| H$s hr h¢Ÿ& EH$ nyU© OJV²
H$m AmdaU {ed VWm 5 VÝ_mÌmAm| VWm 5 _hm^yVm| Ho$ 10 AmdaU-Bg àH$ma
11 {ed VÎdm| Ho$ gmW e¡d Xe©Z _| Hw$b 36 VÎd h¢Ÿ, {Og_| gm§»` Ho$ 25 VÎd
em{_b h¢Ÿ& ñdm_r {dîUwVrW© Zo BgH$s ì`m»`m F$½doX Ho$ ZmgXr` gyº$ (_ÊS>b
10, gyº$129) Ho$ AmYma na H$s h¡Ÿ&
144 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
Aja na~«÷-Zm gXmgrÞmo gXmgrÎmXmZt, ZmgrÐOmo Zmo ì`mo_m namo `V²Ÿ&
{H$_mdard: Hw$h H$ñ` e_©Þå^: {H$_mgrX² JhZ§ J^ra_²Ÿ&1Ÿ&
Z _¥Ë`wamgrV² A_¥V§ Z V[h©, Z amÍ`m A• AmgrV² àHo$V:Ÿ&
VÎd H$bm CÝ_of gyº$
ewÕ VÎd àW_ CÝ_of AmZrXdmV§ ñdY`m VXoH$§ Vñ_mÕmÝ`§ Z na:
1.{ed emÝË`VrVm AÜ`mË_^md {H$ÄMZmgŸ&2Ÿ& V_ AmgrÎm_gm Jyùh_J«o
2.e{º$ A{Y^yV ^md @àHo$V_² g{bb gd© _m BX_²Ÿ&
{ÛVr` CÝ_of VwÀN²>`Zo mä`{n{hV§ `XmgrV², VngñgÝ_-
3.gXm{ed Ah_²-BX§ {d_e© {hZm@Om`XoH$_²Ÿ&3Ÿ& H$m_ñVXJ«o g_dV©Vm{Y,
V¥Vr` CÝ_of
4.B©ída empÝV Ah_² {d_e© _Zgmo aoV: àW_§ `XmgrV²Ÿ&
5.ewÕ {dÚm BX_² {d_e©
ewÕmewÕ VÎd gVmo~ÝYw_g{V {Za{dÝXZ² ,
6._m`m ö{X àVrî`m H$d`mo _Zrfm:Ÿ&4Ÿ&
7.H$mb _m`m AgV² {VaíMrZmo {dVVmo apí_aofm,
8.H$bm Ho$ 5 {dÚm lr_ØmJdV² _Y: pñdXmgr Xwn[apñdXmgrV²Ÿ&
9.{Z`{V H$ÄMwH$ H$bm JrVmoº$ aoVmoYm AmgZ² _{h _mZ AmgZ²,
10.{dÚm nam àH¥${V ñdYm AdñVmV² à`{V: nañVmV²Ÿ&5Ÿ&
11.amJ
12.nwéf Ord^md({edgyÌmoº$ em§^d,emº$,AmUd)
AewÕ VÎd(Anam àH¥${V) -3 OrdmoÝ_of
13.Aì`º$-VrZ JwUm| H$s gmå`mdñWm H$mo AÕm doX H$ Bh àdmoMV²Ÿ,
14._hV² --- {df_mdñWm Hw$V AOmVm Hw$V B`§ {dg¥{ï>:Ÿ&
15.g_{ï> Ah‘>ma -- {ÌJwUmË_H$ Adm©½Xodm Añ` {dgO© ZoZmW,
16 --_Z - gmpÎdH$ Ah‘>ma go à{Vð>m H$mo doX `V Am~^ydŸ&6Ÿ&
17-21.5kmZopÝÐ`m§ amOg Ÿ H$bm B`§ {dg¥{ï>`V© Am~^yd,
22-26. 5H$_}pÝÐ`m§ Ah‘>ma go `{X dm XYo `{X dm ZŸ&
27-31.5 VÝ_mÌm-Vm_g Ah‘>ma go `mo Añ`mÜ`j: na_o ì`mo_Z²
32-35.AmH$me, dm`w, A{¾, Amn gmo A“ doX `{X dm Z doXŸ&7Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 145
36.n¥{Wdr-Vm_g-{Zd¥{ÎmHbm-{d_fm©{d_fm}© Zm_ {dídmH$maoU {díd àH$meZoZŸ
{dídg§hmaoU dm AH¥$V`mo@h{_{V ñ\w$aU_²Ÿ&&
H$bm Am¡a CÝ_of-`o eãX e¡d Xe©Z Ho$ h¢ Am¡a D$na H$s gyMr _| gm§»` Xe©Z go
A{XamoY hmoZo Ho$ H$maU BZH$m CëboI hþAm h¡Ÿ&
H$bm-H$b² YmVw H$m empãXH$ AW©-1.{JZZm,2.eãX H$aZm (ädm{X JU),
Mwam{XJU _|-1.YmaU H$aZm,boZm,aIZm,2.{JZZm,{hgm~ bJmZm, 3.g§^mbZm,
4.OmZZm, g_PZm, gmoMZm, 5. AmXa H$aZm, 6.ghZ H$aZm, à^m{dV H$aZm,
7.gånmXZ H$aZm, 8.OmZm, Amgº$ hmoZm, boQ>Zm, gpÁOV hmoZm,Ÿ&
H$bm=H$b²+AM²+Q>mn²Ÿ&1.{H$gr dñVw H$m N>mQo >m IÊS>, Qw>H$‹S>m, bd_mÌ, 2. MÝÐ_m
H$s EH$ aoIm, _ybYZ na ì`mO, 4.g_` H$m N>mQo >m A§e(1/60 XÊS>), 5.H$moU
H$m N>moQ>m ^mJ (am{e H$m 30dm§ ^mJ A§e, A§e H$m 60dm§ ^mJ H$bm),
6.à`moJmË_H$ H$bm, 7.Hw$ebVm,_oYm{dVm, 8.OmbgmOr, 9. N>ÝXemó _|-
_mÌm N>ÝX, 10.{H$íVr, 11.aO:òmdŸ&
H$bm H$s VmpÝÌH$ ì`m»`m-1. g^r naVÝÌ MrO| H$m`© h¢Ÿ& H$m`© 3 àH$ma Ho$ h¢-
Ord new H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ, Š`m|{H$ dh nme~Õ h¡Ÿ& Ord Ho$ JwUm| H$mo {dÚm H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
JwU ñm[hV n¥Ïdr Am{X O‹S> Ðì`m| H$mo H$bm H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
MoVZ Ho$ AYrZ ahZo dmbr H$bm Ho$ 2 ^oX h¢- H$m`© Ho$ ê$n _| H$bm ({df` ê$nm
H$bm) VWm H$maU Ho$ ê$n _| H$bm (BpÝÐ` ê$nm H$bm) Ho$ 10 ^oX h¢-n¥Ïdr Am{X
nÄM VÎd (_hm^yV) VWm ê$n Am{X 5 JwU (VÝ_mÌm)Ÿ& H$maUm»` H$bm Ho$ 13
^oX h¢-5 kmZopÝÐ`m§, 5 H$_}pÝÐ`m§ VWm 3 àH$ma Ho$ AÝ:H$aU-
{MÎmd¥{Îm`m§ AÜ`dgm` A{^_mZ g‘>ën
(`m {ZíM`) (eara H$mo AmË_m g_PZm)
AÝV:H$aU ~w{Õ Ah‘>ma _Z
2.kmZ àmá H$aZo Ho$ ñVa na H$bm Ho$ AZwgma kmVm Ho$ 7 ^oX h¢-1.{ed à_mVm,
_ÝÌ _hoída, 3._ÝÌoída, 4._ÝÌ, 5.{dkmZmH$b, 6.àb`mH$b, 7.gH$bŸ&
_b H$s {d{^Þ H$bm `m A§e dmbo ApÝV_ 3 ^oX Ord `m new Ho$ h¢Ÿ& {dkmZmH$b
_| Ho$db EH$ AmUd _b hmoVm h¡Ÿ, àb`mH$b _| 2 AWm©V² AmUd Am¡a _m`r` _b
VWm gH$b _| AmUd, _m`r` Am¡a H$m`© VrZm| _b hmoVo h¢Ÿ& _b Ho$ H$maU AmË_m
H$m dmñV{dH$ ñdê$n Zht nVm MbVm h¡Ÿ& `h _yb AWm©V² H$maU H$m CëQ>m H$m`©
146 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
`m {dH$ma h¡Ÿ& AmUd _b H$m AW© h¡, AmË_m Ho$ ewÕ ê$n Ho$ ~Xbo AUw _bm| H$mo
o hr AmË_m g_PZmŸ& _b `m {dH$ma 16 àH$ma Ho$ h¢ {Og àH$ma nhbo én`o _| 16
AmZm (AmUd) hmoVo WoŸ& _m`m Ho$ AmdaU Am¡a g§H$moM Ho$ H$maU ^«mpÝV hmoVr h¡,
dh _m{`H$ _b h¡Ÿ& H$_© Ho$ H$maU CËnÞ dmgnm`o § H$m{_©H$ _b h¢Ÿ&
3.g¥{ï> Ho$ ^mJ Ho$ AZwgma 5 àH$ma H$s H$bm`| h¢-
H$bm VÎd ^wdZ dU© _ÝÌ,nX
1.{Zd¥{Îm 1.n¥Ïdr-1 16 H$mbm{¾ éÐ-{ZåZV_ 1.i `m j 1
2.à{Vð>m 2 go 24-Ob go 56 23-h go Q> VH$ 5
àH¥${V VÎd-23
3.{dÚm 25-31 nwéf go 28 7-^ go K VH$ 1
_m`m VH$-7
4.emÝVm 23-34 ewÕ{dÚm 18 3-H$,I,J 1
B©ída,gXm{ed-3
5.emÝË`VrVm 35,36-{ed,e{º$-2 --- 16-ñda dU© 2
5 H$bm 36 VÎd 118 ^wdZ 50 dU© 10 _ÝÌ
{Zd¥{Îm g~go ^rVa H$s H$bm h¡Ÿ& ~mX H$s H$bm`| nhbo H$mo Mmam| Va\$ go Koao
hþ`o h¢Ÿ&
4.VÎd ê$n _| H$bm H$m AW© H$Îm¥Ë© d `m gmYH$Vm H$m g§H$moM h¡Ÿ&
{ed _| dV©_mZ e{º$ AUw `m Ord _| e{º$ H$m g§H$w {MV ê$n
1.gd© H$Îm¥Ë© d H$bm `m {H$[ÄMËH$Îm¥Ë© d
2.gd©kËd {dÚm `m AënkËd
3.{ZË`Ëd amJ `m {df`m| _| Amg{º$
4.nyU©Ëd H$mb `m A{ZË`Ëd
5.ì`mnH$Ëd {Z`{V=Xoe Am¡a H$maU H$m ~ÝYZ
5.g¥{ï> H$bm Ho$ D$na ~Vm`o J`o 50 dUm] Ho$ 8 dJm] H$s 8 e{º$`m§ h¢Ÿ Omo 8
{g{Õ`m§ XoVt h¢Ÿ(gyÌ 15)Ÿ& BZ e{º$`m| Ho$ _m`m AmdaU go AmË_m H$m ñdê$n
Zht XrIVmŸ-1.~«m÷r- H$ dJ©, 2._mhoídar-M dJ©, 3.H$m¡_mar-Q> dJ©,
4.d¡ î Udr-V dJ© , 5.dmamhr-n dJ© , 6.BÝÐmUr-` dJ© ( AÝV:ñW),
7.Mm_wÊS>m-e dJ©(D$î_), 8._hmbú_r-A dJ© (ñda)Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 147
6.H$bm H$m AW© h¡ JwUm| H$m H«${_H$ {dH$mg {Oggo EH$ dñVw Am¡a Xygao _| ^oX
{H$`m Om gHo$Ÿ& H$bmAm| H$s nyUV© m {dÝXw h¡ {Og_| 16 H$bm h¢Ÿ& Bg_| n[adV©Z
Zht hmoVmŸ& 1 go 15 VH$ H$bm`| MÝÐ {V{W Ho$ g_mZ H«$_e: 1 go 15 VH$ ~‹T>Vr
h¢ VWm 15 go 1 VH$ KQ>Vr h¢Ÿ& 1 go 14 VH$ H$s O‹S> Am¡a B©ída H$s H$bmAm| Ho$
g§`moJ go 14 àH$ma Ho$ Ordm| H$s g¥ï> hmoVr h¡Ÿ(gyÌ 18)Ÿ&
7. Ord H$s CÞ{V H$s H$bm`|-24 O‹S>-VÎdm| _o B©ída `m nwéf (MoVZ VÎd)
H$s 14 H$bm`| {_bZo go 38 H$bm`| nyU© {dH${gV Ord H$s hmoVr h¢Ÿ& A_¥V {dÝXw
* VWm 0 k `o H$bm`| h¢Ÿ& _Zwî` _| 8 H$bm`| nhbo go {gÕ hmoVr h¢Ÿ& {dÝXwnmV go

0 (AZwñdma) hmoVm h¡Ÿ {OgH$s 8 H$bm`| h¢Ÿ&k(MÝÐ{dÝXw) H$s 8 H$bmAm| H$m


{dH$mg Xod Mjw H$m {dH$mg h¡Ÿ& H«$_ Ho$ {hgm~ go EH$ {dÝXw 16 H$bm h¡Ÿ& AZwñdma
g{hV 16 H$bm`| H«$_ ê$n _| 32 H$bm`| h¢Ÿ& . 32 H$bm h¡ Am¡a _pñVîH$ H$m Mjw
h¡Ÿ& `h AmË_m VWm nwéf ^md h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ ~mX Mmam| Amoa Ho$ 4 Mjw, n[a{Y Am¡a
{dH$saU-6 H$bm`| {_b H$a 38 h¢ {Ogo {bIm OmVm h¡Ÿ& Ord {dH$mg H«$_-
1 H$bm Ho$ {~Zm Ord H$m {dH$mg Zht hmoVm h¡Ÿ(C{X²^O, ñdoXO 1)Ÿ& nhbo
H$bm Ho$ Am^mg go Ord H$s CËn{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ(_eH$ Am{X -ídmg ñdoX go OÝ`)
2.H$bm go Ord(1-4 H$bm)-n¥Ïdr H$m (AÊS>O 2), D$na H$s Amoa e§I _wI
dmbr H$bmŸ&
3.H$bm go Ord(5-8 H$bm)-P{Q>H$m (Oam`wO 3) H$s ŸH$bm &
4.H$bm go Ord(9-12 H$bm)-_Zwî` 4-XodbmoH$ H$s H$bmŸ&
5.H$bm go Ord(13-16 H$bm)-Xod _Zwî`-àW_ Xrjm H$s namdñWm, H$bm`|
XodbmoH$ go AmVr h¢Ÿ&
6.H$bm go Ord(17-32 H$bm)-Xygar Xrjm Ho$ ~mX (XodVm)-H$bm`| Y«dw bmoH$
Ho$ D$na go AmVr h¢Ÿ&
7.H$bm go Ord(33-38 H$bm)-Vrgar Xrjm Ho$ ~mX (XodVm)-H$bm`| JmobmoH$
Ho$ D$na go AmVr h¢Ÿ&
MH«$ H$bm {dH$mg H$m H$maU
1.MH«$m^mg 0-1 ----
2.N>moQ>m MH«$ 1-8 àH¥${V
3.~‹S>m MH«$ (N>mQo >m) 9-12 H$_© `m nwéfmH$ma
148 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
4.~‹S>m MH«$ (N>mQo >m) 13-16 H¥$nm=kmZ Xrjm-1
5.~‹S>m MH«$(_Ü`_) 17-32 Ÿ&& -2
6.~‹S>m MH«$ (~‹S>m) 33-38 Ÿ&& -3
7.{dÝXw `m eyÝ` {ZîH$b -----------
8. AÝ` H$bm`|-50 dUm] `m _mV¥H$mAm| H$mo e{º$ H$s 50 H$bm`| H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
ì`mH$aU Ho$ àË`mhma `m _mhoída gyÌm| Ho$ ñdam| H$mo õñd-XrK©-ßbwV ^oX {JZZo
na 64 dU© hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
A.B,C - õñd,XrK©,ßbwV ^oX - 9
F$, b¥ - õñd,XrK© - 4
E, Amo,Eo,Am¡ - XrK©,ßbwV - 8 Hw$b-21
BZHo$ CXmÎm, g_mhma, ñd[aV ^oXm| go 63 ^oX hþ`Ÿo & › OmoS‹ >Zo go 64 ^oX hþ`Ÿo &
BgH$s 3 _mÌmAm| go g§JrV _| 66 ñda hþ`Ÿo &
BZ 64 H$bmAm| Ho$ AZwê$n e{º$ H$s 64 H$bm`| 64 `mo{JZr h¢Ÿ&
CgHo$ g_mZ hr 64 ^¡ad MH«$, 64 {eën H$bm`| h¢Ÿ&
{ed Am¡a e{º$ Ho$ ê$nm| Ho$ AZwgma ^r 12 {ede{º$ (12 Á`mo{V{b©“) VWm 52
e{º$nrR>-Hywb 64 e{º$`m§ h¢Ÿ&
84 bmI `m 84 `mo{Z`m| Ho$ AZwê$n {g{Õ H$s 84 H$bm`| h¢Ÿ& 84 {gÕ H$ho OmVo
h¢Ÿ& 40 H$bm VH$ _Zwî` VWm Vnñ`m go 84 H$bm VH$ nhþ§MZo na B©ída hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
9.CÝ_of-CÝ_of H$m AW© CÝ_rbZ `m Am§I ImobZm h¡Ÿ&^mdmW©-g¥{ï> H$m Amaå^Ÿ&
e¡d `moJ _|-AmpË_H$ MoVZm H$m ñ\w$aU `m {dH$mgŸ&
Am§I nyar Vah ~ÝX `m {Z_rbZ H$s AdñWm g¥{ï> go nhbo {ZamH$ma ~«÷ `m
na_{ed AdñWm h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX 6 CÝ_of h¢-
B©ída ^md Ho$ 3-àW_ CÝ_of _| -AÜ`mË_ VWm A{Y^yV ^mdŸ&
{ÛVr` _|-Ah§+BX§ H$m {d_e©(g§`wº$)
V¥Vr` _|- Ah§, BX§ {d_e© (AbJ-AbJ)
Ord Ho$ ^r 3 CÝ_of `m kmZ H$s AdñWm Ho$ AZwgma {g{Õ Ho$ Cnm` h¢-
emå^dmonm`-{Og_| gmYH$ H$m {ed `m ~«÷ ^md h¡Ÿ&
emº$monm`-{Og_| emº$ ^md h¡, Hw$ÊS>{bZr {H«$`merb h¡Ÿ&
AmUdmonm`-O‹S> nXmWm] H$s {^ÞVm (AUw) _| AmË_m H$m ^mdŸ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 149
10.ewÕ VWm AewÕ VÎd-36 VÎdm| H$mo 3 dJm] _| ~m§Q>m J`m h¡-
(1) ewÕ VÎd AWm©V² An[a{_V AZw^d (ewÕ AÜd) Ho$ VÎd, Ohm§ VH$ na_oída
`m na_{ed VÎd H$m JmonZ Zht hmoVmŸ& BgHo$ 5 ^oX na_{ed H$s 5 àH$ma H$s
e{º$`m| Ho AZwgma$ h¢-
{MV² `m AmË_ àH$meZ - {ed `h A{^Þ h¢Ÿ&
AmZÝX `m ñdmVÝÍ` - e{º$
BÀN>m `m gO©Z H$s àd¥{Îm -gXm{ed (Ah§ àYmZ, BX§ Añ\w$Q>)
kmZ -B©ída (BX§ àYmZ, Ah§ Añ\w$Q>)
{H«$`m - g{ÛÚm `m ewÕ {dÚm -BX§, Ah§ g_mZŸ&
{H«$`m _o § H$moB© ^r AmH$ma J«hU hmo gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
(2) n[a{_V AZw^d Ho$ VÎd-6-11-_m`m Am¡a CgHo$ 5 H$Ä MwH$Ÿ& _m`m H$m
AW© _mnZ H$aZm, n[a{_V `m n¥WH²$ H$aZm h¡Ÿ& Bg_| ewÕ Am¡a AewÕ XmoZm| AÜdm
h¢Ÿ& Bg_| Ah§ Am¡a BX§ n¥WH²$ hmo OmVo h¢Ÿ& BX§ gånyU© OJV² Zht, n[a{_V dñVw hmo
OmVr h¡Ÿ& _m`m Ho$ 5 H$Ä MwH$m|-H$bm, {dÚm, amJ, H$mb VWm {Z`{V-go Ord H$s
e{º$ g§Hw${MV hmoH$a ^oX ~w{Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
(3) n[a{_V ì`{º$ `m OrdZ Ho$ VÎd-doXH$, doÚŸ&
`h gm§»` Ho$ 25 VÎd h¢Ÿ& _m`m go nyar Vah g§Hw${MV {ed hmoZo Ho$ H$maU `h
AewÕ VÎd H$ho OmVo h¢Ÿ& g§Hw${MV Ah§ doXH$ `m MoVZ nwéf h¡Ÿ& dh g§Hw${MV BX§
`m O‹S> VËd àH¥${V h¢ {OZHo 24 ^oX 3 JwUm| go hmoVo h¢Ÿ& Bg_| 3 àH$ma Ho$ VÎd h¢-
1._mZg ì`mnmaHo$ VÎd- 3-~w{Õ, Ah§H$ma, _ZŸ&
2.àñ`j H$aZo Ho$ 15 VÎd-Ah§H$ma na gÎd, aO, V_ JwUm| Ho$ à^md go 3
àH$ma Ho$ ^oX hmoVo h¢-
gÎd Ah§H$ma - 5 kmZopÝÐ`m§
aO Ah§H$ma - 5 H$_}pÝÐ`m§
V_ Ah§H$ma - 5 VÝ_mÌm`|
3.^m¡{VH$ VÎd- 5 _hm^yV 5 VÝ_mÌmAm| go hþ`o h¢-
eãX -AmH$me
eãX+ñne© -dm`w
eãX+ñne© +ê$n -A{¾ `m VoO
150 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
eãX+ñne©+ê$n+ag -Amn(Ob)
eãX+ñne©+ê$n+ag+JÝY -n¥{WdrŸ&
ZmgXr` gyº$ Am¡a ^m¡{VH$ g¥{ï>
(1) ZmgXmgrÞmo gXmgrV² VXmZt ZmgrÐOmo Zmo ì`mo_m namo `V²Ÿ&
{H$_mdard: Hw$h H$ñ` e_©Þå^: {H$_mgrX² JhZ§ J^ra_²Ÿ&&1Ÿ&&
(g¥{ï> go nhbo, àb` H$mb _|) Z gV² Wm Z AgV² WmŸ& Cg g_` Z aO Wm, Z
ì`mo_ Wm VWm Cggo nao Hw$N> ^r Zht WmŸ& Cg g_` BZH$mo T>§H$Zo dmbm Š`m Wm?
H$hm± {H$g H$m e_©Z² (M_© `m Aml`) Wm? AJmY Am¡a Jå^ra Aå^ Š`m Wm?
Bgo g¥{ï> Ho$ ~mX CËnÞ hþ`o VÎdm| H$m Zm_ _mby_ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& àb` H$mb _| `o g^r
EH$ _o§ {_bo hþ`o Wo Am¡a BZH$m AbJ ^oX Zht _mby_ hmoVm WmŸ&
gV² H$m AW© h¡ {OgH$m AZw^d {H$`m Om gHo$, AgV² A{V gyú_ `m {ZamH$ma
hmoZo Ho$ H$maU AZw^d go nao h¡Ÿ& ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ _| gV²-AgV² H$mo nXmW©
(matter) Am¡a D$Om© (energy) H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& ¹$mÊQ>_ _oH$m{ZŠg Ho$
AZwgma nXmW© Ho$ _yb H$Um| H$mo nXmW© `m D$Om©moZm| H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& g¥{ï> Ho$
Aaå^ _| _yb H$U hr Wo {OZH$m gV² `m AgV² H$moB© EH$ Zm_ Zht hmo gH$Vm&
eVnW ~«m÷U (10/50/3) VWm (6/1/1) Ho$ AZwgma (gV²+AgV²)
go -_Z-dmH²$(Va§J)-àmU(e{º$ `m D$Om©) hþ`oŸ& àmUm| Zo g¥{ï> Ho$ {b`o à`ËZ
{H$`m, AV: CÝh| F${f (añgr) H$hm J`mŸ&
aOg² H$m AW© àH$me `m H$Um| H$s J{V h¡Ÿ& Amapå^H$ nXmW© (gV²+AgV²)
H$m {dñVma àH$me {d{H$aU Ý`wpŠb`g ~bm| Ho$ H$maU hþAmŸ& dh JwéËdmH$f©U Ho$
H$maU EH$ ahVo h¢Ÿ& ~hþdMZ _| aOg² H$m AW© bmoH$ VWm EH$dMZ _| AÝV[aj
(space) h¡Ÿ&
_yb eãX `m Va§J › h¡Ÿ& {~Zm Va§J D$Om© H$m AmH$me ì`mo_={d+Amo_ h¡Ÿ&
Va§J `m H$ånZ Amaå^ hmoZo na ì`mo_ go AmH$me hþAmŸ&
^rVar nXmW© dm`w (d`wZ=² d`Z H$aZo dmbm) VWm CgH$s ~mhar gr_m d`moZmY
`m e_©Z² (M_©) `m N>ÝXg² h¡Ÿ& {dÝXw_mÌ {díd H$s gr_m (e_©) Zht hmoJrŸ&
Aå^g² _| {g\©$ eãX hmoVm h¡, Cg nXmW© H$m KZËd ~hþV H$_ h¡Ÿ& Amaå^ _|
nXmW© H$m KZËd OmO© J¡_md Ho$ AZwgma 10-22 J«m_ à{V KZ g|._r. WmŸ& `h
4.VÎd-g_mg 151
àm`: Hw$N> Zht h¡-Bggo nXmW© CËnÞ hmoZo na hr CgH$s ~mhar gVh, {dabVm
VWm eãX ê$n Va§J e{º$ H$m Am^mg hþAmŸ&
(2) Z _¥Ë`wamgrV² A_¥V§ Z V{h© Z amÍ`m A• AmgrV² àH$oV:Ÿ&
AmZrXdmV§ ñdY`m VXoH$§ Vñ_mÕmÝ`Þ na: qH$ M ZmgŸ&&2Ÿ&&
g¥{ï> Ho$ nhbo Z _¥Ë`w (n[adÎm©Zerb) Z A_¥V ({ZË`) WmŸ& AV: amV Am¡a {XZ,
gy`© VWm J«h Zht WoŸ&
J¡_md Ho$ AZwgma Amapå^H$ Vmam| _o§ àH$me {d{H$aU VWm Ý`yŠbr` e{º$ Ho$
H$maU àgma VWm JwéËdmH$f©U Ho$ H$maU g§H$moM hmoVm h¡Ÿ, {Ogo CgZo ídmg-
àídmg Ho$ g_mZ dU©Z {H$`m h¡Ÿ& BgH$mo F$Mm _| {~Zm dm`w Ho$ AnZr e{º$ go
ídgZ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
ñdYm=AnZr e{º$Ÿ& e{º$ H$m AW© Omo CËnÞ H$a gHo$Ÿ& _m`m ~b Cgo H$hVo
h¢, {OgH$m à^md {XIm`r Xo `m _mnm Om gHo$Ÿ& àb` _| `h ag _| {_b OmVm
h¡,Ÿ O¡go emÝV g_wÐ _| Va“Ÿ& AV: ñdYm Vmao H$s Ý`yŠbr`a e{º$ h¡, {Oggo
nXmW© H$s g¥{ï> hþ`rŸ&
(3) V_ AmgrV² V_gm Jyùh_J«o@àHo$V g{bb§ gd© _m BX_²Ÿ&
VwÀNço Zmäd {n{hV `XmgrV² VngñVÝ_{hZm Om`V¡H$_²Ÿ&3Ÿ&
ewé _| {g\©$ AÝYH$ma Wm, Cggo {Kao nXmW© H$m kmZ _wpíH$b WmŸ& dh g{bb
AWm©V² Va§{JV (~XbVo KZËd H$m) nXmW© WmŸ& {dab nXmW© _o § AgÝVwbZ Ho$
H$maU g{bb hþAmŸ& JwéËdmH$f©U Ho$ H$maU ~‹S>o J¡g {dÝXw (2-3 àH$me df©
ì`mg) Ho$ ~Zo Omo ~mhar nXmW© H$s VwbZm _| KZo WoŸ& Bgo Am^w (Amg_ÝVmV²
^d{V B{V Am^w) H$hm h¡Ÿ& Vn AWm©V² Vmn-COm© (heat) go dh \¡$b J`mŸ&
(4) H$m_ñVXJ«o g_dV©Vm{Y _Zgmo aoV: àW_§ `XmgrV²Ÿ&
gVmo ~ÝYw_g{V {Za{dÝXZ² ö{X àVrî`m H$d`mo _ZrfmŸ&4Ÿ&
H$m _ `m g¥{ï> H$aZo H$s BÀN>m AÑí` _Z Ho$ ~rM go CËnÞ hþ`r, {Og àH$ma
AgV² go gV² CËnÞ hwAmŸ& XyaXeu F${f`m| Zo _Z Am¡a {MÎm _| Jå^ra {dMma H$a
`h {ZîH$f© {ZH$mbm h¡Ÿ&
gyú_V_ AmU{dH$ AgÝVwbZ `m Va§J (bKwV_ ~rO) go {dab J¡g Ho$ {dñVma
go H«$_~Õ à{H«$`m ewé hþ`r , {Oggo g¥{ï> H«$_ hþAmŸ& gyú_V_ e{º$ H$mo H$m_
H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& `h _Z(minute = N>moQ>m) go hþAmŸ&
152 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
(5) {VaíMrZmo {dVVmo apí_aofm _Y: pñdXmgr3 Xwn[a pñdXmgr3V²Ÿ&
aoVmoYm AmgZ² _{h_mZ AmgZ² ñdYm AdñVmV² à`{V: nañVmV²Ÿ&5Ÿ&
Am^w go àH$me {H$aU| apí_ {ZH$bt (`m nXmW© Ho$ bÀN>)o Ÿ& `o apí_`m§ {VaN>r,
D$na, ZrMo \¡$btŸ& BZ_| ~rO Ho$ YmaU go {dH$mg hþAmŸ& Omo AbJ aho (ñdmZ²
Yma`{V B{V ñdYm) do N>mQo >o ah J`o, `m N>mQo >o {nÊS> ~‹S>m| _| {_b J`o (ñdmZ²
XYm{V B{V ñdYm)Ÿ& ~‹S>o {nÊS> AnZo AmH$f©U Ho$ H$maU Am¡a ~‹S>o hþ`Ÿo & AmH$meJ§Jm
_| nXmW© Hr$ apí_`m| Ho$ \¡$bZo go gnm©H$ma Zo~bw m ~Zm h¡ , Omo g^r {XemAm| _|
h¡Ÿ, AWm©V² {Xem ~XbVr ahVr h¡Ÿ&
(6) H$mo AÕm doX H$ Bh à dmoMV² Hw$V AOmVm Hw$V B`§ {dg¥{ï>:Ÿ&
Adm©½Xodm Añ` {dgO©ZZo m@Wm H$mo doX `V Am~^ydŸ&6Ÿ&
XodVm ^r g¥{ï> Ho$ ~mX hr CËnÞ hþ`,o AV: OJV² Ho$ _yb H$maU Ho$ {df` _| H$m¡Z
{ZíM` nydH© $ H$h gH$Vm h¡?
(7) B`§ {dg¥{ï>`V© Am~^yd `{X dm XYo `{X dm ZŸ&
`mo Añ`mÜ`j: na_o ì`mo_Z², Ëgmo A§J doX `{X dm Z doXŸ&7Ÿ&
{Oggo g¥{ï> {ZH$br, dh BgH$m AmYma h¡ `m Zht ? Cggo nao ì`mo_ _| ahZodmbm
Bgo OmZVm h¡ `m Zht ? gm¡a _ÊS>b AnZo òmoV AmH$meJ§Jm _| h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX Ho$
AmYma H$m h_| nVm Zht h¡Ÿ& h_mam AmYma n¥Ïdr Ama n¥Ïdr H$m AmYma gy`© h¡Ÿ-
n¥{Wdr Ëd`m Y¥Vm bmoH$m, Xo{d Ëd§ {dîUwZm Y¥VmŸ&
gå~pÝYV gyÌ-gm§»` H$m[aH$m 3-
_ybàH¥${Va{dH¥${V_©hXmÚm: àH¥${V {dH¥$V`: gáŸ&
fmoS‹ >eH$ñVw {dH$mamo Z àH¥${VZ© {dH¥${V: nwéf:Ÿ&
4 àH$ma Ho$ VÎd-Ho$db àH¥${V - _yb àH¥${V
àH¥${V+{dH¥${V = _hmZ², Ah§H$ma,5 VÝ_mÌm-7
Ho$db {dH¥${V 16-_Z, 5 H$_}pÝÐ`, 5 kmZopÝÐ`, 5 _hm^yVŸ&
Z àH¥${V Z {dH¥${V= nwéf (`h nwéf H$s EH$ n[a^mfm hþ`r)
gm§»` gyÌ 1/61-
gËdaOñV_gm§ gmå`mdñWm àH¥${V:, àH¥$Vo_©hmZ², _hVmo@h§H$mamo@h§H$mamV² nÄM
VÝ_mÌmÊ`w^`{_pÝÐ`_², VÝ_mÌoä`:ñWyb^yVm{Z, nwéf B{V nÄMqde{VJ©U:Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 153
gËd, aO, V_ H$m gmå` àH¥${V --_hmZ²--Ah§H$ma--
5 VÝ_mÌm _Z
5 _hm^yV 5 H$_}pÝÐ` 5 kmZopÝÐ`
g¥{ï> H«$_ gm§»`H$m[aH$m 22 _| {X`m h¡Ÿ-
àH¥$Vo_h© mZ² ñVVmo@h§H$mañVñ_mX² JUíM fmoS‹ >eH$:Ÿ&
Vñ_mX{n fmoS‹ >mH$mZ² nÄ Mä` nÄ M^yVm{ZŸ&&
`h gyÌ H$m D$na {Z{X©ï> H«$_ h¡Ÿ&
nwéf H$m ñdê$n-e¡d Xe©Z _| O~ {ed _m`m Ûmam A~Zo H$mo bwá H$a n[a{_V `m
n[apÀN>Þ à_mVm (Ðï>m) ~ZVm h¡ V~ CgH$mo nwéf H$hVo h¢Ÿ& {ed Am¡a _m`m
Ûmam nañna VÎd JmonZ hmoZo go gm§»` Ho$ 25 VÎd hr ~ZVo h¢, AV: CZ_o§ H$moB©
^oX Zht h¡Ÿ& {damQ²> nwéf `m {dîUw Ho$ 12 Am{XË` ê$n Bgr àH$ma h¢-EH$ nwéf
Am¡a 11 {ed VÎdm| Ho$ g_Ýd` go 12 Am{XË`Ÿ& nwéf Ðï>m h¡ `m MoVZ VÎd Am¡a
CgH$m {df` `m Ñí` àH¥${V (14 VÎd) h¢Ÿ& gm§»` _| nwéf Ho$ 3 àH$ma AW© {H$`o
OmVo h¢-(1) ewÕ MoVZ `m kmZ ñdê$n-O‹S> VÎd go nyU©V: _wº$Ÿ& `Wm-
EVmdmZñ` _{h_mVm oÁ`m`m±íM nyéf:Ÿ&
nmXmo@ñ` {dídm ^yVm{Z {ÌnmXñ`m_¥V§ {X{dŸ&&(F$H²$10/90/3,nwéf gyº$)
`h {damQ²> {díd go ^r ~‹S>m h¡Ÿ& gånyU© {díd Am¡a ^yV CgHm EH$ nmX h¡Ÿ& CgHo$
AÝ` 3 nmX A_¥V-ñdê$n AnZo àH$me _| h¢Ÿ&
(2) {damQ²> {díd `m MoVZ ~«÷mÊS> hr {damQ²> nwéf, na_mË_m `m {dîUw H$hm
OmVm h¡Ÿ& nwéf gyº$-1(F$½doX 10/90/1) `m ídoVmídVa Cn.(3/14) _|-
ghòerfm© nwéf: ghòmj: ghònmV²Ÿ&
g ^yq_ {dídVmo d¥Ëdm@Ë`{Îmð>Ôem“xb_²Ÿ&&
`h nwéf hOmam| {ga, hOmam| ZoÌ VWm hOmam| nmdm| dmbm h¡Ÿ& dh Bg ~«÷mÊS>
H$mo Mmam| Amoa go KoaH$a ^r Cggo 10 A“xb A{YH$ Xya h¡Ÿ&(`m [díd VÎd go {Kam
hþAm h¡ {Og_| 10 go A{YH$ `m 11 A“xb h¢ , AWm©V² 11 {ed VÎd h¢Ÿ&)
g=nwéf, ^y{_=24 VÎd(^=24 dm§ Aja, _ go 25 VÎd nyU)©
(3) ì`{ï> `m earam| go {_{lV MoVZ VÎd-`h _wº$ AdñWm _| AmË_m VWm ~Õ
AdñWm _| Ord H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& `h g^r àm{U`m| Ho$ öX` _| pñWV h¡Ÿ&
V¡{Îmar` Cn.(1/6/1)-g ` Efmo@ÝVö©X` AmH$me:Ÿ& Vpñ_Þ`§ nwéfmo
154 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
_Zmo_`:Ÿ& A_¥Vmo {haÊ_`:Ÿ&
EH$ Am¡a ~hþV nwéf-{damQ²> Am¡a MoVZ nwéf EH$ hr h¡Ÿ& {^Þ earam| _| Cgr Ho$
~hþV go ê$n XrIVo h¢, O¡go EH$ hr gy`© Ho$ H$B© ê$n Ob-Va§Jm| go namd{V©V hmoH$a
XrIVo h¢Ÿ& gm§»` gyÌm| (1/149-155) _| ì`{º$ nwéf H$m ~hþËd VWm CZH$s
g_ê$nVm {XIm`r h¡-
149-OÝ_m{X ì`dñWmV: nwéf ~hþËd_²Ÿ&
150-Cnm{Y ^oX@o ß`ZoH$ñ` ZmZm `moJ AmH$meñ`od KQ>m{X{^:Ÿ&
151-Cnm{Y{^©ÚVo Z Vw VÛmZ²Ÿ&
152-Ed_oH$ËdoZ n[adV©_mZñ` Z {déÕ Y_m©Ü`mg:Ÿ&
153-AÝ` Y_©Ëdo@{n ZmamonmV² VpËg{ÕaoH$ËdmV²Ÿ&
154-ZmÛ¡Vlw{V{damoYmo Om{V naËdmV²Ÿ&
155-{d{XV ~ÝY H$maUñ` ÑîQ>çm VÐÿn_²Ÿ&
nwéf Ho$ ~hþV go ê$n OÝ_, Cnm{Y, `moJ, AmH$me H$m KQ> (gr{_V ñWmZ) Am{X
Ho$ H$maU h¢Ÿ& `o g~ nwéf Ho$ ^oX Zht h¢, Ðï>m Ho$ H$maU h¢Ÿ& gmYZm Ûmam CgHo$
EH$ ê$ n H$mo XoIm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
JrVm (18/61) Ho$ AZwgma ^r g^r àm{U`m| Ho$ öX` ñWmZ _| B©ída h¡-
B©ída: gd©^yVmZm§ öÔoeo@Ow©Z {Vð>{VŸ& ^«m_`Z² gd© ^yVm{Z `ÝÌmê$‹T>m{Z _m``mŸ&
{dÛmZ² g^r ê$nm| H$mo EH$ hr XoIVm h¡(JrVm 5/15)-
{dÚm{dZ`gånÞo ~«m÷Uo J{d hpñV{ZŸ& ew{Z M¡d ídnmHo$ M npÊS>Vm: g_X{e©Z:Ÿ&
`moJr g^r ^yVm| _| AmË_m H$mo VWm g^r ^yVm| H$mo AmË_m _o§ XoIVm h¡ (JrVm 6/
29,32)& Bg H$maU g^r ^yVm| H$mo g_mZ XoIVm h¡ VWm gwI-Xw:I _| g_ ahVm
h¡Ÿ-gd©^yVñW_mË_mZ§ gd©^yVm{Z MmË_{ZŸ&B©jVo `moJ`wº$mË_m gd©Ì g_Xe©Z:Ÿ&
AmË_m¡nå`oZ gd©Ì g_§ ní`{V `mo@OwZ© Ÿ&gwI§ dm `{X dm Xw:I§ g `moJr na_mo _V:Ÿ
H$R>mno {ZfX²(2/2/10) _| {Og àH$ma EH$ hr A{¾ `m dm`w g^r ^wdZm| _|
à{dï> hmoH$a CZHo$ g_mZ AbJ-AbJ ê$n hmo ahm h¡, Cgr àH$ma g^r ^yVm| Ho$
AÝXa EH$ hr AmË_m ~mha go AbJ-AbJ ê$nm| _| XrIVr h¡-
A{¾`©W¡H$mo ^wdZ§ à{dï>mo ê$n§ ê$n§ à{Vê$nmo ~^ydŸ&
EH$ñVWm gd© ^yVmÝVamË_m ê$n§ ê$n§ à{Vê$nmo ~^ydŸ&
dm`w`©W¡H$mo ...................
4.VÎd-g_mg 155
B©emdmñ`mon{ZfX² (6,7) _| ^r JrVm H$m hr gma h¡-
`ñVw gdm©{U ^yVm{Z AmË_Ý`odmZwní`{VŸ& gd©^yVofw MmË_mZ§ VVmo Z {dOwJwßgVoŸ&
`pñ_Z² gdm©{U ^yVm{Z AmË_¡dm^y{ÛOmZV:Ÿ&
VÌ H$mo _moh: H$: emoH$: EH$Ëd_Zwní`V:Ÿ&&
Omo g^r ^yVm| H$mo AmË_m (ñd`§ `m B©ída) _| VWm AmË_m H$mo g^r àm{U`m| _|
XoIVm h¡, dh {H$gr go K¥Um Zht H$aVmŸ& Bg pñW{V _| g^r àmUr VWm B©ída
EH$ ê$n XrIVo h¢ VWm H$moB© _moh `m emoH$ Zht hmoVmŸ&
nwéf Ho$ bjU-(1) Z àH¥${V, Z {dH¥${V (gm§»` H$m[aH$m 3)
(2) 3 JwUm| go _wº$Ÿ-Ì¡JÊw `{df`m doXm {Zó¡JÊw `mo ^dmOwZ© (JrVm 2/45)
(3) {ZË`, {ZîH$m_, {Z{d©H$ma Am{XŸ&
(4) MoVZ VÎd Omo g^r Ho$ ^rVa h¡ , {H$ÝVw nyar g¥{ï> go nao h¡Ÿ(nwéf gyº$)&
g~go ~‹S>m Am¡a g~go N>mQo >m ê$n AmË_m-na_mË_m `m IwX-IwXm H$hm OmVm h¡-
AUmoaUr`mÝ_hVmo_hr`mZmË_mñ` OÝVmo{Z©{hV§ Jwhm`m_²Ÿ&
V_H«$Vw: ní`{V drVemoH$mo YmVw àgmXmÝ_{h_mZ_mË_Z:Ÿ&
(H$R>mno {ZfX² 1/2/20, ídoVmídVa Cn.3/20)
Ordm| Ho$ öX` _| pñWV AmË_m gyú_ go gyú_ VWm _hmZ² go ^r _hmZ² h¡Ÿ& CgH$s
_{h_m H$mo YmVw (YmaH$ na_mË_m) H$s H¥$nm go H$m_Zma{hV Am¡a emoH$ a{hV
gmYH$ XoI gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
5. Ì¡JÊw `_²
AW©-Ì¡JwÊ`_²={ÌJwU+î`Äm²-1.{VJwZmnZ, VrZ YmJm| `m JwUm| Ho$ EH$Ì hmoZo H$m
^md, 2.VrZ JwUm| H$m g_mhma, 3.VrZ JwUm| (gÎd, aO, V_ H$s g_{ï>)Ÿ&
{Ì=3-Omo EH$ Am¡a Xmo g§»`mAm| H$mo nma H$aZo na AmVm h¡ (`mñH$ {Zéº$ 3/
10) JwU(JwU² +AM²)-1.Y_©,ñd^md,gJwU `m XwJw©U, 2.loð>Vm, CËH$f©,
3.Cn`moJ, bm^, 4.à^md, n[aUm_, 5.YmJm, añgr, N>mao , 6.YZwf H$s S>mao r,
7.dmÚ-`ÝÌ Ho$ Vma, 8.ñZm`w, 9.Iy~r ({deofU), 10.{deofVm, g^r nXmWm]
H$m Y_© `m bjU, d¡e{o fH$ Ho$ 7 nXmWm] _| EH$(24 JwU h¢), 11.àH¥${V H$m
Ad`d `m CnmXmZ, g_ñV dñVwAm| Ho$ 3 JwUm| _| go EH$, 12.~Îmr, gyV, 13.BpÝÐ`m|
Ho${df`(ê$n, ag Am{X), 14.Ad¥{Îm, JwUm,15.Jm¡U VÎd, 16.Am{YŠ`, 17.
gpÝY Ho$ H$maU ñdam| _| n[adV©Z, B H$m E, C H$m Amo Am{XŸ& 18.Ab‘>ma _|
156 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
ag Ho$ JwU, 19.eãX-g_yh H$m AW©, 20.amOZr{V Ho$ JwU, 21.VrZ g§»`m,
22.Á`m{_{V _| Mmn, 23.kmZopÝÐ`, 24.agmoB`mŸ&
ì`m»`m-gm§»` _| àH¥${V VÎdm| H$s VrZ pñW{V`m| H$mo JwU H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& `hr AW©
doXmÝV VWm `moJ _| ^r h¡Ÿ& d¡eo{fH$ _| `h EH$ nXmW© h¡Ÿ& `hm§ JwU nXmW© H$s dh
pñW{V h¡, {Ogo _mnm Om gHo$, AWm©V² VÎdm| H$s pñW{V`m| H$s H$moB© gr_m aoIm Zht
h¡Ÿ& CXmhaU ñdê$n ñne© H$aZo na R>§T>m, J_© `m g_-VrZ AdñWm`| hmoVt h¢,
bo{H$Z {H$go R‹§T>m `m J_© H$hm Om`Jm, dh h_mar AnZr n[apñW{V na (gmnoj)
h¡Ÿ& `ÝÌ go VmnH«$_ _mnZo na hr R>rH$ kmZ hmoJmŸ& H$moB ^r {dÚm VÎdm| H$s VrZ
pñW{V`m| Ho$ AÜ``Z go hmoVr h¢Ÿ& O¡go JrVm(2/45) _| H$hm h¡-
Ì¡JÊw ` {df`m doXm {Zó¡JÊw `mo ^dmOwZ© Ÿ&
VrZ àH$ma H$s pñW{V`m| H$m dU©Z H$B© àH$ma go {H$`m Om gH$Vm h¡, AV: CZH$m
ñnï> Zm_ Zht {X`m h¡Ÿ& gw{dYm Ho$ {b`o {H$gr ^r {dMma go nXmW© H$s Hw$b
pñW{V`m§ VrZ hmoZo na BÝh| gÎd, aO, V_ H$m Zm_ {X`m J`m h¡Ÿ& `h _yb
{dMma hmoZo Ho$ H$maU BgH$s n[a^mfm eãXm| _| Zht Xr Om gH$VrŸ& CgHo$ bjU
{X`o J`o h¢Ÿ& gm§»`gyÌ(1/61) _|VrZm| JwUm| H$m Zm_ XoH$a CZH$s gmå` AdñWm
H$mo àH¥${V H$hm J`m h¡-ŸgÎdaOñV_gm§ gmå`mdñWm àH¥${V: ....&
gwI Xw:I AdñWm Ho$ AZwgma BZHo$ bjU h¢-
gm§»` gyÌ 1/127-àrË`àr{V {dfmXmÚ¡JU ©w mZm_Ý`moÝ`§ d¡Yå`©_Ÿ² &
gm§»` H$m[aH$m 12-àrË`àr{V{dfmXmË_H$m: àH$me àd¥{Îm {Z`_mWm©:Ÿ&
AÝ`moÝ`m{^^dmíM OZZ {_WwZ d¥Îm`íM JwUm:Ÿ&
gm§»` gyÌ 1/127 na {dkmZ{^jw ^mî` _| nÄM{eImMm`©-
gÎd§ Zm_ àgmXbmKd{^îd“-àr{V-{V{Vjm-gÝVmofm{X ê$nmZÝV ^oX§ g_mgV:
gwImË_H$_², aO: emoH$m{X ZmZm^oX§ g_mgVmoX:w ImË_H$_², V_mo{ZÐm{XZmZm^oX§
_mohmË_H${_{VŸ&
AWm©V², gÎd H$m AW© àr{V `m gwI h¡Ÿ&
aO H$m AW© Aàr{V `m Xw:I h¡ , {H$ÝVw Bg_| {H«$`m h¡Ÿ&
V_ H$m AW© {dfmX AWm©V² Xw:I Ho$ H$maU {ZpîH«$`Vm `m _moh h¡Ÿ&
gm§»` gyÌ 1/128-b¿dm{X Y_£aÝ`moÝ`§ gmYå`©_² d¡Yå`© {_Vaofm_²Ÿ&
gm§»` H$m[aH$m 13-gÎd§ bKw àH$me{_ï>_nw ï>å^H§$ Mb§ M aO:Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 157
Jwé daUH$_od V_ àXrndÀMmWm} d¥{Îm:Ÿ&&
`moJ Xe©Z gyÌ 2/18-{deofm{deof {b“_mÌm{b“m{Z JwU ndm©{UŸ&
AWm©V², gÎd=bKw, àH$meH$Ÿ&
aO=Mb, Cnï>å^H$(n[adÎm©H$ `m CÎmoOH$)
V_=Jwé Am¡a AmdaUH$marŸ&
Am`wdX} _| ^moOZ Ho$ VrZ àHma Bgr Zm_ JwU Ho$ h¢-
gmpÎdH$ ^moOZ-bKw, gwnmÀ`Ÿ&
amO{gH$ ^moOZ-e{º$Xm`rŸ&
Vm_{gH$ ^moOZ-^mar, Ambg `m _moh H$aZodmbm (_Ú VWm ^mar ^moOZ,
~mgr Am{X)Ÿ&
BZ VrZ JwUm| H$s {d^mOH$ aoIm Zht h¡Ÿ, H$hm§ gÎd g_má hmoH$a aO Amaå^ hþAm
`h Zht H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& VrZm| JwU Hw$N> A§em| _| gXm CnpñWV h¢Ÿ& H$^r-
H$^r H$moB© EH$ JwU AÝ` Xmo H$mo à^m{dV H$a à~b hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ& `moJ gyÌ 2/
19 Ho$ AZwgma ^r BZ VrZ JwUm| _| H$^r ^oX Am¡a nhMmZ hmo nmVm h¡ H$^r
ZhtŸ-{deofm{deof {b“_mÌm{b“m{Z JwUndm©{UŸ&
Xodr ^mJdV (3/8) _| ^r h¡-
AÝ`moÝ` {_WwZm: gd} gd} gd©ÌJm{_Z:Ÿ& aOgmo {_WwZ§ gÎd§ gÎdñ` {_WwZ§ aO:Ÿ&
V_gíMm{n {_WwZo Vo gÎdaOgr C^oŸ& C^`mo: gÎdaOgm{_©WwZ§ V_ CÀ`VoŸ&
Z¡fm`m{X: gåà`moJmo {d^mJmo dmonbä`VoŸ&
AWm©V² g^r JwU ghMa h¢Ÿ& aO Ho$ gmW gÎd h¡, VWm gÎd H$m gmW aOŸ& gÎd
Am¡a aO XmoZm| V_ Ho$ ghMa h¢ VWm XmoZm| H$m ghMa V_ h¡Ÿ& BZ JwUm| H$m Amaå^,
CËn{Îm, g§`moJ `m {d`moJ ñnï> ê$n go Zht H$hm Om gH$VmŸ&
3 Am¡a 7 ^mJ-J{UV Ho$ AZwgma BZH$m {d^mJ g_PZm AmgmZ h¡Ÿ& nXmW© H$s
g§»`m H$s Xmo pñW{V`m§ h¢-YZ(positive) `m F$U(negative)BZH$m g_Ýd`
eyÝ` h¡& nyU© YZ H$mo `{X 1$hmo Vmo `o pñW{V`m§ h¢-1,0,-1, `m gÎd, aO, V_Ÿ&
VrZm| JwUm| H$s pñW{V H$mo `{X 1,2,3 {M• {X`mOm` Vmo 7 ñVa hþ`-o
-3,-2,-1, 0, 1, 2, 3
`hm§ nyU© ñVam| H$s MMm© hþ`r h¡, BZHo$ ^rVa {^Þ VWm Ag§»`o`(rational
fraction, irrational) H$B© ñVa h¢Ÿ& O¡go 0,1 Ho$ ~rM 0.1, 0.25 Am{XŸ&
158 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
nyam {díd VWm BgH$m kmZ BÝht ñVam| _| {d^m{OV h¡-
`o {Ìfám: n[a`pÝV [dídm:(AWd©dXo H$m àW_ gyº$)Ÿ&
AWm©V² 3 VWm 7 go {díd AmoVàmoV h¡Ÿ&
`hm§ 3 H$m AW© 3 JwU-gÎd, aO, V_ VWm 7 H$m AW© OJV² Ho$ _yb 7 nXmW©-
n¥Ïdr, Amn, VoO, dm`w, AmH$me, VÝ_mÌm VWm Ah§H$ma h¢Ÿ& BZHo$ Cn^oX {_bH$a
àH¥${V Ho$ 24 ^oX hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
7 nXmWm] H$s 3 AdñWm go 21 VÎd hw`o {OgHo$ AZwgma F$½doX H$s 21 emIm`| h¢Ÿ&
F$½doX gÎd ñdê$n h¡ AWm©V² VÎdm| H$s pñW{V _mÌ ~VmVm h¡Ÿ& `Owd}X {H«$`m ê$n
(`k) _| aO: JwU h¡-7+3 VÎdm| go AÝ` VÎdm| VH$ J_Z H$s 10•10 pñW{V
hmoJrŸ&EH$ g_Ýd` {d{Y {_bmH$a `OwdX} H$s 101 emIm`| h¢Ÿ& AV: BgH$m
~«m÷U eVnW H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& {H«$`mAm| H$s nwZ: 10 à{V{H«$`m `m [dH$ma AmZo go
gmå` `m {ZpîH«$` AdñWm AmVr h¡Ÿ {OgH$o ~mX H$moB© AJbr {H«$`m Zht hmoVrŸ& `h
V_moJwU gm_doX h¡, AV: CgH$s 10 VÎd•10 {H«$`m•10 à{V{H«$`m=1000
emIm`| h¢Ÿ& AWd©doX VrZm| go nao H$s AdñWm h¡ , AWm©V² g_Ýd` h¡Ÿ& 3 doX•3
JwU H$m g_Ýd` go BgH$s 9 emIm`| h¢Ÿ&
AWd©dXo H$m `h gyÌ eara H$m ~b ~‹T>mZo Ho$ àg§J _| h¡Ÿ& AV: `hm§ eara Ho$ 21
VÎd ~mha Ho$ 21 VÎdm| go gå~pÝYV h¢Ÿ& eara H$r 3 AdñWmAm| H$mo _Z, àmU,
dmH²$ H$hVo h¢Ÿ, AWm©V² g§H$ën, {H«$`m, e{º$Ÿ& BgH$m Ñí` ê$n H$\$, dmV, {nÎm
H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ, {OgH$m g_Ýd` ñdmñÏ` Ho$ {b`o Oê$ar h¡Ÿ& 7 VÎd 7 YmVw`| `m
ag h¢Ÿ& `o AÞ go ~ZVr h¢-
AÞ ag aº$ _m§g _oX hÈ>r _ÁOm dr`©
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
{H$Å> ^mJ-_b,_yÌ Am{X AmoO
ñdmX Ho$ AZwgma 6 ag h¢ , Omo _yb ag Ob na AmYm[aV h¢Ÿ&
Ob _Ywa, Aåb, Z_H$sZ, H$Qw>, {Vº$, H$fm`Ÿ&
eara Ho$ 7 H$mof `m H«$_e; 7 gyú_ ê$n h¢Ÿ& `h 7 MH«$m| VWm 7 bmoH$m| go
gå~pÝYV h¢Ÿ& BZHo$ H$ånZ ^oX Ho$ AZwgma g§JrV Ho$ gmV amJ h¢Ÿ& CZHo$ AZwgma
{MÎm VWm àkm H$s 7 AdñWm`| h¢Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 159
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
eara H$mof- AÞ_` àmU_` _Zmo_` {dkmZ AmZÝX {MÎm AmË__`
MH«$ - _ybmYma ñdm{Yð>mZ _{Unya AZmhV {dew{Õ Amkm ghòma
bmoH$- ^y: ^wd: ñd: _h: OZ: Vn: gË`:
amJ- fS²>O F$f^ JmÝYma _Ü`_ nÄM_ Y¡dV {ZfmX
{MÎm AdñWm-ì`wËWmZ {ZamoY {Z_m©U àgÞ EH$mJ«Vm {N>Ð n[an¹$
àkm AdñWm-earakmZ àmU _Z {dkmZ AmZw^m{dH$ agmË_H$ AmË_
g§`_- eara B{ÝÐ` àmU _Z ~w{Õ {MÎm AmË_
MoVZm H$s 4 AdñWm`| h¢-OmJ«V, ñdßZ, {ZÐm VWm Vwar`Ÿ&
BZHo$ ~rM H$s 3 AdñWmAm| H$mo {_bmH$a {MÎm H$s 7 AdñWm`| h¢Ÿ&
doXm| Ho${b`o Ì`r {dÚm H$m ì`dhma hmoVm h¡Ÿ& JwUm| Ho$ AZwgma CZHo$ ê$n h¢-
gÎd aO V_ {Zó¡JÊw `
F$H²$ gm_ `Owa² AWd©
H$_© ê$n Zm_ kmZ
dmH²$ àmU _Z (AmË_m)
n¥Ïdr AÝV[aj ÚwbmoH$ AmH$me
A{¾ dm`w Am{XË` ~«÷
VrZ bmoH$ VWm 7 bmoH$-h_mam {Zdmg n¥Ïdr ^y; _ÊS>b h¡Ÿ, `h gy`© _ÊS>b na
AmYm[aV h¡Ÿ& BZ XmoZm| H$mo {_bm H$a VWm BZHo$ ~rM H$m AdH$me àW_ {ÌbmoH$s
h¡Ÿ& gy`© {Og _ÊS>b H$m ^mJ h¡ ,dh {ÛVr` {ÌbmoH$s h¡Ÿ& gy`© H$m AmYma OZ:bmoH$
h¡ {OgH$m AmYma gZmVZ {díd `m na_oída h¡, {Ogo gË` bmoH$ H$hVo h¢Ÿ& `h
Vrgar {ÌbmoH$s h¡Ÿ& Bg_| 4 _ÊS>b VWm 3 AÝV[aj h¢Ÿ& n¥Ïdr VWm gy`© Ho$ ~rM
^wd: bmoH$ _| déU, ~¥hñn{V Am{X Ho$ ~‹S>o ~‹S>o _ÊS>b h¢ {H$ÝVw n¥Ïdr H$m grYm
gå~ÝY MÝÐ go h¡, AV: gmo_ `m MÝÐ-_ÊS>b nm§Mdm§ _ÊS>b _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
àW_ {ÌbmoH$s {ÛVr` {ÌbmoH$s V¥Vr` {ÌbmoH$s
^y: ^wd: ñd: _h: OZ: Vn: gË`:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
n¥Ïdr MÝÐ gy`© AmH$meJ§Jm AZÝV{díd
na_oð>r _ÊS>b ñd`å^y_ÊS>b
160 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
_ÊS>b Aja nwéf ja nwéf ewH$« `m Aì``
ñd`å^y ~«÷m àmU dmH²$
na_oð>r {dîUw Amn An²
gy`© BÝÐ dmH²$ A{¾
MÝÐ gmo_ AÞ An²
n¥Ïdr A{¾ AÞmX dmH²$
nwéf H$s 5 H$bmAm| (ja `m Aja) Ho$ H«$_ Ho$ AZwgma n¥Ïdr Ho$ ~mX MÝÐ _ÊS>b
{JZZm Mm{h`oŸ& VrZ {Ìbmo{H$`m| go O¡go 7 bmoH$ hw`o Cgr àH$ma VoO, An² Am¡a
AÞ Ho$ ^r 3-3 ^oX boZo go gmV ^oX hþ`Ÿo &
n¥Ïdr(AÞ) AÝV[aj(An²) Úw(VoO)
^y: ^wd: ñd: _h: OZ: Vn: gË`:
AÞ An² VoO AÞ An² VoO
AÞ An² VoO
`h D$na dmbo H«$_ H$m hr AÝ` eãXmo _| VÎd ^oX go dU©Z h¡Ÿ& `h VÎdm§o `m nXmW©
H$s gyú_Vm {XImVm h¡Ÿ&
^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ _| 3 H$m ^oX-(1) H$Um| H$s g§h{V (VÎd g_mg H$m EH$ AW©)
Ho$ JwU H$m AÜ``Z gm§p»`H$ ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ(Statistical Thermodynam-
ics or Physics) _| {H$`m OmVm h¡Ÿ& {OZ H$Um| na H$moB© AmdoJ Zht h¡ CZH$s
g§»`m CZH$s e{º$ Ho$ AZwgma ~XbVr h¡Ÿ(_¡Šgdob-~moëO_¡Z gyÌ)Ÿ& {OZH$m
pñnZ nyU© g§»`m h¡ , CZ_| nañna ^oX H$aZm _wpíH$b h¡ VWm dh A{YH$ gå^m{dV
pñW{V Ho$ nmg BH$Æ>o hmo OmVo h¢Ÿ& CÝh| ~mogmoZ (~mog-AmBÝgQ>mBZ gm§p»`H$s)
H$hVo h¢Ÿ& BgHo$ {dnarV {OZH$m pñnZ nyU© A§H$m| H$m AmYm h¡ dh \${_©`Z H$ho
OmVo h¢(\$_u-{S>amH$ gm§p»`H$s)Ÿ&
(2) e{º$ (Vmn `m AÝ` D$Om©) A{YH$ Vmn Ho$ ñWmZ go H$_ VmnH«$_ VH$
OmVr h¡ , O¡go nmZr h_oem D§$Mo go ZrMo ~hVm h¡Ÿ& `ÝÌ Ûmam Bg e{º$-àdmh H$m
Hw$N> A§e Cn`moJr H$m`© _| ~Xbm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& Bg_| A{YH$ VmnH«$_ H$m ñWmZ
(Source) H$mo gÎd, H$_ VmnH«$_ H$m ñWmZ (Sink) H$mo V_ VWm CgHo$
^rVa Vmn Ho$ àdmh H$mo aO H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& VmnH«$_ H$m AÝVa Zht ahZo na
H$m`© Zht hmo gH$VmŸ& Bg àH$ma gÎd, aO, V_ H$m ^oX Zht ahZo go g¥{ï> Zht
4.VÎd-g_mg 161
hmo gH$VrŸ& gm_mÝ` Jm‹S>r Ho$ BÄOZ _| B©ÝYZ ObZo go Vmn CËnÞ hmoVm h¡, dh
AnojmH¥$V R>T§ >o dm`w_ÊS>b _| OmVm h¡Ÿ& Bg Vmn àdmh H$mo {Z`pÝÌV H$a Jm‹S>r H$m
BÄOZ VWm MŠH$m MbVm h¡Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma J_© gy`© (gÎd) go {d{^Þ àH$ma H$s
D$Om© R>§T>r n¥Ïdr na Am ahr h¡Ÿ& Cgr D$Om© àdmh Ho$ {d{^Þ ê$nmÝVam| go d¥j,
OÝVw VWm `mpÝÌH$ BÄOZ Mb aho h¢Ÿ& Bg àH$ma gy`© (ñdbm}H$) gÎd, ^wd:
(n¥Ïdr na H$s MoVZ g¥{ï>,_erZ|,dm`w_ÊS>b, g_wÐ _| J{V Am{X) aO VWm n¥Ïdr
V_ hþAmŸ& `hr g~go ~‹S>m `k `m `mpÝÌH$ {H«$`m h¡Ÿ&
(3) {dÚwV² Amdoe Ho$ AZwgma ^r nXmW© VWm CgHo$ H$U VrZ àH$ma Ho$ h¢-YZ,
F$U Amdoe VWm {~Zm Amdoe H$mŸ&
(4) na_mUw Ho$ A§Jr^yV H$U VrZ àH$ma Ho$ h¢-
\$moQ>moZ-eyÝ` Amdoe VWm _mÌmŸ&
boßQ>mZo -H$_ _$mÌm, nañna {H«$`m (Weak interaction) ZhtŸ&
hmS´>mZo -A{YH$ _mÌm, e{º$embr à{V{H«$`m (Strong interaction)Ÿ&
(5) na_mUw H$Um| Ho$ _yb VrZ àH$ma Ho$ h¢-
ŠdmH©$-_yb H$U-^mJŸ&
hmS´>mZo Am{X- ñWm`r H$UŸ&
½byAmoZ-ŠdmH$m] H$mo OmoS‹ >Zo dmbo H$UŸ&
ŠdmH©$ VWm ½byAmoZ Ho$ ^r àH¥${V Ho$ VrZ JwUm| H$s Vah VrZ a§J H$ho OmVo h¢
{Oggo BZH$m 8 àH$ma H$m {_bZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& VrZ a§J bmb, nrbm, Zrbm Bg{b`o
Zm_ {X`m J`m h¡ Š`m|{H$ BZ _yb a§Jm| H$s Vah `o JwU ^r {_bH$a EH$ Xygao H$mo
eyÝ` H$a XoVo h¢Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma _yb àH¥${V Ho$ VrZ ê$nm| H$m dU©Z h¡ VWm CZHo$ 8
àH$ma Ho$ ^oX h¢-
AOm_oH$m§ bmo{hVewŠb H¥$îUm§ ~ˆr àOm: g¥O_mZm§ gê$nm:Ÿ&
AOmo øoH$mo Owf_mUmo@ZweoVo OhmË`oZm§ ^wº$^moJm_Omo@Ý`:Ÿ&&
(ídoVmídVa Cn.4/5)
AWm©V² EH$ hr àH¥${V (AOm) h¡ Omo bmo{hV (bmb), ewŠb (g\o$X `m nrbm?),
H¥$îU (H$mbm `m Zrbm) ê$nm| _| àOm H$s g¥{ï> H$aVr h¡Ÿ& H¥$îU ê$n-H$mbr,
ewŠb-gañdVr, bmo{hV-bú_rŸ&
J{UV _| {ÌJwU-(1) VH©$emó _| dñVw VrZ àH$ma go à_m{UV hmoVr h¡-
162 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
à_m{UV Aà_m{UV g§e`
gË` {_Ï`m A{ZU©`
Truth False Undecided
(2) Ý`m` Xe©Z _| ^r 3 à_mU H$ho J`o h¢-àË`j, Anw_mZ, eãXŸ&
(3) Xmo am{e`m| H$s VwbZm 3 àH$ma go H$a J{UV Ho$ {gÕmÝV à_m{UV {H$`o OmVo
h¢-EH$am{e Xygar am{e go- H$_, ~am~a, A{YH$-VrZ hr àH$ma hmo gH$Vr h¡Ÿ&
(4) ^mñH$amMm`© Zo brbmdVr _| H$hm h¡ {H$ gmam {díd Ì¡am{eH$(Ratio and
proportion) goì`má h¡Ÿ& {Og àH$ma VrZ kmV am{e`m| Ho$ AZwnmV go Mm¡Wr
AkmV am{e {ZH$bVr h¡ , Cgr àH$ma Ì`r(F$H²$,gm_, `Owa)² Ho$ Cn`moJ go
AWd©dXo hmoVm h¡Ÿ-Ì¡am{eHo$Z¡d `XoVXwº$§ ì`m᧠ñd^oXh¡ [© aUod {díd_²Ÿ&
(brbmdVr, N>m`m ì`dhma)
eara _o§ fQ²>MH«$-{dÝXw go boH$a ~«÷mÊS> H$s àmUe{º$ AmkmMH«$ _| BH$Æ>m hmoVr
h¡, Omo e{º$ òmoV H$m H$m_ H$aVm h¡Ÿ& `h gÎd h¡ (kmZ `m gañdVr)Ÿ& BgH$m
AÝV g~go H$_ e{º$ Ho$ _ybmYma _| hmoVm h¡Ÿ& dhm§ AÝV _| àmU e{º$ O_m hmoZo
H$m Hw$ÊS> (Sink) h¡ AV: Cgo Hw$ÊS>{bZr H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& Hw$ÊS>{bZr àm`: gwá
ahVr h¡, Omo V_moJwU Am¡a H$mbr ê$n h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ~rM _| e{º$-àdmh hmo ahm h¡Ÿ&
CgHo$ Cn`moJ Ho$ {b`o g^r BÄOZ MH«$ _| MbVo h¢, AV: Cn`moJ `ÝÌm| H$mo MH«$
H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& VrZ Am`m_ Ho${díd _| EH$ hr _mJ© (gab aoIm) h¡, 6 Am`m_Ho$
{díd _| 3 A{YH$ AWm©V² 4 _mJ© hmo gH$Vo h¢, AV; 4 {H«$`m MH«$ h¢Ÿ& D$na Ho$
Am`m_m| go Amaå^ H$a MH«$ h¢-{dew{Õ, AZmhV, _{Unya, ñdm{Yð>mZŸ& Bg_|
_Ü`_ MH«$ aOmoJwUr bú_r (AZmhV) `m {dîUw ê$n gy`© (_{Unya) Ho$ h¢Ÿ&
Hw$ÊS>{bZr H$m OmJaU hmoZo na dhm§ H$s gpÄMV e{º$ H$m àdmh CëQ>r {Xem _|
hmoVm h¡Ÿ& `h g¥{ï > H«$_ Ho$ {dnarV g§hma H«$_ H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
gm§»` VWm doXmÝV H$m MVw:gyÌr-doXmÝV Ho$ àW_ 4 gyÌ MVw:gyÌr H$ho OmVo
h¢Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma VÎd-g_mg Ho$ 2-5 gyÌ MVw:gyÌr H$ho OmVo h¢Ÿ&BZH$s VwbZm h¡-
(1) AWmVmo ~«÷ {Okmgm-~«÷ H$s {Okmgm Amaå^ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
gm§»`-nwéf:-nwéf ^r ~«÷ H$m hr Zm_ h¡Ÿ&
(2) OÝ_mÚñ` `V:-Aï>m¡ àH¥$V`:-àH¥${V ~«÷ H$m hr Xygam ê$n h¡ {Oggo
g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 163
(3) emó `mo{ZËdmV²-`h emó go kmV hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Ì¡JwÊ`_²-H$m AW© ^r 4 doX h¢Ÿ&
(4) VÎmw g_Ýd`mV²-fmoS‹ >e {dH$mam:-BZH$m VWm {nN>bo VÎdm| H$m g_Ýd` hr
nyU© àH¥${V h¡Ÿ& dñVwV: BgH$s Á`mXm g_mZVm àW_ gyÌ -AWmV: VÎdg_mg:-
go h¡Ÿ&
6.gÄMa: à{VgÄMa:
AW©-gÄMa: = g_²+Ma²+H$Ÿ& 1._mJ©, EH$ am{e go Xygar na ñWmZmÝVa,
2.amñVm,nW, 3.g§H$sU© nW, 4.àdoe Ûma, 5.eara, 6.hË`m, 7.{dH$mgŸ&
à{VgÄ Ma:-à{V+g_²+Ma²+Q>Ÿ& 1. nr N>o _wS‹ >Zm, 2.nwZíMyfU, 3.{deofV:
{damQ²> OJV² H$m {\$a go àH¥${V Ho$ ê$n _| brZ hmo OmZmŸ&
AV: gÄMa H$m AW© _yb àH¥${V VWm nwéf go g¥{ï> H$m {dH$mg VWm à{VgÄ Ma
H$m AW© CgH$m b` hmoVm h¡Ÿ& gÄMa {dH$mg h¡, à{VgÄMa õmg `m brZ hmoZm
h¡Ÿ& EH$ AmJo H$s {H«$`m, EH$ nrN>o H$s {H«$`m h¡Ÿ& XmoZm| H«$_ go EH$ Xygao Ho$ ~mX
AmVo h¢, Bg {b`o EH$ gyÌ _| hr dU©Z h¡Ÿ& EH$ AÝ` nmR> _| Ì¡JÊw ` gÄMa: VWm
à{VgÄMa: AbJ-AbJ gyÌ h¢Ÿ& BgH$m AW© h¡ {H$ VrZ JwUm| Ho$ H$maU g¥{ï> hmoVr
h¡ VWm CgHo$ ~mX b` H$m H«$_ AmVm h¡Ÿ&
ì`m»`m-1.nwéf Ho$ g§H$ën `m BÀN>m Ho$ H$maU àH¥${V Ho$ VrZ JwU àH$Q> hþ`o Omo
nañna gÝVwbZ Ho$ H$maU àH$Q> Zht WoŸ& VrZ JwUm| Ho$ H$maU àH¥${V Ho$ H$B© ^oX
àH$Q> hþ`o VWm CZH$s g§h{V go g¥{ï> hþ`rŸ& Bg àH$ma H$m g¥{ï> H«$_ N>mÝXmo½`
Cn{ZfX² (6/3) _| {XIm`m J`m h¡-
VX¡jV ~hþñ`m§ àO`o`o{V VÎmoOmo@g¥OVŸ& VÎmoO EojV ~hþñ`m§ àOm`o`o{V
VXnmo@g¥OVŸ& Vñ_mX² `Ì Šd M emoM{V ñdoXVo dm nwéfñVoOg Ed VXÜ`mnmo
Om`ÝVoŸ&3Ÿ& Vm Amn EojÝV ~ˆ`; ñ`m_ àOm`o_hr{V Vm AÞ_g¥OÝVŸ& Vñ_mX²
`Ì Šd M df© {V VXod ^y{`ð>_Þ§ ^dË`X²>ä` Ed VXÜ`ÞmÚ Om`VoŸ&4Ÿ&
CgZo B©jU {H$`m-_¢ ~hþV hmo OmD±$, àOmdmbm hmoD±$Ÿ& CgZo VoO H$mo aMmŸ& Cg
VoO Zo B©jU {H$`m-_¢ ~hþV hmo OmD±$, àOmdmbm hmoD±$Ÿ& CgZo Ob H$mo aMmŸ&
Bg{b`o Ohm± H$ht nwéf J_© hmoVm h¡, Cgo ngrZm AmVm h¡, VoO go hr Ob CËnÞ
hmoVo h¢Ÿ&3Ÿ& Cg Ob Zo B©jU {H$`m-_¢ ~hþV hmoD±$, àOmdmbm hmoD±$Ÿ& CgZo
n¥{Wdr H$mo aMmŸ& Bg{b`o Ohm± H$ht dfm© hmoVr h¡ , dhm± ~hþV AÞ AWm©V²
nm{W©d nXmW© CËnÞ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&4Ÿ&
164 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
`hm± EH$ EH$ VÝ_mÌm ~‹T>Zo go nm§M _hm^yVm| H$s CËn{Îm {XIm`r J`r h¡-
eãX +ñne© +ê$n +ag +JÝY
ì`mo_ `m eyÝ` AmH$me dm`w VoO Ob n¥{Wdr
àW_ Xmo VÎd eãX VWm ñne© JwU dmbo h¢ , Omo H«$_e: eyÝ` AmH$me Ho$ e{º$-
joÌ (JwéËdmH$f©U, {dÚwËMwå~H$s`, Zm{^H$s` bKw VWm Jwé e{º$) VWm `mpÝÌH$
H$ånZ h¢Ÿ, Omo AÑí` h¢Ÿ& ApÝV_ VrZ VÎd Ñí` h¢, {OgH$m dU©Z H$a CZH$s
ì`mdhm[aH$ {H«$`mAm| go VwbZm H$s J`r h¡Ÿ&
(2) {damQ²> {díd H$s g¥{ï> VWm àb` MH«$dV² hmoVo h¢Ÿ& `h g~go ~‹S>m MH«$ h¡Ÿ&
CXmhaU Ho$ {b`o JrVm, AÜ`m` 8 _|-
Am~«÷^wdZmëbmoH$m: nwZamd{V©Zmo@OwZ© &_m_wnËo ` Vw H$m¡ÝVo` nwZO©Ý_ Z {dÚVoŸ&16Ÿ&
ghò `wJ n`©ÝV_h`©X~² ÷ « Umo {dXw:&amqÌ `wJ ghòmÝVm§ Vo@hmoamÌ{dXmo OZm:Ÿ&17Ÿ&
Aì`º$mX²>ì`º$`:gdm©:à^dÝË`hamJ_oŸ&amÍ`mJ_o àbr`ÝVo VÌ¡dmì`º$g§kHo$Ÿ&18Ÿ&
^yVJ«m_:g Edm`§ ^yËdm ^yËdm àbr`VoŸ&amÍ`mJ_o@de:nmW© à^dË`hamJ_oŸ&19Ÿ&
na~«÷ Ho$ A{V[aº$ ~«÷bmoH$ go boH$a g^r bmoH$ nwZamdVu ñd^md dmbo h¢Ÿ&
~«÷m H$m {XZ 1000 MVw`w©Jr H$m VWm BVZo hr Ad{Y H$s amV hmoVr h¡Ÿ& g^r
Ñí` ^yV ~«÷m H$m {XZ Amaå^ hmoZo na _yb àH¥${V go CËnÞ hmoVo h¢ VWm am{Ì
Amaå^ hmoZo na nwZ: Cgr _| brZ hmo OmVo h¢Ÿ&
(3) gÄMa AWm©V² g¥{ï> H$m AW© h¡-
nwéf+_yb àH¥${V 7 àH¥${V{dH¥${V 16 {dH¥${V
BgH$s {dnarV {H«$`m à{VgÄMa `m àb` h¡-
16 {dH¥${V(11 BpÝÐ`m§+5ñWyb ^yV) 7 àH¥${V{dH¥${V _yb àH¥${V
gÄMa H$m H$maU V_ na aO H$m A{YH$ à^md h¡ VWm à{V-gÄMa H$m H$maU aO
na V_ H$m à^md h¡Ÿ&
~«÷gyÌ AÜ`m` 4, nmX 2, gyÌ 1-5 _| H$hm J`m h¡ {H$ àb` go 7 àH¥${V`m§
Ho$db d¥{Îm ê$n go b` hmoVr h¢ Z {H$ ñdê$n go, {Og àH$ma ñdßZ _| ì`{º$
AÝV_w©I hmoH$a AnZo H$mo ^yb OmVm h¡, Zï> Zht hmoVmŸ&
(4) gÄMa VWm à{VgÄMa {_bmH$a EH$ MH«$ h¡Ÿ& {díd H$s àm`: g^r {H«$`m`|
MH«$ h¢ `m MH«$m| H$m g_Ýd` h¢Ÿ& eara H$m MH«$ Zm‹S>r- ñnÝXZ, ídmg-àídmg,
nmMZ H$_© (AnM`), OrdZ-_aU-OrdZ Am{X h¢Ÿ& ha e{º$ ñWmZr` `m
4.VÎd-g_mg 165
J{Verb Va§J H$m H$ånZ h¡Ÿ& Vm n_| H$U AnZo hr ñWmZ na H$ånZ H$aVo h¢Ÿ&
eãX `m {dÚwV² Mwå~H$s` Va§J CX²J_ go AmJo ~‹T>Vo OmVo h¢Ÿ, {OgHo$ H$maU J_Z
Ho$ _mJ© _| Omo _mÜ`_ h¡ , CgHo$ H$Um| na H$ånZ H$m à^md AmJo ~‹T>Vm h¡Ÿ& {XZ-
amV ^r àH$me-AÝYH$ma (ê$n VÝ_mÌm) H$m `m g¥{ï>-àb` H$m MH«$ h¡Ÿ& CgHo$
H$maU _Zwî` _| OmJaU-gwf{w á (_Z BpÝÐ`) H$m MH«$ h¡Ÿ& na_mUw _| CgH$s
Zm{^ Ho$ H$Um| H$m ì`dhma ^r MH«$dV² h¡Ÿ& g_` Ho$ {OVZo _mn {XZ, df© (F$Vw
MH«$), `wJ-g^r g¥{ï>-àb` Ho$ MH«$ h¢Ÿ&
(5) ha amgm`{ZH$ n[adV©Z XmoZm| {XemAm| _| hmoVm h¡Ÿ& BpÀN>V {Xem H$mo gÄMa
VWm {dnarV {Xem H$s {H«$`m H$mo à{V gÄMa H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& n[apñW{V`m| Ho$
AZwgma H$moB© ^r à{V{H«$`m {Xem gÄMa `m aOmoJU w A{YH$Vm dmbr _mZr
Om`JrŸ & Cg {H«$`m H$mo gÄMa {Xem _| MbmZo Ho$ {b`o Cn`wº$ Vmn (ñne©VÎd),
àH$me (ê$n VÎd), X~md (n¥Ïdr VÎd) Am{X hmoZm Mm{h`oŸ& BZ VÎdm| H$s _mÌm
~XbZo go à{VgÄMa {H«$`m A{YH$ hmoJr, {Ogo àb` H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
(6) àb` Zm_ Ho$ H$maU `h Zht g_PZm Mm{h`o {H$ à{VgÄMa AdmÄN>Zr` h¡
VWm Ho$db gÄMa hmoZm Mm{h`oŸ& ^mJdV JrVm, AÜ`m` 4 _| H$hm h¡-
AnmZo Owˆ{VàmU àmUmo@nmZoVWmnao&àmUmnmZJVr éÕmàmUm`m_ nam`Um:Ÿ&19Ÿ&
Anao {Z`Vmhmam: àmUmÝàmUofw Owˆ{VŸ& gd}ß`oVo `k{dXmo `kj{nV H$ë_f:Ÿ&20Ÿ&
AÝ` bmoJ àmU H$mo AnmZ _| VWm AnmZ H$mo àmU _| hdZ H$aVo h¢Ÿ& H$B© àmU
Anm Z H$s J{V H$mo {Z`pÝÌV H$a àmUm`m_ H$aVo h¢Ÿ& `h g^r `k H$m R>rH$ ê$n
H$a aho h¢Ÿ, {Oggo CZHo$ {dH$ma Zï> hmo aho h¢Ÿ&
àmU 6 àH$ma Ho$ h¢, eara 7 àH$ma Ho$ h¢, VWm {dH$ma 16 àH$ma Ho$ h¢Ÿ& Bg
àH$ma BZ `km| Ho$ H$B© àH$ma Ho$ AW© h¢Ÿ& AÞ_` H$mof Ho$ {b`o àmU H$m AW© h¡,
AÞ go àmá hmoZo dmbr e{º$Ÿ& ^moOZ Ho$ ê$n _| Omo àmU AmVm h¡, CgH$m Ad{eï>
A§e AnmZ dm`w go _b Ho$ ê$n _| Zï> hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma AÞ H$m {dH$ma Zï> hmo
J`mŸ& AÞ_` àmU ½byH$moO, dgm Am{X Ho$ ê$n _| eara _| g§{MV ahVm h¡, dh
àmU H$m AnmZ _| hdZ h¡Ÿ& O~ eara H$s BpÝÐ`m§ H$m_ H$aVr h¢, Vmo g§{MV e{º$
IM© hmoVr h¡, Omo AnmZ H$m àmU _| hdZ h¡Ÿ& Bggo eara ñdñW Am¡a {H«$`merb
ahVm h¡ VWm H$m`© H$m _b H$m~©Z S>m`ŠgmBS> Ho$ ê$n _| ~mha {ZH$bVm h¡Ÿ& dgm
H$m H$_ hmoZm ^r _b {ZH$bZm h¡Ÿ&
166 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
ídmg-àídmg {H«$`m ^r àmU_` H$mof H$m EH$ `k MH«$ h¡Ÿ& àmU amoH$Zo go ^r
eara H$o AÝ` MH«$ {H«$`merb hmoVo h¢Ÿ& g~go gyú_ hdZ-`k _| {dÝXw hmoH$a {díd
H$s àmU e{º$ AmVr h¡ VWm Hw$ÊS>{bZr e{º$ D$na ghòma VH$ M‹T>Vr h¡Ÿ&
(7) ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ Ho$ D$î_m-J{VO{gÕmÝV(Thermodynamics) Ho$
AZwgma {OVZr ^r `mpÝÌH$ {H«$`mAm| _| Cn`moJr H$m`© hmoVm h¡, dh MH«$ _| hr
H$m_ H$a gH$Vr h¢Ÿ& e{º$
gÄMa òmoV Hw$ÊS>
1 Cn`moJr H$m`© 2
à{VgÄMa Hw$ÊS> òmoV
2 H$m`© e{º$ 3
(8) BboŠQ´>m°{ZH$ Va§J(waves) CËnÞ H$aZo H$m ~H©$hmCgoZ {Z`_ h¡ {H$ {H«$`m
Ho$ à^mdH$m Hw$N> A§e(Feedback)Cgo MH«$dV² J{V _| bmZo Ho$ {b`o ì`dhma{H$`m
OmVm h¡Ÿ&{H«$`m Ho$ \$b H$s g_rjm `m CgH$s à{V{H«$`m H$m AÜ``Z emgZ VWm
ì`dgm` à~ÝY H$m _yb {gÕmÝV h¡Ÿ&{H«$`m=gÄ MaŸ&Ÿà{V{H«$`m=à{VgÄ MaŸ&
(9) `moJgmYZm ^r AmYw{ZH$ ^mfm _| nwZ:à`moJ (Feedback) VWm JrVm H$s
^mfm _| AnmZ H$m àmU _| hdZ h¡Ÿ&`moJ-gyÌm| H$s g§»`m ~Jb _| h¡Ÿ&
B©ída(1/24-28)
nwéf `m MoVZ (1/3,2/20,21) àH¥${V(2/18,19)
_hV²({damQ²> ~w{Õ)
{MÎm(ì`{º$JV ^mdZm, 2/21)
{deof `m ^oX A{deof
_Z ~w{Õ Ah§H$ma
qbJ VWm {deof AqbJ, A{deof
n¥Ïdr Amn VoO dm`w AmH$me JÝY ag ê$n ñne© eãX
H$_}pÝÐ` kmZopÝÐ`
hmW n¡a dmUr OZZ _b H$mZ ZmH$ Or^ Am§I M_©
à{V{H«$`m-_Z,~w{Õ, Ah§H$ma
_moj `m AndJ© VrZ JwUm| H$m à^md-^moJ, amJ(2/12,22,23)
(1/3,2/20-22,43) (1/4,3,31) OÝ__¥Ë`wMH«$(2/22,23,34)
4.VÎd-g_mg 167
(10) H$^r -H$^r gÎd, aO, V_ H$m ^oX H$aZm _wpíH$b hmoVm h¡Ÿ& {H$gr EH$
H$mo gÎd _mZ H$a ~mH$s H$mo aO, V_ _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& g¥{ï> {H«$`m Ho$ H$maU
hr àb` H$m Amaå^ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& aO ~‹T>Vo ~‹T>Vo V_ _| ~Xb OmVm h¡Ÿ&
~«÷mÊS> H$m {dñVma ~«÷m gÎd JwU h¡Ÿ& nXmWm] Ho$ Xya hQ>Zo go CZH$m ñdVÝÌ
ApñVËd h¡Ÿ& EH$ gm¡a _ÊS>b na {H$gr Xygao gm¡a _ÊS>b H$m à^md àm`: Zht
hmoVm h¡ , AV: Cg gy`© H$s H$jm _| J«h A~m{YV hmoH$a Ky_Vo ahVo h¢Ÿ& Bgr
àH$ma na_mUw H$s Zm{^ Ho$ Mmam| Amoa BboŠQ´>mZm| H$s H$jm`| gå^d h¢, dh {ZH$Q>
H$s H$jm _| ahH$a na_mUw H$m AmH$ma {ZYm©[aV H$aVo h¢Ÿ& BgH$m H$maU h¡ {H$
~«÷mÊS> \¡$b ahm h¡ Am¡a R>§T>m hmo ahm h¡Ÿ&
gm_mÝ`V: {díd H$m H$moB© ^r A§e N>mS‹o > XoZo na dh ^oX(Order) go A^oX `m
{~Iamd(Disorder) H$s pñW{V _| OmZo bJVm h¡Ÿ& W_m}S>m`Zm{_Šg Ho$ AZwgma
àH¥${V _| BgH$m {dnarV gå^d Zht h¡Ÿ& Á`mXm ñVam| _| {d^mOZ (Order) hr
OrdZ Ho$ CÀM {dH$mg H$m {M• h¡Ÿ& `h àH¥${V Ho$ JwUm| Ho$ H$maU Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
BgH$m H$maU MoVZ VÎd h¡ {Ogo {dîUw `m aOmoJU w Zm_ {X`m J`m h¡Ÿ& aOmoJUw Ho$
H$maU {H$gr g§h{V H$s e{º$ IM© hmoVo hmoVo dh {ZpîH«$` AdñWm _| nhþ§M OmVr
h¡Ÿ& gÄMa-à{VgÄMa H$s MH«$dV² {H«$`mAm| go H$mb H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& ~ma ~ma
Eogr {H«$`mAm| go nXmW© ^oXa{hV {~Iamd H$s AdñWm _| nhþ§M OmVm h¡Ÿ& AV:
H$mb H$m AW© g_` VWm _¥Ë`w (V_g) h¡Ÿ& V_moJwU ê$nr H$mb {ed H$m ñdê$n h¡Ÿ&
7.AÜ`mË__{Y^yV_{YX¡d§ M
eãXmW©-AÜ`mË_=A{Y+AmË_Z²=AmË_m `m ì`{º$ go gå~ÝY aIZodmbmŸ&
AÜ`mË__² Aì`` h¡, {OgH$m AW© AmË_m go gå~Õ nXmW© `m na~«÷ `m AmË_m-
na_mË_m H$m gå~ÝY h¡Ÿ&
AmË_Z²=AV²+_{ZU²Ÿ& 1.AmË_m, Ord, 2.ñd, AmË_, 3.na_mË_m, ~«÷, 4.gma,
5.M[aÌ {deofVm, 6.ñd^md, 7.ì`{º$, `m g_ñV eara, 8._Z, ~w{Õ,
9.{dMma e{º$, 10.XoI^mb, à`ËZ, 11.gy`©, A{¾, `m dm`wŸ& A{Y CngJ©
H$m AW© h¡ D$na CR>Zm, A{YH$Vm, AmYm[aVŸ& AV: AÜ`mË_ H$m AW© hþAm
AmË_m, ì`{º$, eara `m ñd^md go gå~pÝYV, CZ na AmYm[aV `m {Z^©a
{H«$`m, \$b, JwU Am{XŸ&
A{Y^yV-^yV H$m AW© Omo {Z{_©V `m hmo MwH$m h¡Ÿ& Omo Hw$N> {Z_m©U h¡, R>rH$ `m
168 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
~rVm hþAm dh ^yV h¡Ÿ& g§km ê$n _| BgH$m AW© h¡-1.{ed, 2.àmUr, Ord,
3.àoV, ^yV, {nemM, XmZd, 4. nm§M _hmVÎd, 5.AVrV, 6.g§gma, 7.Hw$eb-
jo_Ÿ& A{Y^yV H$m AW© ^yV H$m AmYma h¡, AWm©V² na_oída `m CgH$m à^md
h¡Ÿ& AÝ` AW© h¡ O‹S> VÎdm| na AmYm[aV JwU, {H«$`m `m \$bŸ&
A{YX¡d-X¡d H$m AW© Xod go gå~pÝYV `m ^m½` h¡Ÿ& Xod H$m AW© XodVm, BÝÐ,
{Xì` nwéf, emgH$, gå_m{ZV Cnm{Y Am{X h¡Ÿ& A{YX¡d H$m AW© hþAm XodVmAm|
na AmYm[aVŸ&
‘M’ H$m AW© h¡, BVZo hr VrZ ^oX g¥{ï> `m Xw:I Am{X Ho$ h¢Ÿ&
ì`m»`m-{nN>bo gyÌ H$s g§J{V go Bg H$m AW© g¥{ï> H$m àH$ma h¡Ÿ& gm_mÝ`V:
BZ eãXm| H$m ì`dhma VrZ àH$ma Ho$ Xw:Im| Ho$ {b`o hmoVm h¡, O¡g-o
X¡{hH$ X¡{dH$ ^m¡{VH$ VmnmŸ& am_ amÁ` Zqh H$mhþ{h ì`mnmŸ&&
(am_M[aV_mZg, CÎmaH$mÊS>)
ApÝV_ VÎd-g_mg gyÌ _| ^r {Ì{dY Xw:I H$m CÝ_ybZ hr gm§»` H$m \$b H$hm
J`m h¡Ÿ& {ed H$s àmW©Zm Bgr àH$ma H$s OmVr h¡-
Ì`: eyb {Z_yb© Z§ eybnm{U:Ÿ&(am_M[aV_mZg, CÎmaH$mÊS>)
_r_m§gm Xe©Z _| AmË_m H$mo gwI-Xw:I H$s Cnm{Y go {Kam hþAm _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
e¡d Xe©Z _| Bgo _b H$hm J`m h¡, Omo M¡VÝ` ê$nr gwdU© H$mo T>§H$ boVm h¡Ÿ&
B©emdmñ`mon{ZfX² _| ^r h¡-{haÊ_`oZ nmÌoU gË`ñ`m{n{hV§ _wI_²Ÿ&
e¡d Xe©Z H$m _b VrZ àH$ma H$m h¡-AmUd _b, _m`r` _b, VWm H$m_ _bŸ&
`h VrZ àH$ma Ho$ Xw:Im| Ho$ g_mZ h¡-AmÜ`mpË_H$ `m ì`{º$JV, Am{YX¡{dH$
VWm Am{Y^m¡{VH$Ÿ&
^JdX²JrVm, AÜ`m` 8 _| VrZ àH$ma Ho$ H$_m] Ho$ê$n _| BZ eãXm| H$m à`moJ h¡-
qH$ VX² ~«÷ {H$_Ü`mË_§ qH$ H$_© nwéfmoÎm_Ÿ& A{Y^yV§ M qH$ àmoº _{YX¡d§ {H$_wÀ`VoŸ&1Ÿ&
A{Y`k: H$W§ H$mo@Ì Xohpo ñ_Z² _YwgXy ZŸ&2Ÿ&
Aja§ ~«÷ na_§ ñd^mdmo@Ü`mË_ CÀ`VoŸ& ^yV^mdmoX²^dH$amo {dgJ©: H$_© g§{kV:Ÿ&3Ÿ&
A{Y^yV§ jamo ^md:nwéfñ`m{YX¡dV_²Ÿ& A{Y`kmo@h_odmÌ Xoho Xoh^¥Vm§ daŸ&4Ÿ&
AWm©V² 4 àH$ma Ho$ H$_© h¢-1.AÜ`mË_-Aja na_ ~«÷ H$m ñd^md, Ah§^mdŸ&
2.A{Y^yV-dñVwAm| _| ^yV^md g_PZmŸ& 3. A{YX¡d-ja nwéf `m Xod ^mdŸ&
4.A{Y`k-Xoh Am¡a Xohr EH$ hr na_ nwéf h¢Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 169
àW_ VrZ àH$ma Ho$ H$_m] go VrZ àH$ma Ho$ Xw:I hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
gm§»` gyÌ 1/1 BZ Xw:Im| Ho$ dU©Z go hr Amaå^ hmoVm h¡-
AW {Ì{dY Xw:ImË`ÝV{Zd¥{ÎmaË`ÝV nwéfmW©:Ÿ&
VrZ àH$ma H$s g¥{ï> H$m dU©Z V¡{Îmar` Cn.{ejmdëbr, AZwdmH²$ 7 _| h¡-
n¥{Wì`ÝV[aj§ Úm¡{X©emo@dmÝVa{Xe:Ÿ& A{¾dm©`wam{XË`íMÝÐ_mZjÌm[UŸ& Amn
AmofY`mo dZñnV` AmH$me AmË_mŸ& BË`{Y^yV_²Ÿ& AWmÜ`mË__²Ÿ& àmUmo
ì`mZmo@nmZ CXmZ: g_mZ:&Mjw: lmo̧ _Zmo dmH²$ ËdH²$Ÿ& M_© _m§g§ ñZmdmpñW
_ÁOmŸ&EVmX{Y{dÚm` F${fadmoMV²&nm§º$§ dmBX§ gd©_&² nm§º$o Z¡d nm§º$§ ñn¥UmoVr{V&
Am{Y^m¡{VH$ Am¡a AmÜ`mpË_H$ AWdm {damQ²> Am¡a {nÊS> XmoZm| H$m gå~ÝY hŸ¡&
XmoZm| H$s 3-3 lo{U`m§ h¢ VWm àË`oH$ Ho$ 5-5 A§J h¢Ÿ& ~mø ^m¡{VH$ OJV² Ho$ 3
{d^mJ h¢-A{YbmoH$, A{YÁ`mo{Vf, A{Y^yVŸ& BZHo$ 5-5 A§J (nm§º$) h¢-
A{YbmoH$-n¥Ïdr, AÝV[aj, Úm¡, {Xem`|, AÝVa {Xem`|Ÿ&
A{YÁ`mo{Vf-A{¾,dm`w,Am{XË`,MÝÐ, ZjÌ (dm`w {dÚwVM² åw ~H$s` {d{H$aU h¡Ÿ)
A{Y^yV-Ob, Am¡f{Y`m§,dZñn{V`m§, AmH$me, AmË_m (AÝV:H$aU)Ÿ&
AmÜ`mpË_H$ Ho$ 3 ñVa VWm nm§º$ h¢-
A{YàmU-àmU, ì`mZ, AnmZ, CXmZ, g_mZŸ&
A{YX¡d-Mjw, lmoÌ, _Z, dmH²$, ËdMmŸ&
A{YXoh-M_©, _m§g, ñZm`w, ApñW, _ÁOmŸ&
`hm§ Ho$ VrZ ñVa h¢-AmÜ`mpË_H$,(VrZm| ñVa), A{Y^yV VWm A{YX¡d
(A{YbmoH$+A{YÁ`mo{Vf)
BZ g¥{ï>`m| Ho$ H$_m] Ho$ gå~ÝY go VrZ àH$ma Ho$ Xw:I h¢ (`m gwI)-
AmÜ`mpË_H$, Am{Y^m¡{VH$, Am{YX¡{dH$Ÿ&
AmÜ`mpË_H $3 àH$ma H$m h¡-emar[aH$ `m A{YXoh, _mZ{gH `m A{YàmU Am¡a
A{YX¡dŸ&
eara H$m ~bdmZ, \w$Îmubm VWm ñdñW hmoZm emar[aH$ gwI h¡Ÿ& eara H$m Xw~©b,
AñdñW, Am¡a amoJr hmoZm emar[aH$ Xw:I h¡Ÿ& ew^ g§H$ën, empÝV, d¡am½` Am{X
_mZ{gH$ gwI h¢Ÿ & B©î`m©, V¥îUm, emoH$, amJ Am{X _mZ{gH$ Xw:I h¢Ÿ&
Am{Y^m¡{VH$ gwI Xygao àm{U`m| g {o _bVm h¡Ÿ-O¡go Jm¡ Am{X go XyY, K¥V, KmoS‹ >o
Am{X go gdmar H$m, Am{Y^m¡{VH$ VWm Xw:I gn©, {~ÀNy> Am{X Ho$ H$mQ>Zo go hmoVm
170 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
h¡Ÿ& Am{YX¡{dH$ gwI àH$me d¥{ï> Am{X go hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Am{YX¡{dH$ Xw:I A{Vd¥{ï>
Am¡a {~Obr Am{X Ho$ {JaZo go hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
8.nÄMm{^~wÕ`:
AW©-A{^~w{Õ=~w{Õ `m kmZ H$s BpÝÐ`Ÿ& `hm§ Bg H$m AW© ~w{Õ H$s d¥{Îm {H$`m
OmVm h¡Ÿ&
ì`m»`m-(1) nmVÄ Ob `moJ gyÌ, g_m{Y nmX _| d¥{Îm H$m AW© {MÎm d¥{Îm hr
H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& gyÌ 2 _| `moJ H$m CÔoí` hr {MÎm H$s d¥{Îm`m| H$m {ZamoY ~Vm`m J`m
h¡-`moJpíMÎmd¥{Îm {ZamoY:Ÿ&
gyÌ 5-11 _| d¥{Îm`m| Ho$ ^oX VWm CZH$s n[a^mfm Xr J`r h¡Ÿ-
d¥Îm`: nÄMVæ`: pŠbï>mpŠbï>m:Ÿ&5Ÿ&
d¥{Îm`m§ 5 àH$ma H$s h¢Ÿ& `o g^r pŠbï> (Xw:IX) `m ApŠbï> (gwIX) hmo gH$Vr
h¢Ÿ& {MÎm H$s gmå`mdñWm _| JwUm| Ho$ H$maU AÝVa `m {djon hmoVm h¡, dhr d¥{Îm
h¡Ÿ& àH¥${V Ho$ H$maU pŠbï> d¥{Îm`m§ hmoVr h¢, nwéf CÝh| ApŠbï> ~ZmZo H$s Moï>m
H$aVm h>¡Ÿ&
à_mU {dn`©` {dH$ën {ZÐm ñ_¥V`:Ÿ&6Ÿ&
d¥{Îm`m| Ho$ H$maU h¢-1.à_mU, 2. {dn`©`, 3.{dH$ën, 4.{ZÐm, 5.ñ_¥{VŸ&
àË`jmZw_mZmJ_m: à_mUm{ZŸ& 7Ÿ&
à_mU `m gå`H²$ kmZ 3 àH$ma go hmoVm h¡-àË`j, AZw_mZ VWm AmJ_ `m emóŸ&
{dn`©`mo{_Ï`mkmZ_VÐÿnà{V{ð>V_²Ÿ&8Ÿ&
{dn`©` H$m AW© {_Ï`mkmZ h¡ Omo nXmW© H$mo CgHo$ à{V{ð>V ê$n _| Zht XoIVm h¡Ÿ&
eãXkmZmZwnmVr dñVweyÝ`mo {dH$ën:Ÿ&9Ÿ&
{dH$ën {g\©$ eãXOmb h¡ , {OgH$m ñnï> AW© Zht h¡Ÿ&
A^mdàË``mbå~Zm d¥{Îm{Z©ÐmŸ&10Ÿ&
{dMmam| VWm kmZ H$m ghO A^md {ZÐm h¡Ÿ&
AZw^yV {df`mgåà_mof: ñ_¥{V:Ÿ&11Ÿ&
nwamZo AZw^d {H$`o J`o {df`m| H$m nwZ: {dMma ñ_¥{V h¡Ÿ& 5 VÝ_mÌm(V_)
(2) `hm§ àH¥${V Ho$ VÎdm| _| àH¥${V • _hmZ •² Ah§H$ma _Z+10 BpÝÐ`(aO)
5 ^yV (gÎd)
H$ho J`o h¢Ÿ& BZ_| {MÎm `m ~w{Õ H$s MMm© Zht h¡Ÿ& _hmZ² nXmW© H$m ~mhar `m
4.VÎd-g_mg 171
gånyU© ñdê$n h¡, Ah§H$ma ^rVar JwU h¡Ÿ& Bgo AmYw{ZH$ Cî_m-J{VH$s
(Thermodynamics) `m ì`dñWm {gÕmÝV (System Theory) _| ~mø
JwU (Extrinsic) VWm AÝV: JwU (Intrinsic Quality) H$hVo h¢Ÿ& `hm§ JwU
H$m AW© àd¥{Îm `m Ñí` bjU h¡Ÿ& ^rVar d¥{Îm, bjU `m JwU H$mo AÝV:H$aU `m
{MÎm H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& VrZ AÝV:H$aU `m {MÎm h¢-_Z, ~w{Õ, Ah§H$maŸ& Bg_| ewÕ
Ah§H$ma H$s H$moB© d¥{Îm Zht h¡, `m CgHo$ 21 ê$nm| H$s d¥{Îm H$hZm gå^d Zht
h¡Ÿ& {MÎm _| _Z VWm ~w{Õ H$s d¥{Îm`m§ hmoVr h¢Ÿ& ~w{Õ H$s d¥{Îm`m§ 5 D$na H$hr
J`t VWm _Z H$s d¥{Îm`m§ 2 h¢-gwI (ApŠbï>) VWm X:wI(pŠbï> )Ÿ&
gm§»` gyÌ 2/33 ^r nmVÄ Ob gyÌ 1/5 hr h¡-
d¥Îm`; nÄ MVæ`: pŠbï>m ApŠbï>míMŸ&
BgH$s ì`m»`m doXmpÝV _hmXod, {dkmZ {^jw VWm ZmJoe ^Å> Zo ~w{Õ d¥{Îm Ho$ ê$n
_| H$s h¡, Omo Bg g_mg gyÌ _| à`wº$ h¡Ÿ& Bgo `moJ _| {MÎm d¥{Îm H$hm J`m h¡ Omo
dñVwV: EH$ hr h¡Ÿ& gm§»` H$m[aH$m _| 3 àH$ma Ho$ AÝV:H$aU H$ho J`o h¢Ÿ& gm§.H$m.37
_| ~w{Õ H$mogdm}ÀM H$aU _mZm J`m h¡, AWm©V² d¥{Îm `m H$m`© _| `hr g_W© h¡Ÿ&
gm§»`H$m[aH$m 33-AÝV:H$aU§ {Ì{dY§ XeYm ~mø§ ....
!! 37-gdª àË`wn^moJ§ `ñ_mV² nwéfñ` gmY`{V ~w{Õ:Ÿ&
g¡d g {d{eZ{ï> nwZ: àYmZ nwéfmÝVa§ gyú__²Ÿ&&
AWm©V² 3 AÝV:H$aU VWm 10 ~mø (H$aU) h¢Ÿ&
~w{Õ nwéf Ho$ g^r ^moJ gånm{XV H$aVr h¡ VWm àH¥${V nwéf H$m gyú_ ^oX àH$Q>
H$aVr h¡ (AV: ~w{Õ gdm}ÀM H$aU h¡)Ÿ&
(3) ^mdmJUoe Zo Bg gyÌ H$m AW© Bg àH$ma {H$`m h¡-
A{^~w{Õ, A{^_mZ, BÀN>m, H$Îm©ì`Vm, {H«$`m-5 A{^~w{Õ h¢Ÿ&
A{^~w{Õ H$m AW© A{^_wIr ~w{Õ h¡ , AWm©V² `h Adí` H$aZm h¡, Bg àH$ma H$m
g§H$ënŸ& _¢ H$aVm hÿ-§ `h d¥{Îm A{^_mZ h¡Ÿ& g§H$ën H$m _yb `m Amaå^ BÀN>m h¡Ÿ&
kmZopÝÐ`m| H$s eãX Am{X {df`m| _| d¥{Îm H$mo H$Îm©ì`Vm H$hVo h¢Ÿ& dMZ Am{X
bjU dmbr H$_}pÝÐ`m| H$s d¥{Îm H$mo {H«$`m H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
gdm}nH$m[aUr d¥{Îm (AkmV) Ho$ AZwgma BgH$m AW© h¡-
~w{Õ go {OgH$m kmZ hmoVm h¡ dh A{^~w{Õ h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma A{^~w{Õ H$m AW©
172 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
~wÕrpÝÐ` `m kmZopÝÐ` h¢Ÿ& BZH$s g§»`m 5 h¡ VWm CZgo kmV hmoZo dmbo VÎd `m
VÝ_mÌm`| ^r 5 h¢Ÿ&
A{^~w{Õ-- - Am§I H$mZ ZmH$ Or^ ËdMm
CZgo kmV VÎd- ê$n eãX JÝY ag ñne©
Bg ì`m»`m Ho$ AZwgma AJbo gyÌ H$m nmR> ‘ nÄ MH$_©`moZ`:’ h¡, VWm AW© 5
H$_}pÝÐ`m§ {H$`m J`m h¡, {H$ÝVw àm`: `hr AW© 11d| gyÌ -nÄ MH$_m©Ë_mZ:- H$m
h¡, AV: C{MV Zht bJVmŸ&
9.nÄ Mѽ`moZ`:
eãXmW©-ÑJ² `m ÑH²$-Ñe² YmVw H$m AW© XoIZm VWm kmZ Ho$ AW© _| h¡Ÿ& nm{U{Z gyÌ
-Ñeo: ¹${Zn²(3/2/94)-ÑeoaZmbmoMZo H$L²> M-Bg_| ‘e²’ H$m XoIZoo VWm {dMma
H$aZo Ho$ AW© _| ‘H²’$ ^r hm o OmVm hŸ¡& XoIZo Ho$ AW© _| BgH$m ê$n ní` ^r hmoVm
h¡Ÿ& nadÎmu Aja Ho$ AZwgma ‘H²’$ H$m ‘J²’ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& BgH$m AW© {Xì` Mjw
(kmZ) go XoIZm ^r h¡, O¡go JrVm, AÜ`m` 11 _|$ h¡-
Z Vw _m§ eŠ`go Ðïw>_ZoZd¡ ñdMjwfmŸ& {Xì`§ XXm{_ Vo Mjw: ní` _o `moJ_¡ída_²Ÿ&8Ÿ&
Aní`X² XodXode o earao nmÊS>dñVXmŸ&13Ÿ&
_mZ{gH$ kmZ Ho$ AW© _|- AmË_m dm Aao Ðï>ì`:(~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn.2/4/5)
`mo{Z (`w+{Z)-`w H$m AW© h¡-1{_bZm `m {_bmZm, 2.AbJ-AbJ H$aZm,
3.~mÝYZm, {_bZm(AXm{X, OwhmoË`m{X VWm H«$çm{X JUm| _|)Ÿ& {Z H$m AW© àm`:
CngJ© ê$n _| h¡-g_yh, Aml`, ~wamB©, {XImZm, ZrMo H$s Amoa J{V, gÝXoh,
{ZíM` Am{X h¡Ÿ& `mo{Z H$m AW© hþAm-1.J^m©e`, 2._yb ñWmZ, CX²J_ `m H$maU-
gm `mo{Z: gd© d¡amUm§ gm {h bmoH$ñ` {ZF©${V: (CÎma am_M[aV 5/30,
Hw$_magå^d 2/9,4/43), 3.ImZ, 4.Amdmg, AmYma `m nmÌ, 5.Ka,
6.Hw$b, d§e, JmoÌ, _Zwî` `mo{Z, 7. ObŸ&
AÝ` AW©-1.`mo{Z F$½doX H$s dh AmYma-^yV F$Mm h¡ , {Og na gm_ H$m
{Z_m©U hþAmŸ& 2. Vmå~m (V_moJwU), 3.kmZ H$m òmoV-
`mo{Zk© {áH$maU§-doXmo@{Ibmo Y_©_by -§ _r_m§gm gyÌ 2/22 na em~a-^mî`Ÿ&
AV: ѽ`mo{Z H$m AW© hwAm XoIZm-kmZ-AZw^d H$m _yb H$maUŸ& Xygam AW© h¡ ÑJ²
`m AZw^d H$m g_yhŸ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 173
ì`m»`m-(1) ѽ`mo{Z AWm©V² kmZ Ho$ òmoV (kmZmpÝÐ`m§) nm§M h¢-
ZoÌ, lmoÌ, K«mU, agZm Am¡a ËdMmŸ& BZgo ê$n, eãX, JÝY, VWm ñne© H$m kmZ
hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
(2) gm§»`-VÎd-{ddoMZ VWm VÎd-`mWmW©-XrnZ Am{X _| Bg gyÌ H$m nmR>-
‘nÄ M H$_©`moZ`:’-{X`m h¡Ÿ& H$_© go CËnÞ VWm H$_© H$mo CËnÞ H$aZo dmbr XmoZm|
AW© _| H$_©`mo{Z 5 h¢-Y¥{V, lÕm, gwIm, A{d{Xfm VWm {d{d{XfmŸ&
Y¥{V-Omo dmUr H$_© VWm g‘>ën _| à{V{ð>V h¡Ÿ&
lÕm-BgHo$ bjU h¢-AZgy`m, ~«÷M`©, `OZ, `mOZ, Vn, XmZ, à{VJ«h ,hmo_Ÿ&
gwIm-{H$gr CÔoí` Ho$ {b`o{dÚm, H$_© Am¡a Vn H$m AmMaU H$aZm VWm ^ybm| H$m
gwYma H$aZmŸ&
A{d{Xfm-doX kmZ H$s BÀN>m _| à{V~ÝYH$ {H«$`mŸ&
{d{d{Xfm-`h AMoVZ EH$Ëd, n¥WH$Ëd, {ZË`, gyú_, gËH$m`© Am¡a Ajmoä` h¡-
`h OmZZo H$s BÀN>mŸ& Ho$db `hr _moj H$m H$maU h¢, ~mH$s 4 H$_©-`mo{Z`m§
~ÝYZ H$aVr h¢Ÿ&
10.nÄ M dm`d:
AW©-dm`w=dm+CU² `m `wH$² Ÿ& 1.hdm, ndZ, 2.ndZ _mJ© 7 àH$ma Ho$ h¢-
Amdh, àdh, g§dh, CX²dh, {ddh, n[adh, namdhŸ&
3.dm`w Xod, 4. OrdZ H$m AmYma `m e{º$, 5 àH$ma H$s-
àmU, AnmZ, g_mZ, ì`mZ, CXmZŸ&
5.dmV àH$mon `m dmV amoJ, 5. BgHo$ g_mZmW©H$ _éV² Ho$ 49 ^oX H$ho OmVo h¢Ÿ&
ì`m»`m-(1) A{¾, àmU, dm`w, _éV²-BÝh| àm`: g_mZmW©H$ eãXm| Ho$ ê$n _|
doXm| _| ì`dhma {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ& g^r e{º$`m§ VWm {H«$`m`| àmU H$m hr ê$n h¢Ÿ&
n[aM` Ho${b`o àmU H$mo e{º$ (Force,energy) H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡, Omo
AË`ÝV gyú_ h¡Ÿ& dhr e{º$ O~ ñWyb ê$n go {dH${gV hmoVr h¡ Vmo Cgo am{e `m
nXmW© (matter) H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
àmU H$s Xmo Om{V`m§ nm`t OmVr h¢-Am¾o` àmU VWm gm¡å` àmUŸ& gmo_ gd©Ì
ì`mnH$ h¡ (Energy field, force field)Ÿ& {H$gr ñWmZ na CgH$m BH$Æ>m ê$n
A{¾ (potential energy)Ÿ `m AmÝV[aH$ COm© h¡Ÿ& ~mha go gmo_ Am`o `m
AmÝV[aH$ COm© go {H«$`m hmo dh dmH²$ h¡Ÿ& dmH²$ go ì`mnH$ gmo_ _|
174 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
{dMbZ(vibration, fluctuation) hmoVm h¡Ÿ& àmU H$s A{YH$Vm A{¾ h¡,
dmH²$ H$s A{YH$Vm H$m joÌ gmo_ h¡-XmoZm| H$m gÝVwbZ _Z h¡Ÿ&
(2) gmo_ VWm Am¡f{Y-gmo_ go Amof{Y CËnÞ hmoVr h¡-
Ëd{__m AmofYr: gmo_ {dídñËdnmo AOZ`§ñËdJm:Ÿ&(F$H²$ g§. 1/91/22)
{OgH$m nm¡Ym erK« Zï> hmo VWm \$b Xoa VH$ R>hao dh Amof{Y h¡-AmofY`:
\$bnmH$mÝVm:Ÿ& \$bm| Ho$ nH$Vo hr nm¡Ym Zï> hmo OmVm h¡-O¡go Omo¡, Johÿ§, Mmdb
Am{XŸ& dZñn{V H$m nm¡Ym ñWm`r h¡, {H$ÝVw \$b Zï> hmo OmVm h¡-O¡go Am_,
A_ê$X Am{XŸ& AV: Amof{Y`m| _| gmo_ àYmZ h¡, Omo ~b XoVm h¡Ÿ& dZñn{V`m| _|
A{¾ àYmZ h¡, Omo ~w{Õ XoVm h¡Ÿ&
Bg àH$ma àmU Amof{Y h¡, {OgH$m à`moJ 4 àH$ma go hmoVm h¡-
(H$) AmWd©Ur-AWdm©=A+Wdm©-AWm©V² {OgH$m {MÎm pñWa hmoŸ-{MÎm H$mo pñWa
H$a Omo {M{H$Ëgm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& _ÝÌ ~b, _Zmodk¡ m{nH$ `m Ü`mZ go, Hw$N> A§e _|
hmo{_`mon¡{WH$ XdmŸ&
(I) Am{“agr = A§Jr, Ad`dm| `m BpÝX«`m| Ho$ ag goŸ& Ob, aº$, `m gyB©
(Injection) go Ðd nhþ§Mm H$aŸ& eë` {H«$`mŸ&
(J) X¡dr-Amn, VoO, dm`w Am{X Xodm| ÛmamŸ& Ob {M{H$Ëgm, gm¡a {M{H$Ëgm,
Vmn, {H$aUm| go (Infrared), {dÚwV-² Mwå~H$ e{º$, H$ånZ (Mechanical
vibration) Am{XŸ&
(K) _Zwî`Om:-_Zwî` Ûmam ~Zm`r Xdm`|Ÿ&
(3) g¥{ï> H«$_ _| àmU- eVnW ~«m÷U (6/1/1/1) Ho$ AZwgma-
AgÛm BX_J« AmgrV²Ÿ& VXmhþ: qH$ VXgXmgrV² B{V & F$f`mo dmd Vo@J«o gXmgrV²Ÿ&
VXmhþ: Ho$ Vo F$f` B{VŸ& àmUm dm F$f`:Ÿ&
AgV² Ho$ ~mX O~ nXmW© VWm e{º$ ì`º$ ê$n _| Am`o Vmo e{º$ Ho$ àW_ ê$n H$mo
F${f H$hm J`m Omo àW_ àmU hþAmŸ&
_Zwñ_¥{V Ho$ AZwgma(3/201)-Ÿ
F${fä`:{nVamo OmVm: {nV¥ä`mo Xod XmZdm:&Xodäo `íM OJËgdª Ma§ ñWmÊdZwndy e © :Ÿ&
AWm©V² F${f àmU go {nV¥ àmU--Xod VWm Agwa àmUŸ& ~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn. _|
`mkdëŠ` Zo Xod Agwa Ho$ ~mX JÝYd© àmU VWm CgHo$ ~mX _mZd àmU, new àmU
Am{X H$hm h¡Ÿ& `h àm{U`m| Ho$ {dH$mg H$s lo{U`m§ h¢ ,{OÝh| 14 àH$ma H$m ^yVgJ©
4.VÎd-g_mg 175
H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& BZHo$ AdmÝVa ^oX h¢ -F${f 7, {nV¥ 8, Xod 33, Agwa 99, new
5, JÝYd© 27Ÿ&
(4) nwéf H$s H$bm`|-gm§»` _| nwéf H$m AW© MoVZ VÎd h¡Ÿ& {d{^Þ àm{U`m| _|
MoVZ VÎd H$s _mÌm Ho$ AZwgma 16 H$bm`| h¢Ÿ& ñWm`r H$bm Ho$ A{V[aº$ KQ>Zo
~‹T>Zo dmbr 15 _bm`| MÝÐ_m H$s 15 H$bmAm| Ho$ g_mZ h¢Ÿ& ì`{º$ ê$n _| nwéf
H$m AW© h¡, nwa _| e`Z H$aZo dmbm AWm©V² EH$ n[a{Y _| gr{_VŸ& {damQ²> nwéf
EH$ hr h¡ Am¡a gd©Ì ì`má h¡; dh namËna nwéf hþAmŸ& M`Z Ho$ AZwgma CgHo$ 3
ê$n h¢-(1) Ohm§ Ho$db ñWmZ H$m n[aÀN>oX hþAm h¡, ~bm| H$m M`Z Zht, dh
CÎm_ nwéf `m Aì`` nwéf H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& (2) ~bm| na ~bm| H$m M`Z (AbJ-
AbJ) hmoZo na dh Aja nwéf H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& (3) ~bm| H$s J«pÝW n‹S> OmZo na
dh ja nwéf H$hbmVm h¡ Omo ànÄ M (Ñí` OJV²) Ho$ ê$n _| n[aUV hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
ja-Aja {d^mJ H$m dU©Z JrVm 8d| AÜ`m` Aja-~«÷ `moJ _| VWm CÎm_ nwéf
H$m dU©Z 15d| nwéfmoÎm_ `moJ _| {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
Aì`` nwéf H$s 5 H$bm`| h¢-AmZÝX, {dkmZ, _Z, àmU, dmH²$Ÿ&
Aja nwéf àmU àYmZ `m {H«$`m àYmZ h¡Ÿ& BgH$s H$bm`| B©ída H$hbmVr h¢-
~«÷m, {dîUw, BÝÐ, gmo_, A{¾Ÿ&
ja nwéf H$s Aja H$s ghm`Vm go 5 H$bm`| hmoVr h¢-àmU, Amn, dmH²$, AÞ,
AÞmXŸ&
eVnW ~«m÷U H$mÊS> 6 _| BZH$s CËn{Îm H$m H«$_ Am{YX¡{dH$ VWm CgH$s Xmo
Ymam`| Am{Y^m¡{VH$ Am¡a AmÜ`mpË_H$ ~Vm`r h¢Ÿ& Am{YX¡{dH$ _| BZH$m dhr
Zm_ h¡ Omo Aja nwéf H$s H$bm`| h¢-~«÷m, {dîUw, BÝÐ, gmo_, A{¾Ÿ&
Am{Y^m¡{VH$ ê$n _| 5 _ÊS>b h¢-ñd`å^y, na_oð>r, gm¡a, MmÝÐ, ^yŸ&
BZHo$ nañna g§`moJ go CËnÞ hmoZo dmbo àmUr earam| H$s 5 H$bm`| h¢-~rO {M{V
(H$maU eara), Xod {M{V (gyú_ eara), ^yV {M{V (ñWyb eara), àOm
(gÝV{V), VWm {dÎm (gån{Îm)Ÿ& BZH$s _yb H$bm`| ja nwéf H$s hr H$bm`| h¢-
àmU, Amn², dmH²$, AÞ, AÞmXŸ&
(5) àmU VWm dm`w-àmU e{º$ h¡; CgHo$ EH$ ñWmZ go Xygao ñWmZ VH$ OmZo H$m
Zm_ dm`w h¡Ÿ& àmU Ho$ gÄMma H$m _mÜ`_ ^r dm`w `m ndZ H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& _mÜ`_
A{ZË` hmoZo go A{Zb ^r H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& 5 _ÊS>b VWm CZHo$ AmH$mem| H$mo {_bmH$a
176 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
7 bmoH$ h¢Ÿ& CZHo$ e{º$ gÄMma Ho$ _mÜ`_m| Ho$ AZwgma 7 dm`w h¡-
^ydm`wamdh Bh àdhñVXyÜd©: ñ`mXwÛhñVXZw g§dh g§kH$íMŸ&
AÝ`ñVVmo@{n gwdh: n[anydH© $mo@ñ`mX²~mø: namdh B_o ndZm: à{gÕm:Ÿ&
({gÕmÝV {eamo_{U, JmobmÜ`m`, _Ü`J{V dmgZm)
`hm§ dm`w_ÊS>b Ho$ {d{^Þ ñVam| Ho$ Zm_ h¢-1.Amdh, 2.àdh, 3. CX²dh, 4.g§dh,
5.gwdh, 6.n[adh, 7.namdhŸ& `hm§ n¥Ïdr H$m dm`w_ÊS>b Amdh h¡, {Og_| Yy_-
Á`mo{V-g{bb-_éV² H$m g{ÞnmV _oK h¡ (H$m{bXmg H$m _oKXyV,5)Ÿ& àdh Zm_H$
ñH$ÝY dm`w-_ÊS>b Ho$ ~mX gy`_© ÊS>b VH$ h¡Ÿ& gy`© Ho$ AmH$f©U _| J«h MbVo h¢Ÿ&
AV: Á`mo{Vf J«ÝWm| _| Bg dm`w H$mo J«h J{V H$m H$maU H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& CÛh gy`©-
_ÊS>b go MÝÐ _ÊS>b VH$ h¡Ÿ& CÛh H$m AW© D$na CR>Zm h¡Ÿ& `h gy`© go {ZH$bZodmbr
dm`w, àH$me H$m X~md (Radiation pressure), A§Jmao Am{X h¢, VWm dñVwV:
gy`© H$m dm`w_ÊS>b h¡Ÿ& gm¡a _ÊS>b Ho$ J«h àdh _| h¢& ZjÌ _ÊS>b VH$ g§dh h¡,
Omo AmH$meJ§Jm H$m ~mhar dm`w_ÊS>b h¡Ÿ, {Og_o§ CgHo$ gy`© Am{X Vmao h¢Ÿ(_h:
bmoH$)Ÿ&gwdh `m {ddh nm§Mdm§ _ÊS>b h¡ Omo AmH$meJ§Jm H$m AmH$f©U h¡Ÿ(OZ:
bmoH$)Ÿ& nwamUm| _| `h ZjÌ _ÊS>b Ho$ D$na J«hm| (`m Vmam|) Ho$ _ÊS>b VH$ H$hm
J`m h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ D$na gá{f© _ÊS>b(Xmo AmH$meJ§JmAm| Ho$ ~rM H$m AmH$f©U joÌ)
VH$ n[adh h¡Ÿ& Y«dw _ÊS>b VH$ H$m namdh h¡ Omo gånyU© {díd _| ì`má h¡Ÿ&
(6) dm`w VWm _éV²-dm`w Ho$ H$maU AÝ` nXmWm] na Omo Ñí` à^md hmoVm h¡ ,
dh _éV² H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& `h à{V dm`w-_ÊS>b _| 7-7 _mZo J`o h¢, Bg{b`o 49 hmoVo
h¢Ÿ& dm`w A{¾ H$m hr J{V ê$n h¡, AV: A{¾ Ho$ ^r 49 ê$nm| H$m dU©Z dm`w nwamU
AÜ`m` 29- A{¾d§e _| h¡Ÿ& 67 d| AÜ`m` H$mí`nr` àOm-gJ© _| H$hmZr Ho$ ê$n
_| 49 _éVm| H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& BÝÐ Ûmam ~{b Ho$ d§eOm| H$s hË`m H$a ~mU H$s
amOYmZr bmo{hË`nwa na A{YH$ma hmoZo na {X{V Zo H$í`n go BÝÐhÝVm nwÌ H$s
àmW©Zm H$sŸ& H$í`n Zo Cgo gm¡ df© VH$ d«V nmbZ H$aZo H$mo H$hmŸ& BÝÐ Zo CgH$m
Xmof XoIZo Ho$ {b`o gm¡Vbo r _mVm {X{V H$s godm H$sŸ& EH$ {XZ _Ü`m• _| BÝÐ H$o
godm H$aVo g_` {X{V CZHo$ XmoZm| n¡am| na {ga aIH$a gmo J`rŸ& ~mb {~IaZo na
BÝÐ Zo AewÕ {X{V Ho$ J^© _| àdoe H$a J^© H$mo 7 Qw>H$‹S>m| _| H$mQ>mŸ& O~ J^© amoZo
bJm Vmo BÝÐ Zo Cgo H$hm _V amo (_éV²), AV: CgH$m Zm_ _éV² n‹S>mŸ& {\$a CZ
g^r Hmo 7-7 ^mJm| _| H$mQ>mŸ& Bg àH$ma 49 _éV² hþ`Ÿo & à{V dm`w Ho$ _éV² Bg
4.VÎd-g_mg 177
àH$ma h¢(dm`w nwamU 67/122-130)-
1.gÎdÁ`mo{V,Am{XË`,gË`Á`mo{V,(Ana?){V`©H$² Á`mo{V, gÁ`mo{V,Á`mo{Vî_mZ²Ÿ&
2.F$V²{OV², gË`{OV²,gwfU o , goZ{OV², gË`{_Ì, A{^{_Ì, h[a{_ÌŸ&
3.F$V, gË`, Y«dw , YVm©, {dYVm©, {dYma`, ÜdmÝVŸ&
4.Yw{Z, CJ«, ^r_, A{^`w, gm{jn, Amˆ`-
5.B©ÑH²$,AÝ`mÑH²$,à{VH¥$V²,`mÑH²$, F$H²$,g{_{V,g§aå^Ÿ&
6.B©ÑH²$,nwéf, AÝ`mÑj,MoVg²,g{_Vm,g{_d¥j,à{VÑjŸ&
7._é{VX²,gaV, {Xe,`Ow,AZwÑH²$,gm_, _mZwfm{de,(X¡Ë`,Xod-nyd© Ho)$o
`hm§ A{X{V VWm {X{V Ho$ ~mao _| ~hþV _V^oX h¢Ÿ& A{X{V H$m AW© AIÊS> `m
A{XË` h¡Ÿ& A{X{V:-Z Xr`Vo IÊS>çVo BhËdmV²Ÿ& VmÊS>ç _hm~«m.-XmVw§ N>Îo mw§ Z
`mo½`m`m§ n¥{Wì`m§Ÿ& CgH$m CbQ>m AW© Xod h¡Ÿ& àmU AW© _| e{º$ H$m Omo AIÊS>
ê$n `m àdmh h¡, dh A{X{V h¡Ÿ& nXmW©, Kf©U, AdamoY Am{X go Omo AbJ-AbJ
ñWmZm| _| {d^º$ hmo OmVm h¡, dh {X{V h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma {X{V Ho$ gmoZo go `m CgH$m
g_àdmh ~ÝX hmoZo go dm`w _| H$ht àMÊS> àdmh, H$ht {dÚwV,² H$ht CgH$m
A^md Am{X hmoZo go _éV² Ho$ ^oX CËnÞ hmo OmVo h¢Ÿ& ZjÌm| _| nwZd©gw H$m XodVm
A{X{V _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ Zm_ go bJVm h¡ {H$ nwZd©gw ZjÌ _| gy`© OmZo go
(`m ny{U©_m H$m MÝÐ OmZo go {OgH$mo XoIm Om gH$Vm h¡) df© H$m Amaå^ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
nwamZm df© g_má hmoVm h¡Ÿ& gådËga Ho$ AIÊS> H«$_ (A{X{V) H$m ÚmoVH$ h¡-
A{X{VOm©V_² A{X{VO©{ZËd_²(empÝVnmR>, `m F$½doX 10/72/4 )_| h¡ {H$
A{X{V go Xj VWm Xj go A{X{V hþAmŸ& Xj A{X{V ê$n g§dËga H$o {d^mJ h¢
{OZgo H$_© H$m {d^mOZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& `m AmH$me ê$n A{X{V hmoZo go am{e-MH«$ Ho$
{d^mJ h¢Ÿ& XmoZm| hr AWm] _| 12 _hrZo Ho$ gy`© Ho$ ê$n _| 12 Am{XË` h¢, Omo
dñVwV: EH$ hr h¢ (Am{XË` AW©)Ÿ& Bg AIÊS> VÎd go Am{X hmoZo Ho$ H$maU ^r
Am{XË` h¡Ÿ& _Zwî` Om{V _| g_Vm H$m ì`dhma H$aZo dmbo Am{XË` h¢ VWm
ñdm_r-Xmg, amOm-àOm, nwéf-ór Am{X _| ^oX H$aZo dmbo X¡Ë` h¢Ÿ& {X{V go
CËnÞ 49 _éVm| H$s Vah Ñí` OJV² _| 50 àH$ma Ho$ {dn`©`, Ae{º$, Vw{ï>
VWm {g{Õ h¢ (EH$ _yb VÎd {_bm H$a)Ÿ& BZH$m dU©Z AJbo gyÌm| _| h¡Ÿ&
7.F${f ê$n _| eara àmU-eVnW ~«mm÷U (6/1/1/1) _| {bIm h¡ {H$
àmU 7 ê$nm| _| {d^º$ h¡-2-2 {_bH$a 4 _Ü` _| h¢, 2 n{j`m| _| nj n¡Xm H$aVo
178 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
h¢, EH$ nwÀN> `m AmYma ê$n _| ZrMo bQ>H$Vm h¡Ÿ& BZ gmVm| H$m gma ^mJ lr ê$n
go D$na {ZH$bVm h¡, AV: Cgo {ea H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& _Zwî` eara Ho$ Mmam| {d^mJm|
_| 7-7 àmU VWm CZHo$ {ga h¢-
{eamoJhw m -2 Am§I + 2 Zm{gH$m {N>Ð _| -4 AmË_m ñWmZ _| h¢Ÿ& 2 H$mZ nj ê$n
_| ~mha {ZH$bo h¢Ÿ& EH$ _wI nwÀN> ê$n _| ZrMo h¡Ÿ& BZ gmVm| H$s lr go g~H$m gma
^mJ ~«÷aÝY« h¡ {OgH$m gy`© àmU go AmdmJ_Z H$m gå~ÝY h¡, VWm Cg na
ÜdO ê$n {eIm aIr OmVr h¡Ÿ&
CamoJwhm-2 \w$ß\w$g (\o$\$‹S>m)+ 2 ñVZ=4 AmË_m ñWmZ _| h¢Ÿ& nj ê$n go 2 hmW
~mha {ZH$bo h¢Ÿ& nwÀN> ê$n öX` ZrMo bQ>H$m hþAm h¡Ÿ& gmVm| H$s lr H$ÊR> ê$n h¡Ÿ&
dhm§ _w»` àmU h¡, {Og na AmKmV bJVo hr _¥Ë`w hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
CXa Jwhm-2 Šbmo_+2 `H¥$V² (ßbrhm)=4 AmË_m ñWmZ _o§ h¢Ÿ& 2 nmíd© (Am_me`
VWm AmÝÌ) nj ê$n _| ~mha h¢Ÿ& BZH$m nwÀN> Zm{^ h¡Ÿ& BZH$s lr öX` h¡Ÿ Omo
{nN>bo Jwhm H$m nwÀN> h¡Ÿ&
nmX Jwhm _|-2 _yÌpo ÝÐ` +2 AÊS>H$mof = 4 AmË_m ñWmZ _| h¢Ÿ& nj ñWmZ _| 2 n¡a
h¢Ÿ& nwÀN> ê$n _| _bË`mJ H$s BpÝÐ` h¡Ÿ& gmVm| H$s lr _ñVH$ ñWmZr` Zm{^ h¡ Omo
{nN>bo ^mJ H$m nwÀN> h¡Ÿ&
gá{f© _ÊS>b Ho$ Vmam| H$s pñW{V ^r Bgr àH$ma h¡Ÿ& BZH$s lr ê$n _| 8 dm§ Y«dw
Vmam h¡Ÿ&
8.{edê$nr àmU-edê$nr {ed _| e{º$ AmZo go dh {edê$n hmoVm h¡Ÿ& A{¾àYmZ
dm`w éÐ h¡, dh AÝV[aj `m ^wd: _| h¡Ÿ& `h CnÐmdH$ `m amoJOZH$ h¡, AV: am¡Ð
dm`w h¡Ÿ& na_oð>r _ÊS>b H$s gmo_ àYmZ dm`w empÝVàX hmoZo go gmå~-gXm{ed
h¡Ÿ& Aå~ H$m AW© Ob ^r h¡Ÿ&
nÄM_wIr {ed Ho$ ê$n _| 5 _w»` àmU eara _| h¢Ÿ, Omo AmH$me Ho$ 5 VÎd aIVo h¢Ÿ&
gá{f© VWm Y«dw ,`m 7 bmoH$ VWm EH$ _w»` {_bmH$a 8 àmU H$ho OmVo h¢Ÿ& `o eara
Ho$ 7 MH«$m|, 7 YmVwAm| Ho$ AZwê$n h¢-Bg ê$n _| {ed H$mo Aï>_{y Îm© H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
11 éÐm| Ho$ ê$n _| 10 àmU VWm AmË_m h¢Ÿ& VrZ bmoH$m| Ho$ ê$n _| 3 _w»` àmU VWm
3 A{¾`m§ h¢Ÿ&
9.eara Ho$ àmU ^oX-3 _w»` àmUm| Ho$ gå~pÝYV VÎd h¢-¢
4.VÎd-g_mg 179
bmoH$- ^y: ^wd: ñd:
àmU- àmU AnmZ ì`mZ
VÎd- A{¾ dm`w Am{XË`
_ÊS>b - _ybmYma _{Unya {dew{Õ
ñdm{Yð>mZ AZmhV Amkm
Zm‹S>r - B‹S>m {n“bm gwfwåZm
{H«$`m- ídmg {H«$`m _b_yÌ Ë`mJ eara H$m nmofU
nm§M àmU h¢-àmU, AnmZ, g_mZ, ì`mZ Am¡a CXmZŸ& BZHo$ gmW 5 CnàmU
{_bH$a eara H$s 10 _w»` Zm{‹S>`m| go gå~pÝYV h¢Ÿ& 5 àmUm| Ho$ ñWmZ h¢-
àmU-öX`Ÿ& AnmZ-JwXmŸ& g_mZ-Zm{^Ÿ& CXmZ-H$ÊR>Ÿ& ì`mZ-gånyU© earaŸ&
Xg _w»` Zm{‹S>`m§- B‹S>m-dm_ ídmgŸ& {n“bm-Xm{hZo ídmg _|Ÿ& _Ü` ídmg _|
gwfåw ZmŸ& nyfm-X{jU H$U©Ÿ& `epñdZr-dm_ H$U©Ÿ& _wI _| Abå~wfmŸ& {b“ _|
Hw$hÿŸ& JwXm _| e§{IZrŸ&
àmU dm`w àmU H$m {dgJ© H$a nwZ: nyU© H$aVm h¡, ídmg-àídmg ê$n go öX` _|
h¡Ÿ& `h {ZpíMV Ad{Y Ho$ ~mX à`mU H$aVm h¡, AV: àmU h¡Ÿ&
AnmZ dm`w _Zwî`m| H$m Amhma ZrMo bo OmVm h¡, _yÌ VWm dr`© àdm{hV H$aVm h¡Ÿ&
AV: BgH$m Zm_ AnmZ h¡Ÿ&
g_mZ dm`w Im`o-{n`o `m gyK§ o hþ`o AÞ H$mo VWm Cggo ~Zo aº$-{nÎm-H$\-dm`w$
H$mo g_mZ ê$n go g^r A“m| _| nhþ§MmVm h¡Ÿ& AV: g_mZ Zm_ h¡Ÿ&
CXmZ dm`w eara Ho$ D$nar ^mJ AYa Am¡a _wI _| ñnÝXZ bmVm h¡, ZoÌm| _| bm{b_m
VWm __© C{Û¾ H$aVm h¡, AV: CXmZ Zm_ h¡Ÿ&
ì`mZ dm`w A“m| H$mo PwH$mVm h¡, H$ÊR> _| dm`w amoH$Vm h¡ VWm gånyU© eara _|
ì`má h¡Ÿ&
ZmJ dm`w-S>H$maŸ& Hy_© dm`w-Am§I ImobZmŸ& H¥$H$a dm`w-^jU H$aZmŸ& XodXÎm-
{ZÐm, VÝÐmŸ& YZÄO`-nmofU, Kmof (Üd{Z) _aZo Ho$ ~m X ^r ahVm h¡Ÿ&
10 àmU (CnàmU g{hV) VWm AmË_m-eara Ho$ 11 éÐ h¢Ÿ& éÐm| Ho$ AÝ` ê$n h¢-
_pñVîH$ Ho$ 7 àmU-2 Am§I, 2 H$mZ, 2 ZmH$, 1 _wIŸ& ZrMo Ho$ 2 àmU-_b_yÌ
Ho$ Ûma VWm 10dt Zm{^Ÿ-AÝV[aj H$m dm`wŸ& 11 dm§ àmUmË_m h¡Ÿ&
Am{YX¡{dH$ 11 éÐ Vmam-_ÊS>bm| Ho$ ñdm_r h¢Ÿ& Am{Y^m¡{VH$ éÐ h¢-5 VÎd,
180 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
-n¥Ïdr, Ob, VoO, dm`w, AmH$meŸ& gy`©, MÝÐ, {dÚwV² (`O_mZ)Ÿ& A{¾ Ho$ 3
ê$nŸ-nd_mZ, nmdH$, ew{MŸ& A{¾ Ho$ 3 ^oX Kmoa ê$n h¢Ÿ& àW_ 8 ê$nm| _| {ed
Aï>_y{Îm© h¢Ÿ&
{ed _wIm| go àmUm| H$m gå~ÝY-
{Xem`| nyd© X{jU npíM_ CÎma D$na/ZrMo
{ed_wI VËnwéf AKmoa gÚmoOmV dm_Xod B©emZ/B©e
Xodì`m{á B©ída éÐ {dîUw ~«÷m gXm{ed
doX AWd© gm_ `Owa² F$H²$ gd©{dÚmË_H$
_hm^yV dm`w A{¾ Ob n¥Ïdr AmH$me
àmU àmU ì`mZ AnmZ g_mZ CXmZ
eara A“ Mjw lmoÌ dmH²$ _Z dm`w
{damQ²> A“ Am{XË` MÝÐ A{¾ nO©Ý` AmH$me
\$b AZm{X lr,`e ~«÷VoO H$s{Îm© AmoO
àmUm| H$s {Xem`| N>mÝXmoÁ` Cn.(3/13) VWm {ed_wI VÝÌmbmoH$(15/204-
205) _| h¢Ÿ&
11.nÄ MH$_m©Ë_mZ:
H$_© H$m AW© {H«$`m, dñVwAm| _| J{V `m ê$n n[adÎm©Z h¡Ÿ&
AmË_mZ: H$m AW© hþAm AmË_m/ì`{º$/na_mË_m H$mŸ&
ì`m»`m-(1) nÄMH¥$Ë` H$m AW© {Xì` e{º$`m|§ Ho$ nm§M H$m`© h¢-
g¥{ï>, pñW{V, g§hma, {VamoYmZ, AZwJ«hŸ&
(2) nÄMH$_© H$m AW© Am`wdX} _| {M{H$Ëgm Ho$ nm§M àH$ma h¢-d_Z(CëQ>r H$s
Amof{Y), aoMZ (em¡M bmZo H$s Amof{Y), Zñ` (N>tH$ bmZo H$s Amof{Y), AZwdmgZ
(Vob `wº$ dpñV), {Zê$h ({~Zm Vob H$m dpñVH$_©)Ÿ&
(3) gm_doX Ho$ N>mÝXmo½`mon{ZfX²> _| gm_JmZ àmU H$s {H«$`m H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& {ÛVr`
AÜ`m` _| BgHo$ 5 A“ H$ho J`o h¢-1.{h‘>ma, 2.àñVmd, 3.CX²JrW, 4.à{Vhma,
5.{ZYZŸ& O~ Jm`Z Ho$ 7 A“ hmoVo h¢, V~ àñVmd Ho$ ~mX Am{X VWm {ZYZ Ho$
nyd© CnÐd hmoVm h¡Ÿ& g^r àH$ma H$s {H«$`mAm| _| Bgr àH$ma 5 ^oX {H$`o J`o h¢Ÿ&
bmoH$ _| àH¥${V Ho$ gm_JmZ Ho$ Amamoh H«$_ _|-n¥Ïdr {h‘>ma, A{¾ àñVmd,
AÝV[aj CX²JrW, Am{XË` à{Vhma, VWm Úm¡ {ZYZ h¡Ÿ& Adamoh H«$_ _| CgH$m
4.VÎd-g_mg 181
CbQ>m h¡Ÿ& àmU gm_ _| àmU, dmH²$, Mjw, lmoÌ VWm _Z-5 A“ h¢Ÿ& BpÝÐ`m| _|
àmU {h‘>ma, dmH²$ àñVmd, Mjw CX²JrW, lmoÌ à{Vhma VWm _Z {ZYZ h¡Ÿ&
(4) _Yw {dÚm _| gy`© H$mo àmU e{º$ `m _Yw H$m _yb òmoV H$hm J`m h¡ (N>mÝXmo½`
«Cn.3/1-11)Ÿ& Bg_o § Am{XË` Xodm| H$m _Yw h¡, Úm¡ bmoH$ {VaN>m ~m§g h¡,
AmH$me N>Îmm VWm {H$aU| _Yw Zm{‹S>`m§ h¢Ÿ&
nyd© [Xem-F$Mm _Yw_pŠI`m§, F$½doX nwîn VWm A_¥V Ob h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ ag h¢-§
`e, VoO, BpÝÐ`m| H$s e{º$, AÞ Am{XŸ& bmb ag H$mo dgw-JU A{¾ ê$nr _wI
_| XoI H$a V¥á hmoVo h¢, brZ hmoVo h¢, CX` hmoVo h¢Ÿ& AmR> dgw h¢-A{¾, n¥Ïdr,
dm`w, AÝV[aj, Am{XË`, Úm¡, MÝÐ_m VWm ZjÌŸ&
X{jU {Xem _| `OwdX} _YwH$a Am{X h¢Ÿ& gy`© Ho$ ewŠb ag H$mo éÐ-JU BÝÐ-ê$nr
_wh go XoIH$a V¥á, brZ, CX` hmoVo h¢Ÿ& (11 éÐ=11 BpÝÐ`m§)
npíM_ {Xem _| gm_doX _YwH$a Am{X h¢Ÿ& gy`© Ho$ H¥$îU ag H$mo 12 Am{XË`-
JU déU ê$nr _wI go XoIH$a V¥á Am{X hmoVo h¢Ÿ& (12 am{e=12 Am{XË`)
CÎma {Xem _| AWdm©{“ag _YwH$a Am{X h¢, B{Vhmg nwamU nwîn h¢Ÿ & gy`© Ho$
H¥$îU ag H$mo XoIH$a _éX²JU gmo_ ê$nr _wI go V¥á hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
D$na OmZodmbr {H$aUm| _| Jwø AmXoe _YwH$a h¡, ~«÷ nwîn h¡, A_¥V Ob h¡Ÿ&
CgH$m `e Am{X ag jwãY _Ü` ^mJ h¡Ÿ& Cgo gmÜ`-JU ~«÷m ê$nr _wI go
XoIH$a V¥á hmoVo h¢Ÿ& D$na H$s {H$aU| CX`-AñV Zht hmoVr h¢Ÿ& gmÜ` 12 h¢-
_Z, _ÝVm, àmU, Za, AnmZ,dr`©dmZ², {d{Z^©`, Z`, g§g, Zmam`U, d¥f,
à^w (A{¾ nwamU, JU^oX Zm_$ AÜ`m`)
(5) ~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn{ZfX² (3/9) _| öX` H$s {d{^Þ {Xem Ho$ VÎdm|,
{H«$`mAm|, XodVmAm| Ho$ Zm_ Bg àH$ma h¢-
öX`
{Xem- nyd© {Xem X{jU npíM_ CÎma Y«wd {Xem
VÎd- ê$n lÕm aoVg² gË` dmH²$
{H«$`m-Mjw X{jUm Ob Xrjm A{¾
XodVm-Am{XË` `k déU gmo_ `_
(6) ^mdmJUoe Ho$ AZwgma H$_m©Ë_m Ho$ AW©-d¡H$m[aH$, V¡Og, ^yVm{X, gmZw_mZ
VWm {ZaZw_mZ h¢Ÿ&
182 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
(7) eara Ho$ 5 H$_© h¢-~mobZm, nH$‹S>Zm, MbZm, _yÌË`mJ, _bË`mJŸ& BZH$s
H$_}pÝÐ`m§ h¢-dmUr, hmW, n¡a, CnñW, JwXmŸ&
(8) nÄMm{¾ h¢-X{jUm{¾(AÝdmhm`©nMZ), Jmh©nË`, AmdhZr`, gä`, Am¡a
AmdgÏ`Ÿ&
nÄMm{¾ {dÚm-N>mÝXmo½` 5/4-8)
A{¾- g{_Y Yy_ Ádmbm A“ma ñ\w${b“
ÚwbmoH$- Am{XË` {H$aU {XZ MÝÐ_m ZjÌ
nO©Ý`- dm`w ~mXb {dÚwV² dO« JO©Z
n¥{Wdr - g§dËga AmH$me am{Ì {Xem AdmÝVa {Xem
nwéf- dmH²$ àmU {Oˆm Mjw lmoÌ
ór- CnñW Cn_ÝÌU `mo{Z ^rVa H$aZm gwI
(9) nXmW© {nÊS> H$s 5 àH$ma H$s J{V`m§ h¢-1. pñW{V- ñWmZ na ~Zo ahZm
`m g_ J{V _| ahZm, 2.aoIm _| MbZm-~XbVr ^{V `m {Xem _|, 3.Ky_Zm
(rotation)-~XbVr J{V `m {Xem, 4.\¡$bZm, 5.{gHw$S‹ >Zm - `h ^m¡{VH$
{dkmZ Ho$ AZwgma h¡Ÿ& d¡e{o fH$ Xe©Z Ho$ AZwgma ^r Bgr àH$ma Ho$ 5 H$_© h¡-
1.CËjonU (D$na \|$H$Zm), 2.AdjonU (ZrMo {JamZm), 3.AmHw$ÄMZ
({gH$mo‹S>Zm), 4.àgmaU (\¡$bmZm), 5.J_Z (AÝ` àH$ma H$s {H«$`m)Ÿ&
12.nÄ Mndm© A{dÚm
AW©-nd©Z=² n¥+d{Zn²Ÿ& n¥ H$m AW© VwXm{X JU _|-ì`ñV, g{H«$` hmoZm, H$m _
gm¢nZm,O‹S> H$aZm, S>mbZm h¡Ÿ& OwhmoË`m{X JU _| BgH$m AW© h¡-AmJo bo OmZm,_wº$
H$aZm, ajm H$aZm Am{XŸ& H«$çm{X JU _| AW© h¡-ajm H$aZmŸ& AV: nd© H$m AW©
h¡-Jm§R>, OmoS‹ > Am{X Omo EH$ Ho$ ~mX EH$ AmVo h¢Ÿ& AÝ` AW© h¢-1. A“, IÊS>,
2.nwñVH$ Ho$ AÜ`m`, 3.gr‹T>r Ho$ ñVa, 4.Ad{Y, g_` {deofH$a MÝÐ_m H$s
H$bm ~XbZo Ho$ g_` ny{U©_m, A_mdmñ`m, XmoZm| nj H$s Aï>_rŸ, 6.~|V `m ~m§g
H$s Jm§R> Am{XŸ&
A{dÚm-{dX² H$m AW© OmZZm, {dÚ_mZ hmoZm, àmá H$aZm, H$hZm, ImoOZm Am{X
h¡Ÿ& {dÚm={dX²+Š`n²+Q>mn², H$m AW© h¡-1.kmZ, {ejm, {dkmZŸ& {dÚ Ho$ 4 ^oX
h¢-AÝdr{jH$s,Ì`r, dmÎmm©, XÊS>Zr{V (H$mXå~ar)Ÿ& _Zwñ_¥{V(7/43)_|
AmË_{dÚm H$m o OmoS‹ >H$a 5 H$ho J`o h¢Ÿ& 14 {dÚm`| h¢- 4 doX, 6 doXm“, Y_©,
4.VÎd-g_mg 183
_r_m§gm, Ý`m`, nwamUŸ& gm¡ÝX`©bhar, 38 _| 18 {dÚm`| H$hr J`r h¢-4 doX, 6
doXm“, Y_©, _r_m§gm, Ý`m`, nwamU, Am`wd}X, YZwd}X, JmÝYd© doX, Zr{VŸ&
2.`WmW© {dÚm `m AmË_kmZŸ& 3. OmXy, _ÝÌ Am{XŸ& BgHo$ {dnarV A{dÚm H$m
AW© hþAm-1.AkmZ, _yIV© m, 2.AmÜ`mpË_H$ AkmZ, 3.^«_ `m _m`mŸ&
ì`m»`m-(1) àg§J-5-5 àH$ma H$s àmU e{º$, kmZopÝÐ`, H$_}pÝÐ` VWm ~w{Õ
H$s d¥{Îm`m§ ~VmZo Ho$ ~mX A~ CÞ{V Ho$ _mJ© H$s ~mYm`| ~Vm`t Om ahr h¢Ÿ&
_Zwî` H$s Hw$b ~mYm`| 50 h¢- 5 ñVam| H$s A{dÚm, 28 Ae{º$,, 9 Vw{ï>, VWm
8 {g{Õ`m§Ÿ& 4 àH$ma H$s ~mYmAm| H$m dU©Z 4 gyÌm| _| h¡Ÿ& BZ 50 ~mYmAm| `m
àË``m| H$m dU©Z gm§»`H$m[aH$m _| h¡-
Ef àË`` gJm© {dn`©`me{º$ Vw{ï> {gÕçm»`:Ÿ&
JwU d¡få` {d_Xm©V² Vñ` M ^oXmñVw nÄ MmeV²Ÿ&46Ÿ&
JwUm| H$s {df_Vm Ho$ H$maU àË``m| Ho$ 50 ^oX h¢ {OZHo$ Zm_ {dn`©` (A{dÚm),
Ae{º$, Vw{ï> VWm [g{Õ h¢Ÿ&
nÄ M {dn`©` ^oXm ^dÝË`e{º$íM H$aU d¡H$ë`mV²Ÿ&
Aï>mqde{V ^oXm Vw{ï>Z©dYm@ï>Ym {g{Õ:Ÿ&47Ÿ&
{dn`©` 5 àH$ma Ho$, H$aUm| H$s {dH$bVm Ho$ H$maU Ae{º$ Ho$ 28 ^oX, 9 Vw{ï>
VWm 8 {g{Õ h¢Ÿ&
BZ ~mYmAm| H$s g~go AÀN>r ì`m»`m ídoVmídVa Cn.1/4 _| h¡-
V_oH$Zoq_ {Ìd¥V§ fmo‹S>emÝV§ eVmYm©a§ qde{V àË`am{^:Ÿ&
Aï>H$¡ : f{S²>^{d©ídê$n¡H$ nme§ {Ì_mJ© ^oX§ {Û{Z{_Îm¡H$ _moh_²Ÿ&
OJV² `m {damQ²> ~«÷ EH$ MH«$ Ho$ g_mZ h¡ {Og_| 1 Zo{_ (Ho$ÝÐ ^mJ {Og_| Ywar
hmo) h¡Ÿ& BgH$s Zm{^ `m Zo{_ àH¥${V `m XodmË_ e{º$ `m Hw$ÊS>{bZr h¡Ÿ {Og_| VrZ
Koao h¢Ÿ&`h VrZ Koao 3 JwU h¢-VÎd, aO, V_Ÿ& `h VrZ Q>m`a H$s Vah h¢Ÿ& Koam| Ho$
16 {d^mJ h¢Ÿ& 16 IÊS>m| H$mo 16 {dH¥${V _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& Bg_| 8 gyú_ VÎd
h¢-_Z,~w{Õ, Ah§H$ma, 5 _hm^yV-n¥Ïdr, Ob, VoO, dm`w, AmH$meŸ& ~mH$s 8
BZHo$ ñWyb VÎd h¢Ÿ& àíZmon{ZfX² Ho$ àíZ 6 Ho$ AZwgma `h ~«÷ H$s 16 H$bm`|
h¢-àmU, lÕm, AmH$me, dm`w, Á`mo{V, Ob, n¥Ïdr,BpÝÐ`m§(10), _Z, AÞ,dr`©,
Vn, _ÝÌ (doX), H$_©(d¡{XH$ H$_©), bmoH$(`km| go àmá hmoZo dmbo), VWm CZHo$
Zm_Ÿ& BZ IÊS>m| na 50 Aao (50 àË`` `m ~mYm`|) VWm 50 ghm`H$ Aao h¢Ÿ&
184 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
50 àË``m| H$m dU©Z AJbo íbmoH$ _| h¡Ÿ& 20 àË`ao h¢-10 BpÝÐ`m| H$s 10
e{º$`m§, CZHo$ 5 {df` VWm 5 {H«$`m`| h¢Ÿ & em§H$a ^mî` Ho$ AZwgma Bg MH«$ Ho$
A“ ê$n 6 Aï>H$ h¢-
1.àH¥${V Aï>H$-Aì`º$, _hÎmÎd, Ah‘>ma, 5 VÝ_mÌm`|Ÿ&
2.YmVw Aï>H$-ËdMm, é{Ya, _m§g, _oX, ñZm`w, ApñW, _ÁOm, ewH$« Ÿ&
3.Eoíd`© Aï>H$-A{U_m, _{h_m, J[a_m, b{K_m, àm{á, àmH$må`, B©{eËd,
d{eËdŸ&
4.^mdmï>H$-Y_© kmZ d¡am½` Eoíd`©
AY_© AkmZ Ad¡am½` AZ¡íd`©
5.Xodmï>H$-~«÷m, àOmn{V, Xod, {nV¥, JÝYd©, `j, amjg, {nemMŸ&
6.JwUmï>H$-X`m, j_m, AZgy`m, em¡M, AZm`mg, _“b (g§H$ën {g{Õ),
AH¥$nUVm, Am¡a Añn¥hmŸ&
`h MH«$MbmZo Ho$ {b`o {díd ê$n _| EH$ nme h¡Ÿ& `h H$m_Zm `m dmgZm H$m
~ÝYZ h¡ , Omo AZoH$ ({díd) ê$nm| dmbm h¡Ÿ& Bg nme (Chain) Ûmam MH«$Ky_
H$a 3 _mJm] na MbVm h¡-Y_©, AY_©, kmZŸ& `m Xod`mZ, {nV¥`mZ VWm Bgr
bmoH$ _| EH$ `mo{Z go AÝ` `mo{Z _| OmZo H$m _mJ©-`h VrZ _mJ© h¢Ÿ&
Xmo {Z{_Îm-gwI, Xw:I-VWm EH$ _moh Bg MH«$ H$mo Mbm aho h¢Ÿ&
AJbo íbmoH$ _o§ 50 ~mYmAm| H$s ZXr ê$n _| ì`m»`m h¡-
nÄMòmoVmo@å~w§ nÄM`moÝ`wJ«dH«$m§ nÄMàmUmo{_ª nÄM~wÕçm{X _ybm_²Ÿ&
nÄMmdÎmmª nÄMXw:Im¡KdoJm§ nÄMmeX²^Xo m§ nÄM ndm©_Yr_:Ÿ&
g§gma ê$nr ZXr Ho$ 5 ObòmoV h¢, 5 CX²J_ (`mo{Z) go dh doJ g{hV dH«$ J{V
go {ZH$bVr h¡, Cg_| 5 àmU Va§J| h¢, 5 ~w{Õ Am{X _yb h¢ , {Oggo Cg_| 5 ^§da
n‹S>Vo h¢Ÿ& 5 àH$ma Ho$ Xw:Im| Ho$ doJ go `wº$ h¡Ÿ& 50 ^oXm| dmbr h¢, VWm 5 nd© h¢Ÿ&
1.nm§M òmoV-nm§M àH$ma H$m kmZ-eãX, ñne©, ê$n, ag, JÝYŸ&
2.nm§M `mo{Z`m§-5 àH$ma H$s d¥{Îm`m§-à_mU, {dn`©`, {dH$ën, {ZÐm, ñ_¥{VŸ&
3.5 àmUmo{_©`m§-àmU, AnmZ, g_mZ, ì`mZ, CXmZŸ& `m 5 H$_}pÝÐ`m§Ÿ&
4.{OgHo$ Am{X _| 5 kmZopÝÐ`m§ h¢ , do nÄM ~w{Õ h¢Ÿ&
5.nm§M AmdÎm© -5 VÎdm| go gå~pÝYV 5 {df` ^moJŸ&
6. nm§M Xw:I-J^©, OÝ_, ì`m{Y, Oam, _¥Ë`wŸ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 185
7.nMmg ^oX-50 àË``=5 {dn`©` `m Šboe + 28 AempÝV +9 Vw{ï> +8 {g{ÕŸ&
8. nm§M nd©-J^©, {eew, `wdm, àm¡‹T>, d¥ÕŸ&
`m-Šboe, H$_©, {dnmH$, Ame`, _mojŸ&
`m-Ðï>m, Ñí`, XmoZm| H$m g§`moJ, g§gma Ho$ H$maU A{dÚm, Ðï>m Ho$ ñdê$n H$s
pñW{V(g_m{Y)Ÿ&
2.{dÚm-A{dÚm-{dÚm kmZ Ho$ ê$n _| CÎm_ `m A{dÚm _yIV© m Ho$ ê$n _|
Ë`mÁ` Zht h¡Ÿ& B©emdmñ`mon{ZfX² _| H$hm J`m h¡-
AÝY§ V_: à{depÝV `o@{dÚm_wnmgVoŸ& VVmo^`y Bd Vo V_mo ` C {dÚm`m§ aVm:Ÿ&9Ÿ&
Omo _Zwî` A{dÚm H$s CnmgZm H$aVo h¢, dh AÝYH$ma ê$n V_ _| OmVo h¢Ÿ& Omo
{g\©$ {dÚm _| aV h¢, dh Am¡a KZo V_ _| OmVo h¢Ÿ&
AÝ`Xodmhþ{d©Ú`m AÝ`Xmhþa{dÚ`mŸ& B{V ewl_w YramUm§ `o ZñV{ÛMM{jaoŸ&10Ÿ&
npÊS>Vm| Zo {dÚm VWm A{dÚm Ho$ AbJ-AbJ \$bm| H$s ì`m»`m H$s h¡Ÿ&
{dÚm§ M A{dÚm§ M `ñVÛoXmo^`§ ghŸ&A{dÚ`m _¥Ë`w§ VrÎdm© {dÚ`m_¥V_íZwVŸo &11Ÿ&
AV: XmoZm| H$mo hr OmZZm Oê$ar h¡Ÿ& A{dÚm go _Zwî` _¥Ë`w H$mo nma H$aVm h¡Ÿ VWm
{dÚm go A_¥V VÎd nmVm h¡Ÿ&
AJbo 3 íbmoH$m| _| Bgr àH$ma gå^y{V VWm Agå^y{V go _¥Ë`w H$mo nma H$aZm VWm
A_¥V nmZm {bIm h¡Ÿ&
^JdX²JrVm Ho$ {dkmZ ^mî` _| n§. _YwgXy Z AmoPm Zo kmZ {dkmZ H$s ì`m»`m _|
AmYw{ZH$ VWm àmMrZ g^r àH$ma Ho$ AWm] H$m g_Ýd` [H$`m hŸ¡& {dÚm Am¡a kmZ
g_mZmW©H$ h¢ , {OZH$m AW© h¡, EH$Ëd H$m kmZŸ& BgH$m {dnarV, {dkmZ=[deof
`m {dH$ën kmZ, A{dÚm=Anam {dÚm AW© boZo na BZH$m AW© _y‹T>Vm Zht h¡,
~pëH$ EH$ MrO H$mo AZoH$ ê$nm| _| XoIZm {dkmZ `m A{dÚm h¡Ÿ& {dkmZ go XoIm
OmVm h¡ {H$ EH$ hr VÎd go AZÝV nXmWm] H$m {dñVma hþAmŸ& g^r ê$nm| _|
g_mZVm `m EH$ VÎd h¡, `h XoIZm kmZ h¡Ÿ& {H«$`m AmJo ~‹T>Zm gå^y{V h¡
(gÄMa), {dnarV {Xem _| OmZm Agå^y{V (à{VgÄMa) h¡Ÿ& kmZ-{dkmZ Ho$
Bg AW© go g^r n[a^mfm`| R>rH$ {ZH$bVr h¢Ÿ& A_aH$mof Ho$ AZwgma-
_mojo Yrkm©Z _Ý`Ì {dkmZ§ {eën emó`mo:Ÿ&
AWm©V² _moj Ho$ ~mao _| {dMma kmZ h¡ VWm CgHo$ A{V[aº$ {eën `m emó Ho$
{df` H$s ~w{Õ H$mo [dkmZ H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
186 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
^mJdX²JrVm _| {eën emó H$s MMm© Ho$ {~Zm ^r BZ eãXm| H$m à`moJ hþAm h¡Ÿ-
kmZ§ Vo@h§ g{dkmZ{_X§ dú`m_eofV:&
`ÁkmËdm Zoh ^y`moÝ`ÁkmVì`_d{eî`VoŸ(7/2)
^JdmZ² AOw©Z go H$hVo h¢- A~ _o¢ {dkmZ g{hV kmZ {deof ê$n go H$hVm hÿ§ {Ogo
OmZZo Ho$ ~mX Hw$N> ~mH$s Zht ahVmŸ&
BX§Vw Vo JwáV_§ àdú`m_Zgy`doŸ& kmZ§ {dkmZ g{hV§ `ÁkmËdm _moú`go@ew^mV²(9/1)
AWm©V² Vwåh| AË`ÝV Jwá {dkmZ g{hV kmZ H$m CnXoe H$ê§$Jm Š`m|{H$ Vw_ Xmof
Zht XoIVoŸ& Bgo OmZ H$a Vw_ _wº$ hmo OmAmoJoŸ&
AmYw{ZH$ {dkmZ (Science) H$s n[a^mfm h¡ H«$_~Õ kmZŸ& EH$ Ho$ ~mX EH$
VÏ` AmZm {dkmZ `m A{dÚmH$m nd© `m gr_m aoIm h¢Ÿ& {dkmZ Ho$ 5 nd© h¢-
1.A{dÚm-{df`m| `mVÏ`m| H$m {d^mOZŸ&
2.Apñ_Vm-à{V VÎd H$s AbJ-AbJ n[a^mfm VWm ì`m»`mŸ&
3.amJ-AbJ-AbJ VÏ`m| _| g_mZVm Imo O H$a CÝh| EH$ dJ© _|
H$aZm(Generalization)Ÿ&
4.Ûof-AÝ` dJ© Ho$ VÏ`m| go ^oX {XImZmŸ&
5.A{^{Zdoe-{gÕmÝV pñWa H$aZm {OgHo$ AZwgma Z`o VÏ`m| H$mo à_m{UV
`m Aà_m[UV [H$`m Om gH$Vm h¡ &
{dkmZ _| AÜ``Z Ho$ {b`o {df`m| H$mo ~m§Q> XoVo h¢, O¡go ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ, agm`Z,
Ord {dkmZ, `ÝÌ-emó Am{XŸ& g^r H$s ~hþV gr KQ>ZmAm| Ho$ AÜ``Z go
CZH$s g_mZVm Ho$ {Z`_ ImoOo OmVo h¢Ÿ& {H$Z n[apñW{V`m| _| `h bmJy hm|Jo `m
Zht bmJy hm|Jo, `h g_Pm OmVm h¡ , `m à`moJ Ûmam Om§M {H$`m OmVm h¡Ÿ& CgHo$
~mX {gÕmÝV _mby_ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Cg gyÌ Ho$ AZwgma AÝ` H$s ì`m»`m hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
3. A{dÚm Ho$ 5 nd©-A{dÚm`| EH$ Ho$ ~mX EH$ CËnÞ hmoVr h¢Ÿ& CZHo$ AbJ
AbJ ñVam| Ho$ H$maU CÝh| nd© H$hVo h¢Ÿ& BÝh| nmVÄOb `moJ gyÌ (2/3) _|
Šboe H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ-Apì`mpñ_VmamJÛofm{^{Zdoem:Šbofm:Ÿ&
BÝh| gm§»` `moJ _| V_g² Am{X H$hm J`m h¡-
V_mo _mohmo _hm_mohñV{_òmo øÝYg§kH$:Ÿ&A{dÚm nÄMnd£fm gm§»``moJfo w H$s{V©VmŸ&
ñVa/nd© `moJ Ho$ Zm_ (Šbof) gm§»` Ho$ Zm_ (A{dÚm)
1 A{dÚm V_g²
4.VÎd-g_mg 187
2. Apñ_Vm _moh
3. amJ _hm_moh
4. Ûof V{_ò
5. A{^{Zdoe AÝYV{_ò
B©emdmñ`mon{ZfX² _| Xmo J{V`m§ V_ VWm AÝYV_-BgHo$ àW_ VWm ApÝV_ ñVa
h¢Ÿ& `h AbJ AbJ ñVam| Ho$ê$n _| `moJgyÌ 2/4 _| H$hm J`m h¡-
A{dÚmjoÌ_wÎmaofm§ àgwá VZw {dpÀN>ÞmoXmamUm_²Ÿ&
dmMñn{V {_l Zo gmYZm Ho $ AZw g ma Šbo e m| H$s pñW{V ~Vm`r h¡ -
àgwámñVÎdbrZmZm§ VÝddñWmíM `mo{JZm_²Ÿ&
{dpÀN>ÞmoXma ê$nmíM Šboem {df`g§{JZm_²Ÿ&&
g_m{Y `m _moj-H$moB© Šboe ZhtŸ&
VÎdbrZ AWm©V² {dXoh `m àH¥${V b`-gwáŠboe
`moJr-VZw Šboe(nVbm `m {e{Wb)
{df`r-{dpÀN>Þ VWm CXma ŠboeŸ& {d{ÀN>Þ_| EH$ Šboe go Xygam X~ OmVm h¡Ÿ&
CXma _| g^r àH$Q> ahVo h¢Ÿ&
4. ndm] Ho$ ê$n ^oX-A{dÚm H$s n[a^mfm `moJgyÌ 2/5 _| h¡-
A{ZË`mew{MXw:ImZmË_gw{ZË`ew{MgwImË_»`m{Va{dÚmŸ&
OJV² H$m dmñV{dH$ ê$n A{dÚm Ho$ H$maU XrIVm ê$n
A{ZË` {ZË`
An{dÌ n{dÌ
Xw:I gwI
AZmË_ AmË_m
gm§»`H$m[aH$m 48 Ho$ AZwgma BZHo$ ^oX h¢-
^oXñV_gmo@ï>{dYmo _mohñ` M Xe{dYmo _hm_moh:Ÿ&
Vm{_òmï>mXeYm VWm ^dÝË`ÝYVm{_ò:Ÿ&&
V_ `m A{dÚm Ho$ 8 ^oX h¢-àH¥${V Ho$ 8 ^oXm| (àH¥${V, _hmZ², Ah§H$ma VWm 5
VÝ_mÌm) H$mo AmË_m g_PZo go 8 àH$ma Ho$ V_ h¢Ÿ&
`moJgyÌ 2/6 _| Apñ_Vm H$m bjU h¡-ѽXe©Zeº$`moaHo $mË_Vodmpñ_VmŸ&
nÄM{eImMm`© Zo _moh H$m bjU ~Vm`m h¡-~w{ÕV: na§ nwéf_mH$ma erb{dÚm{X-
188 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
-{^{d©^º$_ní`Z² Hw$`m©V² VÌmË_~wqÕ _mohZo Ÿ&
AWm©V,² _moh `m Apñ_Vm Ho$ H$maU XoIZo H$m gmYZ {MÎm H$mo hr XoIZo dmbm nwéf
g_Pm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
dmMñn{V {_l Ho$ AZwgma 8 àH$ma Ho$ Eoíd`© {MÎm Ho$ {df` h¢; BÝht H$mo àmá H$a
XodJU A_aËd H$m A{^_mZ H$aVo h¢Ÿ& AV: _moh ^r 8 àH$maH$m h¡Ÿ&
gwI ^moJZo H$s BÀN>m amJ h¡ (gwImZwem`r amJ: 2/7)
{Xì` Am¡a bm¡{H$H$ (ñdJ© Am¡a AndJ©) Ho$ 5-5 àH$ma Ho$ {df`m| (gwI)- eãX,
ñne©, ê$n, ag, JÝY _| Amg{º$ _hm_moh h¡Ÿ& AV: `h 10 àH$ma H$m h¡Ÿ&
Xw:I AZw^d Ho$ ~mX CgHo$ à{V A{ZÀN>m H$s dmgZm Ûof h¡-
Xw:ImZwem`r Ûof: (2/8)
5-5 àH$ma Ho$ bm¡{H$H$ Am¡a {Xì` gwIm| H$s Aàm{á go 10 àH$ma Ho$ Xw:I h¢,
A{U_m Am{X Eoíd`© H$s BÀN>m nyar Zht hmoZm 8 àH$ma Ho$ Xw:I h¢Ÿ& BZHo$
n[aUm_ go 18 àH$ma Ho$ Ûof `m Vm{_ò hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
~w{Õ_mZ nwéf _| ^r ñd^md go hr ^` `m Ame§H$m A{^{Zdoe h¡-
ñdagdmhr {dXwfmo@{n VWmê$‹T>mo@{^{Zdoe: (2/9)Ÿ&
10 àH$ma Ho$ gwIm| VWm 8 àH$ma H$s {g{Õ`m| _| A{Zï> H$m ^`-Bg àH$ma 18
àH$ma H$m A{^{Zdoe h¡Ÿ& gm_mÝ`V: _¥Ë`w H$m ^` hr A{^{Zdoe _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
{H$VZm ^r emó n‹T>Zo go `h S>a Xya Zht hmoVm h¡-OmZm{_ Y_ª Z M _o àd¥{Îm:Ÿ&
13.Aï>mqde{VYm Ae{º$:
àm`: `hr gm§»` gyÌ 3/28 h¡-Ae{º$aï>mqde{VYmŸ&
Aï>mqde{VYm=28 àH$ma H$mŸ& Ae{º$=e{º$ H$m A^md, {Z~©bVmŸ&
ì`m»`m-28 Ae{º$`m| H$s JUZm gm§»` H$m[aH$m 49 _| h¡-
EH$mXeopÝÐ`dYm: gh ~w{ÕdY¡ae{º$é{Ôï>mŸ&
gáXe dYm: ~wÕ{o d©n`©`mÎmw{ï> {gÕrZm_²Ÿ&&
g^r 28 Ae{º$`m§ ~w{ÕdY `m _mZ[gH$ Aj_Vm/Xw~b© Vm H$o H$maU hmoVr h¢Ÿ&
11 àH$ma Ho$BpÝÐ`dYm| Ho$ H$maU 11 àH$ma Ho$ ~w{ÕdY hmoVo h¢Ÿ& AÝ` 17 àH$ma
Ho$ ~w{ÕdY 9 Vw{ï> VWm 9 {g{Õ`m| Ho$ {dn`©` Ho$ H$maU hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
11 BpÝÐ`dYm| H$s JUZm-dm{Y`ª Hw$[ð>Vm@ÝYËd§ O‹S>Vm@{OK«Vm VWmŸ&
_yH$Vm H$mU n“xËdo Šb¡ì`moXmdÎm©_ÝXV:Ÿ&&
4.VÎd-g_mg 189
BpÝÐ` Ae{º$ BpÝÐ` Ae{º$
lmoÌ d{YaVm dmH²$ _yH$Vm
ËdH²$ Hw$ð>Vm/M_©amoJ nm{U hmW H$s {dH$bVm
Mjw AÝYËd nmX nmX H$s {dH$bVm
{Oˆm ñdmX H$m kmZ Z hmoZm CnñW Šbr~Vm
Zm{gH$m gy§KZo H$s e{º$ Z hmoZm nm`w JwXm Xmof
_Z {d{jáVm -- ---
------------------------------------------
11 BpÝÐ` dY 11 ~w{ÕdY
9 Vw{ï> {dn`©` 9 ~y{XYdY 28 Ae{º$
8 {g{Õ {dn`©` 8 ~w{ÕdY
_pñVîH$ Ho$ D$nar ^mJ (Cortex) H$m gå~ÝY {d{^Þ BpÝÐ`m| go h¡Ÿ& CZ_|
Xmof AmZo go CZ BpÝÐ`m| _| Ae{º$ AmVr h¡Ÿ& _Z ^«y_Ü` `m AmkmMH«$ _| h¡Ÿ& Cgo
_pñVîH$ Ho$ ~m`|-Xm{hZo ^mJ (2 H$_b Xb) Ho$ ~rM gå~ÝY OmoS‹ >Zo dmbo VÝVwAm|
Ho$ ê$n _| _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& _pñVîH$ Ho$ XmoZm| ^mJm| H$m g_Ýd` Z hmoZo go
{d{jáVm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& bKw _pñVîH$ _| {d{^Þ {dÝXwAm| na g§`_ H$aZo go {d{^Þ
àH$ma H$s {g{Õ`m§ àmá hmoVr h¢Ÿ, {OZH$m dU©Z `moJgyÌ Ho$ {d^y{V nmX _| h¡Ÿ& `h
{dÝXw MH«$ H$m joÌ h¡Ÿ&
_pñVîH$ Ho$ {d{^Þ joÌm| H$s Ae{º$`m| Ho$ AZwgma Ae{º$`m§ 28 àH$ma H$s h¢Ÿ&
gmYZm {d{Y`m| Ho$ òmoV ê$n _| ^r 28 e¡d AmJ_ h¢-10 e¡d VWm 18 am¡Ð
AmJ_Ÿ& {ed Ho$ 5 _wIm| H$s Vah _pñVîH$ Ho$ 5 ^mJ h¢Ÿ& Hw$N> bmoJ ^yV Om{V`m|
H$s g§»`m Ho$ AZwgma àË``m| Ho$ ^oX ~VmVo h¢-
5{dn`©` 5 C{X²^X² Om{V
28 Ae{º$ 28 {V`©H$² Om{V
9 Vw{ï> 9 Xod Om{V(8 X¡d {dH$ën H$s JUZm 53 H$m[aH$m _| h¡)
8 {g{Õ 8 _Zwî` Om{V(EH$hr h¡ {H$ÝVw JwU-H$_© Ho$ AZwgma 4 {d^mJ)
(2) `moJ gyÌm| _| ^r gmYZm H$s ~mYmAm| H$m dU©Z h¡ , na CZH$s Hw$b g§»`m 28
Zht hmoVrŸ& BZHo$ 3 àH$ma Ho$ ^oX h¢-
5 ~w{Õ H$s d¥{Îm`m§-à_mU, {dn`©`,{dH$ën, {ZÐm, ñ_¥{VŸ&
190 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
5 Šboe-A{dÚm, Apñ_Vm,amJ, Ûof, A{^{Zdoe(nyd©gyÌm| _| d{U©V)
13 {MÎm{djon-(`moJ gyÌ 1/31,32)-ì`m{Y, ñË`mZ(_mZ{gH$ VZmd), g§e`,
à_mX (AgmdYmZr), Ambñ`, A{da{V (ì`gZ _| Amg{º$), ^«mÝVYmaUm,
AbãY^y{_H$Ëd(_yb CÔoí` Zht OmZZm), AZdpñWËd (CÞ{V H$m_Zm Zht
aIZm), Xw:I, Xm¡_Z© ñ` ({Zamem), A“_oO`Ëd (eara H$s ApñWaVm), ídmg-
àídmg (A{Z`{_V ídmg {H«$`m)Ÿ&
(3) 28 ~w{Õ H$s Ae{º$ Ho$ H$maU ~m¡Õ J«ÝW _hmd§e _| 28 àH$ma Ho$ ~wÕm| H$m
dU©Z h¡Ÿ& `h VrZ AÝ` àH$ma go ^r h¡-(H$) 52 AhJ©U (n¥Ïdr • 252-3) Ho$
JmobmoH$ Ho$joÌm| Ho$ AZwgma 52 e{º$nrR> VWm _mZd eara _| 52 e{º${dÝXw (`m
52 {g{Õ) h¢Ÿ& BZ_| 24 OS> àH¥${V Ho$ VÎd h¢ VWm ~mH$s 28 ~wÕ Ho$ ê$n h¢Ÿ&
(I) gm§»` Ho$ 5 Am`m_r {díd _| 5•5=25 VÎd h¢Ÿ& e¡d Xe©Z Ho$ 6 Am`m_m| _|
6•6=36 VÎd h¢Ÿ& 11 A{YH$ VÎd 11 éÐ h¢Ÿ-4 {ed-e{º$ Ho$ê$n VWm 7 _m`m
Am¡a CgHo$ AmdaU& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ nwéf 17 àH$maH$m h¡ Š`m|{H$ EH$ g_Vb
H$mo {H$gr {M• Ûmam 17 àH$ma H$o ê$nm| go ^am Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& nyar Vah N>m OmZo
Ho$ H$maU 17 H$mo _oK,KZ Am{X H$hVo h¢, VWm AmYw{ZH$ ~rOJ{UV _| Bgo g_Vb
H$m _{U^ [gÕmÝV(Plane crystellography theorem) H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
(J) 7 bmoH$m| Ho$ MoVZ VÎdm| _| àË`oH$ Ho$ {dH$mg Ho$ 4-4 ñVa h¢ Omo 4 ~wÕh¢-
lmdH$-gm_mÝ` gmYH$,~mo{YgÎd-{dH$mg_mZ,àË`oH$ ~wÕ-{dH${gV ì`{º$ `m
~wÕ H$m AdVma, gå`H²$ ~wÕ-na_ VÎd, gyú_ H$mb Ho$ {b`o ~wÕËd H$m Am^mgŸ&
_hm^maV empÝVnd© , AÜ`m` 307-308 _| BZHo $ Zm_ h¢ - A~w Õ ,
Aà{V~wÕ,~wÜ`_mZ,ewÕŸ&
14.ZdYm Vw{ï>:
gm§»` gyÌ 3/40 àm`: `hr h¡-Vw{ï>Z©dYmŸ&
ZdYm=9 àH$ma H$mŸ& Vw{ï>-gm_mÝ` ^mfm _| Vw{ï> `m gÝVmof XmoZm| H$m EH$ hr
AW© h¡- {OVZm àmá h¡ Cggo A{YH$ H$s BÀN>m Z H$aZmŸ& gÝVmof `moJXe©Z _| EH$
JwU h¡ Am¡a Aï>m“ `moJ Ho$ {ÛVr` A“ {Z`_ _| {JZm OmVm h¡Ÿ& `hm§ Vw{ï> H$m
AW© gmYZm `m H$Îm©ì` _| WmoS‹ >m nmZo Ho$ ~mX hr _moj Ho$ gmYZm| H$mo N>mS‹o >Zm h¡Ÿ&
`h gmYZm H$s ~mYm _mZr OmVr h¡Ÿ& AÀN>o AW© _| gÝVmof EH$ gmYZ h¡Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 191
ì`m»`m-Vw{ï> 2 àH$ma H$s h¡-~mø Am¡a AmÜ`m[Ë_H$Ÿ& ~mø 4 VWm AmÜ`mpË_H$
5 àH$ma H$s h¢-AmÜ`mpË_H$íMVò: àH¥$Ë`wnmXmZ H$mb ^m½`m»`m:Ÿ&
~møm {df`mona_mV² nÄM M Zd Vwï>`mo@{^_Vm:(gm§»`H$m[aH$m 50)
AÝVamË_m H$mo g_Po {~Zm Ho$db ~mhar [df`m| go Cna{V H$mo ~mø Vw{ï> H$hVo
h¢Ÿ& ~mhar {df` 5 àH$ma Ho$ h¢, AV: CZH$s Vw{ï>`m§ ^r 5 àH$ma H$s h¢-eãX
Vw{ï>, ñne©Vw{ï>, ê$nVw{ï>, agVw{ï>, Am¡a JÝYVw{ï>Ÿ& BZ Vw{ï>`m| Ho$ 5 Xmof h¢-
CnmO©Z, g§ajU, j`, ^moJ, qhgmŸ& BZH$mo XoIH$a 5 àH$ma Ho$ d¡am½` `m {df`
^moJm| go Cna{V hmoVr h¢Ÿ& 5 àH$ma Ho$ Xw:I h¢-
1.nma-{df` ^moJ nmZo, AO©Z H$aZo Ho$ {b`o godH$m| H$mo H$ï>, H¥${f _| new-
n{j`m| H$mo H$ï>, dm{UÁ` _| J«mhH$m| H$mo H$îQ> Am{X hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
2.gwnma-Cnm{O©V YZ H$s ajm H$aZo H$m H$ï> gwnma h¡Ÿ& Zht H$aZo na amOm,
Mmoa, A{¾, ~m‹T> Am{X go Zï> hmoZo H$m ^` ahVm h¡Ÿ&
3.nmamnma-YZ `m {df` ^moJ H$aZo go Zï> hmoOm`Jm Bg {dMma go d¡am½` hmoZo
na Cgo nmamnma H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
4.AZwÎm_må^-~ma ~ma ^moJ H$aZo go H$m_Zm ~‹T‹ >Vr h¡ VWm {df` Zht {_bZo
na H$m_r nwéf H$mo Xw:I hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Bg {dMma go CËnÞ d¡am½` AZwÎm_må^
H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ&
5.CÎm_må^- ^yVm| H$mo Xw:I Z XoH$a {df` ^moJ Zht hmo gH$Vm, Bg àH$ma qhgm
Xmof XoIZo go Omo d¡am½` hmoVm h¡, Cgo CÎm_må^ H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
àH¥${V go n¥WH²$ AmË_m H$m {dMma H$a `m AmÝV[aH$ H$maUm| go 4 àH$ma H$s Vw{ï>
hmoVr h¡-
1.Aå^ `m àH¥${V Vw{ï>-AmË_m H$mo àH¥${V go AbJ _mZ H$a ^r `h Amem hmoVr
h¡ {H$ àH¥${V ñd`§ {ddoH$ CËnÞ H$amH$a H¡$dë` àXmZ H$aoJrŸ& `h Amem JbV h¡Ÿ
Š`m|{H$ àH¥${V nwéf H$s BÀN>m Ho$ AYrZ h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma H$s {_Ï`m Amem go ldU,
_ZZ, Ü`mZ Am{X Aä`mg N>mS‹o > XoZm Aå^ h¡Ÿ&
2.g{bb `m CnmXmZ Vw{ï>-{g\©$ g§Ý`mg boZo go {ddoH$ {_b Om`Jm Bg Amem go
Cnm` Z H$aZm CnmXmZ Vw{ï> h¡Ÿ& `h {dídmg Bg{bo`o JbV h¡ {H$ g§Ý`mg EH$
{M• _mÌ h¡Ÿ& Cg_| ^r AmË_-gmjmËH$ma Ho$ {b`o YmaUm, Ü`mZ Am{X
Amdí`H $ h¡Ÿ&
192 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
3.H$mbVw{ï> `m _oK-Bg {dídmg na {H$ g_` nmH$a ñd`§ _w{º$ àmá hmo Om`Jr,
CgHo$ {b`o H$moB© `ËZ Z H$aZm Vw{ï> h¡Ÿ& `h H$mb H$m ^amogm Bg{b`o PyR>m h¡ {H$
H$mb g^r H$m`m] H$m g_mZ hoVw h¡- CÞ{V VWm AdZ{V XmoZm| hmo gH$Vr h¡Ÿ& AV:
CÞ{V Ho$ {b`o `ËZ H$aZm Oê$ar h¡Ÿ&
4.^m½` Vw{ï> `m d¥{ï>-Bg ^amogo na {H$ `{X ^m½` _| hmoJm Vmo ñd`§ VÎd kmZ
nmH$a _w{º$ hmo Om`Jr, CgHo$ {b`o `ËZ Z H$aZm ^m½` Vw{ï> h¡Ÿ& `h JbV
{dídmg h¡, Š`m|{H$ nwéfmW© go hr ^m½` ^r hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
BZ Vw{ï>`m| Ho$ {b`o hr H$m_ H$aZm Am¡a CgHo$ ~mX H$m_ N>mS‹o > XoZm ho` H$mo{Q> _|
AmVm h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw gmYZ ê$n H$Îm©ì` H$mo {~Zm Ambñ` Am¡a à_mX Ho$ {H$`m OmVm h¡
Vmo BZ Vw{ï>`m| go Y¡`© VWm empÝV {_bVr h¡Ÿ& AV: Bg àH$ma H$s Vw{ï> e{º$ê$n
h¡Ÿ&
(2) ^{º$ _mJ©-^{º$-_mJ© ^r kmZ _mJ© Ho$ gm§»` `moJ H$m hr Xygam ê$n h¡Ÿ& n§.
JmonrZmW H${damO Zo _¢ (AmË_m) VWm dh (na_mË_m) H$s BÀN>mAm| Ho$ {_bZ go
BZH$m dU©Z {H$`m h¡-
(H$) dh BÀN>m_`•_¢ BÀN>m`wº$ (g§gma, Xw:I)
(I) dh BÀN>m_`•_¢ BÀN>mhrZ (^{º$)$
(J$) dh BÀN>mhrZ•_¢ BÀN>m_` (`moJ)
(K$) dh BÀN>mhrZ•_¢ BÀN>mhrZ (kmZ, H¡$dë`)
kmZ _mJ© (gm§»`) H$s 9 Vw{ï>`m| H$s Vah ^{º$ _mJ© _| ^r 9 ag $VWm 9 ^{º$
{H«$`m`| (ZdYm ^{º$) h¢Ÿ&
ZdYm ^{º$-lr_X²^mJdV nwamU _o à‡mX Or Zo H$hm h¡-
ldU§ H$sÎm©Z§ {dîUmo: ñ_aU§ nmX godZ_²Ÿ& AM©Z§ dÝXZ§ Xmñ`§ g»`_mË_{ZdoXZ_²Ÿ&
AWm©V,² (1) ^JdmZ Ho$ Zm_ H$m ñdê$n, JwU, à^md Am{X H$m ldU, (2)
H$sÎm©Z, (3) ñ_aU, (4) ^JdmZ H$s nmX-godm, (5) nyOZ, (6) dÝXZ, (7)
Xmñ`-^md, (8) gIm-^md, (9) AmË_-{ZdoXZ-`o 9 àH$ma H$s ^{º$ h¢Ÿ&
e~ar àg§J _| am_M[aV_mZg _| am_ Ûmam ZdYm ^{º$ H$m CnXoe h¡-
àW_ ^J{V gÝVÝh H$a g§JmŸ& Xyg[a a{V __ H$Wm àg§JmŸ&&
Jwé nX n§H$O godm Vrg[a ^{º$ A_mZŸ&
Mm¡{W ^J{V __ JwZ JmZm H$aB H$nQ> VO JmZŸ&&
4.VÎd-g_mg 193
_ÝÌ OmZ __ Ñ‹T> {dídmgmŸ& n§M_ ^OZ gmo doX àH$mgmŸ&&
N>R> Xg grb {da{V ~hþ H$a_mŸ& {ZaV {ZaÝVa gÁOZ Ya_mŸ&&
gmVd± g_ _mo{h _` OJ XoImŸ& _moVo gÝV A{YH$ H$a boImŸ&&
AmR>d± OWm bm^ gÝVmofmŸ& gnZohþ§ Zqh XoIV na XmofmŸ&&
Zd_ gab g~ gZ N>bhrZmŸ& __ ^amog {h` haf Z XrZmŸ&&
9 ag `m 9 ^md-am¡ÐmoX²^wVíMûm¥“mamo hmñ`§ dramo X`m VWmŸ&
^`mZH$míM dr^Ëg: emÝV: gào_ ^{º$H$:Ÿ&
_Z H$s 9 àH$ma H$s ^mdZmAm| Ho$ AZwgma 9 ^{º$ H$s {H«$`m`| hmoVr h¢Ÿ-1.am¡Ð,
2.AX²^Vw , 3.ûm¥“ma, 4.hmñ`, 5.dra, 6.X`m, 7.^`mZH$, 8.dr^Ëg, 9.emÝV
gào_ ^{º$Ÿ&
ZmaX ^{º$-gyÌ 56 _| ^{º$ Ho$ JwU VWm {dH$bVm Ho$ AZwgma 3-3 àH$ma Ho$
^oX Jm¡Ur ^{º$ Ho$ h¢Ÿ& JwU Ho$ AZwgma gmpËdH$, amO{gH$ VWm Vm_{gH$ ^{º$
h¢Ÿ& ^º$ H$s {dH$bVm `m BÀN>m H$s Vrd«Vm Ho$ AZwgma ^r 3 ^oX h¢-AmÎm©, {Okmgw
VWm AWm©WuŸ&
15.Aï>Ym {g{Õ:
Aï>Ym=8 àH$ma H$mŸ&
{g{Õ=A^rï> {df` H$s àm{á `m H$_© _| g\$bVmŸ& _moj go WmoS‹ >o H$_ ñVa H$s
CÞ{VŸ&
ì`m»`m-(1) gm§»` gyÌ 3/44 BgH$m g_mZmW©H$ h¡-D$hm{X{^: {g{Õaï>YmŸ&
g^r 8 H$s JUZm gm§»`H$m[aH$m 51 _| h¡-
D$h: eãXmo@Ü``Z§ Xw:I {dKmVm ñdßZ: gwöËàm{á:Ÿ&
XmZ§ M {gÕ`mo@ï>m¡ {gÕo: nydm}@‘x>e{ó{dY:Ÿ&&
BgHo$ AZwgma 8 {g{Õ`m§ 3 dJm] _| h¢-
(1) kmZ gå~ÝYr-D$h, eãX, AÜ``ZŸ&
(2) AmË_ bm^-VrZ àH$ma Ho$ Xw:Im| H$m {ZdmaU-AmÜ`mpË_H$, Am{YX¡{dH$,
Am{Y^m¡{VH$Ÿ& `h VrZ {g{Õ`m§ _w»` h¢, ~mH$s Jm¡U h¢Ÿ&
(3) AÝ` gå~ÝYr-gwöËàm{á, XmZŸ&
(2) {g{Õ H$m AW©-H$B© bmoJ D$na {bIo 8 {g{Õ`m| H$mo {g{Õ H$m Cnm` _mZVo
h¢Ÿ& CZHo$ AZwgma 8 àH$ma go {g{Õ àmá hmo gH$Vr h¡Ÿ-VrZ àH$ma Ho$ kmZ go,
194 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AnZo VrZ àH$ma Ho$ Xw:I Xya H$aZo go VWm Jwé `m {gÕm| H$s ghm`Vm `m XmZ Ho$
H$maUŸ& {H$ÝVw `h ñd`§ hr {g{Õ h¢, CgH$m gmYZ ZhtŸ h¢Ÿ& {g{Õ Ho$ gmYZ
nmVÄOb `moJ gyÌ 4/1 _| h¢-OÝ_m¡f{Y_ÝÌVn: g_m{YOm {gÕ`:Ÿ&
AWm©V² {g{Õ 5 àH$ma go hmoVr h¡ , `m 5 àH$ma Ho$ {gÕ h¢-
(1) OÝ_ go hr (nyd© g§ñH$ma Ho$ H$maU)Ÿ& Hw$N> bmoJm| Zo Bgo hr D$hm g_Pm h¡
(dmMñn{V {_l H$s VÎd-H$m¡_Xw r Q>rH$m)
(2) Am¡fY-Am¡fY go ^r g_m{Y H$m AZw^d hmo gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& AWd©dXo _| 4
àH$ma Ho$ Am¡fY h¢-X¡dr, _mZwfr, Am{“ag, AWd©UŸ&
(3) _ÝÌ go-Bï> Xod Ho$ Zm_ `m ~rO _ÝÌ goŸ& `h AnZo g§ñH$ma, MoVZm
pñW{V, VWm àd¥{Îm na {Z^©a h¡Ÿ&
(4) Vn-`_, {Z`_, g§Ý`mg, Ë`mJ Am{X goŸ&
(5) g_m{Y-YmaUm, Ü`mZ, g_m{Y goŸ&
AÝ` ñWmZm| na {g{Õ`m§ 8 àH$ma H$s H$hr J`r h¢-
A{U_m _{h_m M¡d J[a_m b{K_m VWmŸ&
àm{á: àmH$må`_r{eËd§ d{eËd§ Mmï> {gÕ`:Ÿ&&(A_aH$mof 1/1/36,
^mJdV11/1/4-5, _mH©$ÊS>o ` nwamU Am{X)
1.A{U_m-N>mQo >m ê$n YmaU H$aZmŸ&
2._{h_m-~‹S>m ê$nŸ&
3.J[a_m-^mar hmoZmŸ&
4.b{K_m-hëH$m hmoZmŸ&
5.àm{á-BpÀN>V dñVw H$mo bmZm `m àmá H$aZmŸ(^yV g§`_)
6.àH$må`-{~Zm éH$mdQ> BÀN>m nyU© H$aZm(^yV ñdê$n g§`_)
7.d{eËd-nm§Mmo ^yVm| VWm ^m¡{VH$ nXmWm] H$mo de _| H$aZm(gyú_ ê$n _| g§`_)
8.B©{eËd-^yV ^m¡{VH$ nXmWm] Ho$ CËn{Îm {dZme H$m gm_Ï`©(AÝd` _| g§`_ go)
nmVÄOb `moJ gyÌ 3/44 _| BZH$s {g{Õ H$m Cnm` h¡-
ñWybñdê$n gyú_mÝd`mW©dÎd g§`_mX² ^yVO`:Ÿ& AWm©V², ñWyb ñdê$n, gyú_
AÝd`, Am¡a AW©dÎd-BZ nm§M _| g§`_ H$aZo go ^yVO` hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
BgHo$ AZwgma 3/45 gyÌ _| {g{Õ`m| H$m dU©Z h¡-
VVmo@{U_m{X àmXw^m©d: H$m`gånV² VÕ_m©ZZ{^KmVíMŸ& {nN>bo gyÌ Ho$ AW©dÎd
4.VÎd-g_mg 195
g§`_ Ho$ AZwgma `hm§ J[a_m H$mo _hÎd _| {JZm OmVm h¡Ÿ& AmR>dt {g{Õ h¡-
`ÌH$m_mdgm{`Ëd-BgH$m AW© nyUH© $m_Ëd H$hm OmVm h¡, {OgH$m AW© H$m_ZmAm|
H$m AÝV h¡-nyUH© $m_mo@pñ_ g§dV¥ :Ÿ& BgH$m EH$ AW© {H$`m J`m h¡ , EH$ nXmW©
H$mo Xygao nXmW© _| BÀN>mZwgma ~XbZo H$s e{º$Ÿ& `h AW©dÎd _| g§`_ go àmá
hmoVr h¡Ÿ& Aï> {g{Õ`m| Ho$ A{V[aº$ 29 {g{Õ`m| H$s MMm© `moJgyÌ Ho$ {d^y{V nmX
_| hþ`r h¡Ÿ& AV: `hm§ ~Vm`r J`r {g{Õ`m§ CZ 30 {g{Õ`m| H$m 8 àH$ma go
dJuH$aU hmoZm Mm{h`oŸ&
(3) D$h Am{X {g{Õ-D$h H$m AW© VH©$ `m _ZZ e{º$ h¡Ÿ& Bgo VmaVma {g{Õ ^r
H$hVo h¢Ÿ& `h àW_ àH$ma H$m kmZ h¡ {~Zm emó VWm AÜ``Z (Jwé Ho$ nmg)
àmá hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma H$s {g{Õ`m| Ho$ nmVÄOb `moJgyÌ _| C$XmhaU h¡-
{ZamoY-n[aUm_-{g{Õ-emÝVmo{XVmì`nXoí` Y_m©ZwnmVr Y_uŸ&(3/14) Ÿ&
g§ñH$mam| go {MÎm H$s MÄMbVm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& Cgo emÝV H$a EH$mJ«Vm H$s AdñWm bmZm
emÝV-àË`` h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ gmW {g{Õ`m| H$s BÀN>m Ho$ H$maU AÝV:H$aU CgHo$ {b`o
gMoï> ahVm h¡ dh C{XV àË`` h¡Ÿ&BZH$m gÝVwbZ EH$mJ«Vm n[aUm_ h¡Ÿ&emÝV
(AVrV),C{XV(dV©_mZ), Aì`nXoí`(^{dî`)-BZ g^r d¥{Îm`m| H$m {ZamoY Ÿ&
nyd© OÝ_ H$m kmZ-g§ñH$magmjmËH$aUmV² nyd© Om{V kmZ_² (3/18)
g§ñH$mam| Ho$ AÜ``Z go nyd© OÝ_ H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
kmZ àm{á-àm{V^mÛm gd©_Ÿ² & (3/24)
Ü`mZ H$aZo na _Z _| EH$ Vmao H$m Xe©Z hmoVm h¡ {Ogo àm{V^ Vmam H$hVo h¢Ÿ& Bg
na g§`_ H$aZo go g^r àH$ma H$mkmZ àmá hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
VÝ_mÌm kmZ-VV: àm{V^ldU doXZm Xem©ñdmXdmVm© Om`ÝVo (3/37)
BgH$s {d{Y h¡-gÎdnwéf`moaË`ÝVm g§H$sU©`mo: àË``m{deofmo ^moJ: namW©ÎdmV²
ñdmW© g§`_mV² nwéf kmZ_²Ÿ& (3/36)
~w{Õ VWm nwéf _| ^oX H$aZo na `o {g{Õ`m§ {_bVr h¢-
àm{V^ {g{Õ-AVrV, AZmJV, {dàH¥$ï> (Complex), gyú_ (atomic) nXmWm]
H$m kmZŸ&
lmdU {g{Õ-ZmX, {Xì` Üd{Z, àUd H$m AZw^dŸ&
doXZ {g{Õ-{Xì` ñne© kmZ&
AmXe© {g{Õ-{Xì` Ñ{ï>Ÿ&
196 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AmñdmX {g{Õ-{Xì` ag kmZŸ&
dmVm© {g{Õ-{Xì` JÝY kmZŸ&
_ZmoO{dËd-VVmo _ZmoO{dËd§ {dH$aU^md: àYmZO`íM (3/49)
{d{Y-J«hUñdê$nmpñ_VmÝd`mW© dÎdg§`_m{XpÝÐ` O`:(3/48)
_yb àH¥${V, ñdê$n, Apñ_Vm na g§`_ H$aZo go eara, ~w{Õ VWm kmZopÝÐ`m| H$s
J{V _Z Ho$ g_mZ VoO hmoVr h¡Ÿ(hZw_mZ² Ho$ g_mZ)Ÿ&
gd©kVm-gÎdnwéfmÝ`Vm»`m{V_mÌñ` gd© ^mdm{Yð>mV¥Ëd§ gd©kmV¥Ëd§ M(3/50)
gËd VWm nwéf Ho$ AÝVa na g§`_ H$aZo go g^r ^md pñW[V Am{X H$m nyU© kmZ
hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
{ÌH$mb kmZ-jU VWm CgHo$ H«$_ na g§`_ H$aZo go {ddoH$ kmZ hmoVm h¡ Omo Xoe
H$mb H$s gr_m go ~mha h¡Ÿ&
(2) eãX-eãX H$m AW© emó `m dmUr h¡Ÿ& Bgr ^md go lw{V H$m AW© doX h¡Ÿ&
emóm| Ho$ AÜ``Z go Omo kmZ àmá hmoVm h¡, dh eãX kmZ h¡Ÿ& eãX kmZ nyU© kmZ
Zht h¡, `h Ho$db eãXm| Ûmam ì`º$ h¡Ÿ-
eãXkmZmZwnmVr dñVweyÝ`mo {dH$ën: (1/9)
AWm©V² AW© {dhrZ eãX kmZ {dH$ën H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ&
`hm§ eãX {g{Õ H$m AW© eãX AWm©V² emó VWm CgH$m AW© h¡Ÿ&
CXmhaU-àm[U`m| H$s ^mfm-eãXmW© àË``mZm{_Vao V amÜ`mgmV²
g§H$añVËà{d^mJg§`_mV² gd©^Vy éV kmZ_²Ÿ& (3/17)
AWm©V² eãX, AW©, {dMma Ho$ g_Ýd` na g§`_ H$aZo go g^r àm{U`m| H$s ^mfm
H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
{MÎm H$s Aì`º$ dmUr-àË``ñ` na{MÎm kmZ_² (3/19)
kmZ _| g§`_ H$aZo go Xygao Ho$ {MÎm `m {dMmam| H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
{Xì` lmoÌ-lmoÌmH$me`mo: gå~ÝY g§`_m{Ôì` lmoÌ_² (3/42)
AmH$me Am¡a eãX na g§`_ H$aZo go {Xì` eãX gwZZo H$s e{º$ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
Bgo dmMñn{V {_l Zo gwVma {g{Õ H$hm h¡Ÿ& `moJ gyÌ _| Vma {g{Õ h¡-
VmaH§$ gd©{df`§ gd©Wm{df`_H«$_§ Mo{V {ddoH$O§ kmZ_² (3/55)
{ddoH$ kmZ go `moJr {H$gr H«$_ go {H$gr {df` H$m ñnï> (VmaH$) kmZ àmá
H$aVm h¡Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 197
(3) AÜ``Z-AÜ``Z=AnZr ~w{Õ e{º$ (D$h) +emó (eãX)+Jwé H$m {ZX}e
`moJgyÌm| _| Jwé go {ejm H$s H$ht MMm© Zhr § h¡, {H$ÝVw g^r gyÌm| Ho$ AW©, à`moJ,
ahñ` Am{X g_PZo Ho$ {b`o Jwé H$s Oê$aV h¡Ÿ& Bg AW© _|-
D$h=AnZr {dMma e{º$ nyd© OÝ_ Ho$ g§ñH$mam| Ho$ H$maUŸ&
eãX=D$h+emóŸ&
AÜ``Z=D$h+emó+ àH¥${VŸ& AWm©V² AÜ``Z _| AnZr VH©$ {dMma e{º$ go
emó H$mo g_P H$a CgH$m narjU VWm Cn`moJ {H$`m OmVm h¡Ÿ& Bg AW© _|
XÎmmÌo` Ho$ 24 Jwé gOrd Am¡a {ZOud Wo& `h Vma {g{Õ h¡ VWm hoVw (H$maU)
_mZr OmVr h¡Ÿ&
AÜ``Z {g{Õ Ho$ CXmhaU-
bmoH$m| H$m kmZ-^wdZ kmZ§ gy`} g§`_mV² (3/27)
gy`© _| g§`_ H$aZo go {díd Ho$ gmV bmoH$m| `m eara H$o gmV MH«$m| H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
ZjÌ _ÊS>b-MÝÐo Vmam ì`yh kmZ_² (3/28)Ÿ&
MÝÐ na g§`_ H$aZo go ZjÌ _ÊS>b H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
J{V H$m kmZ-Y«dw o VX²J{V kmZ_² (3/29)
Y«wd na g§`_ H$aZo go CgH$r J{V H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& {H$gr dñVw H$mo pñWa _mZZo
na CgH$s VwbZm _| AÝ` dñVwAm| H$s J{V _mnr OmVr h¡Ÿ& AWdm, Y«wd Vmam `m
gZmVZ {díd na g§`_ H$aZo go n[adÎm©Zerb dñVwAm| H$m ñWmZ `m {Xem
n[adÎm©Z OmZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& eara H$m Y«dw Amkm-MH«$ `m ZmgmJ« h¡-Cg na
g§`_ H$aZo go AnZm `m Xygao H$m ^{dî` OmZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
(4) gwöËàm{á-`m gå`H²$ {g{Õ-dmMñn{V {_l Ho$ AZwgma Jwé-{eî` VWm
ghmÜ`m[`Am| go {d_e© H$a EH$ _V hmoH$a Omo kmZ àmá hmoVm h¡ , dh gwöV²àm{á
h¡Ÿ& BgH$m empãXH$ AW© Xygam| H$mo à^m{dV H$aZm, _¡Ìr H$aZm, CZHo$ {dMma
OmZZm Am{X h¡Ÿ& `moJ-gyÌ Ho$ CXmhaU-
Xygao H$m _Zmo^md OmZZm-àË``ñ` na{MÎmkmZ_² (3/19)
-{MÎmd¥{Îm (hmd-^md) H$m gmjmV² H$aZo go Xygao Ho$ {MÎm H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
gwöV² {g{Õ-_¡Í`m{Xfw ~bm{Z (3/23)
-_¡Ìr Am{X _| g§`_ H$aZo go _¡Ìr Am{X ~b àmá hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
(1/32) Ho$ AZwgma _¡Ìr, H$éUm, _w{XVm, Cnojm-_| àW_ VrZ na g§`_ H$aZo
198 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
go àm{U`m| H$s _¡Ìr, Xw:I Xya H$aZo H$s e{º$ VWm g_^md hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Hw$N> H$m
{dMma h¡ {H$ Cnojm na g§`_ H$aZo go _Zmo~b `m AmË_~b {_bVm h¡Ÿ&
(5) XmZ `m _hm_w{XV-X¡n² emoYZo (YmVwnmR> 1/656) Ho$ AZwgma BgH$m AW©
g§e`, {dnarV kmZ VWm H$m_ZmAm| H$mo ewÕ H$a {ddoH$ H$s àm{á h¡ (dmMñn{V
{_l) & AÝ` AW© h¡ Jwé `m {gÕ Ho$ AZwJ«h go(e{º$nmV, ì`{º$JV {ZXo©e)
àmá {g{ÕŸ& EH$ AÝ` _V h¡-YZ àm{á H$s {g{Õ {Oggo bmoJm| H$mo BgH$m XmZ
{X`m Om gHo$Ÿ& YZ àm{á H$s {g{Õ`m| àm{á VWm àmH$må` H$m dU©Z hmoMwH$m h¡Ÿ&
AÝ` CXmhaU h¡ , {gÕm| H$m Xe©Z-_yY© (_yYm©) Á`mo{V{f {gÕ Xe©Z_² (3/33)
_yYm© `m H$nmb Ho$ ~«÷aÝY« _| àH$me na g§`_ H$aZo go Úm¡ VWm n¥Ïdr bmoH$ Ho$
~rM Ky_Zo dmbo {gÕm| H$m Xe©Z hmoVm h¡ VWm CZgo CnXoe `m AZwJ«h {_bVm h¡Ÿ&
(6) VrZ àH$ma Ho$ Xw:Im|-AmÜ`mpË_H$, Am{Y^m¡{VH$ VWm Am{YX¡{dH$ H$mo Xya
H$aZo dmbr {g{Õ`m| H$m Zm_ h¡-à_moX, _w{XV, VWm _moX_mZŸ& `o {g{Õ`m§ {g\©$
H$m`© h¢, AWm©V² AnZo {b`o Cn`moJr h¢Ÿ&
à_moX-AmÜ`mpË_H$ H$m AW© AnZo eara VWm _Z H$m H$ï> Xya H$aZm `m CgH$m
~b ~‹T>mZm h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ CXmhaU A{U_m, _{h_m, J[a_m VWm b{K_m h¢Ÿ& AÝ`-
eara Xem kmZ-Zm{^MH«$o H$m`ì`yh kmZ_²(3/29)
Zm{^-MH«$ _| g§`_ H$aZo go eara H$o ì`yh AWm©V² 7 YmVwAm| H$s pñW{V VWm 3
Xmofm|-dmV, {nÎm, H$\$ H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
^yI ß`mg {_Q>mZm-H$ÊR>H$y no jwpËnnmgm {Zd¥{Îm: (3/30)
H$ÊR>H$y n (Or^ Ho$ ZrMo H$ÊR> Ho$ Zr Mo H$m J‹T>m) _| àmU Am{X H$m ñne© hmoZo go
^yI-ß`mg bJVr h¡Ÿ& Cg na g§`_ H$aZo go ^yI-ß`mg Zht bJVrŸ& AÝ` _V h¡
{H$ {dew{Õ MH«$ H$m AmH$me VÎd Ho$ gmW gå~ÝY h¡, Cg na Ü`mZ H$aZo go
AmH$me H$s àmU e{º$ ({dÝXw VWm AmkmMH«$ hmoH$a) `m A_¥V AmVm h¡Ÿ, {Oggo
eara H$m g~ àH$ma go nmofU hmoVm h¡Ÿ; AV: ^yI ß`mg Zht bJVrŸ&
pñWaVm-Hy$_© ZmS>çm§ ñW¡`_© Ÿ² (3/31)Ÿ&
H$ÊR>-Hy$n Ho$ ZrMo N>mVr _| H$Nw>E Ho$ AmH$ma dmbr Zm‹S>r h¡, Cg_| g§`_ H$aZo go
pñWaVm hmoVr hŸ& Hy$_© Zm‹S>r H$m H$m_ Am§I H$s nbH$ VWm nwVbr H$m H$m_ H$aZm
h¡Ÿ(Hy$_© dm`w)Ÿ& ^JdmZ H$m Hy$_© -AdVma g_wÐ-_ÝWZ Ho$ g_` _H$amMb H$mo
pñWa H$aZo Ho$ {b`o hþAm WmŸ& eara _| _ÝXamMb _oéXÊS> h¡ VWm ídmg-àídmg
4.VÎd-g_mg 199
CgH$mo Kw_mZo dmbo h¢Ÿ& AV: CgH$m AmYma ñdm{Yð>mZ MH«$ Hy$_© Zm‹S>r H$m AmYma
hmoZm Mm{h`oŸ& Hy$_© Ob-ñWb XmoZm| H$m Ord h¡, AV: CgH$s e{º$ _ybmYma-
ñdm{Yð>mZ (^y VWm Ob VÎd) Ho$ ~rM _| hmoZr Mm{h`oŸ& {H«$`m`moJ gmYZm _| Bgo
H$m`m ñW¡`© H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
(7) Am{Y^m¡{VH$ Xw:I {ZdmaU `m _w{XV {g{Õ-_w{XV H$m AW© h¡,~mhar nXmWm]
go àgÞŸ& ~mhar nXmWm] Ho$ H$maU Omo H$îQ> hmoVm h¡, Cgo Xya H$aZo H$s e{º$ hr
`h {g{Õ h¡Ÿ& àH$må` `m d{eËd Bg àH$ma H$s {g{Õ h¢Ÿ& AÝ` CXmhaU h¢-
eara ~b-~bofw hpñV~bmXr{Z (3/25)
~b _| g§`_ H$aZo go hmWr Am{X H$m ~b àmá hmoVm h¡Ÿ& AÝ` n{j`m| `m ObMam|
H$m ~b ^r Bgr àH$ma àmá hmoVm h¡Ÿ, {Oggo Ob, Wb, dm`w _| {dMaU VWm H$m`©
H$aZo H$s e{º$ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
_mJ© ~mYmAm| go D$na CR>Zm-CXmZO`mÁObn‘>H$ÊQ>H$m{Xîdg“
CËH«$mpÝVíM(3/40)
CXmZ dm`w H$mo OrVZo go Ob, H$sM‹S>, H$ÊQ>H$ Am{X nXmWm] H$m `moJr go ñne© Zht
hmoVm VWm dh D$na CR> gH$Vm h¡Ÿ (`m àmU dm`w H$mo de _| H$a BÀN>m_¥Ë`w àmá
H$aVm h¡)Ÿ& Bgr{b`o BgH$m Zm_ CXmZ dm`w h¡Ÿ&
ÁdbZ-g_mZ O`mÁÁdbZ_² (3/41)
g_mZ dm`w OrVZo go eara _| go VoO {ZH$bVm h¡Ÿ& `m Vmn Áda na {Z`ÝÌUŸ&
(8) Am{YX¡{dH$ Xw:I {ZdmaU `m _moX_mZ-AmH$mer` `m {Xì` H$maUm| na
{dO` go CZgo CËnÞ Xw:I Xya hmoVo h¢Ÿ& dh {gÕ g~ àH$ma go àgÞ hmoVm
h¡Ÿ(_moX_mZ)& B©{eËd {g{Õ BgH$m Ma_ ê$n h¡Ÿ& AÝ` CXmhaU h¢-
AmH$me {g{Õ-H$m`mH$me`mo: gå~ÝY g§`_mëbKwVby g_mnÎmoíMmH$me J_Z_²
(3/43)-eara VWm AmH$me Ho$ nañna gå~ÝY na g§`_ H$aZo go VWm ê$B©
O¡go nXmW© H$s YmaUm go AmH$me _| J_Z hmo gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
naH$m`m àdoe-~ÝYZH$maU e¡{Wë`mV² àMma g§dXo ZmÀM {MÎmñ` na eara àdoe:
(3/39)-~ÝYZ H$m H$maU {e{Wb H$a {MÎm Ho$ àdoe {ZJ©_ Zm‹S>r Ho$ kmZ go
{MÎm Xygao eara _| àdoe H$a gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
^yVO`-ñWyb ñdê$n gyú_mÝd`mW©dËd g§`_mV² ^yV O`:(3/45)
200 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
nm§M VÎdm| H$s ñWyb, ñdê$n, gyú_ AÝd` Am¡a AW©dËd AdñWmAm| na g§`_ H$aZo
go ^yVm| na O` hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Bgo B©{eËd ^r H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡ ({H$gr nXmW© H$m
{Z_m©U `m Zme)Ÿ&
AÝVYm©Z-H$m` ê$ng§`_mV² gX²Jm« øe{º$ñVå^o MjwîàH$megåà`moJ@o ÝVYm©Z_²
(3/21)
eara Ho$ ê$n _| g§`_ H$aZo go CgH$s J«mø e{º$ H$m ñVå^ hmo OmVm h¡, AV:
Cgo Xygao H$s Am§I Zht nH$‹S> nmVr h¡Ÿ& Cgr àH$ma eãXm{X {df`m| na g§`_ H$aZo
go `moJr Ho$ eara Ho$ eãX, ñne©, ê$n, ag, JÝY H$mo nmg _| ~¡R>m AmX_r Zht
OmZ gH$VmŸ&
{dXoh {g{Õ-~{haH$pënVm d¥{Îm_©hm{dXohm VV: àH$memdaUj`: (3/44)
_hm{dXoh (eara hrZ AdñWm) _| MoVZm eara go ~mha ahVr h¡Ÿ& Cg na g§`_
H$aZo go kmZ Ho$ àH$me H$mo {N>nmZo dmbm AmdaU (Vm_{gH$ ñWyb eara H$s
~mYm) Zï> hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
(4) {g{Õ Ho$ ^oX VWm ñdê$n-{g{Õ Ho$A{U_m Am{X ^oX à{gÕ h¢Ÿ& `hm§ D$h
Am{X ^oX h¢-XmoZm| H$s g§»`m 8 h¡Ÿ&
Š`m do EH$ hr h¢ ?
{g{Õ H$maU, H$m`© h¡ `m CgH$s e{º$-_mÌ h¡?
BZ àíZm| H$m nyU© g_mYmZ Zht hmo gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ {g{Õ nmZo na hr BZH$m
AW©, {d{Y Am{X ñnï> hmoJrŸ&
gånyU© {gÕ na_-nwéf Ho$ A{V[aº$ H$moB© Zht h¡Ÿ& BZH$m n[aM` _mÌ ^r
gå^dV: Ho$db H${nb H$mo hr Wm Omo Am{X-{dÛmZ² VWm ^JdmZ² Ho$ gm§»`
AdVma WoŸ&
à{V {g{Õ Hw$N> A§e VH$ hr àmá hmoVr h¡Ÿ& `moJ gyÌm| Ho$ AZwgma CZH$m dU©Z
gmYZm {d{Y VWm MoVZm ñVa Ho$ AZwgma {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ& gm§»`H$m[aH$m _| `h
gmYZm H«$_ go {X`m J`m h¡Ÿ& `h H$maU-H$m`© H$m ^r H«$_ h¡Ÿ& `moJ-gyÌ _|
A{U_m Am{X H$m dU©Z àm`: AÝV _| h¡Ÿ& CZ XmoZm| Ho$ g^r gå~pÝYV nXm| H$m
àm`: g_mZ AW© _mZ H$a {g{Õ`m| Hm ê$n H$wN> A§e _| g_Pm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
BZH$s VwbZm gmaUr ê$n _| H$maU VWm {d{Y H$o gmW H$s Om ahr h¡-
4.VÎd-g_mg 201
gm§»` d{U©V {g{Õ `moJ d{U©V {g{Õ
H$maU 1.D$h (g§ñH$ma go) 1.A{U_m-AUmoaUr`mZ²=AmË_m
(Moï>m) 2.eãX(+ emó go) 2._{h_m-_hV² kmZ-doX
3.AÜ``Z(+Jwé go) 3.J[a_m-Jwé VÎd
H$m`© 4.AmÜ`mpË_H$-AmÝV[aH$ Xw:I 4.b{K_m-eara Ho$ ^rVar A“
(ñd`§ H$m 5.Am{Y^m¡{VH$-~mhar nXmW© 5.àm{á-~mhar nXmW© H$s àm{á
bm^) 6.Am{YX¡{dH$-AmH$mer` e{º$ 6. àmH$må`-H$ënd¥j ({Xì` e{º$)
H$m`©+H$maU 7.gwöV²àm{á-AÝ` go g_Ýd` 7.B©{eËd-bmoH$m| na gm_mÝ` à^md
AÝ` H$mbm^ 8.XmZ-AÝ` H$m H$ë`mU 8.d{eËd-nyU©V`m de _| H$aZm `m gwYma
ì`mH$aU _hm^mî`-ajmohmJ_b¿dgÝXohm: à`moOZ_²(nñnem{•H$)-AWm©V²
ì`mH$aU Ho$ 5 CÔoí` h¢- ajm,D$h, AmJ_, bKw, AgÝXohŸ& `hm§-
AmJ_=eãX+Jwé go AÜ``Z&
bKw=b{K_m, AmÝV[aH$ gwIŸ&
AgÝXoh-kmZ àm{á, {Xì` e{º$Ÿ&
ajm-AÝ` H$m bm^Ÿ&
(5) A‘x>e-gm§»`H$m[aH$m Ho$ AZwgma BgHo$ nydm}º$ 3 A‘x>e h¢-
{dn`©` (5), Ae{º$ (28), Vw{ï> (9)Ÿ& ñd`§ {g[Õ`m§ (8) ^r `moJ Ho$ bú`
_moj (AWdm gm§»` Ho$ AZwgma kmZ àm{á) _| A‘x>e `m ~mYm h¢Ÿ-
Vo g_mYmdwngJm© ì`wËWmZo {gÕ`: (3/38)Ÿ&
`o {g{Õ`m§ _mZ{gH$ e{º$ Ho$ {dH$mg go hmoVr h¢ {H$ÝVw g_m{Y nmZo _| ~mYm h¢Ÿ&
àbmo^Z go _Zwî` g_m{Y H$m Aä`mg N>mS‹o > XoVm h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma 5+28+9+8=50
A‘x>e g_m{Y `m kmZ AdñWm nmZo _| h¢Ÿ&
16.Xe _m¡{bH$mWm©:
eãXmW©-Xe=Xem, ê$n `m pñW{VŸ& BZH$s g§»`m Xe hmoVr h¡, AV: Xe H$m AW©
10 h¡Ÿ&
_m¡{bH$-_yb dñVw H$mŸ& `hm§ _yb dñVw`| Xmo h¢-nwéf VWm _yb àH¥${V (`m àYmZ)Ÿ&
`hm§ BgH$m AÝ` nmR> _y{bH$ h¡ {OgH$m AW© ^r _yb^yV h¡Ÿ& gm§»` gyÌ 1/67 _|
BgH$m AW© g_Pm`m J`m h¡ {H$ {Og nXmW© H$s CËn{Îm H$m _yb H$maU Zht h¡,
Cgo _yb (àH¥${V) H$hVo h¢Ÿ-_ybo _ybm^mdmX_yb_²Ÿ&
202 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
BgH$s ì`m»`m gå~ÝYr amOdm{Îm©H$ H$s n§{º$ _| _m¡{bH$mWm©: nmR> h¡Ÿ& CgHo$
~Xbo My{bH$mWm©: gm§»`H$m[aH$m H$s `w{º$Xr{nH$m ì`m»`m _| h¡Ÿ& amOmZH$ aËZmH$a
H¥$V ha{dO` H$mì` _| ^r àH¥${V nwéf dU©Z _| My{bH$mW© H$m à`moJ hþAm h¡-
àH¥$Vo: n¥WH²$ àH¥${V eyÝ`Vm§ JV:, à{V{fÕ dñVw JVY_© {ZpîH«$`:Ÿ&
nwéfñËd_od {H$b nÄMqdeH$:, ñ\w$Q> My{bH$mW© dMZ¡{Z©JÚVoŸ&&
_y{bH$=_yb+BZ², _m¡{bH$:=_yb+R>Äm²Ÿ&
My{bH$-Mwb²+AZ²=My‹S>m (`hm§ ‘b’ H$m ‹ ‘‹S>’ hmoVm h¡),
My{bH$=Mwb²+BZ²-_w»`, erf© `m _ybŸ&
AW©-Ame`, à`moOZ, bú`, CÔoí`, 2.H$maU, 3.dñVw `m {df`, 4. YZ gån{Îm,
5.VmËn`©, gmam§e, 6.Cn`moJŸ&
ì`m»`m-(1) Xg AW© Š`m|-`hm§ _y{bH$mWm©: H$m AW© _yb Ho$ JwU h¢Ÿ& nXmW© Hm$
Y_© ^r CgH$m JwU H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& _Zwñ_¥{V _| Y_© Ho$ Xg bjU ~Vm`o J`o h¢-
Y¥{V j_m X_mo ñVo`§ em¡M{_pÝÐ` {ZJ«h:Ÿ&
Yr{d©Úm gË`_H«$moYmo XeH§$Y_© bjU_²Ÿ&&(6/92)
`moJ-emó _| `_ VWm {Z`_-`o Y_© Ho$ nmbZ ê$n `moJ Ho$ àW_ Xmo A“ h¢Ÿ& _Z
Ho$ ^r 5-5 AWm©V² Hw$b 10 A“ h¢-
Aqhgm gË`m ñVo`~«÷M`©mn[aJ«hm `_m: (2/30)
em¡M gÝVmof Vn: ñdmÜ`m`oída à{UYmZm{Z {Z`_m: (2/32)
`_ {ZfoY VWm {Z`_ CgH$m {dnarV {d{Y h¡Ÿ& Bgr àHma `hm§ ~Vm`o J`o _yb Ho$
Y_m] _| Hw$N> nañna {dnarV XrIVo h¢Ÿ& _Zwñ_¥{V VWm `moJgyÌ Ho$ bjU àm`:
g_mZ h¢-
_Zw `moJ _Zw `moJ
Y¥{V ---- BpÝÐ` {ZJ«h ~«÷M`©
j_m ---- Yr ñdmÜ`m`
X_ Vn {dÚm ----
AñVo` AñVo` gË` gË`
em¡M em¡M AH«$moY Aqhgm
nwéf VWm _yb àH¥${V H$mo e¡d Xe©Z _| {ed VWm e{º$ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& BZHo$
^oX 11 h¢ Omo e¡d Xe©Z Ho$ 11 A{V[aº$ VÎd h¢Ÿ& na_{ed H$mo N>mo‹S>H$a 10 ^oX
4.VÎd-g_mg 203
`hm§ ^r h¢Ÿ& `m {ed Ho$ 5 _wIm| H$s 2-2 gr_mAm| Ho$ ê$n _| 10 _hm{dÚm`| h§¢, Omo
10 _m¡{bH$ AWm] Ho$ g_mZ 5 nañna {dnarV gmYZm`| h¢Ÿ&
10 e¡dmJ_m| Ho$ g_mZ {dMma H$aZo H$s 10 {d{Y`m§ h¢ , {OgHo$ AZwgma 10
bjU h¢Ÿ&
gm§»`gyÌ `m gm§»`H$m[aH$m _| H$ht ^r Xg bjUm| H$m dU©Z Zht h¡Ÿ& na
ApÝV_ 72 dt gm§»`H$m[aH$m _| Bgo f{ï>VÝÌ na AmYm[aV ~Vm`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
BgH$s VÎdH$m¡_Xw r -ì`m»`m _| dmMñn{V {_l Zo H$hm h¡ {H$ 25 VÎdm| Ho$ 60 JwU
h¢Ÿ& Bg_| _yb (àH¥${V+nwéf) Ho$ A{V[aº$ AÝ` 23 VÎdm| Ho$ 50 JwUm| H$m dU©Z
hmo MwH$m, ~mH$s 10 JwU _yb VÎdm| Ho$ h¢Ÿ& AÝ` _| 50 JwU h¢-5 {dn`©` (A{dÚm),
9 Vw{ï>, H$aUm| H$s 28 Ae{º$, VWm 8 àH$ma H$s {g{ÕŸ& BZ_| ^r nwéf VWm
àH¥${V gpå_{bV h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw 10 AW© Ho$db Xmo _yb VÎdm| Ho$ h¢Ÿ&
(2) _ybmW©-gyMr-Xg _m¡{bH$ AWm] H$s gyMr H$ht ^r Zht h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw
gm§»`H$m[aH$m 72 H$s ì`m»`m _| EH$ AZwnbãY nwñVH$ amOdm{Îm©H$ Ho$ CÕaU go
BZH$m Zm_ {X`m J`m h¡-
àYmZmpñVÎd_oH$Ëd_W©dÎd_WmÝ`VmŸ& nmamÏ`ª M VWmZ¡Š` {d`moJmo `moJ Ed MŸ&&
eofd¥{ÎmaH$Îm¥Ë© d§ _m¡{bH$mWm©: ñ_¥Vm XeŸ& {dn`©`: nÄM{dYñVWmoº$m Zd Vwï>`:Ÿ&
H$aUmZm_gm_Ï`©_ï>mqde{VYm ñ_¥V_²Ÿ& B{V f{ï>: nXmWm©Zm_ï>m{^: gh {g{Õ{^:&&
Bg_| àYmZ (_yb àH¥${V) Ho$ JwU h¢- EH$Ëd, AW©dÎmm, namW©ËdŸ&
XmoZm| Ho$ {df` _|-ApñVÎd, {d`moJ VWm `moJŸ&
AÝ` 23 VÎdm| go {^ÞVm (eofd¥{Îm)-AÝ` VÎdm| (eof) H$s ñWyb VWm gyú_
AdñWm`| d¥{Îm h¢, CZH$s d¥{Îm`m| H$m H$maU _yb VÎd h¡Ÿ&
EH$Ëd, AW©dÎd, namÏ`©-Aì`º$ _yb àH¥${V _| `o 3 Y_© h¢Ÿ& ì`º$ Ho$ {dnarV
Y_© {XImH$a Aì`º$ H$m Y_© gm§»`H$m[aH$m 10 _| {X`m J`m h¡-
hoVw_X{ZË`_ì`m{n g{H«$`_ZoH$_m{lV§ {b“_²&gmd`d§ naVÝ̧ ì`º§$ {dnarV_ì`º _²Ÿ&
Bg_| EH$Ëd JwU BZH$m {dnarV h¡Ÿ-hoV_w V² ({OgH$s CËn{Îm H$m H$maU hmo-
H$maU Zht ahZo go ì`º$ Ho$ EH$ go A{YH$ ^oX hmoVo h¢Ÿ), A{ZË` (gXm Zht ahZo
go H$B© ê$nm| _| àH$Q> hmoJm), Aì`mnr (ha ñWmZ _| ì`má Zht ahZo go AbJ-
AbJ ñWmZm| _| AbJ-AbJ ê$n hmoJm), g{H«$` ({H«$`m go AnZm ê$n ~XbVm
h¡), AZoH$ , AnZo H$maU _| Am{lV (ì`º$ H$maUm| Ho$ AZwgma {^Þ {^Þ hmoJm),
204 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
Ad`d`wº$, {b“ (AbJ ê$n Ho$ nhMmZ H$m {M•³)Ÿ&
AW©dÎd H$m AW© à`moOZ dmbm h¡Ÿ& _yb àH¥${V Ho$ AÝ` ^oX CËnÞ H$aZm
BgH$m à`moOZ h¡Ÿ&
namÏ`©-nwéf Ho$ {b`o àH¥${V H$m_ H$aVr h¡, AnZo {b`o ZhtŸ& gm§»`H$m[aH$m _|
nwéf Ho$ {b`o àH¥${V H$m H$m`© {dñVma go g_Pm`m J`m h¡-
BË`od àH¥${V H¥$Vmo _hXm{X {deof ^yV n`©ÝV:Ÿ&
à{V nwéf {d_mojmWª ñdmW© Bd namWm©aå^:Ÿ&&56Ÿ&&
àË`oH$ nwéf Ho$ _moj Ho$ {b`o _hÎmÎd go boH$a _hm^yVm| VH$ H$s g¥{ï> àH¥${V
Ûmam H$s J`r h¡Ÿ& `h g¥{ï> AnZo {b`o H$s J`r h¡, Eogm àVrV hmoZo na ^r dñVwV:
Xygao Ho$ {b`o hr h¡, Š`m|{H$ àË`oH$ nwéf H$m _moj hmoZm Bg H$m \$b h¡Ÿ&
dËg{dd¥{Õ {Z{_Îm§ jrañ` `Wm àd¥{ÎmñVñ`Ÿ&
nwéf {d_moj {Z{_Îm§ VWm àd¥{Îm; àYmZñ`Ÿ&&57Ÿ&&
{Og àH$ma ~N>S‹ >o H$s d¥{Õ Ho$ {b`o AMoVZ Xw½Y (ñd`§) {Z:g¥V hmoVm h¡, Cgr
àH$ma nwaf Ho$ _moj Ho$ {b`o (AMoVZ) àH¥${V ^r (ñdV:) àd¥Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
Am¡ËgwŠ` {Zd¥Î`Wª `Wm {H«$`mgw àdV©Vo bmoH$:Ÿ&
nwéfñ` {d_mojmWª àdV©Vo VÛXì`º$_²Ÿ&&58Ÿ&&
{Og àH$ma CËgwH$Vm H$s {Zd¥{Îm (=ñdoÀN>m H$s ny{Îm©) Ho$ {b`o H$moB© ì`{º$
H$m`m] _| àd¥Îm hmoVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma àH¥${V nwéf Ho$ _moj Ho$ {b`o àd¥Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
a“ñ` Xe©{`Ëdm {ZdV©Vo ZV©H$s `Wm Z¥Ë`mV²Ÿ&
nwéfñ` VWmË_mZ§ àH$mí` {d{ZdV©Vo àH¥${V:Ÿ&&59Ÿ&&
{Og nAH$ma H$moB© ZV©H$s a“ñW (ZmQ>ç ñWmZ pñWV) Xe©H$m| Ho$ g_j Z¥Ë`
H$a MwH$Zo Ho$ ~mX {\$a Z¥Ë` Zht H$aVr, Cgr àH$ma àH¥${V nwéf Ho$ gm_Zo AnZo
H$mo àH$m{eV H$aZo Ho$ ~mX {Zd¥Îm hmo OmVr h¡Ÿ&
ZmZm{dY¡ é nm`¡é nH$m[aÊ`ZwnH$m[aU: nwg§ :Ÿ&
JwUdË`JwUñ` gVñVñ`mW©_nmW©H§$ Ma{VŸ&&60Ÿ&&
JwUdVr ({ÌJwU_`r) Ed§ CnH$m[aUr àH¥${V ì`W© hr {ZJwU © Ed§ AZwnH$mar
(CnH$mahrZ) nwéf H$m AW© (^moJmndJ©ê$n nwéfmW©) AZoH$ Cnm`m| (\$bgmYZm|)
Ûmam gånm{XV H$aVr h¡Ÿ&
àH¥$Vo: gwH$w _maVa Z {H${ÄMXñVr{V _o _{V^©d{VŸ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 205
`m Ñï>mñ_r{V nwZZ© Xe©Z_wn¡{V nwéfñ`Ÿ&&61Ÿ&&
_oar (B©ídaH¥$îU) H$s `h YmaUm h¡ {H$ àH¥${V go A{YH$ gwH$w _ma (H$mo_b)
H$moB© AÝ` nXmW© Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ `h kmV hmoVo hr {H$ nwéf Zo _wPo XoI {b`m h¡,
àH¥${V CgH$s Ñ{ï> _o Zhr § AmVrŸ&
Bgr AW© Ho$ gm§»` gyÌ h¢-
3/69-ZV©H$sdV² àd¥Îmñ`m{n {Zd¥{ÎmíMm[aVmÏ`m©V(² gm§.H$m.59)
3/70-Xmof~moY@o {n Zmongn©U àYmZñ` Hw$bdYydV²Ÿ&²(gm§.H$m.61)
1/66-g§hVnamW©ËdmV² nwéfñ`Ÿ&2/37-YoZdw V² dËgm`Ÿ&²(gm§.H$m.57)
^mdmJUoem{X Zo AW©dÎd H$mo nwéfmW©Ëd _mZH$a nwéf H$m Y_© H$hm h¡Ÿ&
EH$Ëd ^r ewÕ MoVZ VÎd `m g_{ï> AÝVH$aU _mZZo go nwéf (e~b ê$nB©ída)
H$m Y_© h¡Ÿ&
gm§»`gyÌ 1/152-Ed_oH$ËdoZ n[adV©_mZñ` Z {déÕ Y_m©Ü`mg:Ÿ&
Bg àH$ma nwéf EH$ ê$n _| hr nyU© OJV² h¡ {H$ÝVw ~w{Õ Ho$Y_© (gwI-Xw:I),
eara Ho$ Y_© Am{X Amamo{nV hmoVo h¢, AWm©V² XrIVo h¢ {H$ÝVw dmñV{dH$ n[adV©Z
Zht AmVmŸ&
AW©dÎd-nwéfmW© H$aUmoX^ ² dmo@ß`Ñï>mëo bmgmV² (2/36)
Aì`º$ àH¥${V Ho$ Cëbmg go nwéf Ho$ {b`o H$aUm| H$s CËn{Îm hþ`rŸ& H$aU 13 h¢-
3 AÝV:H$aU, 5 H$_}pÝÐ`, 5 kmZopÝÐ`Ÿ&
nwéf JwU-AÝ`Ëd-O‹S> dJ© go {^Þ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU AÝ`Ëd nwéf H$m Y_© h¡-
Z àH¥${VZ© {dH¥${Vnw©éf:Ÿ& (gm§»` H$m[aH$m 3)
gm§»` H$m[aH$m 117-g§KmV namW©ËdmV² {ÌJwUm{X {dn`©`mX{Yð>mZmV²Ÿ&
nwéfmo@pñV ^moº¥$^mdmËH¡$dë`mWª àd¥ÎmoíMŸ&&
g§KmVm|({_{bV nXmWm]) Ho$ Xygam| Ho${b`o hmoZo Ho$ H$maU, {ÌJwU Am{X go
{déÕ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU, g^r {ÌJwUmË_H$ Cnm{Y`m| Ho$ {b`o A{Yð>mVm H$s gÎmm
An[ahm`© hmoZo Ho$ H$maU, ^mo½` nXmW© Ho$ {b`o ^moº$m H$s A{Zdm`©Vm VWm H¡$dë`
Ho$ {b`o àd¥{Îm hmoZo Ho$ H$maU nwéf H$s àH¥${V go n¥WH²$ gÎmm {gÕ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
AH$Îm¥Ë© d-Ah§H$ma: H$Îmm© Z nwéf:(gm§»` gyÌ 6/54)
AH$Îmw©a{n \$bmon^moJmo@ÞmÚdV²(gm§»` gyÌ 1/105)
gm§»` H$m[aH$m 19-Vñ$_mÀM {dn`m©gmpËgÕ§ gm{jËd_ñ` nwéfñ` H¡$dë`
206 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
_mÜ`ñÏ`§ Ðï¥>Ëd_H$Îm©^¥ mdíMŸ&&
{ÌJwU Am{X Ho$ {dn`m©g Ho$ H$maU VWm nwéf Ho$ ~hþÎd Ho$ H$maU nwéf H$m
gm{jËd, H¡$dë`, _Ü`ñW ^md, Ðï¥>Ëd Am¡a AH$Îm©Ë¥ d ^md {gÕ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
Vñ_mÎmËg§`moJmXMoVZ§ MoVZmd{Xd {b“_²Ÿ&
JwU H$Îm¥Ë© do@{n VWmH$Îm}d ^dË`wXmgrZ:Ÿ&20Ÿ&
AV: nwéf Ho$ g§`moJ go AMoVZ {b“ MoVZm `wº$ àVrV hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Cgr
àH$ma dmñV{dH$ H$Îmm© JwU hmoZo na ^r CXmgrZ nwéf H$Îmm© gm àVrV hmoVm h¡
({H$ÝVw Zht h¡)Ÿ&
~hþÎd-gm§»`H$m[aH$m 18-OÝ_ _aU H$aUmZm§ à{V{Z`_mX`wJnËàd¥ÎmoíMŸ&
nwéf ~hwÎd§ {gÕ§ Ì¡JwÊ` {dn`©`mÀM¡dŸ&&
OÝ_, _aU, H$aUm| (BpÝÐ`m|, _Z, ~w{Õ, Ah§H$ma) H$s ì`dñWm Ho$ H$maU, EH$
gmW g~H$s àd¥{Îm Z hmoZo Ho$ H$maU VWm àm{U`m| _| gmpÎdH$m{X Ho$ ^oX Ho$ H$maU
nwéf H$s ~hþVm {gÕ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
gm§»` gyÌ 6/45-nwéf ~hþËd§ ì`dñWmV:Ÿ&
EH$ hr nwéf ì`dñWm (AWm©V² AbJ AbJ AÝV:H$aU, ñWmZ, g_` Am{X ^oX
H$o H$maU) ~hþV àVrV hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
gm§»` gyÌ 1/149-OÝ_m{X ì`dñWmV: nwéf ~hþËd_²Ÿ&
ídoVmídVa Cn{ZfX²(4/5)-
AOm_oH$m§ bmo{hV ewŠb H¥$îUm§ ~ˆr: àOm: g¥O_mZm§ gê$nm:Ÿ&
AOmo øoH$mo Owf_mUmo@ZwfVo o OhmË`oZm§ ^wº$^moJm_Omo@Ý`:Ÿ&&
EH$ AOÝ_m àH¥${V Zo VrZ JwUm| go ~hþV àOm CËnÞ H$sŸ& nwéf ^r AO h¡Ÿ&
CgH$m EH$ ê$n (~Õ) godm H$aVr hþ`r àH¥${V _| {bá ahVm h¡, Xygam _wº$ ê$n
^moJ Ho$ ~mX àH¥${V H$mo N>mS‹o > XoVm h¡Ÿ&
nwéf gyº$ (F$H²$ 10/90,dm.`Ow.31,AWd©19/6, eVnW ~«m.13/6/
2/12, gm_doX AmaÊ`H$ H$mÊS> 6/4/2) H$m àW_ gyº$ nwéf Ho$ AZoH$ ê$nm|
H$m dU©Z H$aVm h¡-
ghòerfm© nwéf: ghòmj: ghònmV²Ÿ& g ^yq_ {dídVmod¥ËdmË`{Îmð>Ôem“xb_²Ÿ&
nwéf hOmam| {gam|, AmIm|, n¡am| dmbm h¡, dh ^y{_ (^=24, ^y{_=24 O‹S>VÎd)H$mo
g~ Va\$ go KoaH$a Cggo 10 A“xb A{YH$ pñWV h¡Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 207
Zd_ F$Mm _| nwéf go N>ÝXmo,§ doXm| H$s CËn{Îm ~Vm`r J`r h¡-
Vñ_mÚkmËgd©hVþ : F$M: gm_m{Z O{kaoŸ&
N>ÝXm§{g O{kao Vñ_mV² `OwñVñ_mXOm`VŸ&
AmË_m H$s Amhþ{V F$H²$-gm_ N>ÝX `OwdX}
N>ÝXm| H$s JUZm go nwéf Ho$ ~hþ ê$nm| H$s JUZm H$s J`r h¡Ÿ (F$H²$ 1/164/41)
Jm¡ar{_©_m` g{bbm{Z VjË`oH$nXr {ÛnXr gm MVwînXrŸ&
Aï>mnXr ZdnXr gm ~^ydfw r ghòmjam na_o ì`mo_Z²Ÿ&&
(dmH²$ ê$nr ) Jm¡ (AZÝV) g{bb (Va§J`wº$ nXmW© `m AmH$me) H$m {d^mOZ
H$a (1,2), 4, 8, 9 nXm| dmbo N>ÝXm| _| {d^º$ hþ`rŸ& hOma Aja VWm Cggo
nao eãX H$aVr h¡ `m na_ ì`mo_ _| ì`má h¡Ÿ&
AV: nwéf AZÝV h¡ {H$ÝVw CgHo$ Jm¡ ê$n _| {d^mOZ H$s g§»`m h¡-
(1+2)•4•8•9•1000•10000 =8,64,00,00,000Ÿ& `h ~«÷m Ho$ {XZ-
amV ( 2 H$ënm|) _| dfm] H$s g§»`m h¡Ÿ&
xC^` Ho$ JwU-ApñVËd-nwéf VWm Aì`º$ àH¥${V XmoZm| {ZË`, gXm dV©_mZ h¢Ÿ&
g§`moJ VWm {d`moJ n[aUm_r Aì`º$ Ho$ ñdm^m{dH$ VWm dmñV{dH$ Y_© h¢, {H$ÝVw
{ZË` nwéf _| CgH$m Am^mg _mÌ hmoVm h¡-
gm§»`gyÌ 5/80-g§`moJmíM {d`moJmÝVm B{V Z Xoem{X bm^mo@{nŸ&
g§`moJ=(nwéf+àH¥${V ) go g¥{ï> aMZm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
{d`moJ go _moj hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
XmoZm| EH$ gmW ahZo go àb` hmoVm h¡Ÿ (A^oX AdñWm)Ÿ&
eofd¥{ÎmËd-àH¥${V Ho$ ^oXm| go _wº$ hmoZo na ^r CZH$s d¥{Îm nyd© AdñWm Ho$ à^md
go Omar ahVr h¡-Bgo eof d¥{ÎmËd H$hVo h¢Ÿ& Bgo gm_mÝ`V: nwéf VWm Aì`º$
XmoZm| H$m JwU _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw ^mdmJUoe Zo MH«$^«{_dV² (H$wåhma H$o MH«
O¡gm$) eara H$s pñW{V _mZH$a Bgo Ho$db nwéf H$m Y_© ~Vm`m h¡Ÿ& MH«$^«{_
gm§»`H$m[aH$m 67 _| g_Pm`m h¡-
gå`½kmZm{YJ_mX² Y_m©Xr Zm_H$maU àmám¡ &
{Vð>{V g§ñH$m ademÀMH«$^«{_dX² Y¥V eara:Ÿ&&
VÎd kmZ àmá hmoZo go Y_©-AY_© Am{X H$s H$maUVm (^moJ Am{X H$s CËn{Îm
208 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
hmoZo na ^r) g§ñH$ma (doJ) go (Hw$N> H$mb VH$) Ky_Vm ahVm h¡Ÿ&
Bgr H$m gmam§e gm§»` gyÌ 3/82 _| h¡-MH«$^«_UdX² Y¥V eara:Ÿ&
Hw$N> `hr Ame` B©emdmñ`mon{ZfX² Ho$ empÝV nmR> H$m h¡-
nyU_© X: nyU{© _X§ nyUm©V² nyU_© Xw À`VoŸ& nyUñ© ` nyU_© mXm` nyU_© do md{eî`VoŸ&
(nyU© nwéf)-(nyU© àH¥${V)=nyU© àH¥${V H$m g§ñH$ma
17.AZwJh« : gJ©:
AW©-AZwJh« =AZw+J«h+An² `m ë`wQ>² -1.àgmX, H¥$nm, CnH$ma, Am^maŸ&
{ZJ«hmZwJ«hH$Îmm© (nÄMVÝÌ), nmXmn©Um{ZJ«hnyVn¥ð>_²(aKwd§e 2.35)Ÿ&
2. ñdrH¥${VŸ&
{ZJ«h-AZwJ«h H$m {dnarV ^r h¡, VWm g_mZmW©H$ ^rŸ& ({ZJ«h={Z+J«h+An²)
1.amoH$ aIZm,{Z`pÝÌV H$aZm, de _| H$aZm O¡go BpÝÐ` {ZJ«hŸ&2.X~mZm, amoH$Zm,
Hw$MbZmŸ& 3.nH$‹S>Zm, {JaâVma H$aZmŸ& 4.namO`Ÿ& 5.amoJm| H$s {M{H$ËgmŸ&
6.XÊS>, gOmŸ& 7.S>mQ§ > \$Q>H$maŸ& 8.Aé{MŸ& 9.VH©$Xmof, Ìw{Q>Ÿ& 10.gr_mŸ&
`hm§ Xe©Z H$m gyÌ H$m AW© OmZZo Ho$ {b`o _yb eãX go Amaå^ H$aZm hmoJmŸ&
_yb eãX J«h² YmVw (H«$çm{X) h¡ {OgHo$ AW© h¢-1.nH$‹S>Zm,J«hU H$aZm, H$g H$a
nH$‹S>ZmŸ& 2.àmá H$aZm, ñdrH$ma H$aZm, ~bnydH© $ dgyb H$aZmŸ& 3.~ÝXr ~ZmZmŸ&
4._moh boZm, AmH¥$ï> H$aZmŸ& 5.OrV boZmŸ& 6.àgÞ H$aZmŸ& 7.grIZmŸ& 8.Ü`mZ
XoZm, {dMma H$aZmŸ& 9.g_PZm, CÀMmaU H$aZmŸ& 10. YmaU H$aZmŸ&
BgH$m d¡{XH$ ê$n J«^² h¡ {OgHo$ A§JO o« r _| g_mZmW©H$ eãX h¢-Grapple,
grip, gravel (J«mdZ²=nËWa, ~mXb, nhm‹S>), Gravity(^marnZ, JwéËd)Ÿ&
`hm§ Amapå^H$ gyÌ (Pre-amble) h¡ VÎd-g_mg, AWm©V² VÎdm| H$m g‘>bZŸ&
AV: J«h H$m AW© hmoJm-nXmWm] H$m g§H$bZ, {ZH$Q> AmZm, gpå_{bV hmoZm,
~bnydH© $ ~ÝY OmZmŸ& AZw H$m AW© h¡ nrN>o `m H«$_ go (D$na ZrMo, AnZo AnZo
ñWmZ na,g_` H$m H«$_ Am{X)Ÿ&
AV: AZwJh« H$m AW© h¡-VÎdm| H$m ~bnydH© $ g§H$bZ {Og_| g_`, ñWmZ, {Xem,
Cn`moJ Am{X H$m H«$_ hmoŸ&
{ZJ«h H$m AW© hmoJm-VÎdm| H$m ~bnydH© $ g§H$bZ {Og_| VÎdm| H$m H$moB© H«$_ Zht
hmoZo go do H$m`© H$aZo _| ñdVÝÌ Zht h¢, H«$_ Zht hmoZo go CZH$m ê$n ñnï> Zht h¡Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 209
gJ©=g¥O+ ² KÄm²Ÿ& 1.N>mS‹o >Zm, n[aË`mJ H$aZmŸ& 2.g¥{ï>Ÿ& 3. g¥{ï> aMZmŸ& 4.àH¥${V,
{díd ({Oggo g¥{ï> {ZH$bVr h¡)Ÿ& 5.àmH¥${VH$ JwUŸ& 6.g‘>ën, {ZYm©aUŸ&
7.ñdrH¥${VŸ& 8.AZw^mJ, AÜ`m`Ÿ& 9._b-Ë`mJŸ& 10. AmH«$_U (goZm H$m)-
Surge ahead &
g¥{ï> g_mÝ` VÎdm| H$s g¥{ï> h¡Ÿ& gJ© _| {deof ~mV h¡ {H$ Cg_| e{º$, MoVZm,
H$mb, {Xem Am{X H$m H«$_ h¡, Om o {H$ AZwJ«h AW© go {_bVm h¡Ÿ&
ì`m»`m-(1) BgH$m gm_mÝ` AW© {H$`m OmVm h¡ {H$ àH¥${V Ho$ AZwJ«h go g¥{ï>
hþ`rŸ& `h àH¥${V H$m namW© JwU h¡ {OgH$m dU©Z {nN>bo gyÌ _| {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
nwéf na H¥$nm H$aZo Ho$ {b`o àmH¥${VH$ g¥{ï> h¡Ÿ& BgHo$ {b`o gm§»`H$m[aH$mAm|
56-58 H$m CXmhaU {X`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
(2) àH¥${V Ho$ JwUm| Ho$MbVo 24 àH$ma Ho$ ê$n hþ`&o {H$ÝVw Ho$db CgHo$ ê$nm| go
g¥{ï> Zht hmoVrŸ& CgHo$ {b`o J«h² AWm©V² ~bm|(Gravitation,electromagnetic,
nuclear, molecular) Ho$ H$maU nXmW© H$Um| H$m g‘>bZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX
Hw$N> Z`o ~b {_bmH$a do Amng _| ~ÝYo ahVo h¢, {Oggo {ZJ«h hmoVm h¡Ÿ& MoVZ
VÎd Ho$ H$maU Cg g‘>bZ _| H$_©, ñWmZ, e{º$ Am{X H$m H«$_ hmoVm h¡ {Ogo
AZwJ«h H$hVo h¢Ÿ& dh g¥{ï> gJ© H$hbmVr h¡Ÿ& gJ© _| MoVZm Ho$ {d{^Þ ñVa XrIVo
h¢Ÿ& MoVZm H$m bjU h¡-J«h AWm©V² {dMma, g_PZm, MrOm| H$mo nH$‹S>ZmŸ& AZwJ«h
H$m bjU h¡-Xoe, H$mb, n[apñW{V VWm BÀN>m Ho$ AZwgma H«$_~Õ H$m`© H$aZmŸ&
gJ© H$s Xmo àH$ma go CËn{Îm gm§»`H$m[aH$m 52 _| ~Vm`r J`r h¡-
Z {dZm ^md¡{b©“§ Z {dZm {b“oZ ^md {Zd¥{© Îm:Ÿ&
{b“m»`mo ^mdm»`ñVñ_mX² {Û{dY: àdV©Vo gJ©:Ÿ&&
gJ© Xmo àH$ma go H$m`© H$aVm h¡-{b“ VWm ^mdŸ& ^md ~w{Õ H$m n[aUm_ h¡, VWm
{b“ VÝ_mÌm H$m n[aUm_ h¡Ÿ& VÝ_mÌmAm| H$s {df_Vm `m n[adV©Z go dñVwAm|
H$m ê$n `m nhMmZ ~XbVm h¡; dh {b“ h¡Ÿ&
^md VÝ_mÌm n[adV©Z \$b
g‘>ën {H«$`m (MoVZ gJ© H$m bjU)
(3) e¡d Xe©Z _| AZwJ«h VWm {ZJ«h H$m dU©Z B©ída Ho$ 5 H$m`m] Ho$ê$n _| h¡-
g¥{ï>-g¥O² YmVw go ~Zm h¡ {OgH$m AW© h¡ AnZo go ~mha H$aZm, N>mS‹o >ZmŸ& BgH$m
dU©Z `hm§ gÄMa Ho$ ê$n _| h¡Ÿ& `h g¥{ï> ~mha go Zht AmVr h¡, nhbo go {damO_mZ
210 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
àH¥${V-nwéf (`m {ed) go hr {ZH$bVr h¡Ÿ&
pñW{V-gÄMa, à{VgÄMa-XmoZm| hmo§ VWm CZ_| gÝVwbZ ahoŸ&
g§hma `m g§ö{V-`h à{VgÄMa h¡Ÿ& BgH$m AW© h¡ g_oQ>Zm `m ~Q>moa boZmŸ& Omo
~mha ì`º$ hþAm Wm dh Aì`º$ hmo OmVm h¡, {Oggo bJVm h¡ {H$ {dZme hmo J`m&
{ZJ«h-{db`, {nYmZ `m {VamoYmZ-AnZo gÀMo ñdê$n H$m AmdaU `m JmonZ
H$a boZmŸ& MoVZ e{º$ H$m bmonŸ&
AZwJ«h-AnZo ñdê$n `m MoVZ e{º$ H$m àH$meŸ&
(4) H$mb Ho$ Ûmam {ZJ«h `m MoVZm H$m b`(_¥Ë`w) hmoVr h¡Ÿ& B©ída Ho$ Ûmam
AZwJ«h gm gJ© AWm©V² MoVZ Ord H$s CËn{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& BZ bjUm| go h_ H$mb H$m
ñdê$n OmZ nmVo h¢Ÿ& nXmWm] `m H$Um| H$m ñdm^m{dH$ JwU h¡-H«$_~ÕVm go {~Iamd
H$s Va\$ J{VŸ& Bgo W_m}S>m`Zm{_Šg _| BÝQ´>monr (Entropy) `m H«$_hrZVm H$s
d¥{Õ H$hVo h¢Ÿ& OrdZ Ho$ {dH$mg H$m bjU CbQ>m h¡Ÿ& Cg_| H$_}pÝÐ`m§ , kmZopÝÐ`m§,
AÝV:H$aU-BZ g^r H$m A{YH$ H«$_~Õ ê$n hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ& `h ñdm^m{dH$ H«$_
Ho$ {dnarV J{V MoVZ VÎd Ho$ H$maU hmoVr h¡, {Ogo nwéf `m {dîUw H$hVo h¢Ÿ& AV:
~«÷m H$m AW© MVwW© Am`m_-VÎdm| H$s g¥{ï> VWm CZH$m \¡$bmd `m {dñVma h¡Ÿ&
{ed H$m AW© g_` `m _¥Ë`w ê$n _| H$mb h¡ {OgH$m _mn nXmW© _| H«$_hrZVm H$s
pñW{V go hmoVm h¡Ÿ-`h nÄM_ Am`m_ h¡Ÿ& {dîUw H$m MoVZ VÎd 6R>m Am`m_ h¡ Omo
OrdZ H$m {dH$mg H$aVm h¡Ÿ&
18.MVwXe
© {dYmo ^yVgJ©:
AW©-MVwX©e-Mm¡Xh (4+10)
{dYmo=àH$ma H$mŸ& {ZOud `m O‹S> nXmWm] Ho$ {b`o Ym H$m à`moJ hwAm WmŸ& {dY:
H$m AW© h¡ H$m_ H$m H«$_ŸŸ& dh 14 àH$ma H$m h¡Ÿ& OrdZ H$s 14 àH$ma H$s
{H«$`m`| h¢Ÿ&
^yV=Omo ^y (n¥Ïdr `m ‘ ^’ =24 VÎdm|) go {ZH$bm (V:) h¡Ÿ&
^y+MoVZ VÎd H$m A§e=^yVŸ&
gJ©=MoVZ g¥{ï>Ÿ&
ì`m»`m-(1) 14 àH$ma Š`m|-àH¥${V Ho$ 24 ^oXm| H$s 24 àH$ma H$s {H«$`m`| h¢Ÿ&
CZ_| 10 bjU nwéf VWm _yb àH¥${V Ho$ h¢Ÿ& ~mH$s 14 AÝ` ^yVm| H$s {H«$`m`|
hmoJ§ rŸ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 211
14 ^yVgJ© hmoZo H$o H$maU ~«÷m Ho$ àË`oH$ H$ën _| 14 _ÝdÝVa, 14 BÝÐ VWm
14 gá{f© hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
nwéf (B©ída, Ah©V,² ~wÕ) O~ AdVma boVm h¡ , V~ CgH$s Hw$b g§»`m nwéf Ho$
bjU 10+ ^yVgJ© 14=24 hmoVr h¡Ÿ& 24 {dîUw Ho$ AdVma,VrW©‘>a `m {gÕ h¢Ÿ&
16 {dH¥${V`m| Ho$ AZwgma nwéf H$s 16 H$bm`| hmoVr h¢Ÿ& Bg_| EH$ na_ nwéf
h¡, ~mH$s 15 H$bm`| h¢-Aì``, Aja, ja nwéfm| H$s 5-5 H$bm`|(gyÌ 10 H$s
ì`m»`m) h¢Ÿ& Bg_| Aì`` nwéf H$s àW_ H$bm AmZÝX gmå`mdñWm h¡, AV: dh
^yVgJ© _| Zht {JZm OmVmŸ& ~mH$s 14 H$bmAm| Ho$ AZwgma ^yV gJm] Ho$ 14 ñVa
MoVZ H$bm H$s d¥{Õ Ho$ AZwgma h¢Ÿ&
(2) ^yV gJm] Ho$ Zm_-gm§»`H$m[aH$m 53 Ho$ AZwgma-
Aï>{dH$ënmo XodñV¡`½© `moZíM nÄMYm ^d{VŸ& _mZwî`íM¡H${dY: g_mgVmo ^m¡{VH$ gJ©:Ÿ&
g§jno _| ^m¡{VH$ g¥{ï> h¡-8 àH$ma H$s Xod `mo{Z
5 àH$ma H$s {V`©H²$ g¥{ï>
1 àH$ma H$s _Zwî`$ g¥{ï>Ÿ&
Xod`mo{Z Ho$ àH$ma h¢-~«÷m, àOmn{V, BÝÐ, {nV¥`mo{Z, JÝYd©, amjg Am¡a {nemMŸ&
{V`©H²$ g¥{ï>-new, _¥J, njr, garg¥n, VWm ñWmda (d¥j Am{X) h¢Ÿ&
(3) bmoH$ VWm gJ©-AÜ`m` 1 n¥ð > 11 na 5 ~‹S>o _ÊS>bm| Ho$ 7 bmoH$m| H$m
dU©Z {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ& 7 N>mQo >o {dídm| H$mo hr 7 N>mQo >o bmoH$ _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& BZ
14 bmoH$m| Ho$ MoVZm ñVa Ho$ AZwgma 14 àH$ma H$s g¥{ï> h¡Ÿ& AWdm 13 {dídm| (5
~‹S>o _ÊS>b, _Ü` _| _Zwî`, 7 N>mQo >o {díd) Ho$ 13 àH$ma Ho$ ^yVgJ©, VWm EH$
A{d^mÁ` ~«÷ h¡ Omo g^r {dídm| Ho$ {b`o g_mZ h¡Ÿ&
gm§»`H$m[aH$m 54 _| bmoH$m| Ho$ 3 ^mJ {H$`o J`o h¢-
CÜdª gÎd{dembñV_mo{dembíM _ybgJ©:&_Ü`o aOmo{dembmo ~«÷m{XñVå~n`©ÝV:&
CÜd© bmoH$m| _| gÎdàYmZ Am¡a AYmobmoH$m| _| V_: àYmZ g¥{ï> h¡Ÿ& _Ü` _| (_Zwî`)
aOmo{demb h¡Ÿ& `hr ~«÷m go boH$a ñVå~ (jwÐ V¥U) n`©ÝV g¥{ï> h¡Ÿ&
Bg íbmoH$ Ho$ g_mZmW©H$ gm§»`gyÌ h¢-
3/46-X¡dm{X à^oXmŸ&
3/47-Am~«÷ñVå~n`©ÝV§ VËH¥$Vo g¥{ï>am{ddoH$mV²Ÿ&
3/48-D$Üdª gÎd {demmbmŸ&
212 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
3/49-V_mo {dembm _ybV:Ÿ&
3/50-_Ü`o aOmo {dembm:Ÿ&
(4) `mo{Z`m| H$m ñdê$n-_Zwî` go ZrMo H$r 5 `mo{Z`m§ V_ àYmZ h¢ Am¡a àË`j
XrIVr h¢Ÿ& BÝh| {V`©H²$ ({VaN>r) `mo{Z H$hVo h¢Ÿ& _Zwî` BZgo AmJo ~‹T>m h¡ `m
_Zwî` H$s VwbZm _| do ZrMo ({Vag²) h¢, AV: {V`©H$² Zm_ h¡Ÿ& g~go H$_ {dH${gV
ñWmda d¥j h¢Ÿ& CgHo$ ~mX H«$_e: H$sQ>, garg¥n, new-njr h¢Ÿ& _Zwî` go D$na
H$s `mo{Z`m§ ^r _mZ{gH$ {dH$mg H$m H«$_ h¢Ÿ& CZ `mo{Z`m| Ho$ Zm_ Ho$ bmoH$ ^r
n¥Ïdr na h¢-{gÕnwa=_opŠgH$mo(gy`©{gÕmÝV Ho$ AZwgma CÁO¡Z go 1800 nyd©)>,
`_H$mo{Q>nÎmZ-Ý`yOrb¡ÊS>Ÿ (900 nyd©) & npíM_ E{g`m _|- `_nwar=`_Z,
Aå_mZ, CgH$s amOYmZr g§ ` _Zrnw a r(gmZm)Ÿ& ~« ÷ Xo e (~_m© ,
å`må_ma=_hmA_a)Ÿ& JÝYd©Xe o -A\$Jm{ZñVmZ _| JmÝYmaŸ& `j-{Vã~V, _Ü`
E{g`mŸ& {H$Þa-MrZŸ& Jé‹S>, ZmJ-_Ü` E{g`mŸ& amjg `m Z¡F©$Ë`-X{jU
A\«$sH$mŸ& Agwa-CÎma A\«$sH$m, npíM_ E{g`mŸ& X¡Ë`-npíM_ `yamon (Dutch,
Deutchland)Ÿ& XmZd-nydu `yamon-S>Ý¡ `y~ ZXr (Danube) H$m nyd© CÎma joÌŸ
Am{X& {H$ÝVw g^r ñWmZm| _| _Zwî`m| `m new-n{j`m| H$m ñdê$n EH$ hr hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
{d{^Þ g_`m| _| CZHo$ {dH$mg, g§ñH¥${V H$s AdñWm _| ^oX hmoVm h¡ {H$ÝVw dh
`mo{Z ^oX Zht _mZm Om gH$VmŸ& AmH$me Ho$ bmoH$m| H$s Vah n¥Ïdr gVh na ^r
bmoH$m| Ho$ {d^mOZ h¡, `o {g\©$ àmH¥${VH$ {d^mJ h¢Ÿ& ^maVr` JmobmY© _| ^maV ^y-
bmoH$, MrZ ^wd:,VWm gmB~o[a`m-ê$g ñdJ©bmoH$ h¢Ÿ& BZHo$ nwZ: 3-3 {d^mOZ go
7 bmoH$ hþ`Ÿo & ^maV _| {dÝÜ` go X{jU ^y, {Vã~V ({Ì{dï>n) ñdJ© Am¡a ~rM _|
^wd: bmoH$ h¡Ÿ& MrZ _h; bmoH$ h¡ Š`m|{H$ ~«÷m Zo `hm§ Ho$ bmoJm| H$mo _hmZ (hmZ
Om{V) H$hm WmŸ& _§Jmo{b`m OZ: bmoH$ h¡, AmH$me H m OZ:bmoH$ {nVam| H$m
ApÝV_ ñWmZ h¡, _wHw$b (_wº$) `m _§Jmob H$m AW© Aa~r _| àoV (=à+BV:-`hm§
`m Bg eara go _wº$) hmoVm h¡Ÿ& AmH$me H$m OZ: hr Aa~r _| OÞV h¡Ÿ& gmB~o[a`m
Vng² (Steppees) bmoH$ h¡, Š`m|{H$ `hm§ H$m OrdZ H${R>Z h¡Ÿ& CÎmar Y«dw gË`
bmoH$ Ho$ g_mZ g~go R>T§ >m h¡Ÿ& `yamon _| ^r ^y_Ü`gmJa go gQ>m ^mJ ^ybmoH$ VWm
ñdrS>Zo (ñWmZr` Zm_ ñdJ©- Sverge) ñd: bmoH$ VWm _Ü` H$m _¡XmZ ^wda²
(Baveria)bmoH$ h¡Ÿ& X{jU A_o[aH$m _| ~«mOrb ({h~«y AW© bm¡h) ^ybmoH$,
AO}ÊQ>mBZm (aOV, {h~«y, J«rH$ _| Argentum) ^wd: bmoH$ VWm X{jU Y«dw ñd:
4.VÎd-g_mg 213
h¡Ÿ& A\«$sH$m H$m ^r CÎma ^mJ bm¡h (_wa=bmohm-_moa¸$mo), X{jU ^mJ ñdU©
({Oå~m~do H$m Omå~yZX ñdU©) VWm _Ü` ^mJ ^wd: h¡Ÿ& AQ>bmpÊQ>H _hmgmJa
Ho$ XmoZm| Va\$ 7 Vb(^maV Ho$ {b`o ZrMm) h¢Ÿ& AVb=BQ>br, Cg joÌ H$m AÝV
hmoZo na AVbmÝVH$(Atlantic) gmJa {Og_| àmMrZ H$mb H$m AVbmpÝVg
_hmÛrn WmŸ& Vb gå^dV: X{jU A\«$sH$m Wm Š`m|{H$ Vb-AVb Ho$ ~rM
VbmVb CÎmar A\«$sH$m Wm (àMrZ {_l H$m joÌ {Vb-EV-Vb-A_Zm©)Ÿ& agmVb
^maV H$s {dnarV {Xem _| X{jU A_o[aH$m Wm, dhm§ g~go Á`mXm àdmh H$s
Am_oOZ ZXr h¡Ÿ& gwVb, {dVb _Ü` A_o[aH$m Ho$ X{jU ^mJ VWm H$ZmS>m WoŸ&
`moJ Xe©Z Ho$ AZwgma X¡d gJ© H$s `mo{Z`m§ h¢-~«m÷, àmOmnË`, EoÝÐ, X¡d, JmÝYd©,
{nÍ`, {dXoh Am¡a àH¥${Vb`Ÿ& Xod dJ© H$m {dH$mg H«$_ h¡-JmÝYd©, {nÍ`, X¡d,
EoÝÐ, àmOmnË`, ~«m÷, {dXoh VWm àH¥${Vb`Ÿ& àW_ 6 `mo{Z`m| H$m H«$_ bmoH$m|
H$s gyú_Vm Ho$ AmYma na h¡Ÿ& ^ybmoH$ _Zwî` `mo{Z go gå~pÝYV h¡Ÿ& n¥Ïdr Ho$
dmVmdaU, àH$me, Vmn Am{X AdñWmAm| _| `h MoVZm H$m gdm©{YH$ àmH¥${VH$
{dH$mg h¡Ÿ& Cggo H«$_e: gyú_ MoVZm`| ^wd:, ñd:, _h:, OZ:, Vn:, gË`:
bmoH$m| H$s h¡Ÿ& ApÝV_ Xmo AdñWmAm|-{dXoh VWm àH¥${Vb` _| `moJr H¡$dë` Vwë`
pñW{V _| h¡Ÿ& AV: BZH$s {H$gr bmoH$ Ho$ gmW VwbZm Zht H$s J`r (`moJ Xe©Z,
{d^y{V nmX gyÌ 26 H$m ì`mg-^mî`)Ÿ& _Zwî` go Amaå^ H$a XodbmoH$ H$s 6
`mo{Z`m§- eara Ho$ 7 H$mofm|, {MÎm H$s 7 AdñWmAm|, VWm g_m{Y Ho$ 7 ñVam| Ho$
g_H$j h¢Ÿ& Cn{ZfX² _| BZH$m AmZÝX H«$_e: {nN>bo go 100 JwUm ~Vm`m J`m
h¡Ÿ& gyú_Vm Ho$ {dMma go AmZÝX Ho$ H$B© AdmÝVa ^oX h¢Ÿ& AV: {d{^ÞCn{ZfXm|
_| ñVam| H$s {JZVr {^Þ-{^Þ h¡Ÿ&
V¡{Îmar` Cn{ZfX²erjm- ~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn{ZfX² eVnW ~«m÷U
dëbr,AZwdmH$² 8 4/3/2 14/7/1/31
1._Zwî` bmoH$ 1._Zwî` bmoH$ 1._Zwî` bmoH$
2._Zwî`-JÝYd© 2.{nVa bmoH$ 2.{nVa bmoH$
3.Xod-JÝYd© 3.JÝYd© bmoH$ 3.H$_© Xod
4.{nVaXod 4.AmOmZOXod 4.AmOmZOXod
5.AmOmZOXod 5.àOmn{VbmoH$ 5.AmZÝXXod
6.H$_©Xdo 6.~«÷m H$m bmoH$ 6.JÝYd© bmoH
214 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
7.AmZÝXX¡d -------- 7.àOmn{V
8.BÝÐbmoH$ -------- 8.~«÷ bmoH$
9.~¥hñn{V bmoH$ --------- --------
10.àOmn{V bmoH$ -------- --------
11.~«÷ bmoH$ --------- ---------
e¡d Xe©Z _| BZ ñVam| H$mH«$_ h¡-
H«$_ VÎd à_mVm _b à_o`
1.nwéf go n¥Ïdr VH$ gH$bXodm| go AmUd,_m`r` àË`oH$ dñVw H$m EH$
boH$a d¥jm| VWm $ VWm H$m_© _b Xygao go VWm AnZo go
I{ZO nXmWm] VH {^Þ hmoZo H$m kmZ
2._m`m VÎd eyÝ`, àb`mH$b AmUd VWm _m`r` eyÝ`
3._hm_m`m {dkmZmH$b AmUd,~moY h¡, àb`mH$bm|
VWm gH$b H$Îm¥©Ëd Zht h¡ H$m kmZ
4.ewÕ {dÚm _ÝÌ,Ah§-BX§ {^Þ --- àË`oH$ dñVw H$m ^oX,
{H$ÝVw AmË_m H$m ê$n
5.B©ída- _ÝoídaŸ& Ah-BX§ H$m -- {díd(BX§)Ah§ (AmË_m)
kmZ àYmZ g_mZ kmZ, EH$Vm go n¥WH²$ Zht
6.gXm{ed _ÝÌ _hoídaŸ&Ah§ ñnï> {díd H$m Añ\w$Q> kmZ
BÀN>m àYmZ {díd AnZm hr ê$n Omo AmË_~moY hr h¡Ÿ&
7.{ed {ed à_mVm g~ Hw$N> àH$me_`
19.{Ì{dYmo ~ÝY:
AW©-{Ì=VrZ, Omo EH$ VWm Xmo g§»`m H$mo nma H$a Am`r h¡Ÿ&
{dYmo=àH$ma, ñVa ê$n _|Ÿ&
~ÝY-~ÝYZ, AmË_m H$m àH¥${V Ho$ {d{^Þ ê$nm| go g§`moJ, nwéf H$m _wº$ ñdê$n
kmZ _o ~mYmŸ&
ì`m»`m (1) gm§»` gyÌ `m H$m[aH$m _| ~ÝY Ho$ VrZ ^oXm| H$s H$ht JUZm Zht h¡Ÿ&
dmMñn{V {_l H$s VÎdH$m¡_Xw r ì`m»`m _| BgH$s MMm© h¡Ÿ& gm§»` H$m[aH$m 44 h¡-
Y_}U J_Z_yÜdª J_Z_YñVmX²^dË`Y_}U&kmZoZ MmndJm} {dn`©`m{Xî`Vo ~ÝY:Ÿ&
Y_© go D$Üd© bmoH$m| VWm AY_© go AYmobmoH$m| _| J{V hmoVr h¡Ÿ& kmZ go AndJ© VWm
4.VÎd-g_mg 215
CgHo$ {dnarV AkmZ go ~ÝYZ àmá hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Eogm emó dMZ h¡Ÿ&D$Üd© bmoH$m| _|
~÷bmoH$ n`©ÝV J{V `m AY: bmoH$ H$s J{V-XmoZm| hr ~ÝYZ h¡,Š`m|{H$ ~ma-~ma
g§gma _| AmZm n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ(JrVm8/16)-
Am~«÷^wdZmëbmoH$m: nwZamd{V©Zmo@Ow©ZŸ&_m_wnoË` Vw H$m¡ÝVo` nwZO©Ý_ Z{dÚVoŸ&
nyU© kmZ na_mË_m H$m hr kmZ h¡, AnyU© kmZ dmbm àH¥${V H$mo hr nwéf g_PVm
h¡, {Oggo D$Üd© bmoH$m| VH$ OmH$a dmng AmZm n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ& àH¥${V Ho$ {d^mJm| Ho$
H«$_ _| 3 àH$ma Ho$ ~ÝYZ h¢-
(H$) d¡H$¥ {VH$-Omo ^yV, _Z, BpÝÐ` Am{X 16 {dH$mam| _| Amgº$ hmo aho h¢
AWdm amOgr àd¥{Îm dmbo _Zwî` {OZHo$ H$_© gËdJwU V_moJU w XmoZm| go {_{lV
h¢, do BZ dmgZmAm| Ho$ AYrZ Cgr ^y{_ _| _Zwî`bmoH$ _| OÝ_ boVo h¢Ÿ&
d¡am½`mËàH¥${Vb`: g§gmamo ^d{V amOgÐmJmV² (gm§»`H$m[aH$m 45)
AWm©V² , amOgr amJ go g§gma (MH«$) hmoVm h¡, d¡am½` (amJ Zht hmoZo go) àH¥${V
H$s dmgZmAm| H$m b` hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
VÎdH$m¡_Xw r _| {X`o J`o dm`wnaw mU CÕaU (dÎm©_mZ àH$m{eV nwamU _| CnbãY
Zht h¡) Ho$ AZwgma {d{^Þ {dH$mam| H$moAmË_m g_P H$a CnmgZm H$aZo dmbo H$B©
_ÝdÝVam| (71 MVw`w©Jr) VH$ AnZo nXm| na gwIr (Áda hrZ) ahVo h¢Ÿ&
AmË_m Ho$ BpÝÐ` ê$n Ho$ CnmgH$- 10 _ÝdÝVa
nÄM _hm^yVm| Ho$ CnmgH$ -- 100 _ÝdÝVa
Ah‘>ma Ho$ CnmgH $ -- 1000 _ÝdÝVa
~w{Õ Ho$ CnmgH$ -- 10,000 _ÝdÝVa
Aì`º$ àH¥${V Ho$ CnmgH$ -- 1 bmI _ÝdÝVa
(I) Xm{j{UH$-Omo AmË_ gmjmËH$ma go eyÝ` hmH$a Ho$db gyú_ {df`m| (àH¥${V+
{dH¥${V)--_hV² (~w{Õ), Ah‘>ma VWm 5 VÝ_mÌm`|-_| Amgº$ h¢, CZH$m ~ÝYZ
Xm{j{UH$ h¡Ÿ& do gH$m_ Bï>-nyV© Am{X namonH$ma VWm AqhgmË_H$ gmpËdH$ H$_m]
_| bJo hþ`o h¢, do 6 X¡d gJm] _| gmpËdH$ dmgZm H$m \$b ^moJ H$a {\$a _Zwî` `mo{Z
_| AmVo h¢Ÿ& Bgo JrVm _| X{jUm`Z J{V `m MÝÐbmoH$ H$m _mJ© H$hm J`m h¡-
Yy_mo am{ÌñVWmH¥$îU:fÊ_mgm X{jUm`Z_²Ÿ&VÌMmÝÐ_g§ Á`mo{V`m}Jr àmß` [ZdV©V&o
(J) àmH¥${VH$-Omo Aì`º$ àH¥${V (_ybàH¥${V `m àYmZ) H$mo hr AmË_m g_PVo
h¢, do gåàkmV g_m{Y H$s CÀMVa Am¡a CÀMV_ AdñWmAm| _| nhþ§MH$a ~hþV
216 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
g_` VH$ {dXoh `m àH¥${V b` AdñWm _| ahVo h¢Ÿ& {H$ÝVw AmË_ gmjmËH$ma Ho$
{b`o CÝh| {\$a OÝ_ boZm n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ, O¡go nmZr _| Sw>~H$s bJmZodmbm nwéf {\$aD$na
CR>Vm h¡-Z H$maU b`mV² H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm _¾dXwËWmZmV²Ÿ& (gm§»`gyÌ 1/54)
H$maU b` hmoZo go H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm (_moj-àm{á) Zht hmoVr, Cgo Sy>~o nwéf H$s Vah
{\$a CR>Zm n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ&
20.{Ì{dYmo _moj:
AW©-{Ì{dY:-VrZ ñVa H$mŸ&
_moj:-àH¥$[V Ho$ ê$nm| go nwéf `m AmË_m H$s _w{º$ `m ñdVÝÌVm,AmË_gmjmËH$maŸ&
ì`m»`m-(1) VrZ àH$ma Ho$ ~ÝYZ h¢, AV: CZgo Ny>Q>Zo Ho$ VrZ àH$ma Ho$ _moj
h¢Ÿ& ñWyb {df`m| go Amg{º$ hQ>mZm, amOgr-Vm_gr dmgZmAm| H$mo N>mS‹o >Zm-
d¡H$m[aH$ ~ÝYZ go _moj h¡Ÿ& gyú_ {df`m| _| Ag{º$ hmoZm VWm gmpËdH$ H$m`m] _|
{ZîH$m_ ^md hmoZm Xm{j{UH$ _moj h¡Ÿ& gmZÝX VWm Apñ_Vm H$s pñW{V H$s
g_m{Y Ho$ AmZÝX _| Amg{º$ go na_ d¡am½` Ûmam {MÎm H$mo hQ>mH$a ñdê$n pñW{V
nmZm àmH¥${VH$ ~ÝYZ go _moj h¡Ÿ&
(2) JrVm _| ~ÝYZ VWm _moj-JrVm(3/3) _| _w{º$ Ho$ Xmo _mJ© ~Vm`o J`o h¢-
bmoH@o pñ_Z²{Û{dYm{Zð>m nwam àmoº$m _`mZK&kmZ`moJZo gm§»`mZm§H$_©`moJZo `mo{JZm_²Ÿ
{H$ÝVw 6/47 VWm 12/2 _| ^º$ H$mo BZ XmoZm| `mo{J`m| go loð> ~Vm`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
`o VrZm| nañna gå~pÝYV h¢Ÿ& ^{º$ go kmZ hmoVm h¡-lÕmdmZ² b^Vo kmZ_²
(JrVm 4/49) na_VÎd _| Amg{º$ go Cgo OmZZo H$s BÀN>m hmoJr, CgHo$ AZwgma
Moï>m go kmZ àmá hmoJmŸ& kmZ`wº$ hmoZo na {ZîH$m_ H$_© hmoJm VWm Cg_| Hw$ebVm
hmoJr Omo H$_© `moJ h¡Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma {ZîH$m_ H$_© go bmoH$ g§J«h VWm Cggo ^{º$
hmoVr h¡Ÿ& H _© Ho$ {d{Y, ñdê$n Am{X Ho${MÝVZ go kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& kmZ hmoZo go ^r
^{º$ `moJ H$m _mJ© kmV hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
(H$) H$_©`moJ-Bg `moJ _|~ÝYZ _wº$ hmoZo Ho$ {b`o H$_© Ho$ \$b _| Amg{º$ Zhr§,
dV©_mZ H$_© _| hr bJm aho, bmoH$ g§J«h VWm H$Îm©ì` Ñ{ï> go H$m_ H$aoŸ&
(I) kmZ `moJ-gV²-AgV², {ZË`-A{ZË` {ddoH$ Ûmam AgV² eara Am{X go AnZo
H$mo AbJ AZw^d H$aoŸ&
(J) ^{º$ `moJ-AnZo g{hV gmao g§gma H$mo ^JdmZ H$m hr ê$n _mZ H$a g^r
H$_m] H$mo ^JdmZ H$mo hr An©U H$aoŸ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 217
(3) e¡d Xe©Z-Bg_| ~ÝYZ H$mo nme H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& nme Ho$ AÝVJ©V 5 Jm¡U
H$maU ~Vm`o J`o h¢-
(H$) _b-JÝXJr, {dH$ma `m Xy{fV nXmW©Ÿ& Bgo d¡H$¥ {VH$ ~ÝYZ H$h gH$Vo h¢Ÿ&
(I) _m`m H$mo Ord AZw^d H$a gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
(J) H$_© Ho$ AYrZ nwéf ahVm h¡Ÿ&
(K) {ZamoY _| ~ÝYZ h¡Ÿ (`h {ed H$m ^r VÎd h¡)&
(L>) {dÝXw Amå^ VWm AÝV H$m òmoV h¡Ÿ&
Bg_| VrZ àW_ à_wI h¢-_b, _m`m, H$_©Ÿ&
~Õ nwéf `m new Ho$ VrZ àH$ma h¢-1.gH$b new-Omo g^r {dH$mam| , JwUm|, _m`m
VWm H$_m] Ho$ nme go ~ÝYm h¡Ÿ&
2.àb`mH$b new-Bg_| H$_© _b H$m b` hmoVm h¡, _m`m VWm AmUd _b ahVo h¢Ÿ&
3.{dkmZmH$bnew-Bg_| _m`m H$m _b ^r g_má hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ& Ho$db AmUd _b
ahVm h¡Ÿ&
BgHo$ ~mX _moj H$s 4 pñW{V`m§ ^r gyÌ 18 H$s ì`m»` Ho$ AÝV _| h¢Ÿ& _moj Ho$ 4
ê$nm| Ho$ AÝ` Zm_ h¢-(1) gmbmoŠ`-bmoH$ H$s àm{á, (2) gm_rß` H$m AW© h¡
{ZH$Q>Vm, (3) gmå` H$m AW© h¡ JwUm|, bjUm| H$mo AnZmZmŸ, (4) gm`wÁ` `m
`moJ-EH$ hmoZmŸ&
21.{Ì{dY§ à_mU_²
AW©-{Ì{dY§=VrZ àH$ma H$m, 3 ñVa H$mŸ&
à_mU={ZpíMV kmZ, gË`, `WmW©Ÿ&
_m-à{VfoY AW© H$m Aì`` h¡ (_m+{¹$n²)
{H«$`m ê$n _|-_m=1._mnZm, 2.Zmn Vm¡b H$aZm, {M• bJmZm, gr_m‘>Z H$aZm,
3._mnXÊS> `m AÝ` go VwbZm H$aZm, 4.AÝXa hmoZm, AÝXa ñWmZ T‹ >y T‹§ >Zm, _wº$
`m g{hV hmoZmŸ&
g§km ê$n-_m=_m+H$+Q>mn²-1.bú_r, 2._mVm, 3._mnŸ&
_mn=bú_rn{V `m _mn, _mZgma _| {dîUw H$mo _mn H$m ê$n ~Vm`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
à_m=à+_m+AL²>+Q>mn²=1.àË`j kmZ, ~moYŸ& 2.(VH©$ _|) {dewÕ kmZ& 3._mZ
`m _mZH$Ÿ& 4.gr_m n[a_mUŸ& 5.gmú` à_mUŸ& 6.A{YH$mar, {ZUm©`H$ {OgH$m
dMZ à_mU _mZm Om`Ÿ& 7.gË` kmZ, `WmW©Ÿ& 8.à_mU H$s ar{V, `WmW© kmZ
218 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
àmá H$aZo Ho$ Cnm`Ÿ& 9._w»`, _ybŸ& 10.EH$VmŸ& 11.doX, emó, Y_©J«ÝWŸ&
12.H$maU, hoVwŸ&
ì`m»`m-(1) gyÌ 8 _| A{^~w{Õ `m ~w{Õ H$s 5 d¥{Îm`m§ ~Vm`r J`r h¢Ÿ& Cg_|
àW_ `m loð> d¥{Îm à_mU `m `WmW© kmZ h¡Ÿ& `hr nmVÄOb `moJ gyÌ 1/6 _| ^r
h¡Ÿ& `moJgyÌ 7 _| CgHo$ 3 ^oX h¢-àË`j, AZw_mZ Am¡a AmJ_Ÿ&
`h ^oX VWm bjU gm§»`H$m[aH$m 4 VWm 5 _| h¢-
Ñï>_Zw_mZ_m᧠dMZ§ gd©à_mU{gÕËdmV²&{Ì{dY§ à_mU{_ï>§ à_o` {g{Õ à_mUm{Õ
Ñï> (àË`j), AZw_mZ VWm Amá dMZ (eãX à_mU _| hr AÝ` g^r à_mUm| H$m
^md hmoZo go-gm§»` _|)-`o VrZ à_mU _mÝ` h¢Ÿ& à_mU go hr à_o` H$s {g{Õ
({ZíM` kmZ) hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
à{V{df`mÜ`dgm`mo Ñï>§ {Ì{dY_Zw_mZ_m»`mV_²Ÿ&
V{ëb“{b{“nyd©H$_má lw{VamádMZ§ VwŸ&&
{df` go gå~pÝYV BpÝÐ`m| na {Z^©a AÜ`dgm` (~w{Õ H$m Y_© `m d¥{Îm) Ñï> `m
àË`j à_mU h¡Ÿ& AZw_m Z 3 àH$ma H$m-(nyd©dV², eofdV², gm_mÝ`Vmo Ñï>) h¡Ÿ&
dh {b“ (AmH$ma `m AmH$me H$m joÌ) VWm {b“r ({b“ _| ì`má) nydH© $ kmZ
({MÎm d¥{Îm) h¡Ÿ& Amá dMZ H$m AW© h¡-Amám lw{V (AWm©V² `wº$-dmŠ` go CËnÞ
AW© kmZ)Ÿ&
BZ XmoZm| íbmoH$m| H$m ^md gm§»`gyÌ 1/87 _| h¡-
Û`omaoH$Vañ` dmß` g{ÞH¥$ï>mW© n[apÀN>{Îm: à_m, VËgmYH$V_§ `ÎmV² {Ì{dY§ à_mU_²Ÿ&
Û`mo: H$m AW© h¡ Xmo àH$ma H$s BpÝÐ`m|-kmZ VWm H$_© H$s 5-5 go AZw^d {H$`m
hþAm kmZ-àË`jŸ&
EH$Vañ`-H$B© {dÚ_mZ {b“ `m {b“r _| C{MV H$m MwZmd-AZw_mZ `m A{n
eãX H$m ^r `hr ^md h¡Ÿ&
Ag{ÞH¥$ï> H$m AW© Añnï> `m d¡H$pënH$ AWm] _| go ñnï> gr{_V (n[apÀN>Þ) AW©
àmá H$aZm h¡Ÿ& Bg H$_© H$m \$b à{_{V (`m à_o`) h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma H$m gmYZ `m
{MÎmd¥{Îm à_mU h¡Ÿ&
àË`j à_mU Am¡a à_m-{dkmZ {^jw H$o `moJdm{Îm©H$ _| àË`j à_mU H$s ì`m»`m-
à_mVm MoVZ: ewÕ: à_mU§d¥{ÎmaodMŸ&à_mWm©H$ma d¥ÎmrZm§ MoVZo à{V{~å~Z_²Ÿ&
à{V{~på~V d¥ÎmrZm§ {df`mo _o` CÀ`VoŸ&d¥Îm`:gm{j^mñ`m:ñ`w:H$aUñWmZnojUmV²
4.VÎd-g_mg 219
gmjmÔe©Z ê$n§ M gm{jËd§ gm§»` gy{ÌV_²&A{dH$maoU Ðï¥>Ëd§ gm{jËd§ Mmnao OJw:Ÿ
ewÕ MoVZ H$mo à_mVm (OrdmË_m ê$n _| à{V{~på~V AmË_m), d¥{Îm H$mo à_mU,
VWm MoVZ _| AWm©H$ma d¥{Îm`m| H$m à{V{~å~ à_m H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& à{V{~på~V
d¥{Îm`m| Ho$ {df` H$mo _o` AWm©V² à_o` H$hVo h¢Ÿ& H$aU AWm©V² BpÝÐ`m| Ûmam AZw^d
Z H$s J`r d¥{Îm`m§ gm{j^mñ` hmoVr h¢Ÿ& gm§»` gyÌ _o§$ gmjmV² Xe©Z ê$n H$mo gmjr
H$hm J`m h¡, {H$ÝVw Hw$N> A{YH$mar Ðï>m ê$n H$mo hr gmjr _mZVo h¢Ÿ&
AZw_mZ-{b“-{b“r, gmYZ-gmÜ` `m H$m`©-H$maU Ho$ gå~ÝY go Omo `WmW©
kmZ hmoVm h¡, Cgo AZw_mZ H$hVo h¢Ÿ& AZw_mZ 3 àH$ma H$m hmoVm h¡-
1.nydd© V²-Ohm± H$maU H$mo XoIH$a H$m`© H$m AZw_mZ hmo O¡go ~mXbm| H$mo XoIH$a
dfm© H$m AZw_mZŸ&
2.eofdV²-H$m`© go H$maU H$m AZw_mZ, O¡go ZXr Ho$ _Q>_b¡ o nmZr H$mo XoIH$a
dfm© H$m AZw_mZŸ&
3.gm_mÝ`Vmo Ñï>-Omo gm_mÝ` ê$n go XoIm J`m hmo {H$ÝVw {deof `m dV©_mZ _|
Zht XoIm J`m h¡Ÿ& O¡go KQ> H$mo XoIH$a Cgo ~ZmZo dmbo Hw$åhma H$m AZw_mZŸŠ`m|{H$
àË`oH$ ~Zr hþ`r MrO H$m H$moB© MoVZ H$maU hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
AZw_mZ H$m _yb nhbo {H$`m hþAm àË`j à_mU h¡Ÿ& àË`j à_mU _| 3 H$maU go
^«mpÝV Xmof hmoVo h¢-
1.{df` Xmof- nXmW© ~hþV Xya `m {ZH$Q> hmo, ~rM _| AdYmZ hmo, ~hþV gyú_ hmo,
Á`mXm àH$Q> dñVw go {N>n Om` `m g_mZ dñVwAm| go {_{lV hmo- BZ AdñWmAm| _|
Zht XrIVmŸ& gm§»`H$m[aH$m 7-
A{VXyamV² gm_rß`mX² BpÝÐ`KmVmÝ_Zmo@ZdñWmZmV²Ÿ&
gm¡úå`mX² ì`dYmZmX² A{^^dmV² g_mZm{^hmamÀMŸ&&
2.BpÝÐ` Xmof-BpÝÐ`m| _| Aj_Vm hmoŸ&
3._Zmo Xmof-_Z Ho$ AgmdYmZ `m ApñWa hmoZo na nXmW© H$m R>rH$ R>rH$ kmZ Zht
hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
eãX à_mU-Abm¡{H$H$ {df` _| doX à_mU hmoVo h¢Ÿ& Bgo AmJ_ à_mU ^r H$hVo
h¢Ÿ& doX Ho$ Am{lV F${f, _w{Z VWm AmMm`m] Ho$ dMZ ^r Bgr _| h¢Ÿ& bm¡{H$H$
{df` _| ^r Amá nwéf hr à_mU hmo gH$Vo h¢, Omo gË` OmZVo h¢Ÿ& {OVZo emó
J«ÝW h¢, dh g_mO _| ~hþV {XZm| go ñdrH¥$V h¢, AV: CÝh| h_ R>rH$ _mZVo h¢Ÿ&
220 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
à_mU kmZ hr gË` h¡Ÿ& AV: gË` ^r 3 àH$ma Ho$ h¢-
VrZmo H$mbm|-^yV, ^{dî`, dÎm©_mZ H$m gË`Ÿ&
à{Vð>m (eãX), Zm_ê$n (AZw_mZ), VWm `kê$n (àË`j)Ÿ&
gË` (Ho$ÝÐ _|, H$maU ê$n), F$V (àË`j `m _mnm hþAm-joÌ ê$n), VWm
AZw_m{ZV `m AZw^d go naoŸ&
gË` H$o {d{^Þ ê$nm| _| J^©ñW ^JdmZ² lrH¥$îU H$s ñVw{V XodVm Am| Zo lr_X²^mJdV
nwamU (10/2/26) _| H$s h¡-
gË`d«V§ gË`na§ {ÌgË`§ gË`ñ` `moqZ {Z{hV§ M gË`oŸ&
gË`ñ` gË`_¥VgË`Zo̧ gË`mË_H§$ Ëdm§ eaU§ ànÞm:Ÿ&&
h_ gË`ê$n ^JdmZ² H$s eaU _| Am`o h¢Ÿ& dh gË`d«V h¢, AWm©V² CZHo$ d«V,
g‘>ën VWm H$_© gË` h¢Ÿ& g~Ho$ na_ H$maU ê$n _| gË` h¢, `m gË` na AmYm[aV
h¢Ÿ& VrZ ê$nm| _| (AÝV`m©_r, doX VWm gyÌmË_m) `m VrZ H$mbm| _| gË` h¢Ÿ& dh
gË` Ho$ ^r (à{Vð>m, Zm_ê$n `k Ho$) H$maU h¢Ÿ& VrZm| gË`m| _| dh {Z{hV h¢Ÿ&
dh gË` Ho$ ^r gË` h¢-H$maU Ho$ H$maU AWdm àOmn{V ê$n gË` Ho$ AmYma h¢Ÿ&
F$V, gË` {OZHo$ ZoÌ h¢-`m BZ XmoZm| ZoVmAm|(apñg`m|) go {OgZo OJV² H$mo
{Z`pÝÌV aIm h¡Ÿ&
22.EVV² gå`J²kmËdm H¥$VH¥$Ë`:ñ`mV² Z nwZ{ó{dYoZ Xw:IoZm{^^y`VoŸ
AW©-EVV²- VV² H$m AW© dh AWm©V² OJV² `m CgH$m A{Yð>mVm B©ídaŸ& EVV²
H$m AW© {ZpíMV ê$n go `m {deof ê$n go {OgH$m {ZX}e {H$`m Om`Ÿ& `m
(`h+dh) XmoZm|Ÿ&
gå`H²$-R>rH$ àH$maŸ& pñW{V Am¡a CgH$m kmZ XmoZm| g_mZ hm|Ÿ&
kmËdm-OmZH$aŸ&
H¥$VH¥$Ë`-H¥$Ë`=H$aZo `mo½`, CÔoí` `m _yb bú`Ÿ& H¥$VH¥$Ë` H$m AW© Omo bú` nm
MwH$m hmoŸ&
ñ`mV²=hmoŸ&
Z nwZ:-{\$a ZhtŸ&
{Ì{dYoZ-3 àH$ma Ho$Ÿ&
A{^^y`Vo-à^m{dV, Aeº$ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
`h (VÎd-g_mg- OJV² VWm CgHo$ VÎd) R>rH$ R>rH$ OmZH$a _Zwî` AnZo bú`
4.VÎd-g_mg 221
(_moj `m gmjmËH$ma) H$mo nmVm h¡ VWm {\$a VrZ àH$ma Ho$ Xw:Im| go Zht
X~m`m OmVmŸ&
ì`m»`m-(1) {Ì{dY Xw:I-VrZ àH$ma Ho$ Xw:Im| H$m dU©Z gyÌ 7 H$s ì`m»`m _|
h¡Ÿ& VrZ àH$ma H$s g¥{ï>-AmÜ`mpË_H$, Am{Y^m¡{VH$ VWm Am{YX¡{dH$ Ho$ H$maU
3 àH$ma Ho$ Xw:I CËnÞ hmoVo h¢Ÿ& Xw:I Am¡a gwI-`o _Z Hr pñW{V`m§ h¢Ÿ& AÝV:H$aU
H$s AdñWm VWm ~mø {H«$`mAm| _| ^oX go Xw:I VWm CZHo$ g_Ýd` go gwI hmoVm
h¡Ÿ& AWm©V² B{ÀN>V AdñWm H$s àm{á gwI VWm Cg_| ~mYm Xw:I h¡Ÿ&
(2) EVV²-`h H$m AW© gm§»` emó `m VÎd-g_mg-gyÌ h¡Ÿ& Xw:I H$mo Xya H$aZo
Ho$ gmYZ Ho$ ê$n _| Bg emó H$m dU©Z gm§»` gyÌ Ho$ àW_ VWm ApÝV_ gyÌm| _|
hþAm h¡-AW {Ì{dY Xw:ImË`ÝV{Zd¥{ÎmaËÝV nwéfmW©: (1/1)
AWm©V² A~ AË`ÝV nwéfmW© H$m dU©Z hmoVm h¡ Omo {Ì{dY Xw:Im| go nyU©ê$n _w{º$
H$m _mJ© h¡Ÿ&
`ÛmVÛm VXwpÀN>{V: nwéfmW©ñVXwpÀN>{V: nwéfmW©: (6/70)
`V²-H$_©j`Ÿ& VV²-kmZ& dm-AWdm {H$gr AÝ` Cnm` goŸ& VV²=J«ÝW g_m{á Ho$
{b`o Bgo Xmo ~ma H$hm J`m h¡, AWdm _w{º$ _mJ© Ho$ BZ ^oXm| H$mo Xya H$aZm ^r
nwéfmW© Ÿh¡Ÿ&
gm§»d Xe©Z H$m `h kmZ {OgH$m gyÌm| _| {ZX}e h¡, `h Jwé naånam go àmá h¡ ,
Zht Vmo gyÌm| H$s ì`m»`m Zht hmo gH$Vr WrŸ&
EVV² n{dÌ_J«ç§ _w{Zamgwa`o@ZwH$ån`m àXXm¡Ÿ&
Amgw[aa{n nÄM{eIm` VoZ ~hþYm H¥$V§ VÝÌ_²Ÿ& gm§»` H$m[aH$m,70Ÿ&
_w{Z H${nb Zo H¥$nmnydH© $ Amgw[a H$mo `h n{dÌ H$maH$ VWm loð> kmZ {X`m WmŸ&
Amgw[a Zo nÄM{eI H$mo (`h kmZ) {X`m Am¡a CÝhm|Zo ~hþV àH$ma go(f{ï>VÝÌ)
BgH$m à{VnmXZ {H$`mŸ&
{eî`naåna`m@@JV_rídaH¥$îUoZ M¡VXm`m©{^:&
g§{já_m`©_{VZm gå`p½dkm` {gÕmÝV_²Ÿ& gm§.H$m.71Ÿ&
Am`©_{V (VÎdkmZr) B©ídaH¥$îU Zo gm§»`{gÕmÝV H$mo {eî` naånam go Am`o Bg
kmZ H$mo R>rH$ àH$ma go OmZZo Ho$ {b`o Am`m© N>ÝXm| _| g§{já {H$`mŸ&
gáË`m {H$b Vo@Wm©ñVo@Wm©: H¥$ËñZñ` f{ï>VÝÌñ`Ÿ&
Am»`m{`H$m {da{hVm: nadmX {dd{O©VmíMo{VŸ&
222 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
BZ gÎma H$m[aH$mAm| Ho$ J«ÝW _| f{ï>VÝÌ Ho$ g^r {df`m| H$m dU©Z h¡Ÿ& Ho$db
Am»`m{`H$m (Ñï>mÝV H$Wm`|) VWm Xygao _Vm| H$m IÊS>Z Zht h¡Ÿ&
(3) g^r {df` Xw:I_`-VÎdg_mg _| gwIm| Ho$ àH$ma H$m H$ht dU©Z Zht h¡,
Ho$db Xw:Im| Ho$ VrZ ^oX h¢Ÿ& BgH$m H$maU h¡ {H$ BpÀN>V \$b H$s àm{á H$m Omo
gwI h¡, dh ^r VmËH$m{bH$ `m nadÎmu Xw:I H$m H$maU h¡Ÿ& nmVÄOb `moJ gyÌ
2/15 _| Bg {dMma go Xw:Im| Ho$ VrZ ^oX ~Vm`o h¢-
n[aUm_ Vmn g§ñH$ma Xw:I¡JU ©w d¥{Îm{damoYÀM Xw:I_od {ddo{H$Z:Ÿ&
{ddo{H$`m| Ho$ {b`o g^r Xw:I hr h¢-n[aUm_, Vmn VWm g§ñH$ma Xw:I go VWm JwU
d¥{Îm`m| Ho$ {damoY go ^rŸ &
n[aUm_ Xw:I-{df`gwI Ho$ ^moJ go BpÝÐ`m| H$s V¥{á Zht hmoVr h¡, ~pëH$ amJ,
Šboe hmoVm h¡Ÿ-gwImZwem`r amJ:(`moJgyÌ 2/7)Ÿ&
^moJ H$m Aä`mg ~‹T>Zo go V¥îUm Am¡a ~‹T>Vr h¡ (_Zwñ_¥{V 2/94)-
Z OmVw H$m_: H$m_mZm_wn^moJZo emå`{VŸ& h{dî` H¥$îUdË_}d ^y` Edm{^dY©VŸo &
H$m_Zm {df` ^moJ go emÝV Zht hmoVr, Am¡a ~‹T>Vr h¡, O¡go AmJ hdZ S>mbZo go
~‹T>Vr h¡Ÿ&
{df` ^moJ go BpÝÐ`m§ Xw~©b hmoVr h¢ , Am¡a AÝV _| ^moJ e{º$ {~ëHw$b Zht
ahVrŸ& V~ V¥îUm Am¡a gVmVr h¡Ÿ&
Vmn Xw:I-{df` gwI H$m à~ÝY H$aZo _|, CgHo$ ^moJ _| n[al_ ê$nr H$ï> hmoVm
h¡Ÿ& Bg_| Omo éH$mdQ>| hmoVr h¢, Cggo Ûof Šboe hmoVm h¡-Xw:ImZwem`r Ûof:(`moJ
gyÌ 2/8)Ÿ& gwI Ho$ Zme hmoZo H$m Xw:I ^moJ H$mb _| ^r gVmVm h¡Ÿ&
g§ñH$ma Xw:I-gwI ^moJ Ho$ Omo g§ñH$ma {MÎm na n‹S>Vo h¢, Cggo CZH$s H$m_Zm
Am¡a amJ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Bg_| éH$mdQ>m| Ho$ H$maU Ûof hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Cggo ew^ Aew^ H$_m]
Ho$ ^r g§ñH$ma n‹S>Vo h¢Ÿ&
JwUd¥{Îm {damoY-gËd, aO, V_ H$m o gwI -Xw:I, _moh ê$n _| dU©Z {H$`m J`m
h¡Ÿ& BZH$m dU©Z ^JdX²JrVm 2/62-63 _| h¡-
Ü`m`Vmo {df`mÝnw§g: g“ñVofynOm`VoŸ&
g“mËgÄOm`Vo H$m_: H$m_mËH«$moYmo@{^Om`VoŸ&62Ÿ&
H«$moYmX² ^d{V gå_moh: gå_mohmËñ_¥{V {d^«_:Ÿ&
ñ_¥{V ^«§emX² ~w{ÕZmemo ~w{ÕZmemV² àUí`{VŸ&6Ÿ3Ÿ&
4.VÎd-g_mg 223
{df`m| H$m {MÝVZ g“ `m {ZH$Q>Vm H$m_Zm `m BÀN>m H«$moY
gå_moh (AkmZ) ñ_¥{V H$m ^«_ ~w[Õ H$m Zme AnZm Zme
Zme go ~MZo H$m Cnm` íbmoH$m| 64-65 _| h¡-
{~Zm amJ Ûof H$m {df` ^moJ AmË_ {Z`ÝÌU àgmX
g^r Xw:Im| H$s hm{Z àgÞVm pñWa ~w{Õ empÝV(~«m÷r pñW{V)
gm§»` gyÌm| 6/7-8 _| ^r g^r Xw:I_` ~Vm`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
Hw$Ìm{n H$mo@{n gwIr{VŸ&7Ÿ&
VX{n Xw:I e~b{_{V Xw:I njo {Z:{gnÝVo {ddoMH$m:Ÿ&8Ÿ&
H$hm§ na H$m¡Z gwIr h¡, AWm©V² H$moB© ZhtŸ& (gwI ^r) Xw:I go {_bm hþAm h¡, AV:
{ddoH$s Cgo ^r Xw:I hr g_PVo h¢Ÿ&
ZmZH$ Xw{I`m g~ g§gmaŸ& gwIr do {h {OÝh ZmW AYmaŸ&&
(4) Šboe-gm_mÝ`V: Šboe H$mo hr Xw:I _mZm J`m h¡Ÿ& {H$ÝVw {MÎm H$s dh
d¥{Îm`m§ pŠbîQ> h¢, {OZgo A{dÚm H$m ~ÝYZ Am¡a _O~yV hmoVm h¡ Ÿ& Omo {MÎm-
d¥{Îm {dÚm `m AmË_-gmjmËH$ma H$s {Xem _| ~‹T>m`o dh ApŠbï> h¡Ÿ&
(5) H¥$VH¥$Ë`-_Zwî` {OZ 4 VÎdm| H$mo nmZm MmhVm h¡ Cgo nwéfmW© H$hVo h¢-
Y_©, AW©, H$m_, _mojŸ& àW_ VrZ {H«$`m ê$n h¢Ÿ& AV: CZ VrZ H$m ^r ApÝV_
CÔoí` _moj hr h¡Ÿ {Ogo H¥$Ë` `m nwéfmW© H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& AmË_kmZ `m _moj H$s
pñW{V nmZo dmbm H¥$VH¥$Ë` h¡Ÿ& _Zwî` VÎdg_mg H$m kmZ àmá H$a H¥$VH¥$Ë`
hmoVm h¡Ÿ& V^r dh VrZ Xw:Im| go _w{º$ nm gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
(6) H$_m] H$m \$b-{H$gr ^r {H«$`m Ho$ H$maU pŠbï> VWm ApŠbï> XmoZm|
n[aUm_ hmoVo h¢Ÿ& gm_mÝ`V: àË`oH$ n[adÎm©Z _| n[al_, Aì`dñWm VWm CÛoJ
Am{X hmoVo h¢Ÿ& Bgo ^m¡{VH$ {dkmZ _| Aì`dñWm H$s d¥{Õ (Increase in
disorder or entropy) H$hVo h¢Ÿ& g_wÐ-_ÝWZ Ho$ nhbo {df hþAm, H«$_e:
AÀN>r MrO| AmZo Ho$ ~mX AÝV _| A_¥V hþAmŸ& VÎdm| H$m R>rH$ kmZ aIH$a
H$m`© H$aZo Ho$ go Vng² `m AÝYH$ma `m _moh go aOg² Xw:I VWm AÝV _| gËd `m
gwI VH$ nhþM§ m Om gH$Vm h¡-V_gmo _m Á`mo{VJ©_`Ÿ& AÝYH$ma go àH$me VH$
OmZm hr Bg kmZ H$m bú` h¡Ÿ&
*****
224 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AÜ`m` 5
gm§»`H$m[aH$m
^y{_H$m-B©ídaH¥$îU H$s gm§»`H$m[aH$m H$s g~go à{gÕ ì`m»`m dmMñn{V
{_l H$s gm§»`-VÎd-H$m¡_Xw r h¡, {OgHo$ _“bmMaU _o§ CÝhm| Zo ídoVmídVa
Cn{ZfX² Ho$ Bg íbmoH$ H$mo AmYma _mZm h¡-
AOm_oH$m§ bmo{hV ewŠb H¥$îUm§ ~ˆr: àOm: g¥O_mZm§ gê$nm:&
AOmo øoH$mo Owf_mUmo@ZweoVo OhmË`oZm§ ^wº$^moJm_Omo@Ý`:Ÿ&4/5Ÿ&
AWm©V² EH$ hr AOm (AOÝ_m àH¥${V) Ho$ bmo{hV, ewŠb, H¥$îU ê$nm| (VrZ JwUm|-
_hmbú_r, _hmgañdVr, _hmH$mbr ê$nm|) go {d{dY g¥{ï> hþ`rŸ& AO (nwéf)
H$m EH$ ê$n (Ord) BZ H$_moª _| {bá ahVm h¡, Xygam BZH$mo Ë`mJ XoVm h¡Ÿ&
_“bmMaU-AOm_oH$m§ bmo{hVewŠbH¥$îUm§, ~ˆr: àOm: g¥O_mZm§ Z_m_:Ÿ&
AOm `o Vm§ Owf_mUm§ ^OÝVo, OhmË`oZm§ ^wº$^moJm§ Zw_mñVmZ²Ÿ&1Ÿ&
h_ Cg (àH¥${V) H$mo Z_ñH$ma H$aVo h¢, Om o AO(AZwËnÞ, AWm©V² {OgH$m
H$moB© CnmXmZ H$maU Zht h¡), EH$,bmo{hV-ewŠb-H¥$îU ê$ndmbr (gÎd-aO-
V_ JwU dmbr) VWm ~hþV àOmAm| H$s g¥{ï> H$aZo dmbr h¡Ÿ& Omo AZwËnÞ àmUr
(joÌk AmË_m) godm H$aZo dmbr àH¥${V H$m AZwgaU H$aVo h¢ VWm ^wº$^moJm
àH¥${V H$mo Ë`mJ XoVo h¢, CÝh| ^r Z_ñH$maŸ&
H${nbm` _hm_wZ`o _wZ`o {eî`m` Vñ` Mmgwa`oŸ&
nÄM{eIm` VWoídaH¥$îUm`¡Vo Z_ñ`m_:Ÿ&2Ÿ&
_hm_w{Z H${nb, CZHo$ {eî` _w{Z Amgw[a, nÄM{eI (Amgw[a {eî`) VWm
B©ídaH¥$îU H$mo CZH$m AZwJh« nmZo Ho$ {b`o Z_ñH$ma h¡Ÿ&
eãXmW© g{hV H$m[aH$m`|
Xw:IÌ`m{^KmVmpÁOkmgm VXnKmVHo$ hoVm¡Ÿ&
Ñï>o gm@nmWm© MoÞH¡ $mÝVmË`ÝVVmo@^mdmV²Ÿ&1Ÿ&
{Ì{dY Xw:I go A{^KmV(hm{Z) Ho$ H$maU Cgo Zï> H$aZo Ho$ hoVw (Cnm`) Ho$ ~mao
_| {Okmgm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& Xw:IZmeH$ Bï> (bm¡{H$H$) Cnm` ahZo Ho$ H$maU `h emór`
{Okmgm ~oH$ma Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ bm¡{H$H$ Cnm` go VrZ Xw:Im| H$m EH$mÝV
(Adí`å^mdr) VWm AË`ÝV(nwZ: CËnÞ Z hmo) A^md Zht hmoVmŸ&
5.gm§»`-H$m[aH$m 225
Ñï>dXm Zwlm{dH$: g ø{dew{Õj`m{Ve`m{Ve``wº$:Ÿ&
V{ÛnarV: lo`mZ² ì`º$mì`º$ {dkmZmV²Ÿ&2Ÿ&
AmZwlm{dH$ (d¡{XH$) Cnm` (`k A{X H$_©) ^r bm¡{H$H$ Cnm`m| Ho$ g_mZ (VrZ
Xw:Im| Ho$ nyU© {ZdmaU _| Ag_W©) h¢Ÿ, Š`m|{H$ `o Aew{Õ, {dZme VWm A{Ve`
go AZw{dÕ h¢Ÿ & ì`º$ (_hÎmÎd Am{X {dH$ma), Aì`º$ (g^r ì`º$m| H$s
CnmXmZ ê$n àH¥${V) VWm k ({MÐÿn nwéf) Ho$ {dkmZ go CËnÞ Cnm` A{YH$
àeñV (R>rH$) h¡Ÿ&
_ybàH¥${Va{dH¥${V_©hXmÚm: àH¥${V{dH¥$V`: gáŸ&
fmoS>eH$ñVw {dH$m amo Z àH¥${VZ© {dH¥${V: nwéf:Ÿ&3Ÿ&
_yb àH¥${V {H$gr H$m {dH$ma (H$m`©) Zht h¡, _hmZ² Am{X gmV nXmW© àH¥${V
(AnZo H$m`m] H$s) VWm {dH¥${V (AnZo H$maU _yb àH¥${V H$s) XmoZm| h¢Ÿ& gmobh
nXmW© {g\©$ {dH$ma (H$m`©) h¢, nwéf Z H$maU, Z H$m`© h¡Ÿ&
Ñï>_Zw_mZ_m᧠dMZ§ gd©à_mU {gÕËdmV²Ÿ&
{Ì{dY§ à_mU{_ï>§ à_o` {g{Õ: à_mUm{ÕŸ&4Ÿ&
Ñï> (àË`j), AZw_mZ VWm Amá dMZ (eãX-à_mU) _| hr ~mH$s à_mU
em{_b hmoZo go gm§»` _| VrZ hr à_mU _mÝ` h¡Ÿ& à_mU go hr à_o`m| H$s {g{Õ
({ZíM` kmZ) hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
à{V{df`mÜdgm`mo Ñï>§ {Ì{dY _Zw_mZ_m»`mV_²Ÿ&
V[ëb“ {b[“ nydH© $_málw{Vamá dMZ§ VwŸ & 5Ÿ&
{df` go {bá BpÝÐ` na Am{lV AÜ`dgm` (~w{Õ Y_©) Ñï> H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ&
AZw_mZ VrZ àH$ma H$m (nydd© V², eofdV², gm_mÝ`VmoÑï>) h¡Ÿ& dh {b“ (ì`mß`)
VWm {b“r (ì`mnH$) kmZ {MÎmd¥{Îm hr h¡Ÿ& Amá dMZ H$m AW© h¡, Amám lw{V
(AWm©V² VH©$ gå_V dmŠ` Ûmam kmZ)Ÿ&
gm_mÝ`VñVw Ñï>mX² AVrpÝÐ`mUm§ àVr{VaZw_mZmV²Ÿ &
Vñ_mX{n Mm{gÕ§ namoj_mámJ_mV² {gÕ_²Ÿ & 6Ÿ&
AVrpÝÐ` nXmW© gm_mÝ`VmoÑï> Zm_H$ AZw_mZ go {gÕ (àmá) hmoVo h¢, Cggo Ed§
eofdV² AZw_mZ go A{gÕ namoj$ nXmW© AmámJ_ ê$n à_mU go {gÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
A{VXyamV² gm_rß`mX² BpÝÐ`KmVmÝ_Zmo@ZdñWm ZmV²Ÿ&
gm¡úå`mX² ì`dYmZmX² A{^^dmV² g_mZm{^hmamÀMŸ&7Ÿ&
226 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
(dñVwAm| Ho$ Zht XrIZo Ho$ H$maU h¢) -~hþV Xyar, ~hþV {ZH$Q>Vm, BpÝÐ`m| H$m
KmV (Aj_Vm), gyú_ hmoZm, ~rM _| ì`dYmZ AmZm, A{^^d({VañH¥$V, Á`mXm
àH$m{eV dñVw Ho$ gm_Zo {N>n OmZm), gÑe dñVw _| {_bZmŸ&
gm¡úå`m Îm XZw nb[ãYZm©^mdmV² H$m`©VñVXwnbãYo:Ÿ&
_hXm{X VÀM H$m`ª àH¥${Vgê$n§ {dê$n§ MŸ&8Ÿ&
gyú_ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU CgH$s (àH¥${V H$s) CnbpãY (àËdj) Zht hmoVr, A^md
Ho$ H$maU Zht; Š`m|{H$ H$m`m] go CgH$s Cnb{ãY hmoVr h¡Ÿ& `h H$m`© _hXm{X
Aì`º$ nXmW© h¢ , Omo àH¥${V Ho$ g_mZ ^r h¢, AbJ ^rŸ&
AgXH$aUmXwnmXmZ J«hUmV² gd©gå^dm^mdmV²Ÿ&
eº$ñ` eŠ`H$aUmV² H$maU^mdmÀM gV² H$m`©_Ÿ² &9Ÿ&
(H$maU Ho$ nhbo ^r) H$m`© ahVm h¡, Š`m|{H$-(1) AgV² (A{dÚ_mZ) hmoZo na
H$m`© Zht CËnÞ hmo gH$Vm, (2) ( H$m`© H$s CËn{Îm Ho$ {b`o) CnmXmZ H$maU Ho$
gmW H$m`© H$m gå~ÝY _mZZm n‹S>Vm h¡, (3) g^r H$m`© g^r CnmXmZ H$maUm|
go Zht hmoVo, (4) eº$ (j_Vm dmbm) H$maU hr eŠ` H$m`© H$a gH$Vm h¡, Am¡a
(5) H$m`© H$maU go A{^Þ h¡Ÿ&
hoV_w X{ZË`_ì`m{n g{H«$`_ZoH$_m{lV§ {b“_²Ÿ&
gmd`d§ naVÝ̧ ì`º§$ {dnarV_ì`º$_²Ÿ&10Ÿ&
ì`º$ hoV_w mZ² (gH$maU `m CËnÞ hmoZo dmbm), A{ZË` (Zï> hmoZo dmbm), Aì`mnr
(EH$ hr ñWmZ na), g{H«$` (ñnÝXê n {H«$`m), AnZo H$maU _| Am{lV,
{b“(àYmZ H$m ~mhar ê$n, AZw_mnH$) Ed§ Ad`d `wº$ h¡ Ÿ& Aì`º$ BgH$m
{dnarV h¡Ÿ&
{ÌJwU_{ddo{H$ {df`: gm_mÝ`_MoVZåàgdY{_©Ÿ&
ì`º§$ VWm àYmZ§ V{ÛnarVñVWm M nw_mZ²Ÿ&11Ÿ&
ì`º$ VWm Aì`º$ XmoZm| hr {ÌJwU ê$n, A{ddoH$s ({_bH$a H$m_ H$aZo dmbo),
{df`, gd©gmYmaU (AZoH$), AMoVZ (O‹S>), VWm àgdY_u (CËnmXH$ `m
n[aUm_r) h¢Ÿ& nwéf BZ XmoZm| go {dnarV VWm g_mZ ^r h¡Ÿ&
àrË`àr{V {dfmXmË_H$m: àH$me àd¥{Îm {Z`_mWm©:Ÿ&
AÝ`moÝ`m{^dml` OZZ {_WwZ d¥Îm`íM JwUm:Ÿ&12Ÿ&
JwU àr{V(gwI), Aàr{V (Xw:I), {dfmX² (_moh) ê$n h¢Ÿ& àH$me, àd¥{Îm
5.gm§»`-H$m[aH$m 227
(n[aUm_) Am¡a {Z`_(amoH$) BZHo$ AW© h¢Ÿ& `o JwU EH$ Xygao H m A{^^d,
Aml` (ghH$mar), OZZ (CËnmXZ) Am¡a {_WwZ (ghMa) h¢Ÿ&
gÎd§ bKw àH$meH${_ï>_nw ï>å^H§$ Mb§ M aO:Ÿ&
Jwé daUH$_od V_: àXrndÀMmW©Vmo d¥{Îm:Ÿ&13Ÿ&
gÎd bKw VWm àH$meH$ h¡, aO Cnï>å^H$mar (CÎmoOH$, CX²KmQ>H$), Am¡a Mb
h¡, V_ Jwé VWm AmdaU H$mar h¡Ÿ& (nañna {déÕ) `o VrZ JwU nwéfmW© go
à`mo{OV hmoH$a àXrn Ho$ g_mZ {_bH$a H$m`© H$aVo h¢Ÿ&
A{ddoŠ`mXo: {g{Õó¡JÊw `mÎm[Ûn`© `o@^mdmV²Ÿ&
H$maUJwUmË_H$ËdmËH$m`©ñ`mì`º$_{n {gÕ_²Ÿ&14Ÿ&
({ÌJwU ê$n Aì`º$ àYmZ _|) A{ddo{o H$Ëd Am{X Y_m| H$s gÎmm {gÕ hmoVr h¡,
Š`m|[H $`o gÎdm{X JwU gwI-Xw:I-_mohmË_H$ h¢Ÿ& Ohm§ `o Y_© Zht h¢, dhm§ BZ
VrZ JwUm| H$m A^md XrIVm h¡Ÿ& (ì`º$ _hV² Am{X) H$m`m] Ho$ H$maU Aì`º$
àH¥${V H$s gÎmm ^r {gÕ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
^oXmZm§ n[aUm_mV² g_Ýd`mÀN>{º$V: àd¥ÎmoíMŸ&
H$maU H$m`© {d^mJmX{d^mJmÛ¡ídê$ß`ñ`Ÿ&15Ÿ&
H$maU_ñË`ì`º$_² àdV©Vo {ÌJwUV: g_wX`mÀMŸ&
n[aUm_V: g{bbdV² à{Và{VJwUml` {deofmV²Ÿ & 16Ÿ&
_hV² Am{X H$m`m] H$m Aì`º$ ê$n CnmXmZ H$maU BZgo {gÕ h¡-(1) ^oXm|
(_hmZ² Am{X) Ho$ n[a{_V hmoZo go, (2) g_Ýd` go, (3) H$maU H$s e{º$ go
H$m`© H$s àd¥{Îm (CËn{Îm) hmoZo go, (4) H$maU Ûmam H$m`© Ho$ {d^mJ go VWm
d¡ídê$ß` (AZoH$ àH$ma Ho$ H$m`m]) H$m AnZo H$maU _| A{d^mJŸ& `h Aì`º$
AnZo {ÌJwU ê$n Ed§ g_wX`(àYmZ-AàYmZ go {_bH$a), Ob H$s Vah àd¥Îm
hmoVm h¡Ÿ& O¡go Ob _| AÝ` MrO| Kwb {_b OmVr h¢, Cgr àH$ma {H$gr JwU Ho$
àYmZ hmoZo na Jm¡U JwU CgHo$ Aml` _o ahVo h¢Ÿ&
g§KmV namW©ËdmV² {ÌJwUm{X {dn`©`mX{Yð>mZmV²Ÿ&
nwéfmo@pñV ^moº$¥ ^mdmËH¡$dë`mWª àd¥ÎmoíMŸ&17Ÿ&
àH¥${V go AbJ nwéf H$s gÎmm BZgo {gÕ h¡-g§KmV({_{bV nXmW©)$ Xygao Ho$
{b`o h¢, {ÌJwU Am{X go {déÕ h¢, g^r {ÌJwUmË_H$ nXmWm] Ho$ A{Yð>mZ ê$n _|,
^mo½` nXmW© {~Zm ^moº$m Ho$ Zht hmo gH$Vm, VWm H¡$dë` Ho$ {b`o àd¥{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
228 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
OÝ_ _aU H$aUmZm§ à{V {Z`_mX`wJnËàd¥ÎmoíMŸ&
nwéf ~hþËd§ {gÕ§ Ì¡JÊw ` {dn`©`mÀM¡dŸ&18Ÿ&
OÝ_ _aU VWm H$aUm| (BpÝÐ`m|, _Z, ~w{Õ, Ah‘>ma) H$s ì`dñWm Ho$ H$maU
VWm àm{U`m| _| gmpÎdH$ Am{X ^oX Ho$ H$maU nwéf H$s ~hþVm {gÕ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
Vñ_mÀM {dn`m© gmpËgÕ§ gm{jËd_ñ` nwéfñ`Ÿ&
H¡$dë`§ _mÜ`ñÏ`§ Ðï¥>Ëd_H$V¥© ^mdíMŸ&19Ÿ&
nwéf Ho$ gm{jËd, H¡$dë`, _Ü`ñW (CXmgrZ), Ðï¥>Ëd Am¡a AH$Îm¥Ë© d Ho$ à_mU
h¢-{ÌJwUm| H$m {dn`m©g ({dnarVVm) VWm nwéf H$m ~hþËdŸ&
Vñ_mÎmËg§`moJmXMoVZ§ MoVZmd{Xd {b“_²Ÿ&
JwU H$V¥Ë© do@{n VWm H$V}d ^dË`wXmgrZ:Ÿ&20Ÿ&
AV: nwéf Ho$ g§`moJ go AMoVZ {b“ MoVZ XrIVm h¡, JwUm| Ho$ H$Vm© hmoZo na ^r
nwéf H$Vm© O¡gm XrIVm h¡Ÿ&
nwéfñ` Xe©ZmWª H¡$dë`mWª VWm àYmZñ`Ÿ&
nL²>½dÝY dXw^`mo a{n g§`mo JmñVËH¥$V: gJ©:Ÿ&21Ÿ&
nwéf Ho$ Ûmam àYmZ (àH¥${V) Ho$ Xe©Z (^moJ) Ho$ {b`o VWm nwéf Ho$ H¡$dë` Ho$
{b`o nwéf Am¡a àH¥${V H$m g§`moJ hmoVm h¡, {Oggo g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡Ÿ& `h g§`moJ n“x
VWm AÝY Ho$ g§`moJ H$s Vah (EH$ Xygao na {Z^©a) h¡Ÿ&
àH¥$V _o © hm§ ñVVmo @h‘>m añVñ_mX² JUíM fmoS>eH$:Ÿ&
Vñ_mX{n fmoS>eH$mËnÄ M ä`: nÄM ^yVm{ZŸ&22Ÿ&
(_yb) àH¥${V go _hmZ² (_hÎmËd) Am¡a _hmZ² go Ah‘>ma CËnÞ hmoVm h¡, Ah‘>ma
go nm§M VÝ_mÌm VWm 11 BpÝÐ`m§-Hw$b 16 VÎd hmoVo h¢Ÿ& BZ 16 go 5 VÝ_mÌm Ûmam
5 _hm^yV hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
AÜ`dgm`mo ~w{ÕY©_m} kmZ§ {damJ Eoíd`©_Ÿ² &
gmpÎdH$_oVÐÿn§ Vm_g_ñ_m{Ûn`©ñV_²Ÿ&23Ÿ&
AÜ`dgm`({ZíM` H$aZo dmbm VÎd) ~w{Õ h¡Ÿ& Y_©, kmZ, d¡am½` VWm Eoíd`©
BgHo$ gmpÎdH$ ê$n h¢Ÿ& BZ 4 Ho$ {dnarV Vm_g ê$n h¢Ÿ&
A{^_mZmo @ h‘>m añVñ_mX² {Û{dY: àdÎm© Vo gJ©:Ÿ&
EH$mXeíM JUñVmÝ_mÌ: nÄMH$íM¡dŸ&24Ÿ&
A{^_mZ H$mo Ah‘>ma H$hVo h¢Ÿ& Cggo Xmo àH$ma Ho$ H$m`© hmoVo h¢-11 BpÝÐ`m§, 5
5.gm§»`-H$m[aH$m 229
VÝ_mÌmŸ&
gmpÎdH$ EH$mXeH$: àdÎm© Vo d¡H$¥ Vm Xh‘>m amV²Ÿ&
^yVmXoñVm Ý_mÌ: g Vm_gñV¡OgmXw^`_²Ÿ&25Ÿ&
d¡H¥$V Zm_H$ Ah‘>ma go 11 BpÝÐ`m| H$m gmpÎdH$ JU CËnÞ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& ^yVm{X
g§kH$ V_mg Ah‘>ma go Vm_g Vm Ý_mÌ JU CËnÞ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& V¡OgmË_H$ amOg
Ah‘>ma BZ XmoZm| JUm| H$s CËn{Îm _| ghm`H$ h¡Ÿ&
~wÕrpÝÐ`m{U Mjw: lmoÌ K«mU agZËdJm»`m{ZŸ&
dmH²$ nm{U nmX nm`ynñWmZ² H$_}pÝÐ`mÊ`mhþ:Ÿ&26Ÿ&
Mjw, H$U©, K«mU, agZm, VWm ËdH²$ Zm_H$ 5 ~wÕrpÝÐ`m§ Am¡a dmH²$, nm{U,
nmX, nm`w, CnñW Zm_H$ 5 H$_}[ÝÐ`m§ h¢Ÿ&
C^`mË_H$_Ì _Z: g‘>ënH${_pÝÐ`§ M gmYå`m©VŸ² &
JwU n[aUm_ {deofmÞmZmËd§ ~mø ^oXmíMŸ&27Ÿ&
BZ_|(BpÝÐ`m| _|) _Z C^`mË_H$ BpÝÐ` h¡Ÿ& `h g‘>ën H$aZo dmbm h¡ Am¡a
BpÝÐ`m| Ho$ gOmVr` hmoZo Ho$ H$maU (Ah‘>ma go CËnÞ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU) BpÝÐ` ^r
H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& JwUm| Ho$ n[aUm_ ^oX Ho$ H$maU {d{dY BpÝÐ`m§ CËnÞ hmoVr h¢, O¡go
(EH$ ^yVm {X go OmV) ~mø nXmW© Ho$ ^oX JwU-n[aUm_ ^oX Ho$ H$maU hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
ê$nm{Xfw nÄMmZm_mbmoMZ _mÌ{_î`Vo d¥{Îm:Ÿ&
dMZmXmZ {dhaUmoËgJm©ZÝXmíM nÄ MmZm_²Ÿ&28Ÿ&
Mjw Am{X 5 kmZopÝÐ`m| H$s d¥{Îm ê$n,eãX,JÝY, ag, Am¡a ñne©-BZ 5 {df`m|
H$m AmbmoMZm_mÌ (dñVw kmZ _mÌ) h¡, Eogm H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ& Cgr àH$ma dmH²$
Am{X 5 H$_}pÝÐ`m| Ho$ ì`mnma dMZ, AmXmZ (J«hU), {dhaU, CËgJ©(_bË`mJ)
Am¡a AmZÝX (_¡WwZ H$_©) H$ho OmVo h¢Ÿ&
ñdmbjÊ`§ d¥{Îmó`ñ` g¡fm ^dË`gm_mÝ`mŸ&
gm_mÝ`H$aUd¥{Îm: àmUmÚm dm`d: nÄMŸ&29Ÿ&
VrZm| AZV:H$aUm| (_hV²-Ah‘>ma-_Z)) Ho$ AnZo AnZo bjU hr CZHo$ ì`mnma
h¢Ÿ& àmU Am{X nÄM dm`w H$maUÌ` H$s gmYmaU d¥{Îm h¢Ÿ&
`wJnÀMVwï>`ñ` Vw d¥{Îm: H«$_eíM Vñ` {Z{X©ï>mŸ&
Ñï>o VWmß`Ñï>o Ì`ñ` VËny{d©H$m d¥{Îm:Ÿ&30Ÿ&
àË`j ({df`) _| Mmam| hr (H$moB© EH$ ~mø VWm VrZ AÝV:) H$aUm| Ho$ ì`mnma
230 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
H$^r EH$ gmW H$^r H«$_e: XrIVo h¢Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma AÑï> {df` _| ^r VrZm|
AÝV:H$aUm| H$s d¥{Îm`m§ H$^r EH$ gmW H$^r H«$_e: XrIVr h¢Ÿ&
ñdm§ ñdm§ à{VnÚÝVo nañnam Hy$V hoVHw $m§ d¥{Îm_²Ÿ&
nwéfmW© Ed hoVZw © Ho$Z{MËH$m `© Vo H$aU_²Ÿ&31Ÿ&
`o (AmÝVa Am¡a ~mø) H$maU nañna AmHy$V (A{^àm` AWm©V² ñd-ñd
H$m`m}Ý_wIVm) Ho$ H$maU AnZr-AnZr d¥{Îm (=ì`mnma) H$mo àmá H$aVo h¢Ÿ&
(H$aUm| H$s H$m`m}Ý_wIVm _|) ^moJ-AndJ©-ê$n nwéfmW© hr hoVw h¡, AÝ` H$moB©
(AWm©V² B©ída `m A{^_mZr Xod Am{X) H$aUm| Ho$ à`moOH$ `m àdÎm©H$ Zht h¢Ÿ&
H$aU§ Ì`moXe {dY§ VXmhaU YmaU àH$meH$_²Ÿ&
H$m`ª M Vñ` XeYm@@hm`ª Ym`ª àH$mí`§ MŸ&32Ÿ&
H$aU Voah àH$ma Ho$ h¢Ÿ& do AmhaU, YmaU VWm àH$me H$aZo dmbo h¢Ÿ& BZH$m
H$m`© Amhm`©, Ym`© Am¡a àH$mí` h¡, àË`oH$ H$m`© Xg àH$ma H$m hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
AÝV:H$aU§ {Ì{dY§ XeYm ~mø§ Ì`ñ` {df`m»`_²Ÿ&
gmåàV H$mb§ ~mø§ {ÌH$mb _mä`ÝVa§ H$aU_²Ÿ&33Ÿ&
AÝV:H$aU VrZ àH$ma Ho$ h¢, Am¡a BZ VrZ AÝV:H$aUm| Ho$ ~mø H$aU Xg àH$ma
Ho$ h¢Ÿ& ~mø H$aU dV©_mZ {df`H$ Am¡a AÝV:H$aU {ÌH$mb {df`H$ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
~wÕrpÝÐ`m{U Vofm§ nÄM {deofm{deof {df`m{UŸ&
dm½^d{V eãX{df`m eofm[U Vw nÄ M {df`m{UŸ&34Ÿ&
BZ Xg ~mø H$aUm| (BpÝÐ`m|) _| nm§M kmZopÝÐ`m§ {deof (^yV) Am¡a A{deof
(VÝ_mÌ) ê$n {d{dY J«mø {df`m| _| àd¥Îm hmoVr h¢Ÿ& dmH²$ ê$n H$_}pÝÐ` H$m
{df` eãX h¡; eof 4 H$_}pÝÐ`m§, eãX-ñnem©{X nÄ MJwU_` nmÄM^m¡{VH$
{df`m| _| àd¥Îm hmoVr h¢Ÿ&
gmÝV: H$aUm ~w{Õ: gdª {df`_dJmhVo `ñ_mV²Ÿ&
Vñ_mV² {Ì{dY§ H$aU§ Ûm[a Ûmam{U eofm[UŸ&35Ÿ&
Š`m|{H$ AÝV:H$aUm| Ho$ gmW ( AÜ`dgm` bjU H$s )$ ~w{Õ g_ñV {df`m| _|
ì`má hmoVr h¡, AV: `o VrZm| AÝV:H$aU Ûmar (àYmZ) h¢; AÝ` H$aU Ûma
(gmYZ-_mÌ) h¢Ÿ&
EVo àXr n H$ënm: nañna {dbjUm JwU {deofm:Ÿ&
H¥$ËñZ§ nwéfñ`mWª àH$mí` ~wÕm¡ à`ÀN>pÝVŸ&36Ÿ&
5.gm§»`-H$m[aH$m 231
JwUmo§ Ho$ n[aUm_^yV Ed§ nañna {dbjU `o H$aU àXrn Ho$ g_mZ ({_bH$a
H$m_ H$a gH$Vo) h¢Ÿ& `o nwéf Ho$ g^r AWm] H$mo àH$m{eV H$a Cgo ~w{Õ H$mo
g_{n©V H$a XoVo h¢Ÿ&
gdª àË`wn^moJ§ `ñ_mËnwéfñ` gmY`{V ~w{Õ:Ÿ&
g¡d M {d{eZ{ï> nwZ: àYmZ nwéfmÝVa§ gyú__²Ÿ&37Ÿ&
My{± H$ ~w{Õ nwéf Ho$ {b`o gd© {df`H$ ^moJ H$mo gånm{XV H$aVr h¡ Am¡a dhr
àH¥${V Am¡a nwéf Ho$ gyú_ ^oX H$mo àH$Q> H$aVr h¡ (AV: ~w{Õ H$mo hr gdm}ÀM
H$aU _mZm OmVm h¡)Ÿ&
VÝ_mÌmÊ`{deofm ñVoä`mo ^yVm{Z nÄ M nÄ Mä`:Ÿ&
EVo ñ_¥Vm {deofm: emÝVm KmoamíM _y T‹ > >míMŸ&38Ÿ&
nm§M VÝ_mÌ A{deof ({deof a{hV ) h¢; BZ nm§Mm| go AmH$me Am{X nm§M ^yV
CËnÞ hmoVo h¢, Omo {deof H$hbmVo h¢Ÿ& `o {deof emÝV (gwImË_H$), Kmoa
Xw:ImË_H$) Am¡a _yT‹ > (_mohmË_H$) hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
gyú_m _mVm { nV¥Om: gh à^yV{¡ óYm {deofm: ñ`w:Ÿ&
gyú_mñVofm§ {Z`Vm _mVm{nV¥Om {ZdV©ÝVoŸ&39Ÿ&
gyú_ eara, _mVm Am¡a {nVm go CËnÞ eara, VWm à^yV (_hm^yV)-`o VrZ
àH$ma Ho$ {deof hmoVo h¢Ÿ& BZgo gyú_ eara {Z`V hmoVo h¢Ÿ& {H$ÝVw _mVm {nVm go
CËnÞ eara ZmedmZ² hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
nydmoË© nÞm _gº§$ {Z`V§ _hXm{X gyú_ n`©ÝV_²Ÿ&
g§ga{V {Zé n^moJ§ ^md¡a{Ydm{gV§ {b“_²Ÿ&40Ÿ&
g¥{ï> Ho$ Amaå^ _| CËnÞ, Agº$ (A~m{YV J{V dmbo), {Z`V (ñWm`r), _hÎmÎd
go boH$a gyú_ (VÝ_mÌ) VÎdm| go ~Zm hþAm, ^moJ a{hV (AWm©V² ñWyb eara
hrZ), Y_m©Y_© Am{X ^mdm| go A{Ydm{gV, b`erb `h gyú_ eara g§gaU
H$aVm ahVm h¡Ÿ&
{M̧ `Wml` _¥Vo ñWmÊdm{Xä`mo {dZm `WmÀN>m`mŸ&
VÛ{ÛZm {deof¡ Z© {Vð>{V {Zaml`§ {b“_²Ÿ&41Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma AmYma Ho$ {~Zm {MÌ Am¡a ñWmUw (IyQ§ >m) Am{X Ho$ {~Zm N>m`m Zht ah
gH$Vr, Cgr àH$ma {deof Ho$ {~Zm {b“ (AWm©V² ~w{Õ, Ah‘>ma, BpÝÐ`,VÝ_mÌ
H$s g_{ï>) Aml`hrZ hmoH$a Zht ah gH$VmŸ&
232 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
nwéfmW© hoVHw ${_X§ {Z{_Îm Z¡{_{ÎmH$ àg“oZŸ&
àH¥$Vo{d©^Ëw d`mo JmÞQ>dX² ì`d{Vð>Vo {b“_²Ÿ&42Ÿ&
nwéfmW©-ê$n hoVw g àd{V©V `h {b“ (gyú_ eara) Y_©, AY_© Am{X {Z{_Îm
Am¡a Z¡{_{ÎmH$ ({Z{_Îm hoVw ñWyb eara J«hU) go gå~Õ (AWm©V² {Z{_Îm-
Z¡{_{ÎmH$-naVÝÌ) hmoZo Ho$ H$maU àH¥${V Ho$ {d^wËd`moJ (gd©ì`mnH$Vm) go ZQ>
Ho$ g_mZ (~hþ{dY ê$nm| _|) AdpñWV h¡ (AWm©V² ^moJmndJ© H$m gånmXZ H$aVm
ahVm h¡)Ÿ&
gm§{g{ÕH$míM ^mdm: àH¥${VH$m d¡H$¥ VmíM Y_m©Úm:Ÿ&
Ñï>m: H$aUml{`U: H$m`m©l{`UíM H$bbmÚm:Ÿ&43Ÿ&
àH¥${V AWm©V² ñd^md go hr {gÕ gm§{g{ÕH$ VWm ({Z{_Îm go {gÕ) d¡H¥$V
Y_©, AY_© Am{X ^md H$aU AWm©V² ~w{Õ _| Am{lV ahVo h¢ (~w[Õ-d¥{Îm ê$n
_|)Ÿ Ed§ H$bb (ewH$« -aO H$m g§`º w $ ê$n, `h H$B© am{Ì`m| Ho$ ~mX H$bb hmoVm
h¡) Am{X ^md H$m`© AWm©V² Z¡{_{ÎmH$ (eara) Ho$ hmoVo h¢ (AWm©V² H$bb Am{X
emar[aH$ Y_© h¢)Ÿ&
Y_}U J_Z_yÜdª J_Z_YñVmX² ^dË`Y_}UŸ&
kmZoZ MmndJm} {dn`©`m{Xî`Vo ~ÝY:Ÿ&44Ÿ&
Y_© go D$Üd© bmoH$m| _| VWm AY_© go AY: bmoH$m| _| J{V hmoVr h¡Ÿ& kmZ go AndJ©
(_moj) VWm CgHo$ {dnarV AkmZ go ~ÝYZ àmá hmoVm h¡Ÿ-Eogm emóH$mam| H$m
H$WZ h¡Ÿ&
d¡am½`mËàH¥${Vb `: g§gmamo ^d{V amOgmÐmJmV²Ÿ&
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`h e§H$m hmoVr h¡ {H$ ñdm^m{dH$ nXmW© H$m ^r Zme hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
eŠË`wX^ ² dmZwX^² dmä`m§ ZmeŠ`monXoe:Ÿ&1/11Ÿ&
`o Ñï>mÝV g§JV Zht h¢Ÿ& `hm§ e{º$(Y_©) H$m CX²^d Am¡a {Vamo^md hr hmoVo h¢,
ñdm^m{dH$ Y_© H$m Zme Zht hmoVmŸ& a§JZo go dó H$s ñdm^m{dH$ ew^V« m {N>n
OmVr h¡, Hw$N> à{H«$`m go `h dmng bm`r Om gH$Vr h¡Ÿ& A‘x>a H$s OZZ e{º$ H$m
^r nwZéÕma hmo gH$Vm h¡ ( `moJr Ho$ g‘>ën `m {H$gr à{H«$`m go)Ÿ&
Z H$mb`moJVm o ì`m{nZmo {ZË`ñ` gd©gå~ÝYmV²Ÿ&1/12Ÿ&
`h H$hZm R>rH$ Zht h¡ {H$ [H$gr H$mb _| AmË_m ~Õ hþAm h¡ Š`m|{H$ H$mb
ì`mnr Am¡a A{ZË` h¡Ÿ& Eogo H$mb go `{X AmË_m H$m ~ÝYZ hmoJm Vmo dh ~ÝYZ
^r {ZË` hmoJm, H$moB© AmË_m _wº$ Zht hmo nm`oJrŸ&
Z Xoe`moJVmo@ß`ñ_mV²Ÿ&1/13Ÿ&
Xoe Ho$ H$maU ^r AmË_m ~Õ Zht hmoVm Š`m|{H$ Xoe ^r ì`mnr Am¡a {ZË` h¡,
CgH$m ~ÝYZ ^r {ZË` hmoJmŸ&
ZmdñWmVmo XohY_©ËdmÎmñ`m:Ÿ&1/14Ÿ&
AdñWm {g\©$ Xoh H$m Y_© h¡ AV: Cggo ^r AmË_m ~Õ Zht hmoVmŸ&
Ag“mo@`§ nwéf B{VŸ&1/15Ÿ&
lw{V Ho$ AZwgma ^r nwéf Ag§J h¡, AV: AdñWm Ho$db Xoh H$m hr Y_© h¡Ÿ&
Z H$_©Um@Ý`Y_©ËdmX{Vàgºo$íMŸ&1/16Ÿ&
240 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
H$_© Ûmam _wº$ AmË_m H$m ~ÝYZ Zht hmoVm Š`m|[ H$_© AZmË_ nXmWm] H$m Y_© h¡Ÿ&
`{X H$_© go _wº$ AmË_m H$m ~ÝYZ _mZm Om` Vmo A{Vàg{º$ hmoJr, AWm©V² gmYZ
~b go _wº$hmoZo Ho$ ~mX nwZ: ~ÝY hmoZo H$s g§^mdZm ahoJr, emídVr _w{º$ H$^r
Zht hmoJrŸ&
{d{MÌ^moJmZwnn{ÎmaÝ`Y_©ËdoŸ&1/17Ÿ&
Xw:I^moJ ê$nr ~ÝY `{X {MÎm H$m Y_© hmo Vmo ^moJ-d¡{MÍ` H$s AZwnn{Îm hmoJrŸ&
^moJd¡{MÍ` H$s Cnn{Îm Ho$ {b`o `h _mZZm hmoJm {H$ nwéf H$o H$maU ~ÝY h¡Ÿ& dh
~ÝY à{V{~å~ ê$n h¡Ÿ&
àH¥${V{Z~ÝYZmÀMoV² Vñ`m A{n nmaVÝÍ`_²Ÿ&1/18Ÿ&
àH¥${V Ho$ H$maU ^r ~ÝYZ Zht _mZm Om gH$Vm Š`m|{H$ àH¥${V g§`moJ naVÝÌ
h¡Ÿ&àH¥${V Ho$ gmW g§`moJ hmoZo na hr AmË_m ~ÝYZ-`wº$ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& àH¥${V Ho$
ApñVËd_mÌ go AmË_m H$m Xw:I`moJ ê$n ~ÝY Zht hmoVmŸ& g§`moJ {deof Ho$ {~Zm
àH¥${V `{X ~ÝYH$m[aUr hmoVr Vmo àb` Am{X _| ^r Xw:I ê$n ~ÝY H$m àg§J
hmoVmŸ&
Z {ZË`ewÕ~wÕ_wº$ñd^mdñ` VÚmoJñVÚmoJmÑVoŸ&1/19Ÿ&
{ZË`-~wÕ-ewÕ-_wº$-ñd^md AmË_m H$m Omo Xw:I`moJ ê$n-~ÝY hmoVm h¡, dh
àH¥${V Ho$ `moJ Ho$ {~Zm Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
Zm {dÚmVmo@ß`dñVwZm ~ÝYm`moJmV²Ÿ&1/20Ÿ&
A{dÚm go ^r _wº$ AmË_m H$m ~ÝY Zht hm o gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ dh AdñVw h¡
(j{UH$ {dkmZdmX H$m _V)
dñVwËdo {gÕmÝVhm{Z:Ÿ&1/21Ÿ&
A{dÚm H$mo dñVw _mZZo go AnZo hr {gÕmÝV H$s hm{Z hmoVr h¡ (Š`m|{H$ CZHo$ _V
go A{dÚm {_Ï`m go CËnÞ h¡)
{dOmVr`Û¡Vmn{ÎmíMŸ&1/22Ÿ&
A{dÚm H$mo dñVw _mZZo go {dOmVr` Û¡V H$s Amn{Îm hmoJrŸ& AWm©V² j{UH$
{dkmZ go AbJ Om{V Ho$ A{dÚm Zm_H$ {ÛVr` dñVw H$s H$ënZm H$aZr hmoJrŸ&
Bggo -j{UH${dkmZgÝVmZ_mÌ_{ÛVr` VÎd_²-_V IpÊS>V hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
{déÕmo^`ê$nm MoVŸ² &1/23Ÿ&
(àíZ) A{dÚm gV²-AgV² ê$nr Xmo {déÕ Y_m] go `wº$ h¡ `m CZ XmoZm| go {dbjU?
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 241
Z VmX¥H$² nXmWm©àVrVo:Ÿ&1/24Ÿ&
(CÎma) Eogm Zht _mZ gH$Vo Š`m|{H$ Eogo$ {H$gr nXmW© H$s àVr{V Zht hmoVrŸ&
Z d`§ fQ²>nXmW©dm{XZmo d¡e{o fH$m{XdV²Ÿ&1/25Ÿ&
(e‘>m) My§{H$ h_ d¡eo{fH$ H$s Vah 6 (`m Z¡`m{`H$m| H$m 16) nXmW© Zht _mZVo,
AV: O¡gr BÀN>m hmo d¡gm nXmW© _mZ gH$Vo h¢-gV², AgV², gXgV²,
gXg{ÛbjU Am{XŸ&
A{Z`VËdo@{n Zm`m¡{º$H$ñ` g§Jh« mo@Ý`Wm ~mbmoÝ_Îmm{X g_Ëd_²Ÿ&1/26Ÿ&
(g_mYmZ) nXmW© H$s {ZË`Vm Zht _mZZo na ^r {~Zm `w{º$ Ho$ nXmWm] H$mo Zht
_m Z gH$Vo, Š`m|{H$ Bggo e§H$m H$aZo dmbm Ak Am¡a CÝ_Îm Ho$ g_mZ hmoJmŸ&
ZmZm{X {df`monamJ {Z{_Îmmo@ß`ñ`Ÿ&1/27Ÿ&
_wº$ AmË_m H$m ~ÝYZ AZm{X {df` dmgZm go ^r Zht hmoVmŸ(EH$ àH$ma H$m
~m¡Õ_V h¡ {H$ j{UH$ ~mø {df` H$s dmgZm go Ord H$m ~ÝYZ hmoVm h¡)Ÿ&
Z ~mømä`ÝVa`mo é naÄÁ`mo n aÄOH$^mdmo @ {n Xo e ì`dYmZmV²
òw¿ZñWnmQ>{bnwÌñW`mo[adŸ&1/28Ÿ&
BZ _Vm| H$m AmYma h¡ {H$ ~mø {df` Am¡a AÝV:ñW AmË_m H$m CnamÁ`-CnaÄOH$
^md gå^d Zht h¡, O¡go òw¿Z Am¡a nmQ>{bnwÌ -BZ Xmo Xya ñWmZm| H$s dñVwAm| _|
à^mdr gå~ÝY Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
Û`moaHo $XoebãYmo namJmÞ ì`dñWmŸ&1/29Ÿ&
{df` _| OmZo go AmË_m {df` g§`moJ H$a Cggo CnamJ hmoVm h¡-`h _mZZo na
~ÝY-_moj H$s H$moB© ì`dñWm Zht hmo gHo$Jr-_wº$ ^r ~Õ hmo Om`JmŸ&
AÑï>demÀMoVŸ² &1/30Ÿ&
(e‘>m) `{X AÑï> Ûmam CnamJ _mZm Om` Vmo {df`-gh`moJ H$m gmå` ahZo na
^r AÑï> Ûmam CnamJ hmoJm AÝ`Wm ZhtŸ&
Z Û`moaHo $H$mbm`moJmXwnH$m`m}nH$maH$^md:Ÿ&1/31Ÿ&
(CÎma) j{UH$dmX Ho$AZwgma H$Îmm© Am¡a ^moº$m H$s pñW{V EH$ H$mb _| Zht
hmoVr, AV: CnH$m`©-CnH$maH$ ^md Zht {gÕ hmoVmŸ&
nwÌH$_©d{X{V MoVŸ² &1/32Ÿ&
(e‘>m) nwÌ{o ï> `k Am{X go O¡go nwÌ H$m CnH$ma hmoVm h¡ Cgr àH$ma ì`{YH$aU
(AÝ` _| ahZo dmbo) AÑï> go {df` H$m CnamJ Š`m| Z _mZ|? AWm©V² AÑï> H$Îmm©
242 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
go AÑï> ^moº m $ Š`m| Zht CËnÞ hmo gH$Vm?
ZmpñV {h VÌ pñWa EH$mË_m `mo J^m©YmZm{XZm(H$_©Um)g§pñH«$`oVŸ&1/33Ÿ&
(CÎma) Eogm Zht hmo gH$Vm Š`m|{H$ (e‘>mH$mar _o _V go) J^m©YmZ go OÝ_ VH$
H$moB© EH$ hr pñWa AmË_m Zht hmo gH$Vm, AV: nwÌ H$_©dmbm Ñï>mÝV Zht KQ>
gH$VmŸ&(j{UH$dmXr Ho$ _V go OÝ_ go CÎma H$mb VH$ {H$gr H$s gÎmm Zht
ahVr)Ÿ&
pñWaH$m`m© {gÕo: j{UH$Ëd_²Ÿ&1/34Ÿ&
My{§ H$ H$m`© H$s pñWaVm {gÕ Zht hmoVr, Bg{b`o ~ÝY j{UH$ h¡(j{UH$dmX)
AZw_mZ-~ÝY Am{X Xrn{eIm H$s Vah gËd hmoZo go$j{UH$ h¢Ÿ&
Z àË`{^km~mYmV²Ÿ&1/35Ÿ&
nhbo {Ogo XoIm Wm dhr AmO XoIVm hÿ§-`h àË`[^km h¡Ÿ& Bggo nXmW© H$m
j{UH$Ëd IpÊS>V hmoVm h¡Ÿ& AV: ~ÝY Am{X pñWa {gÕ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
lw{VÝ`m`{damoYmÀMŸ&1/36Ÿ&
j{UH$dmX lw{V Am¡a VH©$ H$o {déÕ h¡Ÿ&
Ñï>mÝVm{gÕoíMŸ&1/37Ÿ&
Xrn{eIm Ho$ Ñï>mÝV go `h {gÕ Zht hmoVmŸ&
`wJnÁOm`_mZ`moZ© H$m`©H$maU ^md:Ÿ&1/38Ÿ&
j{UH$VmdmX _mZZo na {_Å>r Ho$ KQ> H$m gd©bmoH$-{gÕ VWm H$m`© H$maU ^md ^r
Zht {gÕ hmoJm, Š`m|{H$ V~ H$m`©-H$maU XmoZm| hr `wJnV² Om`_mZ(EH$ gmW
CËnÞ) hmo Om`J|Ÿ& H$m`©-H$maU ^md _| nhbo H$maU V~ H$m`© hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
nydm©nm`o CÎmam`moJmV²Ÿ&1/39Ÿ&
j{UH$dmX _mZZo na H$maU H$m Zme hmoZo na hr H$m`© CËnÞ hmo gH$Vm h¡, na
H$m`© gXm CnmXmZ (gm_J«r) H$maU go {_bm ahVm h¡Ÿ&
VX²^mdo VX`moJmXw^`ì`{^MmamX{n ZŸ&1/40Ÿ&
j[UH$dmX _| CnmXmZ H$maU VWm H$m`© XmoZm| H$m AdYmaU (EH$ gmW hmoZm)
Zht hmo gH$Vm Š`m|{H$ O~ H$maU H$s pñW{V h¡ V~ CgHo$ ~mX CËnÞ H$maU H$m
H$moB© gå~ÝY Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
nyd^ © md_mÌo Z {Z`_:Ÿ&1/41Ÿ&
H$moB© nXmW© H$m`© Ho$ nyd© _| {ñWV h¡-Bgr go dh CnmXmZ H$maU Zht hmo OmVm,Š`m|{H$
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 243
{Z{_Îm H$maU ^r H$m`© go nhbo ahVm hr h¡&(20-41 gyÌ VH$ j{UH$dmX H$m
IÊS>Z h¡Ÿ)Ÿ&
Z {dkmZ_m̧ ~møàVr{V:Ÿ(Vo:)&1/42Ÿ&
~m¡Õg§JV {dkmZ_mÌ VÎd Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ {Og àH$ma {dkmZ H$s àVr{V hmoVr
h¡, Cgr àH$ma ~mø nXmWm] H$s ^r àVr{V hmoVr h¡Ÿ&({MÎm, _Z, {dkmZ H$m
EH$ hr AW© h¡)Ÿ&
VX^mdo VX^mdmÀNy>Ý`§ V{h©Ÿ&1/43Ÿ&
~mø àVr{V Z _mZZo na {dkmZ ^r AdñVw hr à_m{UV hmoJm, Š`m|{H$ ~mø
dñVw Ho$ A^md go {dkmZ H$m A^md hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
eyÝ`§ VÎd§ , ^mdmo {dZí`{V, dñVwY_©Ëdm{ÛZmeñ`Ÿ&1/44Ÿ&
(e‘>m) eyÝ` H$mo VÎd VWm ^mdnXmW© H$mo Zída _mZ gH$Vo h¢ Š`m|{H$ {dZme
(^md nXmW© H$m A^md hmoZm) hr dñVw H$m Y_© h¡Ÿ&
AndmX_mÌ_~wÕmV²Ÿ&1/45Ÿ&
(CÎma) ^md nXmW© H$m nyUV© : A^md hmoVm h¡-Eogm _mZZm _yIV© m h¡(^md {H$gr
Z {H$gr ê$n _| Adí` ahoJm)Ÿ&
C^`njg_mZjo_ËdmX`_{nŸ&1/46Ÿ&
{dkmZdmX Am¡a j{UH$dmX {Og ê$n _| {ZañV hmoVo h¢, eyÝ`dmX ^r Cgr ê$n go
{ZañV hmoVm h¡ (àË`{^km Am¡a ~mø àVr{V go)Ÿ&
AnwéfmW©Ëd_w^`WmŸ&1/47Ÿ&
ñdV: hmo `m Xygao go, eyÝ`Vm H$s nwéfmW©Vm g§^d Zht h¡Ÿ&
Z J{V{deofmV²Ÿ&1/48Ÿ&
J{V {deof (eara _| àdoe Am{X go) AmË_m H$m ~ÝYZ Zht _mZm Om gH$VmŸ&
{ZpîH«$`ñ` VXgå^dmV²Ÿ&1/49Ÿ&
Š`m|[ H$ {ZpîH«$` AmË_m H$s J{V Zht hmo gH$VrŸ&
_yVË© dmX² KQ>m{XdV² g_mZY_m©nÎmmdn{gÕmÝV:Ÿ&1/50Ÿ&
emó _| AmË_m Ho$ J_ZmJ_Z Ed§ CgHo$ A“xð>_mÌê$n H$s ~mV Am`r h¡Ÿ& ggH$m
`h AW© Zhr h¡ {H$ AmË_m (nwéf) KQ> Am{X Ho$ g_mZ _yÎm© (n[apÀN>Þ) h¡,
Š`m|{H$ Eogm _mZZo na dh gmd`d Am¡a {dZmer {gÕ hmoJmŸ&
J{Vlw{Vaß`wnm{Y`moJmXmH$medV²Ÿ&1/51Ÿ&
244 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
emó _| AmË_m H$s J{V (bmoH$m| _| J_ZmJ_Z) H$s Omo ~mV gwZr OmVr h¡, dh
J{V Cnm{Y `moJ go _mZr OmVr h¡Ÿ& {Og àH$ma AmH$me gd©ì`mnr h¡, CgH$s J{V
Zht h¡Ÿ& na KQ> Am{X Cnm{Y`m| H$s J{V XrIVr h¡Ÿ&
Z H$_©Um@ß`VÕ_©ËdmV²Ÿ&1/52Ÿ&
~ÝY H$m H$maU H$_© (AWm©V² AÑï>=Y_©mY_©) Zht hmo gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ AmË_m
H$m H$moB© Y_© Zht h¡Ÿ&
A{Vàg{º$aÝ`Y_©ËdoŸ&1/53Ÿ&(1/54)
EH$ Ho$ Y_© go AÝ` H$m ~ÝYZ _mZZo na A{Vàg{º$ hmoJr, AWm©V² _wº$ H$m nwZ:
~ÝYZ àgº$ (H$m`_) hmoJmŸ&
{ZJwU© m{XlwV{damoYíMo{VŸ&1/54Ÿ&(1/53)
~ÝY ñdm^m{dH$ h¡ `m _wº$ ñd^md Ho$ AmË_m Ho$ H$_© Am{X Ho$ H$maU hmoVm h¡-`h
_mZZm R>rH$ Zht h¡; Š`m|{H$ BgH$m AmË_m Ho$ {ZJ©U
w Vm, Ho$dbVm, Ag§JËd Am{X
Ho$ lw{V dMZm| go {damoY hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
VÚmoJmo@ß`{ddoH$mÞ g_mZËd_²Ÿ&1/55Ÿ&
àH¥${V Ho$ gmW AmË_m H$m `h `moJ A{ddoHo $_ybH$ h¡Ÿ& _wº$ nwéf _| A{ddoH$ Zht
hmoVm, AV: nwZ: ~ÝY Zht hmoVmŸ& AV: nydm}º$ Xmof Bg_| Zht hmoVoŸ&
{Z`VH$maUmV² VXwpÀN>{VÜdm©ÝVdV²Ÿ&1/56Ÿ&
g§`moJH$maH$ Bg A{ddoH$ H$m CÀN>Xo EH$ {ZpíMV Cnm` (AWm©V² {ddoH$) go hr
{H$`m Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& {Og àH$ma AÝYH$ma Ho$db AmbmoH$ Ûmam hr Zï> hmo gH$Vm
h¡, Cgr àH$ma {ddoH$ go hr A{ddoH$ H$m CÀN>Xo hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
àYmZm{ddoH$mXÝ`m{ddoH$ñ` VÕmZo hmZ_²Ÿ&1/57Ÿ&
`h A{ddoH$ ñWyb-gyú_ ê$n go ~hþ{dY h¡ Ed§ EH$ gyú_ A{ddoH$ AÝ` ñWyb
A{ddoH$ H$m H$maU hmoVm h¡Ÿ& {MÐÿn nwéf Am¡a A{MV² àYmZ (=àH¥${V) H$mo EH$mË_
_mZZm _yb A{ddoH$ h¡, {Oggo AÝ` ñWyb A{ddoH(_¢ ê$ndmZ², _¢ YZr .. BË`m{X)
CËnÞ hmoVo h¢Ÿ& _yb A{ddoH$ `{X Zï> hmoZo na Cggo CËnÞ g^r ñWyb A{ddoH$
Zï> hmoVo h¢Ÿ&Ÿ& {MV²-A{MV² H$m nmW©Š` kmZ ApÝV_ {ddoH$ h¡ ({ddoH$ H$m AW©
nmW©Š` ^r h¡-`Wm Zra-jra {ddoH$)
dmL²>_m̧ Z Vw (Vw Z) VÎd§ {MÎmpñWVo:Ÿ&1/58Ÿ&
~ÝY, A{ddoH$, {ddoH$-`o g^r {MÎm _| hr pñWV h¢Ÿ& {ZJwU © {MÐÿn nwéf _|~ÝYm{X
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 245
H$m Am¡nMm[aH$ à`moJ {H$`m OmVm h¡Ÿ& nwéf H$m ~ÝY VmpÎdH$ gË` Zht h¡Ÿ&
`w{º$Vmo@{n Z ~mÜ`Vo {XL²>_T‹y >dXnamojmÑVoŸ&1/59Ÿ&
Anamoj kmZ ({Z{XÜ`mgZnydH© $ VÎdm| H$m gmjmV² kmZ) Ho$ {~Zm ~ÝY Am{X
ldU go `m `w[º$ go ~m{YV Zht hmoV;o {Og àH$ma {XL²>_T‹y > ì`{º$ {XemAm| Ho$
gmjmV² kmZ Ho$ {~Zm ^«_ go _wº$ Zht hmo gH$VmŸ& Cgr àH$ma {ddoH$ gmjmËH$ma
Ho$ {~Zm A{ddoH$ H$m nyU© CÀN>Xo Zht hmoVmŸ&
AMmjwfmUm_Zw_mZoZ ~moYmo Yy_m{X{^[ad d•o:Ÿ&1/60Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma Yy_ Am{X go A{¾ H$m AZw_mZ hmoVm h¡ Cgr àH$ma, àH¥${V Am{X
AVrpÝÐ` nXmWm] H$m {ZíM` AZw_mZ go hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
gÎdaOgñV_gm§ gmå`mdñWm àH¥${V:, àH¥$Vo_h© mZ² , _hVmo@h‘>mamo@h‘>mamV²
nÄM VÝ_mÌÊ`w ^ `{_pÝÐ`_² , VÝ_mÌo ä `: ñWy b ^y V m{Z, nw é f B{V
nÄMqde{VJ©U:Ÿ&1/61Ÿ&
gm§»`emñ _| 25 JU (nXmW© ì`yh) _mZo J`o h¢-àH¥${V,Omo gÎd-aO-V_; Zm_H$
VrZ JwU (~ÝYZmW© aÁOw) ê$n Ðì`m| H$m gmå`dñWm ê$n h¡; àH¥${VOmV _hmZ²
(_hÎmÎd); _hV²-OmV Ah‘>ma; Ah‘>ma-OmV nm§M VÝ_mÌ-eãX-ñne©-ê$n-
ag-JÝY; nm§M kmZopÝÐ`m§,nm§M H$_}pÝÐ`m§, Ed_² BpÝÐ`mYre _Z; VÝ_mÌ-OmV
nm§M ñWyb ^yV-n¥{Wdr, An²,VoO, dm`w, AmH$me VWm BZ g^r go {dbjU nwéfŸ&
ñWybmV² nÄMVÝ_mÌ ñ`Ÿ&1/62Ÿ&
n¥Ïdr Am{X ñWyb ^yVm| H$mo XoIH$a CZHo$ H$maU^yV (CnmXmZ ê$n) nm§M VÝ_mÌm|
H$m ~moY (AZw_mZ go) hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
~mømä`ÝVamä`m§ V¡íMmh‘>mañ`Ÿ&1/63Ÿ&
(Xg) ~møopÝÐ`, Amä`ÝVa BpÝÐ` ê$n _Z Ed§ nm§M VÝ_mÌ ê$n H$m`© Ðì`m| H$mo
XoIH$a Ah‘>maÐì` H$m kmZ (AZw_mZ go) hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
VoZmÝV:H$aUñ`Ÿ&1/64Ÿ&
Ah‘>ma-ê$n H$m`© Ðì` H$mo XoIH$a CgHo$ CnmXmZ ^yV _w»` AÝV:H$aU
(_hÎmÎyd=~w{ÕVÎd) H$m AZw_mZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
VV: àH¥$Vo:Ÿ&1/65Ÿ&
_hÎmÎd ê$n H$m`© go CgH$m àH¥${V ê$n CnmXmZ H$maU AZw{_V hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
g§hVnamW©ËdmV² nwéfñ`Ÿ&1/66Ÿ&
246 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
g§h{VH$mar dñVw namW© hmoVr h¡-Bg {Z`_ go nwéf H$s gÎmm H$m AZw_mZ hmoVm
h¡Ÿ&àH¥${V Am¡a CgHo$ H$m`© g§hV h¢, AV: do {H$gr na(nwéf VÎd) Ho$ {b`o hr h¢Ÿ&
_ybo _ybm^mdmX_yb§ _yb_²Ÿ&1/67Ÿ&
23 VÎdm| go (^yV go _hV² n`©ÝV) H$m Omo _yb CnmXmZ h¡, CgH$m _moB© _yb Zht
h¡Ÿ& AV: àH¥${V (àYmZ=Aì`º$) {ZîH$maU H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ&(àH¥${V H$m ^r _yb
h¡-Eogm _mZZo go Aì`dñWm hmoJr)Ÿ&
nmaån`}@ß`oH$Ì n[a{Zð>{o V g§km_mÌ_²Ÿ&1/68Ÿ&
BZH$m CnmXmZ H$maU H$moB© h¡, CgH$m H$moB© AÝ` H$maU h¡-Bg àH$ma H$s H$maU-
naånam XoIr OmVr h¡, na Bg naånam H$s n[a{Zð>m (g_m{á) H$ht Adí`
hmoVr h¡Ÿ& `h g_m{á O‹S> {ÌJwU _o§ hr hmo gH$Vr h¡, An[aUm_r nwéf _| ZhtŸ&
Ohm§ Bg H$maU naånam H$s g_m{á hmoVr h, CgH$m Zm_ àH¥${V h¡, Omo {ZË` h¡Ÿ&
g_mZ: àH¥$VoÛ`© mo:Ÿ&1/69Ÿ&
_yb Hm$aU H$o {dMma _| A{dÚm Am¡a àH¥${V H$m nj g_mZ h¡; na gyú_ {dMma go
àH¥${V H$m OJV² H$maUËd VWm A{dÚm H$m {Z{_Îm H$maUËd hr {gÕ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
A{YH$m[a Ì¡{dÜ`mÞ {Z`_:Ÿ&1/70Ÿ&
AZw_mZ Ho$ A{YH$mar VrZ àH$ma Ho$ hmoVo h¢-_ÝX, _Ü`_, CÎm_Ÿ& Bg ^oX Ho$
AZwgma AZw_mZ- à`moJ H$aZo _| ^oX hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
_hXm»`_mÚ§ H$m`© VÝ_Z:Ÿ&1/71Ÿ&
àH¥${V H$m àW_ {dH$ma^yV Omo _hÎmÎd h¡, dh (gm§»`r` gåàXm` _|) _Z: nX
go ^r A{^{hV hmoVm h¡Ÿ& _ZZ (AÜ`dgm`={ZíM`) ê$n d¥{Îm Ho$ H$maU hr
_Z: eãX à`wº$ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Ma_mo@h‘>ma:Ÿ&1/72Ÿ&
_hV² Ho$ ~mX Omo VÎd CËnÞ hmoVm h¡ dh A{^_mZ d¥{Îm dmbm Ah‘>ma h¡Ÿ&
VËH$m`©Ëd_wÎmaofm_²Ÿ&1/73Ÿ&
VÝ_mÌ Am{X CÎma H$m`© Ah§H$ma H$o _mZo OmVo h¢Ÿ&
AmÚhoVVw m VX²Ûmam nmaån`}@ß`UwdV²Ÿ&1/74Ÿ&
àH¥${V g^r {dH$ma^yV nXmWm] H$m ApÝV_ CnmXmZ h¡Ÿ& ^yV, VÝ_mÌ, _Z, BpÝÐ`,
Ah§H$ma, _hV² Am{X {dH$mam| _| ^r AdmÝVa H$m`©-H$maU-naånam h¡Ÿ& Eogr Ñ{ï>
AUwdmXr _| ^r h¡Ÿ& CZHo$ _V _| AUw Am{X_ H$maU h¡Ÿ& KQ> H$m gmjmV² H$maU
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 247
H$nmb h¡, AUw Zht (AUw go ÛçUwH$, Cggo ÌgaoU,w Bg H«$_ go H«$_e: H$nmb
~ZVm h¡Ÿ&
nyd^© m{dËdo Û`moaHo $Vañ` hmZo@Ý`Va `moJ:Ÿ&1/75Ÿ&
Am{X_ CnmXmZ H$maU àH¥${V Ed§ gd© {Z{_Îm Ðï>m nwéf-`o Xmo {ZË` Ed§ AZm{X
h¢Ÿ& nwéf {ZpîH«$` h¡, AV: H$m`© ê$n n[aUm_ Ho$ à{V CgH$m gmjmV² H$Îm©Î¥ d Zht
h¡, gwVam§ {dH$mam| Ho$ gmW gmjmV² gå~ÝY àH¥${V H$m hr h¡Ÿ& òï¥>Ëd dñVwV:
àH¥${V H$m h¡, na CgH$m CnMma nwéf _| hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
n[apÀN>Þ§ Z gdm}nmXmZ_²Ÿ&1/76Ÿ&
My§{H$ àH¥${V g^r H$m CnmXmZ h¡ AV: dh n[apÀN>Þ Zht h¡, AWm©V² dh Xoe Am¡a
H$mb go AdpÀN>>Þ Zht hmoVrŸ (Aì`º$ àH¥${V H$m H$moB© AmYma Zht h¡Ÿ& Xoe
H$mbmVrV _yb àH¥${V {Zad`d Ed§ AZm{lV h¡Ÿ)&
VXwËn{ÎmlwVío MŸ&1/77Ÿ&
n[apÀN>Þ ì`º$ nXmWm] H$s CËn{Îm hmoVr h¡, Eogr lw{V h¡Ÿ& (AnapÀN>Þ àH¥${V
H$m H$moB© CnmXmZ H$maU Zht h¡; AV: -Hm$aU _| b` hmoZm-ê$n Zme ^r àH¥${V
H$m Zht hmoVm h¡, dh Am{X hrZ VWm AÝVhrZ h¡)Ÿ&
Zm@dñVwZmo dñVw{g{Õ:Ÿ&1/78Ÿ&
A^md hr dñVw H$m H$maU h¡,Eogm _mZH$a ^mdê$n àH¥${V Ho$H$maUËd H$mIÊS>Z
Zht {H$m Om gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ A^md ê$n AdñVw go dñVw H$s {g{Õ Zht hmo gH$VrŸ&
A~mYmXXwï>H$maUOÝ`ËdmÀM ZmdñVwËd_²Ÿ&1/79Ÿ&
ñdßZ H$s Vah OJV² H$mo AdñVw Zht H$h gH$Vo, Š`m|{H$ OJV² H$m ~mY Zht
hmoVmŸ& OJV² H$m kmZ BpÝÐ` Ûmam ^r Zht h¡, AV: OJV² AdñVw Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
^mdo VÚmoJZo VpËg{Õa^mdo VX^mdmV² Hw$VñVpËg{Õ:Ÿ&1/80Ÿ&
H$maU `{X ^md nXmW© hmo Vmo CgHo$ `moJ go H$m`© ^md^yV nXmW© hr CËnÞ hmoJmŸ&
H$maU `{X A^md ê$n hmoJ Vmo dh {H$g ê$n go H$m`© CËnÞ H$aoJm ?
Z H$_©U CnmXmZËdm`moJmV²Ÿ&1/81Ÿ&
H$_© hr OJV² H$m H$maU h¡-àH¥${V ê$n CnmXmZ H$s Amdí`H$Vm Zht h¡-Eogm Zht
H$hm Om gH$VmŸ& H$_© {H$gr H$m CnmXmZ Zht hmo gH$VmŸ& H$_© {Z{_Îm H$maU
_mÌ h¡Ÿ& Bg àH$ma {_Ï`mkmZ ê$nm A{dÚm hr OJV² H$m H$maU h¡, Eogm Zht
H$hm Om gH$VmŸ&
248 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
ZmZwl{dH$mX{n VpËg{Õ: gmÜ`ËdoZmd¥{Îm`moJmXnwéfmW©Ëd_²Ÿ&1/82Ÿ&
AmZwl{dH$ (doXmoº$) Cnm`m| go ^r na_ nwéfmW© H$s {g{Õ Zht hmo gH$Vr, Š`m|{H$
doXmoº$ `km{X-H$_m] Ho$ ~hþ{H«$`mgmÜ` hmoZo H$o H$maU CZgo nwZamd¥{Îm (g§gma _|
nwZ: AmJ_Z) H$s gå^mdZm ahVr hr h¡Ÿ& {dZmer Ðì`-hoVHw $ `km{X H$_m] go
{H$gr A{dZmer \$b H$s àm{á gå^d Zht h¡Ÿ&
VÌ àmá{ddoH$ñ`mZmd¥{Îmlw{V:Ÿ&1/83Ÿ&
H$_©-{deof Ho$ \$b Ho$ ê$n _| AZmd¥{Îmê$n _moj _| A{YJ_ H$m CëboI `{X emñÌ
_o§ hmo Vmo `h g_PZm Mm{h`o {H$ gmYH$ Zo H$_©bãY ~«÷bmoH$mA{X _| {ddoH$ kmZ
_| AÜ`mg {H$`m WmŸ, {Oggo CgH$mo AnwZamd¥{Îm ê$n _moj {_bmŸ& ~«÷bmoH$m{X
_| kmZmä`mg H$mar CÀM gmYH$m| H$m CëboI nwamUm{X _| {_bVm h¡Ÿ&
Xw:ImX² Xw:I§ Obm{^foH$dÞ OmS>ç {d_moj$:Ÿ&1/84Ÿ&
`km{X H$_m] _| bmo^, qhgm Am{X Xmof h¢, AV: CZH$m Aml`H$mar _mojmWu EH$
Xw:I go AÝ` Xw:I _| {JaVm h¡Ÿ& erVpŠbï> ì`{º$ H$m Obm{^foH$ H$aZo na O¡gr
AdñWm hmoVr h¡,g§gma Xw:I go N>Qy >Zo Ho$ {b`o Ðì``km{Xê$n H$_© H$m AZwð>mZ
H$aZo dmbo H$s dhr AdñWm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
H$må`o@H$må`o@{n gmÜ`Ëdm{deofmV²Ÿ&1/85Ÿ&
H$m_ gH$m_ hmo$ `m {ZîH$m_, Cggo Xw:I hr {_bVm h¡, Š`m|{H$ gH$m_ H$s Vah
{ZîH$m_ H$_© ^r (O‹S> dñVw Ûmam hr) gmÜ` h¡Ÿ& {ZîH$m_ H$_© àm`: gÎdew{Õ
H$maH$ h¡, na gÎdew{Õ-H$maH$ kmZ ^r {ÌJwUmË_H$ hmoZo go Xw:ImË_H hr$ h¡&
Û`moaHo $Vañ` dm@ß`g{ÞH¥$ï>mW© n[apÀN>{Îm: à_m, VËgmYH$V_§ `V² VV²
{Ì{dY§ à_mU_²Ÿ&1/87Ÿ&
Aàmá dñVw H m$ nyar Vah YmaU à_m h¡Ÿ&`h AdYmaU ~w{Õ-nwéf ê$n XmoZm|
VÎdm| H$m Y_© _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡, Ho$db nwéf `m Ho$db ~w{Õ H$m ^r _mZm Om
gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& dñVw H$m AdYmaU ê$n kmZ ~w{Õ H$m EH$ n[aUm_ h¡Ÿ& `h nwéf ê$n
{Z{d©H$ma hoVw Ho$ g{ÞYmZ (g§gJ©) go hr ì`º$ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& `h ~w{Õn[aUm_ê$n
à_m nwéf _o§ CnM[aV_mÌ hmoVr h¡, AV: à_m H$mo {d{^Þ Ñ{ï>`m| go ~w{Õ H$m
Y_©, nwéf H$m Y_©, `m ~w{Õ-nwéf-Y_© H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&Bg à_m H$m Omo
gmYH$V_(\$b Ho$ gmW `wº$) H$aU h¡, dh à_mU H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& `h à_mU
àËdj, AZw_mZ, Am¡a eãX ê$n go {Ì{dY h¡Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 249
VpËgÕm¡ gd© {gÕoZm©{YŠ` {g{Õ:Ÿ&1/88Ÿ&
VrZ à_mU go hr g~ àH$ma Ho$ {df`m| H$r {g{Õ hmo gH$Vr h¡, AV: Cn_mZ
Am{X H$mo AbJ à_mU _mZZo H$s Amdí`H$Vm Zht h¡Ÿ&
`V² gå~Õ{gÕ§ VXmH$mamoëbo{I {dkmZ§ VV² àË`j_²Ÿ&1/89Ÿ&
Omo {dkmZ (~w{Õd¥{Îm) dñVw go gå~Õ hmoH$a CgHo AmH$ma H$m hmo OmVm h¡, dh
àË`j à_mU H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ& `hm§ d¥{Îm hr àË`j à_mU h¡, Omo ñd-AW©-
g{ÞH$f©-O{ZV AmH$ma H$m Aml` h¡Ÿ& d¥{Îm àXrn{eIm Vwë` h¡, Omo AWm©H$ma
H$s Cëbo{IZr hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
`mo{JZm_~møàË`jËdmÞ Xmof:Ÿ&1/90Ÿ&
{nN>bo gyÌ _| BpÝÐ` Ho$ àË`j H$m bjU ^r H$hm h¡Ÿ& `moJr _| `h bjU Zht
XrIZm H$moB© Xmof Zht h¡Ÿ& `moJr H$m AVrV-AZmJV kmZñWyb ê$n _| dñVw Ho$
{dÚ_mZ Z ahZo na ^r hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
brZ dñVw bãYm{Ve` gå~ÝYmÛm Z Xmof:Ÿ&1/91Ÿ&
`moJr H$m {MÎm `moJOmV Eogo A{Ve` go `wº$ h¡ {H$ dh H$maU _| brZ dñVw Ho$ gmW
^r AnZm gå~ÝY H$a gH$Vm h¡ {Oggo dñVw H$m àË`j kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
B©ídam{gÕo:Ÿ&1/92Ÿ&
B©ída {ZË` kmZ `wº$ h¡, Am: CgHo$ àË`j hmoZo Ho$ {b`o g{ÞH$f© H$s Anojm Zht
h¡Ÿ& e§H$mH$mar Ûmam ñdrH¥$V B©ída Ho$ Z hmoZo go àË`j bjU XmofhrZ hr h¡Ÿ&
_wº$~Õ`moaÝ`Vam^mdm Þ VpËg{Õ:Ÿ&1/93Ÿ&
e§H$mH$mar {Og àH$ma Ho$ nXmW© H$mo B©ída g_PVo h¢ dh Z _wº$ hmo gH$Vm h¡ Am¡a
Z ~ÕŸ& ~Õ Am¡a _wº$ Ho$ Abmdm H$moB© AÝ` H$mo{Q> Zht h¡Ÿ&
C^`Wm@ß`gËH$aËd_²Ÿ&1/94Ÿ&
B©ídaH$mo _wº$ _mZZo go CgH$m OJV²-òïwËd CËnÞ Zht hmoVm Š`m|{H$ _wº$ nwéf _o§
BÀN>m-à`ËZ Am{X Zht hmo gH$VoŸ& `{X B©ída H$mo ~Õ _mZ| Vmo CgHo$ {b`o g¥{ï>
H$aZm gå^d Zht h¡Ÿ&
_wº$mË_Z: àe§gm Cnmgm {gÕñ` dmŸ&1/95Ÿ&
B©ída Ho$ {df` _| Omo lw{V dMZ h¢ CZ_|H$w N> _wº$mË_m H$s àe§gm H$aVo h¢, Hw$N>
[gÕ H$s CnmgZm H$o {b`o h¢Ÿ&
VËg{ÞYmZmX{Yð>mV¥Ëd§ _{UdV²Ÿ&1/96Ÿ&
250 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
nwéf Ho$ g{ÞYmZ go hr A{Yð>mV¥Ëd (g¥{ï>H$m[aËd) {gÕ hmoVm h¡, {Og àH$ma
A`ñH$mÝV _{U g{ÞYmZ-_mÌ go hr eë` H$mo AnZr Amoa ItMVm h¡Ÿ&
{deof H$m`}îd{n OrdmZm_²Ÿ&1/97Ÿ&
{deof H$m`m] _| AWm©V² ì`{ï> g¥{ï> _| ^r Ordm| (AÝV:H$aU à{V{~på~V MoVZm|)
H$m g{ÞYmZ ê$nA{Yð>mV¥Ëd ahVm h¡Ÿ&
{gÕê$n~moÕË¥ dmÛmŠ`mWm}nXoe:Ÿ&1/98Ÿ&
{haÊ`J^© Am{X AmMm`© `WmW© AW© OmZVo h¢, AV: CZH$m CnXoe à_mU h¡Ÿ&
AÝV:H$aUñ` VXwÁÁd{bVËdmëbmohdX{Yð>mV¥Ëd_²Ÿ&1/99Ÿ&
bm¡h {Og àH$ma A{¾g§`moJ Ûmam Vá hmoH$a ObmVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma {MXm^mg`wº$
O‹S> AÝV:H$aU Xohm{X H$m A{Yð>mVm hmoH$a CZH$mo MbmVm h¡Ÿ&
à{V~ÝYÑe: à{V~ÕkmZ_Zw_mZ_²Ÿ&1/100Ÿ&
à{V~ÝY Ho$ kmVm H$mo ì`má dñVw Ho$ Xe©Z Ho$ ~mX ì`mnH$ H$m Omo {ZíM` hmoVm
h¡, dh AZw_mZ à_mU h¡Ÿ&
AmámonXoe: eãX:Ÿ&1/101Ÿ&
Amá(kmZr) H$m CnXoe ê$n Omo eãX h¡, Cggo àmá kmZ eãX à_mU h¢Ÿ&
C^`{g{Õ: à_mUmV² VXwnXoe:Ÿ&1/102Ÿ&
AmË_m Am¡a AZmË_m (nañna ^oX OmZZm) H$s {g{Õ à_mU go hmoVr h¡, Bg {b`o
à_mU H$m {dMma {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
gm_mÝ`VmoÑï>mXw^`{g{Õ:Ÿ&1/103Ÿ&
gm_mÝ`VmÑï> Zm_H$ AZw_mZ à_mU go àH¥${V-nwéf ê$n XmoZm| AVrpÝÐ` VÎdm|
H$s {g{Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ& gm_mÝ`V: XrIZo Ho$ H$maU Zht XrIZo na ^r {H$gr dñVw H$mo
gd© ì`má _mZm Om`, `h gm_mÝ`Vmo Ñï> AZw_mZ h¡Ÿ&
{MXdgmZmo ^moJ:Ÿ&1/104Ÿ&
^moJ ê$n {g{Õ H$s g_m{á {MV²ñdê$nnwéf _| hmoVm h¡Ÿ&(^moJê$n {dH$ma ~w{Õ _|
hr ah nmVm h¡, Cggo nwéf {dH¥$V Zht hmoVmŸ& nwéf ^moJ H$m {Z{d©H$ma gmjr ê$n
_| ahVm h¡Ÿ& ^moJ na_mW©V: ~w{Õ H$m h¡)Ÿ&
AH$Vwa© {n \$bmon^moJmo@ÞmÚdV²Ÿ&1/105Ÿ&
`Ú{n nwéf ~w{ÕñW ^moJm{X H$m H$Îmm© Zht h¡,VWm{n ~w{Õ go AbJ nwéf H$mo d¥{Îm
\$b H$m ^moº$m _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ& EH$ AÞCËnÞH$aVm h¡, AÝ` CgH$m ^moJ H$aVm
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 251
h¡-`h bm¡{H$H$ Cn_m Bgr àH$ma H$s h¡Ÿ&
A{ddoH$mÛm VpËgÕo: H$Vw:© \$bmdJ_:Ÿ&1/106Ÿ&
AWdm A{ddoH$ Ho$ H$maU nwéf H$m ^moº$¥ Ëd _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& nwéfJV ^moJ hr
H$_©\$b h¡Ÿ& ~w{Õ Ho$ H$_© Ûmam nwéf _| \$b CËnÞ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Zmo^`§ M VÎdm»`mZoŸ&1/107Ÿ&
VÎdm| H$m gmjmËH$ma hmoZo na gwI-Xw:I ê$n ^moJ H$m CX²^d Zht hmoVmŸ&
{df`mo@{df`mo@ß`{VXyamXohm©ZmonmXmZmä`m{_pÝÐ`ñ`Ÿ&1/108Ÿ&
A{VXyaVm, A{V {ZH$Q>Vm Am{X Ho$ H$maU BpÝÐ`m| go {df`m| H$m kmZ Zht hmoVm;
Bgr àH$ma BpÝÐ`m| H$m AnKmV (A_W©Vm) `m AÝ`_ZñH$Vm Am{X Ho$ H$maU ^r
{df` kmZ Zht hmoVmŸ&
gm¡úå`mV² VXZw nbpãY:Ÿ&1/109Ÿ&
AË`ÝV gyú_ hmoZo (Ad`d Zht hmoZ)o Ho$ H$maU BZH$m AZw^d Zht hmoVmŸ&
H$m`©Xe©ZmV² VXwnbãYo:Ÿ&1/110Ÿ&
àH¥${V Am{X gyú_ nXmW© Zht ahZo na ^r CZHo$ Ûmam H$m`© hmoZo go CZH$m
ApñVËd {gÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
dm{X{dà{VnÎmoñVX{g{Õ[a{V MoVŸ² &1/111Ÿ&
(e§H$m) {Og gËH$m`©dmX go H$maU^yV {ZË` àH¥${V H$m AZw_mZ {H$`m OmVm h¡,
`{X dh dmX hr A{gÕ hmo VmoŸ&
VWmß`oH$VaÑï>çm EH$Va{gÕo Zm© nbmn:Ÿ&1/112Ÿ&
(g_mYmZ) _V^oX {gÕ hmoZo na ^r `h {ZpíMV h¡ {H$ H$m`© hmoZo na CgH$m
H$maU Adí` hmoJmŸ&
{Ì{dY[damoYmnÎmo:Ÿ&1/113Ÿ&
{H$gr H$m`© H$m {Ì{dY ì`dhma h¡-AVrV, dV©_mZ ,^{dî`Ÿ& `h ^oX CgHo$
AÜd(_mJ©) ^oX go hmoVo h¢, AV: H$m`© H$maU _| gyú_ê$n go h¡Ÿ&
ZmgXwËnmXmo Z¥ûm¥“dV²Ÿ&1/114Ÿ&
Omo nXmW© Zaûm¥“ H$s Vah AgV²({dÚ_mZ Zht) h¡, CgH$s CËn{Îm Zht hmoVr&
CnmXmZ {Z`_mV²Ÿ&1/115Ÿ&
CnmXmZ {Z`_ Ho$ H$maU _mZZm n‹S>Vm h¡ {H$ AnZo {ZpíMV CnmXmZ _| H$m`©
(Aì`º$ ê$n _|) ahVm h¡Ÿ& KQ> {_Å>r go hr hmoVm h¡, nQ> VÝVw go hr CËnÞhmoVm h¡,
252 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AÝ`m| go Zht, AV: H$m`© AnZo CnmXmZ _| gyú_ ê$n go {dÚ_mZ h¡Ÿ&
gd©Ì gd©Xm gdm© gå^dmV²Ÿ&1/116Ÿ&
nydm}º$ CnmXmZ {Z`_ Z _mZZo na gd©Ì g~ Hw$N> CËnÞ hmoJm, {H$ÝVw Eogm Zht
XrIVm, AV: CnmXmZ {Z`_ _mZZm n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ {Oggo gËH$m`©dmX {gÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
eº$ñ` eŠ`H$aUmV²Ÿ&117Ÿ&
eº$(H$m`© j_Vm dmbm) H$maU hr `mo½`VmZwê$n H$m`© H$mo CËnÞ H$a gH>Vm h¡Ÿ&
`h e{º$ H$m`© H$s AZmJV AdñWm hr h¡Ÿ& AV: A{dÚ_mZ H$m`© H$s CËn{Îm
Zht hmoVrŸ&
H$maU^mdmÀMŸ&1/118Ÿ&
CËn{Îm go nhbo H$m`© H$maU go {^Þ h¡-Eogr lw{V h¡, AV: AgV² go CËn{Îm Zht
_mZ gH$VoŸ&
Z ^mdo ^md`moJíMoVŸ² &1/119Ÿ&
(e§H$m) H$m`© `{X CnmXmZ _| {dÚ_mZ h¡-Vmo Cgo {ZË` _mZZm n‹S>Jo mŸ& V~
^mdê$n H$m`© _| CËn{Îm H$m gå~ÝY Zht h¡Ÿ& AWm©V² HmoB© nXmW© CËnÞ Zht hmo
nm`oJmŸ&
Zm{^ì`{º${Z~ÝYZm¡ ì`dhmamì`dhmam¡Ÿ&1/120Ÿ&
`h e§H$m ~oH$ma h¡ Š`m|{H$ H$m`© CËnÞ hmoZm `m Zht hmoZm A{^ì`{º$-{Z~ÝYZ
h¡Ÿ& AWm©V² H$m`© ñWyb ê$n _| àH$Q> hmoZo H$mo CËnÞ hmoZm H$hVo h¢Ÿ& Cgr àH$ma
Aì`º$ ahZo na Cgo CËnÞ Zht _mZVoŸ&
Zme: H$maUb`:Ÿ&1/121Ÿ&
(gËH$m`©dmX H$s Ñ{ï> _|) Zme H$m AW© h¡-H$m`© H$m CnmXmZ H$maU _| b`Ÿ&
nmaån`©VmoÝdofUm ~rOm‘x>adV²Ÿ&1/122Ÿ&
(`{X gËH$m`©dmX Ho$ AZwgma) A{^ì`{º$ H$mo H$m`© _mZ| Vmo AZdñWm-Xmof hmoVm
h¡Ÿ& V~ ~rOm‘x>anaånam-Ý`m` go CgH$m g_mYmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
CËn{ÎmdÛm@Xmof:Ÿ&1/123Ÿ&
gËH$m`©dmX _| H$maU _| gyú_ ê$n go pñWV dñVw H$m ñWyb _y{Îm©ê$n H$m`© _mZZo na
A{^ì`{º$ na Amjon hmoVm h¡Ÿ& `hr Xmof Amaå^dmX _| ^r h¡ Omo Z`o H$m`© H$s
CËn{Îm _mZVm h¡Ÿ& {Og àH$ma go d¡e{o fH$ Am{X AgËH$m`©dmXr BgH$m g_mYmZ
H$aVo h¢, Cgr àH$ma A{^ì`{º$ nj H$m ^r g_mYmZ hmo gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 253
hoV_w X{ZË`§ (Aì`m{n) g{H«$`_ZoH$_m{lV§ {b“_²Ÿ&1/124Ÿ&
{b“ ({OgH$m b` hmo-AWm©V² ì`º$ nXmW©) hoVw_mZ² (H$maU g{hV), A{ZË`
(EH$ ê$n Z| Zht ahZo dmbm), Aì`mnr, g{H«$`, AZoH$ (àË`oH$ g¥{ï> _| {^Þ)
Ed§ Am{lV h¡Ÿ&
AmÄOñ`mX^oXVmo dm JwUgm_mÝ`mXoñVpËg{Õ: àYmZì`nXoemX² dmŸ&1/125Ÿ&
H$maU go AbJ {b“ ê$n H$m`© H$ht ñnï> XrIVm h¡,H$ht AbJ JwU Am¡a gm_mÝ`
{b“ go hmoVm h¡Ÿ& H$m`©-H$maU H$m ^oX-A^oX gå~ÝY ~VmZo Ho$ {b`o gm§»`mMm`m]
Zo àH¥${V H$mo àYmZ H$hm h¡, AWm©V² Bg_o§ H$m`© AZw^yV hmoVm h¡ (àYr`Vo Apñ_Z²
H$m`©_)² &H$m`© H$maU AbJ hmoZo na XmoZm| _| AmYma-AmYo` gå~ÝY Zht hmoJmŸ&
{ÌJwUmMoVZËdm{X Û`mo:Ÿ&1/126Ÿ&
Ë`º$ _hV²-Ah‘>ma Am{X nXmW© Am¡a Ë`º$ àH¥${V Am{X _o§ Hw$N> g_mZVm h¡-
XmoZm| {ÌJwU, A{ddo{H$`m| H$s Ñ{ï> _| {df`, gm_mÝ`, àgdY_u h¢Ÿ&
àrË`àr{V{dfmXmÚ¡JU ©w mZm_Ý`mo@Ý`§ d¡Yå`©_Ÿ² &1/127Ÿ&
VrZ JwU EH$ Xygao na Am{lV h¢Ÿ& V~ ^r CZHo$ Y_© AbJ h¢-g$Îd àr{V Y_©H$,
aO Aàr{V H$maH$, VWm V_ {dfmX ~‹T>mZo dmbm h¡Ÿ&
b¿dm{XY_£: gmYå`© d¡Yå`ª M JwUmZm_²Ÿ&1/128Ÿ&
(b¿dm{XY_£aÝ`moÝ`§ gmYå`© d¡Yå`©{_Vaofm_²) g^r ì`{º$`m| _| gÎd bKwVm,
aO J{V H$aVm h¡,V_ ^marnZ bmVm h¡&EH$ H$m gmYå`© AÝ` Xmo H$m d¡Yå`© h¡Ÿ&
C^`m Ý`ËdmV² H$m`©Ëd§ _hXmXoKQ© >m{XdV²Ÿ&1/129Ÿ&
àH¥${Vê$n _yb CnmXmZ Ed§ nwéf ê$n An[aUm_r MoVZ go Omo {^Þ h¡ dh H$m`© h¡Ÿ&
_hV² Am{X `moJ h¡Ÿ, AV: nwéf Zht h¢Ÿ& `o {dZmer h¢, AV: àH¥${V Zht h¢Ÿ&
n[aUm_mV²Ÿ&1/130Ÿ&
_hV², Ah‘>ma, VÝ_mÌ Am{X H$m`© h¢, Š`m|{H$ do n[apÀN>Þ n[aUm_ dmbo h¢Ÿ&
A_o` àH¥${V H$m àË`oH$ {dH$ma Agr_ hr hmoJmŸ&
g_Ýd`mV²Ÿ&1/131Ÿ&
g_Ýd` go ^r OmZm OmVm h¡ {H$ _hV², Ah‘>ma Am{X H$m`© h¢Ÿ& Cndmg Ûmam
jrU ~w{Õ Am{X H$m g_Ýd` AÞ Am{X go hmoVm h¡Ÿ& AV: do H$m`© h¢Ÿ& gXm {~Zm
Ad`d H$m hmoZo na Ad`dm| Ho$ àdoe go g_Ýd` Zht hmoVmŸ&
e{º$VíMo{VŸ&1/132Ÿ&
254 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
e{º$=H$m`©Ÿ& nwéf H$m H$aU Mjw Am{X ^r H$m`© h¢& _hV² VÎd `{X H$m`© hmo Vmo
Cggo CËnÞ Ah‘>ma Am{X ^r H$m`© hr hm|JoŸ&
VÕmZo àH¥${V: nwéfmo dmŸ&1/133Ÿ&
`{X H$moB© nXmW© H$m`© Z hmo Vmo dh `m Vmo àH¥${V hmoJm (`{X O‹S> Ed§ n[aUm_r
hmo), `m nwéf hmoJm (`{X An[aUm_r ^moº$m hmoŸ)&
V`moaÝ`Ëdo VwÀN>Ëd_²Ÿ&1/134Ÿ&
`[X H$moB© nXmW© H$m`© Zht h¡, gmW hr dh nwéf `m àH¥${V ^r Zht h¡, Vmo dh
VwÀN>(eeûm¥“ H$s Vah H$mën{ZH$) hmoJmŸ&
H$m`m©V² H$maUmZw_mZ§ VËgm{hË`mV²Ÿ&1/135Ÿ&
_hV² Am{X H$m`© ê$n {b“ go CZHo$ CnmXmZ H$maU H$m AZw_mZ {H$`m OmVm h¡,
Š`m|{H$ H$m`© gXm H$maU g{hV h¡Ÿ&
Aì`º§$ {ÌJwUmpëb“mV²Ÿ&1/136Ÿ&
VrZ JwUm| dmbr àH¥${V _hÎmÎd Ho$ H$maU go ^r A{YH$ gyú_ h¡Ÿ& _hV² Ho$ JwUm|
H$m gmjmV² hmo gH$Vm h¡, àH¥${V Ho$ JwUm| H$m gmjmËH$ma Zht hmoVmŸ&
VËH$m`©VñVpËgÕoZm©nbmn:Ÿ&1/137Ÿ&
Aì`º$ àYmZ H$m ApñVËd AnZo _hV² Am{X H$m`m] go hr {gÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& AV:
AZw^d _| Zht AmZo na ^r CgH$m Anbmn Zht {H$`m Om gH$VmŸ&
gm_mÝ`oZ {ddmXm^mdmÕ_©dÞ (VV²) gmYZ_²Ÿ&1/138Ÿ&
nwéf Ho kmVm hmoZo _| {ddmX Zht h¡, {Og àH$ma Y_©-gm_mÝ` _| H$moB© {ddmX Zht
h¡Ÿ& MoVZ ê$n AmË_m H$m ApñVËd g~H$mo ñnï> h¡, CgHo$ {b`o VH©$ Oê$ar Zht h¡Ÿ&
earam{Xì`{V[aº$: nw_mZ²Ÿ&1/139Ÿ&
nwéf (^moº$m AmË_m) eara Am{X O‹S> nXmWm] go AbJ h¡Ÿ&
g§hVnamW©ËdmV²Ÿ&1/140Ÿ&
Š`m|{H$ àH¥${V, _Z, eara Am{X O‹S> nXmW© g§hV h¢, g§hV nXmW© namW© hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
dh na Adí` Ag§hV hmoJm Omo O‹S>Ëd hrZ {MÐÿn nwéf (AmË_m) h¡Ÿ&
{ÌJwUm{X{dn`©`mV²Ÿ&1/141Ÿ&
{ÌJwU Am{X go {déÕ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU {MÐÿn nwéf H$s gÎmm _mZVo h¢Ÿ& eara Ho$ gwI
Am{X Omo Y_© h¢, dh gwI Am{X Ho$ ^moº$m Ho$ Zht hmo gH$VoŸ& AV: ^moº m$ nwéf
H$mo gÎd Am{X go AbJ dñVw _mZZm n‹S>Jo mŸ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 255
A{Yð>mZmÀMo{VŸ&1/142Ÿ&
A{Yð>mZ go ^r {MÎm Am{X go AbJ nwéf {gÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& àH¥${V A{Y{ð>V h¡,
CgH$m A{Yð>mZ H$aZo dmbm nwéf Cggo AbJ hmoJmŸ&
^moº$¥ ^mdmV²Ÿ&1/143Ÿ&
^moº$m ^md eara Am{X _| Zht hmoZo Ho$ H$maU eara go AbJ nwéf H$s gÎmm
{gÕ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
H¡$dë`mWª àd¥Îmo (íM)Ÿ&1/144Ÿ&
`{X eara Am{X ^moº$m hmoVo Vmo {dZmer eara Ho$ H¡$dë`(Xw:Im| H$m nyU© Zme) Ho$
{b`o {H$gr H$s àd¥{Îm Zht hmoVrŸ&
O‹S>àH$me`moJmV² àH$me:Ÿ&1/145Ÿ&
nwéf àH$me-ñdê$n h¡Ÿ& O‹S> _| Eogm àH$me Zht hmoVmŸ&
{ZJwU © ËdmÞ {MÕ_m©Ÿ&1/146Ÿ&
nwéf {ZJwU © h¡, dh àH$me `m VoO aê$n Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ Cg_| Y_©-Y_u ^md Zht
h¡Ÿ& AV: àH$meê$n {MV² CgH$m Y_© Zht H$hm Om gH$VmŸ&
lwË`m {gÕñ` ZmnbmnñVËàË`j~mYmV²Ÿ&1/147Ÿ&
nwéf {ZJw©U h¡-`h _V lw{V Ûmam g_{W©V h¡Ÿ& nwéf _| JwU `m Y_© lw{V Ûmam
~m{YV h¡Ÿ&
gwfßw Ë`mÚgm{jËd_²Ÿ&1/148Ÿ&
OmJ«V-ñdßZ-gwfw{á-BZ VrZ AdñWmAm| H$m gmjr hmoZo Ho$ Ho H$maU nwéf
An[aUm_r h¡Ÿ&
OÝ_m{Xì`dñWmV: nwéf~hþËd_²Ÿ&1/149Ÿ&
AbJ AbJ OÝ_ Am¡a _aU go nwéf H$m ~hþËd {gÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Cnm{Y^oX@o ß`oH$ñ` ZmZm`moJ:, AmH$meñ`od KQ>m{X{^:Ÿ&1/150Ÿ&
`{X AmË_m EH$ h¡ Vmo AZoH$ Cnm{Y`m| Ho$ gmW CgH$m gXm `moJ _mZZm n‹S>Jo mŸ&
{Og àH$ma EH$ KQ> ^§J hmoZo na AÝ` KQ> Ho$ gmW AmË_m H$m `moJ ahVm h¡Ÿ& Bg
àH$ma EH$ AmË_m Ho$ {b`o ~ÝYZ _moj Zht hmoVmŸ&
Cnm{Y{^©ÚVo Z Vw VÛmZ²Ÿ&1/151Ÿ&
`{X AmË_m EH$ hr hmo Vmo dh ~Õ Cnm{Y go gå~Õ ahZo Ho$ H$maU ~Õ H$hbm`oJmŸ&
Ed_oH$ËdoZ n[adV©_mZñ` Z {déÕY_m©Ü`mg:Ÿ&1/152Ÿ&
256 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AÝ`Y_©Ëdo@{n ZmamonmÎmpËg{ÕaoH$ËdmV²Ÿ&1/153Ÿ&
gwIm{X ~w{Õ H$m Y_© hmoZo na ^r CZHo$ Amamon go AmYma nwéf H$mo EH$ Zht
_mZm Om gH$Vm Š`m|{H$ Bggo ì`dñWm Zht ~ZVrŸ&
ZmÛ¡Vlw{V{damoYmo Om{VnaËdmV²Ÿ&1/154Ÿ&
AmË_m H$m EH$Ëd `m AÛ¡V ~VmZo dmbr AZoH$ lw{V`m§ h¢, na Eogo lw{V dmŠ`
Om{VnaH$ hmoVo h¢Ÿ& àË`oH$ AmË_m EH$ hr O¡gm h¡, Cg_| H$moB© ^oX H$aZo dmbm Y_©
Zht h¡Ÿ& CZH$s EH$ Om{V Ho$ ~mao _| hr AÛ¡VdmX H$s lw{V`m§ h¢Ÿ&
{d{XV~ÝYH$maUñ` Ñï>çm VÐÿn_²Ÿ&1/155Ÿ&
àË`oH$ nwéf Vwë` hmoZo na ^r ~Õ Ordm| H$s Ñ{ï> _| {^Þ bJVm h¡Ÿ&
ZmÝYmÑï>çm Mjw î_Vm _Zw nb å^:Ÿ&1/156Ÿ&
`{X àË`oH$ nwéf EH$ê$n h¡ Vmo dh XrIZm Mm{h`o, na CgHo$ AbJ AbJ ê$n
XrIVo h¢Ÿ& AÝY Zht XoI gH$Vm Vo Am§Idmbm| Ho$ XoIZo H$mo ^yb Zht _mZZm
Mm{h`oŸ&
dm_Xodm{X_wº© mo ZmÛ¡V_²Ÿ&1/157Ÿ&
`{X AmË_m _wº$ hmoVr Vmo dm_Xod Am{X _wº$ Am¡a AÝ` H$B© ~Õ Zht hmoVŸo &
AZmXmdÚ`mdX^mdmX² ^{dî`Xß`od_²Ÿ&1/158Ÿ&
`{X `h _mZ| {H$ AmO VH$ H$moB© ~Õ> AmË_m _wº$ Zhr § hþAm, Vmo ^{dî` _| ^r
_wº$ Zht hmo nm`oJmŸ&
BXmZr{_d gd©Ì ZmË`ÝVmoÀN>Xo :Ÿ&1.159Ÿ&
Š`m|{H$ V~ AZw_mZ hmoJm {H$ O¡go Bg H$mb _| {H$gr H$m ~ÝYZ CÀN>Xo Zht
hþAm Cgr àH$ma ^{dî` _| ^r Zht hmoJmŸ&
ì`md¥Îmmo^`ê$n:Ÿ&1/160Ÿ&
~Õ Am¡a _moj -BZ Xmo AdñWmAm| _| nwéf H$m ñdê$n AbJ Zht hmoVmŸ&
gmjmËgå~ÝYmV² gm{jËd_²Ÿ&1/161Ÿ&
nwéf H$m H$Îmm©nZ ~w{Õ Ho$ H$maU h¡Ÿ& ~w{Õ H$m kmVm hmoZm nwéf H$o H$maU h¡Ÿ&
{ZË`_wº$Ëd_²Ÿ&1/162Ÿ&
nwéf Xw:I ê$nr ~ÝY go gXm _wº$ h¡Ÿ&
Am¡XmgrÝ`§ Mo{VŸ&1/163Ÿ&
H$m`©, g‘>ën, {dH$ën, lÕm Am{X go nwéf CXmgrZ (AbJ) h¡Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 257
CnamJmV² H$Îm¥Î© d§ {MËgm{ÞÜ`mpÀMËgm{ÞÜ`mV²Ÿ&1/164Ÿ&
nwéf H$m Omo H$Îm¥Ë© d h¡ dh ~w{Õ Ho$ CnamJ Ho$ H$maU h¡Ÿ& ~w{Õ H$m JwU nwéf Ho$
H$maU h¡Ÿ&
{ÛVr` AÜ`m`
{d_wº$ ({d)_mojmWª (+ñdmWª ) dm àYmZñ`Ÿ&2/1Ÿ&
àYmZ (àH¥${V) H$s àd¥{Îm {ZË`_wº$ nwéf Ho$ {ddoH$mä`mgnydH© $ _moj Ho$ {b`o
Ed§ AnZo {b`o (Xw:I go _w{º$ Ho$ {b`o) hmoVr h¡Ÿ& ñd^mdV: Xw:ImVrV nwéf H$s
Omo _w{º$ h¡ , CgH$m AW© à{V{~å~ ê$n Xw:I go _w{º$ h¡Ÿ&
{daº$ñ` VpËgÕo:Ÿ&2/2Ÿ&
{d{dY Xw:I go Vá hmoZo na d¡am½` hmoJm Am¡a Cggo _moj {g{Õ hmoJrŸ&
Z ldU_mÌmV² VpËg{ÕaZm{XdmgZm `m ~bdÎdËdmV²Ÿ(nQw>ËdmV²)&2/3Ÿ&
Ho$db ldU go d¡am½` Zht hmoVm, Š`m|{H$ Ord AZm{XH$mb go dmgZm~Õ h¡Ÿ&
~hþ^Ë¥ `dÛm àË`oH$_²Ÿ&2/4Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma EH$ J¥hñW Ho$ Ûmam ^aU `mo½` AZoH$ ór-nwÌ Am{X hmoVo h¢, Cgr
àH$ma JwUm| go _wº$ hmoZo Ho$ {b`o Ag§»` nwéf h¡Ÿ& ~hþV go nwéf _wº$ hmoZo na ^r
H$B© nwéf {dÚ_mZ ah|Jo, g¥{ï> naånam H$^r ~ÝX Zht hmoJrŸ&
àH¥${VdmñVdo M nwéfñ`mÜ`mg{g[Õ:Ÿ&2/5Ÿ&
g¥{ï> VrZ JwUm| go hmoZo Ho$ H$maU àH¥${V H$m hr Y_© h¡, {ZJ©wU nwéf dmñV{dH$
H$Îmm© Zht h¡Ÿ&
H$m`©ñVpËg[Õ:Ÿ(Õo:)&2/6Ÿ&
H$Îmm©nZ nwéf _| Zht àH¥${V _| h¡, Š`m|{H$ {ÌJwU `wº$ gV² nXmW© hr àYmZ
H$maH$ h¡, dh {MÐÿn nwéf H$m H$m`© Zht h¡Ÿ&
MoVZmonXoem{Þ`_: H$ÊQ>H$_mojdV²Ÿ&2/7Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma Omo ì`{º$ Cnm` OmZVm h¡ CgH$mo H$m§Q>m go H$ï> Zht hmoVm, Cgr
àH$ma {ddoH$s gmYH$ H$mo àH¥${V go H$ï> Zht hmoVmŸ&
AÝ``moJ@o {n VpËg{ÕZm©ÄOñ`oZm`moXmhdV²Ÿ&2/8Ÿ&
àH¥${V go g§`moJ hmoZo na ^r g¥{ï> {H«$`m àH¥${V H$m hr Y_© hmoVm h¡, nwéf H$m ZhtŸ&
{Og àH$ma A{¾`wº$ bmohm O~ ObVm h¡ Vmo A{¾ ObVr h¡, bmohm ZhtŸ&
amJ{damJ`mo`m}J: g¥{ï>:Ÿ&2/9Ÿ&
258 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
amJ go g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡ Am¡a {damJ go ñdê$nmdñWmZ ê$n `moJ {gÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
_hXm{X H«$_oU nÄ M ^yVmZm_²Ÿ&2/10Ÿ&
g¥{ï> H$m H«$_ h¡-àH¥${V go _hmZ², _hmZ² go Ah‘>ma, Ah§ go 11 BpÝÐ`m§ Ed§ 5
VÝ_mÌ, VÝ_mÌ go ^yV(gyÌ 1/16)Ÿ&
AmË_mW©ËdmV² g¥ ï>o Z£ fm_mË_mW© Amaå^:Ÿ&2/11Ÿ&
g¥{ï> AmË_mW© h¡Ÿ&Ÿ_hV² Am{X go Omo {dH$mam| H$s g¥{ï> h¡, dh AnZo {b`o Zht nwéf
_moj Ho$ {b`o h¡Ÿ& My§[H$ _hV² Am{X {dZmer h¢, CZH$m _moj Zht hmoVmŸ&
{XŠH$mbmdmH$mem{Xä`:Ÿ&2/12Ÿ&
Omo IÊS> {XH²$ Am¡a H$mb h§, do AmH$me go CZ Cnm{Y`m| Ho$ `moJ go CËnÞ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
AÜ`dgm`mo ~w{Õ:Ÿ&2/13Ÿ&
_hÎmÎd (~w{Õ) H$m bjU AÜ`dgm` ({ZíM`) h¡Ÿ& gyÌ _| Y_© Am¡a Y_u H$mo
EH$ _mZH$a AÜ`dgm` H$mo hr ~w{Õ H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
VËH$m`ª Y_m© {X:Ÿ&2/14Ÿ&
Y_©-kmZ-d¡am½`-Eoíd`©-`o 4 _hÎmÎd ~w{Õ Ho$ (gmpÎdH$) H$m`© (ê$n) h¢Ÿ&
_h Xw namJm{Û nar V_²Ÿ&2/15Ÿ&
CnamJ go (V_ Ho$ à^md go) gÎd~hwb ~w{Õ VÎd _| AY_©-AkmZ-d¡am½`-
AZ¡íd`© ê$n 4 Y_© hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
A{^_mZmo@h‘>ma:Ÿ&2/16Ÿ&
Ah‘>ma (AÝV:H$aU H$m EH$ A§e) A{^_mZ Y_©H$ h¡ (A{^_mZ=Ah§, __Vm)Ÿ&
EH$mXe nÄMVÝ_m̧ VËH$m`©_Ÿ² &2/17Ÿ&
5 kmZopÝÐ`, 5 H$_}pÝÐ`, 1 _Z (11 nXmW©) VWm 5 VÝ_mÌ (eãX-ñne©-ê$n-
ag-JÝY) Ah‘>ma VÎd Ho$ H$m`© h¢Ÿ&
gmpÎdH$_oH$m XeH§$ àdV©Vo d¡H$¥ VmXh‘>mamV²Ÿ&2/18Ÿ&
11 dt B[ÝÐ` _Z gmpÎdH$ Ah‘>ma go CËnÞ hmoVr h¡Ÿ& (AWm©V² 5 kmZopÝÐ` ,5
H$_}pÝÐ` amOg Ah‘>ma go hmoVo h¢)Ÿ&
H$_}pÝÐ` ~wÕr pÝÐ`¡ amÝVa_o H$m XeH$_²Ÿ&2/19Ÿ&
5 kmZopÝÐ`, 5 H$_}pÝÐ` VWm 1 _Z ê$n AmÝVa B[ÝÐ` H$mo {_bmH$a BpÝÐ` 11
hmoVr h¢Ÿ&
Amh‘>m[aH$Ëd lwVZo © ^m¡{VH$m{ZŸ&2/20Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 259
`o 11 BpÝÐ`m§ ^yV {Z{_©V Zht h¢, ~pëH$ Amh‘>m[aH$ h¢ , Š`m|{H$ lw{V _| Eogm
H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
XodVmb ` lw{V (Vo) Zm© aå^H$ñ`Ÿ&2/21Ÿ&
lw{V Ho$ AZwgma BpÝÐ`m| H$m b` AnZo A{Yð>mV¥ XodVm _| hmoVm h¡Ÿ& AV: BpÝÐ`m|
H$m CnmXmZ Ah‘>ma (fð> A{deof ê$n Apñ_Vm) Zht h¡-Eogm Zht H$hm Om
gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ Eogm dMZ AnZo H$maU _| b` Ho$ à{VnmXZ Ho$ {b`o Zht H$hm
J`m h¡Ÿ&
VXwËn{Îm lwV{o d©Zme Xe©ZmÀMŸ&2/22Ÿ&
BpÝÐ`m§ CËnÞ hmoVr h¢ ({ZË` Zht h¢) Š`m|{H$ lw{V _| Eogm H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& CZHo$
{dZme Ho$ H$maU ^r do A{ZË` h¢Ÿ&
AVrpÝÐ`{_pÝÐ`§ ^«mÝVmZm_{Yð>mZo( Z_²)Ÿ&2/23Ÿ&
dñVwV: BpÝÐ` AVrpÝÐ` (BpÝÐ` Ûmam gmjmËH$aUr` Zht) h¡Ÿ& BpÝÐ` Ho$ A{Yð>mZ
(eara Ho$ `ÝÌ {deof Omo JmobH$ H$hbmVo h¢) H$mo Ak hr BpÝÐ` g_PVo h¢Ÿ&
e{º$^oX@o {n ^oX{gÕm¡ Z¡H$Ëd_²Ÿ&2/24Ÿ&
Eogm gÝXoh Zht hmo gH$Vm {H$ EH$ hr BpÝÐ` h¡ Omo e{º$^oX go {dbjU H$m`©
H$aVr h¡, Š`m|{H$ e{º$^oX go e{º$_mZ _| ^oX ñdV: {gÕ hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ& (e{º$
hr BpÝÐ` h¡, ê$n-J«hU e{º$ hr Mjw BpÝÐ` h¡)Ÿ&
Z H$ënZm {damoY: à_mU Ñï> ñ`Ÿ&2/25Ÿ&
EH$ Ah‘>ma go AZoH$ BpÝÐ`m| H$s CËn{Îm _mZZo _| H$moB© {damoY Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$
`h à_mU {gÕ h¡(AbJ AbJ H$m`© go)Ÿ&
C^`mË_H§$ _Z:Ÿ&2/26Ÿ&
_Z kmZopÝÐ`-H$_}pÝÐ` XmoZm| h¡Ÿ&
JwU n[aUm_ ^oXmÞmZmËd_dñWmdV²Ÿ&2/27Ÿ&
_Z H$m ZmZmËd JwUm| Ho$ n[aUm_ ^oX go hmoVm h¡Ÿ& {Og àH$ma g§J ^oX go EH$
_Zwî` H$m_wH$, {daº$ Am{X hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
ê$nm{X ag_bmÝV C^`mo:Ÿ&2/28Ÿ&
kmZopÝÐ`m|-Mjw, ËdH²$, lmoÌ, {Oˆm, Zmgm- Ho$ {df` h¢-ê$n-ñne©-eãX-
ag-JÝYŸ& H$_}pÝÐ`m| Ho$ {df` h¢-dmH²$ H$m dº$ì`, nm{U H$m AmXmVì`, nmX
H$m JÝVì`, nm`w H$m CËg¥ï>ì`, CnñW H$m AmZÝX{`Vì`Ÿ& ApÝV_ H$m H$m`©
260 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
_b CËgJ© h¡Ÿ&
Ðï¥>Ëdm{XamË_Z:, H$aUËd{_pÝÐ`mUm_²Ÿ&2/29Ÿ&
Ðï¥>Ëd Am{X ì`mnma nwéf Ho$ h¢Ÿ& H$maUËd BpÝÐ`m| H$m h¡Ÿ&
Ì`mUm§ ñdmbjÊ`_²Ÿ&2/30Ÿ&
~w{Õ, Ah‘>ma, _Z-H$s AgmYmaU d¥{Îm`m§ AbJ-AbJ h¢Ÿ& ~w{Õ H$m AÜ`dgm`,
Ah‘>ma H$m A{^_mZ, _Z H$m g‘>ën-{dH$ën& `o d¥{Îm`m§ BZHo$ bjU ^r h¢Ÿ&
gm_mÝ` H$aU d¥{Îm: àUmÚm dm`d: nÄMŸ&2/31Ÿ&
àmU, AnmZ, g_mZ, CXmZ Am¡a ì`mZ- `o 5 dm`w (dm`w Ho$ g_mZ gÄMaUerb)
h¢, AÝV:H$aU H$s gmYmaU d¥{Îm (n[aUm_ ^oX) h¢Ÿ&
H«$_emo@H«$_eíMopÝÐ`d¥{Îm:Ÿ&2/32Ÿ&
BpÝÐ`m| H$s d¥{Îm`m§ H«$_e: ^r hmoVr h¢, EH$ gmW ^rŸ&
d¥Îm`: nÄMVæ`: pŠbï>mpŠbï>m (íM)Ÿ&2/33Ÿ&
`o d¥{Îm`m§ 5 àH$ma H$s h¢, àË`oH$ d¥{Îm Xmo àH$ma H$s h¢-pŠbï> Am¡a ApŠbï>Ÿ&
pŠbï> go Šbof ~‹T>Vm h¡, ApŠbï>=AmË_»`m{V-àYmZ go Šbof Am{X jrU hmoVo
h¢)Ÿ& `o 5 h¢-à_mU, {dn`©`, {dH$ën, {ZÐm, ñ_¥{V(`moJgyÌ 1/2)Ÿ&
V{Þd¥ÎmmdwnemÝVmonamJ: ñdñW:Ÿ&2/34Ÿ&
d¥{Îm`m| H$m {ZamoY hmoZo na AmË_m ñdÀN> AWm©V² ñdê$nmdpñWV hmoVm h¡, Š`m|{H$
Bg H$mb _| CnamJ(d¥{Îmà{V{~å~) emÝV hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ&
Hw$gw_dÀM _{U:Ÿ&2/35Ÿ&
AmË_m _| Om o AdmñV{dH$ ñdñWVm Am{X XrIVr h¡, dh _{U Ho$ g_mZ h¡Ÿ& {Og
àH$ma Onmnwîn Ho$ gmW ahZo na _{U aº$dU© hmo OmVm h¡ VWm CgHo$ Z ahZo na
{~Zm a§J H$m hmoVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma {MÎmd¥{Îm ì`º$ hmoZo na AmË_m d¥{Îmdmbm
XrIVm h¡, {MÎm brZ hmoZo na AnZo ê$n _| XrIVm h¡Ÿ&
nwé fmW© H$maUmo X² ^dmo @ß`Ñ ï>mëo bm gmV²Ÿ&2/36Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma àYmZ H$s àd¥{Îm nwéf Ho$ {b`o h¡, Cgr àH$ma HmaUm| H$s àd¥{Îm ^r
nwéfmW© h¡Ÿ& nwéf Ho$ AÑï> Ho$ AZwgma `h H$aU-àd¥{Îm àd{V©V hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
YoZdw X² dËgm`Ÿ&2/37Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma dËg Ho$ {b`o YoZw (Jm`) H$m Xw½Y ñd`§ {ZH$bZo bJVm h¡, Cgr
àH$ma AMoVZ àH¥${V Ho$ H$aUm| H$s àd¥{Îm ^r nwéf Ho$ {b`o ñdV: hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 261
H$aU§ Ì`moXe{dY _dmÝVa ^oXmV²Ÿ&2/38Ÿ&
AdmÝVa ^oXm| H$s JUZm H$aZo na H$aU 13 hmoVo h¢ - (5 kmZopÝÐ` + 5
H$_} pÝÐ`+ _Z+ Ah‘>ma+~w{Õ)Ÿ&
BpÝÐ`ofw gmYH$V_Ëd JwU`moJmV² Hw$R>madV²Ÿ&2/39Ÿ&
~w{Õ H$m nwéfmW©-gmYZ ê$n JwU AÝ` BpÝÐ`m| _| naånam go _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ& O¡go
d¥j Vmo àhma go H$Q>Vm h¡ , na Hw$R>ma H$mo ^r H$aU H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
Û`mo: àYmZ§ _Zmo bmoH$dV² ^¥Ë`dJ}fŸw &2/40Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma bmoH$ ì`dhma _| AZoH$ ^¥Ë`m| _| EH$ àYmZ hmoVm h¡ , Cgr àH$ma
~mø (kmZ-H$_©) Am¡a ^rVar BpÝÐ`m| _| _Z àYmZ h¡Ÿ&
Aì`{^MmamV²Ÿ&2/41Ÿ&
Aì`{^Mma hmoZo Ho$ H$maU ~w{Õ àYmZ h¡Ÿ& ~w{Õ H$m AÜ`dgm` Y_© g^r H$maUm|
_| em{_b h¡Ÿ& {H$gr ^r H$aU H$m ì`mnma ~w{Õ H$mo N>mS‹o >H$a Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
VWm @ eof g§ñH$mamYmaËdmV²Ÿ&2/42Ÿ&
~w{Õ _| hr g^r g§ñH$ma nyUV© : AmY¥V h¢, ~mø H$aU `m Ah‘>ma-_Z _|
Zht, AV: ~w{Õ gd© àYmZ h¡Ÿ&
ñ_¥Ë`m @ Zw _mZm ÀMŸ&2/43Ÿ&
gd©d¥{Îm loð> {MÝVZê$n ñ_¥{V (Ü`mZ H$s àW_ AdñWm) ~w{Õ _| à{V{ð>V h¡Ÿ&
Bggo ^r ~w{Õ H$m gd© àYmZ hmoZo H$m AZw_mZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
gå^doÞ ñdV:Ÿ&2/44Ÿ&
ñ_¥{V nwéf H$m Y_© Zht hmo gH$Vm Š`m|{H$ AmË_m {ZJwU © , {ZY©_H© $ h¡Ÿ& AÝ`
AW©-ê$n Am{X Ho$ Xe©Z Am{X _| ~w{Õ ñdV: H$aU Zht hmo gH$VrŸ&
Amno{jH$mo JwUàYmZ ñd^md: {H«$`m {deofmV²Ÿ&2/45Ÿ&
H$aUm| _| Omo Jm¡U _w»` ^md hmoVm h¡, dh Amno{jH$ h¡, {H«$`m {deof na {Z^©a h¡Ÿ&
VËH$_m© {O©VËdm ÎmXW© _{^Moï>m bmoH$dV²Ÿ&2/46Ÿ&
o H$aU {Og nwéf H$o H$_© go CËnÞ hmoVm h¡, CgH$s Moï>m Cgr nwéf Ho$ {b`o hmoVr
h¡Ÿ& nwéf Hy$Q>ñW h¡, na CgHo$ ñdm_r hmoZo Ho$ H$maU nwéf H$m H$_© H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
g_mZH$_© `mo Jo ~wÕ:o àmYmÝ`§ bmo H$dëbmo H$dV²Ÿ&2/47Ÿ&
H$aUm| H$s Ñ{ï> _| g^r g_mZ hmoZo na ^r CZ_| ~w{Õ àYmZ h¡Ÿ& O¡go g^r amOm Ho$
H$_©Mmar hmoZo na ^r CZ_| _ÝÌr àYmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
262 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AÜ`m` 3
A{deofm{Ûeofmaå^:Ÿ&3/1Ÿ&
A{deof (emÝV-Mmoa-_yT‹ >Ëdm{X ê$n go eyÝ`) VÝ_mÌ go nÄM^yV ê$n {deof H$s
CËn{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
Vñ_mÀN>arañ`Ÿ&3/2Ÿ&
nyd©d{U©V 23 VÎdm| go ñWyb Am¡a gyú_ earam| H$s CËn{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
VX² ~r OmV² g§g{¥ V:Ÿ&3/3Ÿ&
VÎdmË_H$ gyú_ eara-~rO go nwéf H$s g§g{¥ V(_¥Ë`w Ho$ ~mX J{V) hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
Am {ddoH$mÀM àdÎm©Z_{deofmUm_²Ÿ&3/4Ÿ&
g^r àH$ma Ho$ àm{U`m|(~«÷m go H$sQ> Am{X n`©ÝV) H$m V~ VH$ Adí` hr g§gaU
hmoVm ahoJm O~ VH$ CZ_| {ddoH (Ðï>m-Ñí` H$m nmW©Š` kmZ) CËnÞ Z hmoŸ&
Cn^moJm{XVañdŸ&3/5Ÿ&
Omo A{ddoH$s h¡, CgHo$ {b`o ñdr` H$_m] H$m \$b^moJ H$aZm Adí`å^mdr h¡Ÿ&
gm à{V n[a_wº$mo Ûmä`m_²Ÿ&3/6Ÿ&
g§g¥{VH$mb _| nwéf erVmoîU, gwI-Xw:I Am{X ÛÝÛm| go _wº$ hr ahVm h¡Ÿ&
_mVm {nV¥O§ ñWyb§ àm`e BVaÞ VWmŸ&3/7Ÿ&
ñWyb eara àm`: _mVm-{nVm go CËnÞ hmoVo h¢Ÿ(H$^r -H$^r A`mo{ZO ñWyb
eara ^r hmoVo h¢)Ÿ& gyú_ eara _mVm-{nVm go CËnÞ Zht hmoVm, dh gJm©{X
H$mb _| CËnÞ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
nydm}ËnÎmo ñVËH$m`© Ëd§ ^mo JmXoH$ñ` ZoVañ`Ÿ&3/8Ÿ&
gJm©m{X _| CËnÞ {b“ eara H$m hr gwI-Xw:I hmoVm h¡, Š`m|{H$ Bg eara _| hr
^moJ hmoVm h¡, ñWyb eara _| ZhtŸ&
gáXe¡H$§ {b“_²Ÿ&3/9Ÿ&
gyú_eara ({b“eara) gJm©{X _| EH$ hr hmoVm h¡(g_{ï>ê$n go) {Og_| 17
nXmW© hmoVo h¢-11 BpÝÐ`m§, 5 VÝ_mÌ, 1 ~w{ÕŸ&(Bg {b“ eara _| ^moJ hmoVm h¡,
`hr _w»` eara h¡)Ÿ&
ì`{º$ ^oX: H$_© {deofmV²Ÿ&3/10Ÿ&
gJ©m{X _| ([haÊ`J^© Cnm{Y ê$n) {b“ eara EH$ hmoZo na ^r H$_© {deof Ho$
AZwgma CgHo$ A§e^oX hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 263
VX{Yð>mZml`o Xoho (VÛmXmV²) VÛmX:Ÿ&3/11Ÿ&
H$m`©O{ZV ^moJ {b“ eara _| hmoVm h¡, `hr VÎdV: ^moJm`VZ h¡Ÿ& Cg {b“ H$m
A{Yð>mZ ^yVnÄMH$ H$m Aml` fmQ²>H$m¡{eH$ ñWybXoh h¡Ÿ& Bg Aml`-gå~ÝY go
hr ñWyb eara H$mo ^moJm`VZ H$hm OmVm h¡Ÿ&`hm§ {dkmZ {^jw 3 Xoh _mZVo h¢-
(1) {b“ eara,(2) CgH$m A{Yð>mZ nÄM^yV H$m gyú_ Xoh, (3) ñWyb XohŸ&
Z ñdmVÝÍ`mV² VÑVo N>m `m dpÀMÌ dÀMŸ&3/12Ÿ&
{b“ eara Am¡a fmQ²>H$m¡{eH$ ñWyb eara Ho$ ~rM _| Omo {b“ H$m A{Yð>mZ eara
_mZm J`m h¡, CgHo$ {~Zm {b“ eara H$m`© Zht H$a gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& `>hm§ 3 Xoh H$ho
J`o h¢- ñWybXoh, {b“Xoh H$m AmYma ^yV Xoh VWm {b“XohŸ&
_yVË© do@{n Z g”mV`moJmV² Va{UdV²Ÿ&3/13Ÿ&
{b“ eara H$m Aml` gyú_eara h¡, A_yV© AmH$me Zht, Š`m|{H$ O¡go gy`© Am{X
H$m VoO nm{W©d Ðì` _wº$ hmoH$a hr pñWV ahVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma VÎdàH$me_`
{b“eara ^r gyú_ ^yV_` eara na hr à{V{ð>V hmoH$a H$m`© H$aVm h¡Ÿ&
AUw n[a_mU§ VV² H¥${V lwV:o Ÿ&3/14Ÿ&
{b“ eara AUw n[a_mU (n[apÀN>Þ n[a_mU, AWm©V² Ad`d`wº$) h¡, Š`m|{H$
CgH$s (J_Z Am{X) {H«$`m H$m CëboI lw{V _| h¡Ÿ&
VXÞ_`ËdlwVío MŸ&3/15Ÿ&
{b“eara n[a{ÀN>Þ n[a_mU_mÌ h¡, {d^w Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ dh _Z àYmZ h¡ Am¡a
_Z AÞ_` h¡Ÿ(AÞ_` _Z H$m àmYmÝ` {Og_| h¡, dh {d^w Z hmoH$a n[apÀN>Þ
hr hmoJmŸ& AÞ J«hUm{X go _Z _o| JwU àYmZ hmoVm h¡)Ÿ&
nwéfmW© g§g{¥ V {b“mZm§ gynH$madÐmk:Ÿ&3/16Ÿ&
{b“ earam| H$m g§gaU nwéf Ho$(^moJ H$o) {b`o hmoVm h¡Ÿ& {Og àH$ma gynH$ma
(agmoB`m) amOm Ho$ {b`o agmoB© _| OmVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma g§hV {b“Ymar Ag§hV
ñdn¥WH²$ nwéf Ho$ {b`o àd¥Îm hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
nmÄ M ^m¡{VH$mo Xoh:Ÿ&3/17Ÿ&
Xoh (ñWyb eara) 5 ^yVm| Ho$ {_lU H$m n[aUm_ h¡Ÿ&
MmVw^m£{VH${_-Ë`oH$o Ÿ(Ë`Ý`o)&3/18Ÿ&
Hw$N> (Mmdm©H$) Ho$ _V go ñWyb eara 4 ^yVm| go ~Zm h¡(Cg_| AmH$me Zht h¡)
EoH$^m¡{VH${_Ë`naoŸ&3/19Ÿ&
264 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
EH$ AÝ` _V h¡ {H$ ñWyb eara Ho$db EH$ ^yV (n¥{Wdr) go hr {Z{_©V h¡Ÿ (AÝ`
^yV Cnï>å^H$ `m bwá ahVo h¢)& AÝ` AW© h¡ {H$ EH$ àH$ma H$m eara EH$ hr ^yV
go {Z{_©V hmoVm h¡, O¡go gy`©bmoH$ _| V¡Og eara Am{XŸ&
Z gm§{g{ÕH§$ M¡VÝ`§ àË`oH$mÑï>:o Ÿ&3/20Ÿ&
M¡VÝ` (AmË_m, nwéf) gm§{g{ÕH (^yVm| go ñd^mdV: {gÕ ) Zht h¡, Eogm hmoZo
na n¥{Wdr Am[X _| ^r M¡VÝ` XrIVmŸ&
ànÄ M_aUmÚ ^mdÀMŸ&3/21Ÿ&
`{X eara ñd^mdV: M¡VÝ` hmoVm, Vmo {H$gr àmUr H$m _aU(gwf{w á Am{X ^r)
Zht hmoVmŸ& _aZo na Xoh AMoVZ hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ&
_Xe{º$dÀMoV² àË`oH $n[aÑîQ>o (gm¡úå`mV²) gm§hË`o VXwX^ ² d:Ÿ&3/22Ÿ&
`h H$hZm R>rH$ Zht h¡ {H$ àË`oH$ ^yV _| M¡VÝ` Zht h¡, dh CZHo$ g§KmV ê$n Xoh
_| Am OmVm h¡Ÿ, O¡go _Ú Ho$ àË`oH$ CnmXmZ _| _Xe{º$ Zht ahVr na CZHo$
g_yh _| ahVr h¡Ÿ& àË`oH$ CnmXmZ Ðì` _| Omo VÎd gyú_ ê$n go ahVm h¡ dhr g_yh
_| ñ\w$Q> ê$n _| ì`º$ hmo gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& ^yV _| gyú_ ê$n _| M¡VÝ` ahZm à_mU {gÕ
Zht h¡, AV: ^yV g_{ï> ê$n Xoh _| ^r M¡VÝ` Zht Am gH$VmŸ&
kmZmÝ_w{º$:Ÿ&3/23Ÿ&
kmZ go hr _w{º$ hmo gH$Vr h¡Ÿ&
~ÝYmo {dn`©`mV²Ÿ&3/24Ÿ&
{dn`©` (A{dÚm={dnarV kmZ) hr (gwI-Xw:I ê$n) ~ÝY H$m H$maU h¡Ÿ&
{Z`V H$maUËdmÞ g_wÀM` {dH$ënm¡Ÿ&3/25Ÿ&
kmZ hr _w{º$ H$m {Z`V hoVw (AZÝ` H$maU) h¡, AV: g_wÀM` (kmZ H$_©
g_wÀM` go _w{º$) `m {dH$ën(kmZ go `m H$_© go _w{º$-`h _V) dmX H$s
gå^mdZm Zht h¡Ÿ&
ñdßZOmJamä`m{_d _m{`H$m@_m{`H$mä`m§ Zmo^`mo_{©w º$: nwéfñ`Ÿ&3/26Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma _m{`H$(AgË`, ApñWa) ñdßZ nXmW© Am¡a A_m{`H$ (gË`) OmJ«V
H$mbrZ nXmW© H$s nañna ghm`Vm go H$moB© nwéfmW© {gÕ Zht hmoVm, Cgr àH$ma
H$_© Am¡a kmZ Ho$ g_wÀM` go _w{º$ Zht hmoVrŸ&
BVañ`m{n ZmË`pÝVH$_²Ÿ&3/27Ÿ&
AmË_monmgZmê$n kmZ Ho$ gmW VÎd kmZ H$m g_wÀM` (Am¡a {dH$ën) hmo gH$Vm
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 265
h¡-`h Zht_mZ gH$VoŸ& Cnmñ` gJwU ~«÷ ^r nyUV© `m A_m{`H$ Zht h¡, Cg_|
^r AÜ`ñV nXmW© h¢Ÿ&
g‘>pënVo@ß`od_²Ÿ&3/28Ÿ&
_Z Ho$ g‘>pënV Ü`o` _| _m{`H$Ëd h¡Ÿ& gd©ì`mnr Cnmñ` ~«÷ gJwU h¡, AV: dh
_m`m ê$n {ÌJwU go gå~Õ h¡Ÿ& AV: CnmgZm Am¡a VÎdkmZ EH$ gmW Zhr§ ah
gH$VoŸ&
^mdZmonM`mÀNw>Õñ` gd© àH¥$[VdV²Ÿ&3/29Ÿ&
CnmgZm H$m \$b Š`m h¡Ÿ? O~ ^mdZm ê$n CnmgZm _| {MÎm ewÕ hmo OmVm h¡ V~
Cg_| gd©kVm, gd©e{º$_Îmm Am{X JwU AmVo h¢Ÿ& {Og àH$ma àH¥${V Cn`moJr
{Z{_Îm Ûmam g¥{ï>-g§hma Am{X H$m`© H$aVr h¡, Cgr àH$ma CnmgH$ H$m ~w{ÕgÎd
^r g¥{ï> Am[X _| g_W© hmo OmVm h¡ (CnmgZm ~b Ho$ AZwgma)
amJmonh{VÜ`m©Z_²Ÿ&3/30Ÿ&
Ü`mZ Ho$ Aä`mg go {MÎm H$m {df`monamJ emÝV hmoVm h¢Ÿ&
d¥{Îm{ZamoYmV² VpËg{Õ:Ÿ&3/31Ÿ&
Ü`o` Ho$ A{V[aº$ d¥{Îm{ZamoY go kmZ \$bH$ Ü`mZ H$s {Zîn{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
YmaUm@@ gZ ñdH$_©Um VpËg{Õ:Ÿ&3/32Ÿ&
YmaUm, Ü`mZ Am¡a ñdH$_© Ho$ Aä`mg go Ü`mZ H$s {g{Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
{ZamoYíN>{X© {dYmaUmä`m_²Ÿ&3/33Ÿ&
à«mU H$m {ZamoY N>X© (ny[aV dm`w H$m Ë`mJ) Am¡a {dYmaU (H$moð> _| dm`w H$m
YmaU) go hmoVm h¡ (N>X©+{dYmaU=àUm`m_)Ÿ&
pñWagwI_mgZ_²Ÿ&3/34Ÿ&
eara H$s Omo pñW{V gwI Am¡a pñWaVm XoVr h¡, Cgo AmgZ H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
ñdH$_© ñdml_ {d{hV H$_m©Zðw >mZ_²Ÿ&3/35Ÿ&
ñdH$_© (23 d| gyÌ _| Cº$) H$m AW© h¡-Aml_ Ho$ AZwê$n `_-{Z`_ ê$n H$_m]
H$m AZwð>mZŸ&
d¡am½`mXä`mgmÀMŸ&3/36Ÿ&
d¡am½` g{hV Ü`mZ Ho$ Aä`mg go kmZ VWm CgH$m gmYZ `moJ {gÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&({^jw
Ho$ AZwgma `o XmoZm| EH$ hr Cnm` h¢)Ÿ&
{dn`©`^oXm: nÄMŸ&3/37Ÿ&
266 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
~ÝY H$m H$maU {dn`©` h¡, {OgHo$ 5 ^oX h¢-A{dÚm (V_), Apñ_Vm (_moh),amJ
(_hm_moh), Ûof (Vm{_ò), Am¡a A{^{Zdoe (AÝYVm{_ò)-`moJgyÌ,2/3-9
Ae{º$ a ï>mqde{VYm (Vw )Ÿ&3/38Ÿ&
Ae{º$ (BpÝÐ` d¡H$ë`) 28 àH$ma H$s h¢-11 BpÝÐ`m| H$mdY({dH$bVm) VWm
17 ~w{ÕdYŸ(9 Vw{ï>`m| VWm 8 {g{Õ`m| Ho$ ~mYH$ nXmW©)&
Vw{ï> Z© dYmŸ&3/39Ÿ&
Vw{w ï> 9 àH$ma H$s h¢-4 AmÜ`mpË_H$ Vw{ï>-1.àH¥${VVw{ï>-àH¥${V ñd`§ hr _moj H$m
gånmXZ H$aoJr, _¢ Vmo Hy$Q>ñW hÿ,§ `h _mZH$a gÝVmof H$aZmŸ&
2.CnmXmZ Vw{ï>-àd«Á`m Am{X boZo go _moj hmoJm, `h ^mdŸ&
3.H$mbVw{ï>-~hþV H$mb VH$ g_m[Y Ho$ AZwð>mZ go Vw{ï>Ÿ&
4.^m½` Vw{ï>-Y_©_Ko g_m{Y H$s Vw{ï>Ÿ&
5-9-~mø {df`m| Ho$ AO©Z-ajU-j`->gJ§ -qhgm{X _| Xw:I H$s Ame§H$m go
d¡am½`Ÿ, AO©Z Am{X N>mS‹o > XoZmŸ&
{g{Õaï>YmŸ&3/40Ÿ&
{g{Õ (gmYZm nW _| dr`© Xm`H$) AmR> àH$ma H$s h¢-
1.D$h {g{Õ-CnXoe Am{X Ho$ {~Zm ñd`§ hr VÎdkmZ nmZo(D$hZ) _| g_W©Ÿ&
2.eãX-AÝ`m| Ho$ dmŠ` gwZH$a kmZ àm{á H$s ñ\y${Îm©Ÿ&
3.AÜ``Z-Jwé-{eî` naånam go kmZ àm{áŸ&
4.gwhV² àm{á-Eogo gwöV² H$m AmJ_Z {Oggo kmZ àmá hmoŸ&
5.XmZ-{H$gr H$mo YZ, XmZ Am{X Ûmam gÝVwï> H$a kmZ nmZmŸ&
6-8-{Ì{dY Xw:Im| H$m {dKmVŸ&
AdmÝVa ^oXm: nydd© V²Ÿ&3/41Ÿ&
nyd© AmMm`m] Ho$ AZwgma 5 {dn`©`m| Ho$ AdmÝVa ^oX h¢-V_ Ho$ 8 ^oX,_moh Ho$ 8
^oX, _hm_moh Ho$ 10, Vm{_ò Ho$ 18 VWm AÝYVm{_ò Ho$ 18-Hw$b 62 ^oX
h¢Ÿ&(gm§»` H$m.48)
Ed{_Vañ`m:Ÿ&3/42Ÿ&
Bgr àH$ma (nyd© AmMm`m] Ho$ _V go) Ae{º$ Ho$ AdmÝVa ^oX 18 h¢Ÿ&
AmÜ`mpË_H$m{X^oXmÞdYm Vw{ï>:Ÿ&3/43Ÿ&
AmÜ`mpË_H$ Am{X ^oX go Vw{ï> 9 àH$ma H$s h¡(g§»` H$m.50,gy.3/39)Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 267
D$hm{X{^: {g{Õ:Ÿ&3/44Ÿ&
D$h Am{X ^oX go {g{Õ`m§ 8 h¢ (gm§.gy.3/40)Ÿ&
ZoVam{XVahmZoZ {dZmŸ&3/45Ÿ&
D$h, eãX Am{X Cn`wº © $(gm§.gy.3/44) {g{Õ`m| Ho$ A{V[aº$ Vn Am{X go VmpÎdH$
(H¡$dë` `wº$) {g{Õ àmá Zht hmoVrŸ, Š`m|{H$ Vn Am{X go CËnÞ {g{Õ`m§ {dn`©`
H$m Zme [H `o {~Zm ^r CËnÞ hmoVr h¢Ÿ&`h dñVwV: {g{Õ H$m Am^mg _mÌ h¡Ÿ&
X¡dm{X à^oXmŸ&3/46Ÿ&
g¥{ï> Ho$ (AWm©V² g¥{ï> Ho$ XohYmar àm{U`m| Ho$) Xod Am{X AdmÝVa ^oX h¢-Xod,
{V`©J², _Zwî` `mo{Z`m§Ÿ&
Am~«÷ñVå~n`©ÝV§ VËH¥$Vo g¥{ï>am{ddoH$mV²Ÿ&3/47Ÿ&
~«÷ go ñVå~ n`©ÝV g¥{ï> nwéfmW© h¡Ÿ& O~ VH$ {ddoH$ kmZ CËnÞ Zht hmoVm V~
VH$ Ordm| H$m g§gaU hmoVm ahoJmŸ&
D$Üdª gÎd{dembmŸ&3/48Ÿ&
gÎd~hþb g¥{ï> D$Û©bmoH$ _| h¡Ÿ&
V_mo {dembm _ybV:Ÿ&3/49Ÿ&
V_mo ~hþb g¥{ï> ^ybm}H$ Ho$ AYmoXoe _| h¡Ÿ&
_Ü`o aOmo{dembmŸ&3/50Ÿ&
aOmo~hþb g¥{ï> _Ü` (^ybmoH$) _| h¡Ÿ&
H$_© d¡{MÍ`mV² àYmZMoï>m J^©XmgdV²Ÿ&3/51Ÿ&
àYmZ H$s H$m`©d{¡ MÍ`-ê$n Moï>m H$_© H$s {d{MÌVm go hmoVr h¡Ÿ& OÝ_OmV Xmg
H$s Vah àH¥${V H$s Moï>m ^r H$_© Ho$ {b`o hr hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
Amd¥{ÎmñVÌmË`wÎmamoÎma`mo{Z`moJmX² ho`:Ÿ&3/52Ÿ&
gÎd àYmZ D$Üd©bmoH$ _| J{V hmoZo na dhm§ go Amd¥{Îm hmoVr h¡ VWm nwZ: ZmZm
`mo{Z`m| _| OÝ_ boZm n‹S>Vm h¡, AV: D$Üd©bmoH$ ^r ho` h¡Ÿ&
g_mZ§ Oam_aUm{XO§ Xw:I_²Ÿ&3/53Ÿ&
g^r àH$ma Ho$ bmoH$m| _| Ord H mo Oam _aU Am{X Ûmam Xw:I {_bVm h¡Ÿ&
Z H$maUb `mV² H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm _¾dXwËWmZmV²Ÿ&3/54Ÿ&
Aì`º$ àH${V _| {MÎm H$m (A{ddoH$nydH© $) b` H$aZo_mÌ go H¥$VH$¥Ë`Vm Zht
hmoVr, Š`m|{H$ Ob_¾ ì`{º$ H$s Vah nwZ: Cg {MÎm H$m CËWmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
268 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AH$m`©Ëdo@{n VÚmoJ: nmadí`mV²Ÿ&3/55Ÿ&
àH¥${V ñd`§ à{V{ð>V h¡, AV: àH¥${V brZ {MÎm H$m nwZéËWmZ Zht hmoZm Mm{h`o
-Eogm Zht H$hm Om gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ brZ {MÎm _| nadeVm ahZo Ho$ H$maU Cg
{MÎm H$m nwZ: g§gma ~ÝYZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
g {h gd© {dV² gd©H$Îmm©Ÿ&3/56Ÿ&
nyd© gJ© _| Bg àH$ma H$m brZ {MÎm nwéf O~ AÝ` gJ© _| (B©ídaVm`wº$ hmoH$a)
ì`º$ hmoVm h¡, V~ dh gd©{dV² Am¡a gd©H$Îmm© hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
B©Ñeoída {g{Õ: {gÕmŸ&3/57Ÿ&
B©Ñe B©ída (AWm©V² OÝ` B©ída) H$s {g{Õ lw{V Am¡a `w{º$ go hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
àYmZ g¥{ï>: namWª ñdVmo@ß`^moº$¥ Ëdm Xw ï´> Hw$‘x> _ dh ZdV²Ÿ&3/58Ÿ&
O‹S> àH¥${V H$s g¥{ï> namW© hmoVr h¡Ÿ& {Og àH$ma D§$Q> Xygam| Ho$ {b`o Hw$‘x>_ Am{X
H$m dhZ H$aVm h¡, CgH$m ^moJ Zht H$aVmŸ&
AMoVZËdo@{n jradÀMo{ï>V§ àYmZñ`Ÿ&3/59Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma AMoVZ jra {H$gr nwéf H$s Anojm Z H$a ^r X{Yê$n _| n[aUV
hmoVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma AMoVZ àH¥${V na-à`ËZ Ho$ {~Zm ^r _hV² Am{X ê$n _|
n[aUV hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
H$_©dX² Ñï>o dm© H$mbmXo:Ÿ&3/60Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma H$mb Am{X H$m H$_© ñd`§ MbVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma àYmZ H$s n[aUm_
{H«$`m ^r ñdV: hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
ñd^mdm ÀMo{ï>V _Z{^gÝYmZmX² ^¥Ë`dV²Ÿ&3/61Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma EH$ ^¥Ë` ñdm^m{dH$ g§ñH$ma go à^w Ho$ H$m`© _| àd¥Îm hmoVm h¡, Cgr
àH$ma àH¥${V AnZo g§ñH$ma go hr n[aUm_m| H$mo CËnÞ H$aVr h¡Ÿ&
H$_m© H¥ $ï>o dm© @ (ß`) Zm{XV:Ÿ&3/62Ÿ&
AWdm AZm{X H$_© Ûmam AmH¥$ï> hmoH$a ^r àH¥${V H$m `Wm`W n[aUm_ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
{d{dº$ ~moYmV² g¥{ï> {Zd¥{Îm: àYmZñ` gyXdV² nmHo$Ÿ&3/63Ÿ&
O~ O‹S> àH¥${V go AbJ nwéf H$m ~moY {MÎm _| hmoVm h¡, V~ àYmZ g¥{ï> go {Zd¥Îm
hmo OmVm h¡, O¡go nmMH$ ^moOZ ~ZmZo Ho$ ~mX {Zd¥Îm hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
BVa BVadV² VÔmofmV²Ÿ&3/64Ÿ&
{OZ_| {ddoH$ kmZ CËnÞ Zht hþAm h¡, do ~Õ ahVo h¢, Š`m|{H$ CZ_| nwéfmW© A^r
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 269
g_má Zht hþAm h¡Ÿ&
Û`moaHo $Vañ` dm¡XmgrÝ`_ndJ©:Ÿ&3/65Ÿ&
nwéf Am¡a àH¥${V H$m nañna Am¡XmgrÝ` ({d`moJ) hr AndJ© (Xw:I) go _w{º$ h¡Ÿ&
AWdm nwéf H$m Am¡XmgrÝ` hmoZm hr H¡$dë` h¡Ÿ&
AÝ`g¥îQ>çnw amJo@{n Z {daÁ`Vo à~wÕaÁOwVÎdñ`odmoaJ:Ÿ&3/66Ÿ&
^moJ AndJ© go _wº$ nwéf go {Zd¥Îm hmoZo na ^r dh AÝ` nwéfm| go {Zd¥Îm Zht
hmoVmŸ& O¡go Omo ì`{º$ añgr H$mo gm§n Zht g_PVm dhr Cggo Zht S>aVm, ~mH$s
Cggo S>aVo h¢Ÿ&
H$_© {Z{_Îmm `mo JmÀMŸ&3/67Ÿ&
~Õ nwéf H$o gmW H$_© OwS‹ >m ahVm h¡, AV: H$_© g§ñH$ma Ho$ H$maU CgH$m
g§gaU MbVm ahVm h¡Ÿ&
Z¡anoú`o@{n àH¥$Ë`wnH$mao@{ddoH$mo {Z{_Îm_²Ÿ&3/68Ÿ&
nwéf (Ðï>m) VWm àH¥${V (Ñí`) nañna {Zanoj h¢Ÿ& àH¥${V Ho$ CnH$ma (Cggo
_hV² Am{X H$s g¥{ï>) A{ddoH$ Ho$ H$maU hr hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
ZÎm©H$sdV² àd¥Îmñ`m{n {Zd¥{ÎmíMm[aVm Ï`m©VŸ² &3/69Ÿ&
àYmZ H$s àd¥{Îm nwéf Ho$ {b`o h¡, CgH$m H$m`© H$aZo na àH¥${V ñdV: {Zd¥Îm hmo
OmVr h¡, O¡go ZÎm©H$s Z¥Ë` H$aZo Ho$ ~mX ñdV: ~ÝX H$aVr h¡Ÿ&
Xmof~moY@o {n Zmongn©U§ àYmZñ` Hw$bdYydV²Ÿ&3/70Ÿ&
Hw$bdYy `h OmZZo na {H$ ñdm_r Zo CgHo$ Xmofm| H$mo OmZ b`m h¡, Cggo ñdV:
{Zd¥Îm hmo OmVr h¡Ÿ& Cgr àH$ma O~ àH¥${V Ho$ Xmofm| H$m kmZ nwéf H$mo hmo OmVm h¡,
V~ àH¥${V CgH$s Va\$ àd¥Îm Zht hmoVrŸ&
Z¡H$mÝVVmo ~ÝY_mojm¡ nwéfñ`m{ddoH$mÑVoŸ&3/71Ÿ&
nwéf H$m dmñV{dH$ ~ÝY `m _moj Zht hmoVm, A{ddoH$ Ho$ H$maU Eogm bJVm h¡Ÿ&
àH¥$VoamÄOñ`mV² gg“ËdmV² newdV²Ÿ&3/72Ÿ&
VÎdV: ~ÝY Am¡a _moj àH$¥{V Ho$ hr h¢, Š`m|{H$ dh Xw:I gmYZm| go {bá h¡Ÿ& {Og
àH$ma añgr g§J go new ~ÝY OmVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma Xw:I gmYZ ^yV Y_© Am{X go
{bá hmoH$a àH¥${V ~Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
ê$n¡: gá{^amË_mZ§ ~ÜZm{V àYmZ§ H$mo eH$mad{Û_moM`Ë`oH$oZê$noUŸ&3/73Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma H$moeH$ma (H$s‹S>m) AnZo hr ~Zm`o Ka Ûmam ~ÝY OmVm h¡, Cgr n«H$ma
270 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
àH¥${V AnZo {Z{_©V Y_©, {damJ, Eoíd`©, AY_©, AkmZ, Ad¡am½`, AZ¡íd`©-
BZ 7 ê$nm| go AnZo H$mo ~mÝYVr h¡Ÿ& kmZ Zm_H$ EH$ ê$n Ûmam AnZo H$mo _wº$
^r H$aVr h¡Ÿ&
{Z{_ÎmËd_{ddoH$ñ` Z Ñï>hm{Z:Ÿ&3/74Ÿ&
~ÝY-_moj _| A{ddoH$ H$m hmoZm `m Zht hmoZm {Z{_Îm h¡Ÿ& A{ddoH$ Ûmam àH$¥{V-
nwéf g§`moJ go CËnÞ Xw:I àH¥${V _o§ hmoVm h¡, nwéf _| CgH$m à{V{~å~ ê$n
Xw:I^moJ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
VÎdmä`mgmÞo{V ZoVr{V Ë`mJm{ÛdoH${g{Õ:Ÿ&3/75Ÿ&
àH¥${V Am¡a àmH¥$V nXmW© _| Zo{V-Zo{V ê$n go A{^_mZ Ë`mJ H$a VÎd H$m Aä`mg
H$aZo go {ddoH$ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
A{YH$m[aà^oXmÞ {Z`_:Ÿ&3/76Ÿ&
A{YH$mar -à^oX ahZo Ho$ H$maU EH$ OÝ_ Ho$ Aä`mg go (`m EH$ {Z{íMV H$mb
_|) hr _w{º$ hmoJr, Eogm H$moB© {Z`_ Zht h¡Ÿ&
~m{YVmZwd¥ -Î`m(Îmo:) _Ü`{ddoH$Vmo@ß`wn^moJ:Ÿ&3/77Ÿ&
~m{YVm-AZwd¥{Îm (àmaãYde Zï> AkmZ H$m nwZ: CX` hmoZm) Ho$ H$maU
_Ü`{ddoH$s ({OgH$m {ddoH$ AnyU© h¡) gmYH$ _| ^r Cn^moJ hmoVm h¡ (à{V{~å~ê$n
go nwéf _| AZwd¥{Îm hmoZm hr ^moJ h¡)Ÿ&
OrdÝ_wº$íMŸ&3/78Ÿ&
_Ü`{ddoH$s OrdÝ_wº$ H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ&
CnXoí`monXoï>¥ ËdmV² VpËg{Õ:Ÿ&3/79Ÿ&
_moj{dÚm H$m à{VnmXZ A{ddoH$s g§gmar Ûmam gå^d Zht h¡, AV: BgHo$
CnXoeH$ hmoZo H$m AW© h¡ Or dÝ_wº$ nwéf ^r h¢Ÿ&
lw{VíMŸ&3/80Ÿ&
lw{V go ^r Omo OrdZ_wº$ hm| CZHo$ H$m`© {gÕ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
BVaWm@ÝYnaånamŸ&3/81Ÿ&
`{X OrdÝ_wº$ nwéf H$m ApñVÎd Z _mZ|, Vmo AmË_kmZ H$m CnXoe ^«mÝV hmoJm
O¡go EH$ AÝY Xygao AÝY H$mo _mJ© {XIm`oŸ&
MH«$^«_UdX² Y¥Veara:Ÿ&3/82Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma Hw$å^H$ma H$m MH«$ AnZo doJ Ûmam Hw$N> H$mb VH$ Ky_Vm ahVm h¡, Cgr
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 271
àH$ma OrdÝ_wº$ H$m eara ^r nyd© g§ñH$ma go Hw$N> H$mb VH$ Or{dV ahVm h¡Ÿ&
g§ñH$maboeVñVpËg{Õ:Ÿ&3/83Ÿ&
Cg g_` {df`-g§ñH$ma ahZo Ho$ H$maU eara YmaU ê$n {H«$`m MbVr ahVr h¡,
A{dÚm-g§ñH$ma H$m boe Zht ahVmŸ&
{ddoH$m{Þ:eof Xw:I {Zd¥Îmm¡ H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm ZoVamÞoVamV²Ÿ&3/84Ÿ&
{ddoH$ kmZ H$s nyUV© m hmoZo na Xw:ImYma {MÎmd¥{Îm`m| Ho$ {ZamoY hmoZo Ho$ H$maU
Xw:I H$s AË`ÝV {Zd¥{Îm hmo OmVr h¡, `hr na_ nwéfmW© ê$n H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm h¡Ÿ& `h
H$¥VH¥$Ë`Vm OrdÝ_w{º$ Xem _| Zht hmoVrŸ&
AÜ`m` 4
amOnwÌdV² VÎdmonXoemV²Ÿ&4/1Ÿ&
VÎd gå~ÝYr CnXoe go {ddoH$ H$s CËn{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& Bg {df` _| `h Am»`m{`H$m
h¡ {H$ H$moB© amOnwÌ dZ _| ahZo Ho$ H$maU AnZm àH¥$V ê$n Z OmZH$a e~a ê$n _|
ahVm WmŸ& na ~mX _| {H$gr A_mË` Ho$ CnXoe go AnZo ê$n H$mo nhMmZm Am¡a
ñdamÁ` _| à{V{ð>V hþAmŸ&
{nemMdXÝ`mWm}nXoe@o {nŸ&4/2Ÿ&
EH$ Ho$ {b`o H$hm J`m CnXoe AÝ` Ho$ {b`o ^r CnH$mar hmoVm h¡, {Og àH$ma
lrH¥$îU Zo AOwZ© Ho$ {b`o CnXoe {H$`m, na Cg CnXoe H$mo g_rnñW {H$gr
{nemM Zo gwZ {b`m {Oggo CgHo$ öX` _| CËH¥$ï> kmZ CËnÞ hþAmŸ&
Amd¥{ÎmagH¥$XwnXoemV²Ÿ&4/3Ÿ&
kmZ Ho$ Ñ‹T>Vm gånmXZ Ho$ {b`o CnXoe H$s Amd¥{Îm (~ma-~ma gwZZm) H$aZr
Mm{h`o, O¡go ídoVHo$Vw Am{X Ho$ à{V Amé{U Am{X F${f`m| Zo ~ma-~ma CnXoe
{X`m WmŸ&
{nVmnwÌ dXw^`moÑ© ï>ËdmV²Ÿ&4/4Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma H$moB© ì`{º$ {nVm H$m _aU VWm nwÌ H$m OÝ_ XoI nmVm h¡, Cgr
àH$ma AnZr CËn{Îm Am¡a _aU H$mo ^r g^r AZw_mZ go OmZ gH$Vo h¢Ÿ&Bg kmZ
go d¡am½` CËnÞ hmoVm h¡ Omo {ddoH$ H$mo {ZînÞ H$aVm h¡Ÿ&
í`oZdV² gwIXw:Ir Ë`mJ{d`moJmä`m_²Ÿ&4/5Ÿ&
n[aJ«h (AZmdí`H$ gÄM`) Zht H$aZm Mm{h`o, Š`m|{H$ Cggo Xw:I H$s d¥{Õ
hmoVr h¡Ÿ& í`oZ Ho$ nmg `{X _m§g hmo Vmo _m§g^jr àUr Ûmam _mam OmVm h¡Ÿ& na
272 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
`{X dh _m§g H$mo N>mo‹S> XoVm h¡ Vmo gwIr hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ&
A{h{Zëd©`ZrdV²Ÿ&4/6Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma gm§n AnZm H|$Mwb __ËdeyÝ` ~w{Õ go N>mS‹o >Vm h¡, Cgr àH$ma
AZmË_^yV àmH¥$V Cnm{Y H$mo ^r ho` ~w{Õ go N>mS‹o >Zo H$s Moï>m H$aZr Mm{h`oŸ&
{N>ÞmhñVdÛmŸ&4/7Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma {N>Þ hñV H$mo J«hU H$aZo H$s BÀN>m {H$gr H$mo Zht hmoVr, Cgr àH$ma
ho` ~w{Õ go N>mS‹o >r MrOm| H$mo J«hU H$aZo H$s BÀN>m Zht H$aZr Mm{h`oŸ&
AgmY ZmZw {MÝVZ§ ~ÝYm` ^aVdV²Ÿ&4/8Ÿ&
Omo {ddoH$ H$m gmYZ Zht h¡, CgH$m AZw{MÝVZ H$aZo go (Mmho dh gm_mÝ` Ñ{ï>
go gXmMma hr Š`m| Z hmo) ~ÝYZ hmoZo H$s gå^mdZm ahVr h¡, O¡go amO{f©$ ^aV
H$m hþAm WmŸ& (CÝhm|Zo AZmW h[aU {eew H$m nmbZ ê$n X`m nyU© H$_© {H$`m Wm,
{Oggo CZH$mo g§gma J{V {_br WrŸ)&
~hþ{^`m}Jo {damoYmo amJm{X{^: Hw$_mare’dV²Ÿ&4/9Ÿ&
AZoH$ bmoJm| H$m g§J H$aZo go amJ Ûof Am{X H$m àdmh ~‹T>Vm h¡, {Oggo nañna
H$bh H$s gå^mdZm ahVr h¡Ÿ({Oggo `moJgmYZ H$m ^«§e hmo OmVmh¡),{Og
àH$ma Hw$_mar Ho$ hmW _| H$B© My{‹S>`m§ ahZo na CZHo$ g§Kf© go eãX hmoVm ahVm h¡Ÿ&
Ûmä`m_{n VW¡dŸ&4/10Ÿ&
Ho$db Xmo Ho$ g§`moJ go ^r {damoY hmo gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
{Zame: gwIr {n“bmdV²Ÿ&4/11Ÿ&
Amem H$m Ë`mJ H$aZo na hr H$moB© gwIr hmo gH$Vm h¡, {Og àH$ma {n“bm doí`m
AnZo ào_r H$mo MmhZo Ho$ H$maU CgH$s Anojm _| pŠbï> hþ`r Wr Am¡a `h Amem
N>mo‹S>Zo na gwIr hþ`r WrŸ&
AZmaå^o@{n naJ¥ho gwIr ^doVŸ² & 4/12Ÿ&
^moJ Ho$ {b`o {H$gr Z`o H$m`© H$m Amaå^ gmYH$ H$mo Zht H$aZm Mm{h`oŸ& gm§n
{Og àH$ma AÝ` {Z{_©V {~b _| hr ah H$a gwIr ahVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma `moJr
H$mo ahZm Mm{h`oŸ&
~hþemóJwê$nmgZo@{n gmamXmZ§ fQ²>nXdV²Ÿ&4/13Ÿ&
~hþg»§ `H$ emóm| H$m AÜ``Z Ed§ JwéAm| H$s CnmgZm H$aZo na ^r gmaJ«hU H$s
_Zmod{¥ Îm aIZr Mm{h`oŸ& ^«_a {Og àH$ma nwînm| go _Yw_mÌ H$m gÄM` H$aVm h¡,
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 273
Cgr àH$ma ~hþV AW© dmbo emóm| H$m _w»` VÎd hr boZm Mm{h`oŸ&
BfwH$madÞ¡H${MÎmñ` g_m{Yhm{ŸZ:&4/14Ÿ&
gmYH$ H$mo EH$mbå~Znam`UVm (Omo EH$mJ«-^y{_H$m H$m _w»` gmYZ h¡) `{X
hmo Vmo gm_mÝ` ~mYm Ho$ CnpñWV hmoZo na `m pŠbï> d¥{Îm Ho$ CX` hmoZo na g_m{Y
H$s hm{Z (bú` go {dÀ`w{V ) Zht hmoVrŸ& {Og àH$ma EH$ EH$mJ« BfwH$ma (~mU
~ZmZo dmbm) H$s EH$mJ«Vm amOm Ho$ AmJ_Z go ^r Zht Qy>Q>VrŸ&
H¥$(d«)V{Z`_b”ZmXmZW©Š`§ bmoH$dV²Ÿ&4/15Ÿ&
_mojemó {gÕ {Z`_m| Ho$ b”Z go na_mW© H$s {g{Õ Zht hmoVr (kmZmä`mg H$m
CËH$f© Zï> hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ)& bmoH$ _| ^r XoIm OmVm h¡ {H$ Am¡fYm{X O{ZV
\$bàm{á V^r hmoVr h¡ O~ {d{hV nÏ` H$m Cëb§KZ Z {H$`m Om`Ÿ&
V{Ûñ_aUo@{n ^oH$sdV²Ÿ&4/16Ÿ&
emór` {Z`_ Ho$ {dñ_aU go ^r hm{Z hmoVr h¡Ÿ& EH$ gwÝXar H$Ý`m go {H$gr amOm
Zo EH$ eÎm© na {ddmh {H$`mŸ& ~mX _| amOm dh eÎm© ^yb J`o {Oggo H$Ý`m AnZo
nyd©ê$n (^oH$s) H$mo àmá hþ`r {Oggo amOm Xw:Ir hþ`oŸ&
ZmonXoeldUo@{n H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm nam_em©ÑVo {damoMZdV²Ÿ&4/17Ÿ&
Ho$db CnXoe-ldU go H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm Zht hmoVr, ~pëH$ g_mMma AWm©V² CnXoe
H$m VmËn`© {ZU©` H$a _ZZ H$aZm Mm{h`oŸ& {damoMZ Zm_H$ Agwa Am¡a BÝÐXod Zo
àOmn{V go g_mZ CnXoe àmá {H$`m, na `WmdV² {dMmam{X Z H$aZo Ho$ H$maU
{damoMZ ^«mÝV hþ`oŸ&
Ñï>ñV`mo[aÝÐñ`Ÿ&4/18Ÿ&
Cn`w©º$ lm¡V Am»`m{`H$m _| ñnï> h¡ {H$ àOmn{V go àmá CnXoe H$m {dMmanyd©H$
_ZZ BÝÐ Zo {H$`m AV: CÝh| hr àH¥$V kmZ àmá hþAmŸ&
àU{V~«÷M`m}ngn©Um{Z H¥$Ëdm {g{Õ~© hþ H$mbmV²Ÿ&4/19Ÿ&
BÝÐ H$s Vah `{X H$moB© Jwé _| àUV ^md aIo Am¡a ~«÷M`© H$m Cngn©U (lÕm go
Jwé Ho$ nmg OmH$a godm H$aZm) H$ao Vmo XrK©H$mb VH$ Eogm H$aZo go Cgo {g{Õbm^
(VÎdkmZ -àm{á) hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Z H$mb {Z`_mo dm_XoddV²Ÿ&4/20Ÿ&
kmZ Ho$ CX` _| H$moB© H$mb {Z`_ Zht h¡Ÿ, O¡go dm_Xod H$mo J^© _| hr kmZmoX`
hþAm Wm (EoVao` Cn.2/4/5, ~¥hXmaÊ`H$ Cn.1/4/10)Ÿ&
274 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AÜ`ñVê $nmo nm gZmV² nmaån`}U `kmo nm gH$m Zm{_dŸ&4/21Ÿ&
gJwU CnmgZm go ^r kmZ {_b gH$Vm h¡, AV: XwîH$a AÜ`mË_`moJ H$m AZwerbZ
ì`W© h¡-`h _mZZm R>rH$ Zht h¡Ÿ, Š`m|{H$ AÜ`ñV ê$nm| (~«÷m, {dîUw, {ed
Am{X) H$s CnmgZm go ~«÷bmoH$ H$s àm{á hmoVr h¡ Am¡a gÎdew{Õ Ho$ H«${_H$
CËH$f© Ho$ AZwgma kmZ H$s {Zoîn{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ& Bggo Ma_ {g{Õ gmjmV² ê$n go
Zht hmoVrŸ& `kH$_©H$mar H$o {b`o ^r `hr ~mV h¡Ÿ& H$_© go {MÎm ewÕ hmoVm h¡
VWm gÎdew{Õ Ho$ H«${_H$ CËH$f© go {ddoH$nydH© $ {MÎm {ZamoY H$aZo go na_mW©
H$s {g{Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
BVabm^o@ß`md¥{Îm: nÄMm{¾`moJVmo OÝ_lwV:o Ÿ&4/22Ÿ&
Aì`º$ ê$nm| H$s CnmgZm go ~«÷bmoH$ H$s àm{á hmoZo na ^r g§gma _| nwZamd¥{Îm
hmoVr h¡, Š`m|{H$ Xod`mZ nW go ~«÷bmoH$ _| J_ZH$mar H$m nwZO©Ý_ nÄMm{¾ `moJ
(Úw-nO©Ý`-n¥{Wdr-nwéf-`mo{fV² ê$ngo) hmoVm h¡Ÿ-Eogm lm¡V dMZ h¡Ÿ&
{daº$ ho `hm Z_w nm Xo `mo nmXmZ§ h§ gjr adV²Ÿ&4/23Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma h§g Ob{_{lV Xw½Y go XyY AbJ H$a gH$Vm h¡, Cgr àH$ma
d¡am½`gånÞ gmYH$ ho` H$m hmZ(Ë`mJ) Ed§ CnmXo` H$m CnmXmZ (J«hU) H$aZo
_| Xj hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
bãYm{Ve``moJmÛm VÛV²Ÿ&4/24Ÿ&
{OgH$m kmZ Ma_ CËH$f© na nhþM§ J`m h¡, Eogo _hmnwéf Ho$ g§J go ^r H$moB© kmZ
nm gH$Vm h¡, O¡go amOm AbH©$ H$mo _hm`moJr XÎmmÌo` Ho$ g§J go {ddoH$ {_bm WmŸ&
Z H$m_Mm[aËd§ amJmonhVo ewH$dV²Ÿ&4/26Ÿ&
amJr (gH$m_) nwéfm| H$m g§J H$aZo go CgHo$ amJm{X Xmofm| H$m à^md g§JH$mar
na ^r n‹S>Vm h¡, {Og àH$ma gwÝXa ewH$ njr H$m ~ÝYZ ì`mY Ho$ JwUm| (añgr)
go hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Z ^mo JmÐm JempÝV_w© {ZdV²Ÿ&4/27Ÿ&
^moJ H$aVo ahZo go {df`mZwamJ H$s CnempÝV (d¡am½` ^md) Zht hmoVr, O¡go
gm¡^[a _w{Z H$m {MÎm àMwa ^moJ {dbmg go ^r emÝV Zht hþAm WmŸ&
Xmofm Xe©ZmXw^`mo:Ÿ&4/28Ÿ&
àH¥${V Am¡a CgHo$ H$m`© _| XmofXe©Z H$aZo H$s e{º$ O~ hmoVr h¡ V^r amJ H$m
Cne_ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& àH¥${V Am¡a CgHo$ H$m`© n[aUm_r h¢, Xw:IX h¢, BË`m{X ~moY
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 275
hmoZo na hr CZ na Xmof Xe©Z hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Z _{bZMoVñ`wnXoe~rOàamohmo@OdV²Ÿ&4/29Ÿ&
_{bZ {MÎm _| CnXoe ê$n ~rO H$m àamoh (A‘x>a Ho$ ê$n _| CX²J_) Zht hmoVm
(amJ Ûof `wº$ {MÎm CnXoe gwZH$a ^r gmYZ-_mJ© _| AJ«ga Zht hmoVm), {Og
àH$ma AO (Zm_H$ amOm) O~ ^m`m© {d`moJ go Xw:{IV hmo J`o Vmo d{gð> H$m
CnXoe ^r CZH$m {MÎm emÝV Zht H$a nm`mŸ&
Zm^mg_mÌ_{n _{bZXn©UdV²Ÿ&4/30Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma _¡bo Xn©U _| à{V{~å~ Zht hmoVm, Cgr àH$ma _{bZ {MÎm _| CnXoe
hoVw kmZ H$m Am^mg _mÌ ^r CËnÞ Zht hmoVmŸ&
ZVÁOñ`m{n VÐÿnVm n‘>OdV²Ÿ&4/31Ÿ&
_{bZ {MÎm _| CnXoe go `{X g_mYmZ ^r hmo Vmo dh CnXoe Ho$ AZwê$n Zht
hmoVmŸ&{Og àH$ma n§H$ Xmof Ho$ H$maU ~rO Ho$ ewÕ ahZo na ^r nÙ ~rO Ho$ O¡gm
Zht hmoVmŸ&
Z ^y{V`moJ(o @{n) H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vmonmñ`{ÕdXwnmñ`{g{ÕdV²Ÿ&4/32Ÿ&
{d^y{V H$s àm{á hmoZo na ^r H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm (na_ nwéfmW©=Xw:I H$r nyU© {Zd¥{Îm)
Zht hmoVr, Š`m|{H$ Eoíd`© H$s {ÌJwUmË_H$Vm Ho$ H$maU Cg_| j` Am{X Xmof
Adí` hmoVo h¢Ÿ& Cnmñ` ~«÷m, {dîUw Am{X Xodm| H$s {g{Õ hmoZo na ^r CZH$s
H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm Zht hmoVrŸ&
AÜ`m` 5
_“bmMaU§ {eï>mMmamV² \$bXe©ZmV² lw{VVíMo{VŸ&5/1Ÿ&
emómaå^ _| _“bmMaU Ho$ 3 hoVw h¢-{eï>mMma, \$bXe©Z (_“bmMaU go J«ÝW-
g_m{á ê$n \$b `m {d¿Z-Üd§gê$n \$b) VWm lw{V H$m AmXoeŸ&
Zoídam{Y{Vð>Vo \$b{Zîn{Îm: H$_©Um VpËgÕo:Ÿ&5/2Ÿ&
H$_© \$b H$s {Zîn{Îm B©ída Ho$ A{Yð>mZ ê$n hoVw go Zht hmoVr, H$_© Ûmam hr
H$_©\$b àmá hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
ñdmonH$mamX{Yð>mZ§ bmoH$dV²Ÿ&5/3Ÿ&
B©ída Ho$ A{Yð>mZ go \$b {_bVm h¡, Eogm _mZZo go `h ^r _mZZm n‹S>Jo m {H$
CZ_| ñdmonH$ma (AnZo Ho$ {b`o Hw$N> H$aZo H$s BÀN>m) H$s _Zmod{¥ Îm h¡Ÿ& bmoH$ _| ^r
AnZr ^bmB© Ho$ {b`o hr H$moB© {H$gr H$m gÄMmbZ, {Z`_Z Am{X H$aVm h¡Ÿ&
276 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
bm¡{H$Ho$ídad{XVaWmŸ&5/4Ÿ&
B©ída H$m CnH$ma _mZZo na do bm¡{H$Ho$ída (e{º$_mZ² g§gmar ì`{º$) Ho$ O¡go hr
{gÕ hm|Jo (B©ída _| {Z:g‘>ënVm, AmáH$m_Vm Am{X JwUm| H$s A{g{Õ hmoJr)Ÿ&
nm[a^m{fH$mo dmŸ&5/5Ÿ&
`{X bm¡{H$Ho$ída O¡gm hr B©ída H$mo _mZm Om`, Vmo dh ‘B©ída’ à{VdmXr H$m
EH$ nm[a^m{fH$ nXmW© hmoJmŸ&
Z amJmÑVo VpËg{Õ: à{V{Z`VH$maUËdmV²Ÿ&5/6Ÿ&
\$b {g{Õ _| A{Yð>mZ ê$n go gmjmV² hoVw dhr MoVZ Ord hmo gH$Vm h¡, {OgH$mo
VXZwê$n amJ hmo (Š`m|{H$ amJ hr àd¥{Îm H$m hoVw h¡)Ÿ& B©ída _| H$moB© amJ Zht h¡Ÿ&
VÚmoJ@o {n Z {ZË`_wº$:Ÿ&5/7Ÿ&
B©ída _| amJ hmoZo na dh {ZË`_wº$ Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
àYmZe{º$`moJmÀMoV² g“mn{Îm:Ÿ&5/8Ÿ&
`{X àYmZ H$s BÀN>m Am{X e{º$`m| H$mo hr B©ída H$s B©ídaVm _mZ| Vmo B©ída _|
g§J _mZZm n‹S>oJmŸ&
gÎmm_mÌmÀMoV² gd£íd`©_Ÿ² &5/9Ÿ&
`{X àH¥${V Ho$ g{ÞYmZ _mÌ go MoVZ H$m Eoíd`© _mZ|, Vmo g^r AmË_m Eoíd`©dmZ²
hmo Om`|Jo Š`m|{H$ g^r ^moº$mAm| Ho$ gmW g§`moJ H$o H$maU hr àH¥${V go _hV² Am{X
CËnÞ hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
à_mUm^mdmÞ VpËg{Õ:Ÿ&5/10Ÿ&
dñVwV: {ZË` B©ída H$s gÎmm _| H$moB© à_mU Zht h¡Ÿ&
gå~ÝY^mdmÞmZw _mZ_²Ÿ&5/11Ÿ&
g¥{ï>{H«$`m Ho$ gmW {ZË`_wº$ B©ída H$m H$moB© Eogm gå~ÝY Zht h¡ {Oggo OJV² H$s
CËn{Îm go B©ída H$s gÎmm H$m AZw_mZ {H$`m Om`Ÿ&
lw{Va{n àYmZH$m`©Ëdñ`Ÿ&5/12Ÿ&
àYmZ (3 JwU) hr Bg ànÄM (OJV²) H$m CnmXmZ h¡-Eogr lw{V h¡Ÿ&
Zm{dÚme{º$`moJmo {Z:g“ñ`Ÿ&5/13Ÿ&
{ZJw©U MoVZ nwéf ñd^mdV: Ag§J h¡, AV: A{dÚmê$n e{º$ Ho$ gmW nwéf H$m
gmjmV² `moJ Zht hmoVmŸ&(gyÌ 1/20Ÿ)&
VÚmoJo VpËgÕmdÝ`mo@Ý`ml`Ëd_²Ÿ&5/14Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 277
A{dÚm H$m `moJ ^r A{dÚmde hmoVm h¡,Eogm H$hZo go AÝ`moÝ`ml` Xmof hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Z ~rOm‘x>adV² gm{Xg§gmalwV:o Ÿ&5/15Ÿ&
~rOm‘x>a-Ý`m` Zo Bg Xmof H$m g_mYmZ Zht hmo gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ A{dÚm Am{X
ê$n g§gma H$m Amaå^ h¡Ÿ& àb` Am¡a gwfw{á _| My§{H$ BZH$m A^md hmoVm h¡, AV:
BZ g~H$s nwZ: ZyVZ g¥{ï> _mZZr n‹S>Vr h¡Ÿ&
{dÚmVmo@Ý`Ëdo ~« ÷~mY àgºo$:Ÿ&5/16Ÿ&
`{X A{dÚm H$m AW© {dÚm go AÝ` h¡ Vmo ~«÷-~mY (~«÷ A{gÕ ) hmoJmŸ&
A{dÚm H$m {Og àH$ma kmZ go Zme hmoVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma {dÚm{^Þ ~«÷ H$m
Zme `m ~mY ^r hmoJmŸ&
A~mYo Z¡î\$ë`_²Ÿ&5/17Ÿ&
`{X {dÚm go A{dÚm H$m Zme Zht _mZm Om` Vmo ~«÷{dÚm H$s {d\$bVm hmoJrŸ&
{dÚm~mÜ`Ëdo OJVmo@ß`od_²Ÿ&5/18Ÿ&
`{X MoVZ _| Omo ~m{YV hmoVm h¡ Cgr H$mo A{dÚm _mZm Om`, Vmo OJV² ^r
A{dÚmê$n hr hmoJm VWm EH$ ì`{º$ H$o A{dÚm H$m Zme hmoZo na gånyU© ànÄM
hr AÑí` hmo Om`JmŸ&
VÐÿnËdo gm{XËd_²Ÿ&5/19Ÿ&
`{X {dÚm H$m ~mY hr A{dÚm _mZm Om` Vmo {dÚm H$m Am{XËd _mZZm n‹S>Jo mŸ&
àb` _| nwéf {MÝ_mÌ ê$n ahVm h¡, AV: {MÎmJV A{dÚm Zht ahVrŸ& nwZ: gJ©
Amaå^ hmoZo na Ag§gmar nwéf H$m ñdVÝÌ {ZË` àYm ZHo$ gmW `moJ hmoZo na
~ÝY hmoVm h¡Ÿ& Bg àYmZ g§`moJ H$m {Z{_Îm h¡-àmJ²^d A{ddoH$Ÿ&
Z Y_m©nbmn: àH¥${V H$m`© d¡{MÍ`mV²Ÿ&5/20Ÿ&
àH¥${V Ho$ H$m`m] H$s Omo {d{MÌVm h¡, Cg_| AàË`j Y_© H$m AZw_mZ hmoVm
h¡Ÿ&(AÑï> ê$n Y_© Ho$ H$maU hr `h {d{MÌVm hmoVr h¡Ÿ)&
lw{V{b“m{X{^ñVpËg{Õ:Ÿ&5/21Ÿ&
lw{V, {d{Yê$n {b“ VWm `mo{JàË`j Am{X go Y_© H$s {g{Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
Z {Z`_: à_mUmÝVamdH$memV²Ÿ&5/22Ÿ&
àË`j à_mU Z ahZo go hr Y_© H$m ApñVËd{gÕ Zht hmoVm, `h H$hZm R>rH$ Zht
h¡Ÿ& AÝ` à_mU(AZw_mZ Am{X) go ^r AàË`j Y_© H$s {g{Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
C^`Ìmß`od_²Ÿ&5/23Ÿ&
278 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
{Og àH$ma Ho$ à_mU go Y_© H$s {g{Õ hmoVr h¡, Cgr àH$ma Ho$ à_mU go AY_© H$s
{g{Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
AWm©V² {g{ÕíMoV² g_mZ_w^`mo:Ÿ&5/24Ÿ&
{d{YdmŠ` H$mo XoIH$a AWm©n{Îm à_mU go Y_© H$s {g{Õ hmoVr h¡, na AY_© H$s
{g{Õ Zht hmoVr-`h H$hZm R>rH$ Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ emó Ho$ {ZfoY dmŠ`m| go AY_©
H$s {g{Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ(Cgo _Zm [H$`m J`m h¡)&
AÝV:H$aUY_©Ëd§ Y_m©XrZm_²Ÿ&5/25Ÿ&
Y_©, AY_© Am{X AÝV:H$aU Ho$ Y_© h¢ (d¡e{o fH$Xe©Z _| BÝh| AmË_m H$m {deof
JwU _mZm OmVm h¡)Ÿ& àb` _| ^r Bg AÝV:H$aU H$m nyU© Zme Zht hmoVmŸ&
H$maUmdñW AÝV:H$aU _| Y_© Am{X H$m g§ñH$ma ahVm h¡Ÿ&
JwUmXrZm§ (M) ZmË`ÝV ~mY:Ÿ&5/26Ÿ&
gÎd Am{X VrZ JwU Am¡a CZHo$ Y_©^Vy gwI-Xw:I-_moh ñd`§ ~mY Zht hmoV,o
`Ú{n MoVZ _| BgH$m ~mY hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
nÄMmd`d`moJmV² gwIg§{d{Îm:Ÿ&5/27Ÿ&
(Ý`m` emó H$o) 5 Ad`dm| go gwI H$m g§dXo Z {gÕ {H$`m Om gH$Vm h¡, `Wm AW©
{H«$`m H$mar nXmW© gV² hmoVm h¡, gwI, nwbH$ Am{X ê$n ^r AW© {H«$`m H$mar h¢,
AV: dh gV² h¡Ÿ&
Z gH¥$X² J«hUmV² gå~ÝY {g{Õ:Ÿ&5/28Ÿ&
EH$ ~ma gmW XrIZo go {H$Ýht Xmo nXmWm] H$m gå~ÝY {gÕ Zht hmoVmŸ&
{Z`VY_©gm{hË`_w^`moaHo $Vañ` dm ì`m{á:Ÿ&5/29Ÿ&
EH$ nXmW© AÝ` Ho$ gmW `m C^` H$m C^` Ho$ gmW {ZË` ahZm ì`m{á H$hbmVm
h¡Ÿ& gmÜ` Ho$ gmW gmYZ H$m gå~ÝY ì`m{á h¡Ÿ& C^` H$m gmW hmoZm g_ ì`m{á
_| hmoVm h¡, O¡go OÝ`Vm Am¡a A{ZË`Vm _|Ÿ&
Z VÎdmÝVa§ dñVwH$ënZmàgºo$:Ÿ&5/30Ÿ&
dh Aì`{^M[aV$gå~ÝY ê$n ì`m{á H$moB© AbJ VÎd Zht h¡, gmW ahZm CZH$m
{Z`V Y_© h¡Ÿ& Eogm Zht _mZZo na CgHm$ AmYmaê$n AÝ` VÎd _mZZm hmoJmŸ&
{ZOeŠË`wX^ ² d{_Ë`Mm`m©:Ÿ&5/31Ÿ&
Hw$N> AmMm`m} Ho$ _V go ì`mßV dñVw H$s e{º$ go ì`m{á hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
AmYo` e{º$ `moJ B{V nÄ M{eI:Ÿ&5/32Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 279
nÄM{eI Ho$ _V go AmYo` e{º$ H$m Zm_ ì`m{á h¡Ÿ& AmYo` e{º$`moJ H$m AW© h¡-
ì`má hmoZo H$m {ZíM`-O¡go Yy_ ñd^md go hr A{¾ H$m ghMa h¡Ÿ& AmYo`=AmYma
_| ahZo dmbm, `hm§ Yy_Ÿ&
Z ñdê$ne{º${Z`_: nwZdm©Xàgºo$:Ÿ&5/33Ÿ&
ì`má H$s ñdê$n e{º$ hr {Z`_ (ì`m{á) h¡-Eogm H$hZm nwZé{º$ _mÌ h¡Ÿ&
{deofUmZW©Š`àgºo$:Ÿ&5/34Ÿ&
(nyd© gyÌ H$m) nwZé{º$ {deofU H$s ì`W©Vm ê$n h¡Ÿ&
nëbdm{dîdZwnnÎmo:(M)Ÿ&5/35Ÿ&
ñdê$n e{º$dmX _mZZm R>rH$ Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ nëbd (d¥j emIm) _| d¥j ì`má
h¡Ÿ& AV: Qy>Q>o nëbd _| ^r d¥j H$m ~moY hmoZm Mm{h`o, na Eogm Zht hmoVmŸ&
AmYo`e{º${gÕm¡ {ZOe{º$`moJ: g_mZÝ`m`mV²Ÿ&5/36Ÿ&
32d| gyÌ _| AmYo`e{º$`moJ H$mo hr ì`m{ßV H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ& Bggo AnZr e{º$ Ho
CX²^d H$m ì`m{áËd ^r {gÕ hmoVm h¡, Š`m|{H$ XmoZm| njm| H$m EH$ hr VH©$ h¡Ÿ& {Og
`w{º$ go AmYo`e{º$ {gÕ hmoVr h¡, Cgr go AnZr e{º$ H$m CX²^d ^r {gÕ h¡Ÿ&
dmÀ`mdmMH$(^md:) gå~ÝY: eãXmW©`mo:Ÿ&5/37Ÿ&
eãX Am¡a AW© H$m dmÀ`-dmMH$ gå~ÝY h¡, eãX _| dmMH$Vm e{º$ h¡, AW© _|
dmÀ`Vm e{º$ h¡Ÿ&
{Ì{^: gå~ÝY{g{Õ:Ÿ(Õo:)&5/38Ÿ&
Bg gå~ÝY H$m kmZ VrZ àH$ma go {gÕ hmoVm h¡-(1) AmámonXoe, (2)
d¥Õì`dhmanaånam, (3) à{gÕ nX H$m g_mZm{YH$aUŸ&
Z H$m`} {Z`_ C^`Wm Xe©ZmV²Ÿ&5/39Ÿ&
e{º$J«h H$m`© (gmÜ`) AW© _| hr hmoVm h¡, Eogr ~mV ZhtŸ& gmÜ` Am¡a {g{Õ BZ
XmoZm| _| e{º$ {gÕ h¡Ÿ& Bg Ñ{ï> go {gÕmW© ~moYH$ doXdmŠ` H$m àm_mÊ` _mZm
OmVm h¡Ÿ&
bmoH$o ì`wËnÞñ` doXmW©àVr{V:Ÿ&5/40Ÿ&
bm¡{H$H$ eãX _| Omo ì`wËnÞ h¡, CgH$mo doXmW© H$s àVr{V hmoVr h¡, Š`m|{H$ Omo
bm¡{H$H$ eãX h¡, dhr d¡{XH$ eãX h¡Ÿ&
Z {Ì{^anm¡éfo`ËdÛoXñ` VXW©ñ`mVrpÝÐ`ËdmV²Ÿ&5/41Ÿ&
(e§H$m) doX Anm¡éfo` h¡ (doX H$m H$moB© àW_ aM{`Vm Zht h¡) VWm doXmW© AVrpÝÐ`
280 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
h¡, AV: 3/38 gyÌmoº$ VrZ Cnm`m| go e{º$J«h moZo H$s gå^mdZm Zht h¡Ÿ&
Z `kmXo: ñdê$nVmo Y_©Ëd§ d¡{eîQ>çmV²Ÿ&5/42Ÿ&
(CÎma) doX _| Cº$ Ðì`Ë`mJ Am{X `k AVrpÝÐ` Zht h¢Ÿ& do \$bOZH$ hmoZo Ho$
H$maU H$_© h¢Ÿ& `k go CËnÞ Anyd© Y_© Zht h¡, Y_© go AbJ h¡Ÿ& `mJ Am{X BÀN>m
go hmoVo h¢, AV: do Abm¡{H$H$, Anm¡éfo`, AVrpÝÐ` Zht h¢Ÿ&
{ZOe{º$ì`wË© nÎ`m ì`dpÀN>ÚVoŸ&5/43Ÿ&
doX Ho$ Anm¡éfo` hmoZo na ^r doX Ho$ eãXm| H$m AW© d¥Õnaånam Ûmam {eî` H$mo
ñnï> kmV hmoVr h¡, AV: Anm¡éfo` doX Ho$ AW©kmZ _| H$moB© ~mYm Zht h¡Ÿ&
`mo½`m`mo½`ofw àVr{VOZH$ËdmV² VpËg{ÕŸ&5/4Ÿ4&
gm_mÝ` Y_© H$o AZw^d go CgH$m àË`j VWm namoj AW© kmV hmoVo h¢Ÿ& `Wm Jmo
eãX go Jm` `m Jmo Om{V XmoZm| AW© hmo gH$Vo h¢Ÿ&
Z {ZË`Ëd§ doXmZm§ H$m`©ËdlwV:o Ÿ&5/45Ÿ&
My[§ {H$ doX _| hr H$hm J`m h¡ {H$ doX H$m {Z_m©U àOmn{V Ûmam {H$`m J`m h¡,
Bg{b`o doX {ZË` Zht h¢Ÿ&
Z nm¡éfo`Ëd§ VËH$Îmw:© nwéfñ`m^mdmV²Ÿ&5/46Ÿ&
{ZË` Z hmoZo na ^r doX nm¡éfo` Zht h¢, Š`m|{H$ doXH$Îmm© nwéf H$m à^md h¡(H$Îmm©
H$m ñ_aU naånam _| Z ahZo Ho$ H$maU)Ÿ& B©ída à{V{gÕ h¡, AV: B©ída H$mo
doXH$Îmm© Zht _mZ gH$VoŸ&
_wº$m_wº$`moa`mo½`ËdmV²Ÿ&5/47Ÿ&
_wº$ nwéf gd©Wm drVamJ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU doX H$m àUoVm Zht hmo gH$VmŸ& ~Õ nwéf
^r H$Îmm© Zht hmo gH$Vm Š`m|{H$ Cgo doX Ho$ gyú_ {df`m| H$m kmZ Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
Zmnm¡éfo`Ëdm{ÞË`Ëd_‘x>am{XdV²Ÿ&5/48Ÿ&
{Og àHma A‘x>a Am{X Anm¡éfo` hmoZo na ^r {ZË` Zht h¢, Cgr àH$ma doX
Anm¡éfo` hmoZo na ^r {ZË` Zht h¢Ÿ&
Vofm_{n VÚmoJo Ñï>~mYm{X àg{º$:Ÿ&5/49Ÿ&
A‘x>a My{§ H$ H$m`© h¡, AV: CgH$mo nm¡éfo` hr _mZZm Mm{h`oŸ-Eogm H$hZm R>rH$
Zht h¡Ÿ& Š`m|{H$ A‘x>a Ho$ gmW H$m`©Ëd H$m `moJ ~m{YV hr h¡Ÿ& A‘x>a Anm¡éfo`
hmoZo na ^r A{ZË` h¡Ÿ&
`pñ_ÞÑï>@o {n H¥$V~w{Õé nOm`Vo VËnm¡é fo`_²Ÿ& 5/50Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 281
nm¡éfo` dñVw Cgo H$hVo h¢, {OgHo$ H$Îmm© Ho$ AÑï> hmoZo na ^r dh ~w{Õ nydH© $
a{MV h¡, Eogm bJVm h¡Ÿ& doX ~w{Õnyd©H$ Zht h¡, AV: dh Anm¡éfo` h¡Ÿ&
{ZOeŠË`{^ì`ºo$: ñdV: à_mU_²Ÿ&5/51Ÿ&
doX H$s AnZr ñdm^m{dH$ kmZ XoZo H$s e{º$ go CgH$m ñdV: àm_mÊ` {gÕ hmoVm
h¡Ÿ& doX H$m àm_mÊ` dº$m H$mo `WmW© kmZ XoVm h¡Ÿ&
ZmgV: »`mZ§ Z¥ûm¥“dV²Ÿ&5/52Ÿ&
AgV² (A{dÚ_mZ) dñVw H$m kmZ Zht hmoVm, {Og àH$ma Zaûm¥“ H$m kmZ Zht
hmoVmŸ& grnr H$mo aOV g_PZm ^r nyU©V: AgV² Zht h¡,dh _Z H$m n[aUm_ h¡Ÿ&
Z gVmo ~mYXe©ZmV²Ÿ&5/53Ÿ&
{ÌJwU ê$n nam gV² nXmW© ^r à{VjU n[aUm_r h¡, AV: BgHo$ EH$ Y_© go AÝ`
Y_© H$m ~moY hmoVm h¡Ÿ& M¡VÝ` _| {ÌJwU H$m ~mY XoIm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
Zm{Zd©MZr`ñ` VX^mdmV²Ÿ&5/54Ÿ&
kmV nXmW© `m Vmo {dÚ_mZ (gV²) hmoJm `m A{dÚ_mZ (AgV²) hmoJmŸ& kmV dñVw
Hmo A{Zd©MZr` Zht H$h gH$VoŸ&
Zm@Ý`Wm»`m{V: ñddMmoì`mKmVmV²Ÿ&5/55Ÿ&
AÝ`Wm»`m{V (EH$ dñVw H$m AÝ` ê$n _| kmZ) g§JV Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ Eogm _mZZo
go AnZm hr _V IpÊS>V hmoVm h¡Ÿ& EH$ dñVw AÝ` dñVw Zht hmo gH$Vr, AV;
A{gÕ dñVw H$m ^r Am^mg Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
gXgV² »`m{V~m©Ym~mYmV²Ÿ&5/46Ÿ&
gXgV² »`m{VdmX (EH$ Ñ{ï> go gV² VWm AÝ` Ñ{ï> go AgV²) hr `wº$ h¡-Š`m|{H$
Bg Ñ{ï> H$m H$moB© ~mYH$ hoVw Zht h¡Ÿ& XyH$mZ _| aOV² gV² VWm CgHo$ O¡gm XrIVm
grnr AgV² h¡Ÿ& Bgr àH$ma A`ñH$ ^oX go gÎd AgÎd H$m {ZU©` hmo gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
àVrË`àVr{Vä`m§ Z ñ\$moQ>mË_H$: eãX:Ÿ&5/57Ÿ&
dmMH$ nX (eãX) ñ\$moQ> ({Oggo AW© ñnï> hmo) ê$n h¡, Üd{Z ê$n Zht h¡-Eogm
H$hZm Ag§JV h¡, Š`m|{H$ Üd{Z H$s hr àVr{V hmoVr h¡, ñ\$moQ>ê$n Üd{Z Ûmam
ì`pÄOV nXmW© H$s àVr{V Zht hmoVrŸ&
Z eãX{ZË`Ëd§ H$m`©VmàVrVo:Ÿ&5/58Ÿ&
dU©(H$ÊR> Vmbw Am{X go CËnÞ Üd{Z) {ZË` Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ dh H$m`© h¡- CgH$s
CËn{Îm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
282 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
nyd{© gÕgÎdñ`m{^ì`{º$Xu noZdo KQ>ñ`Ÿ&5/59Ÿ&
(e‘>$m) `{X H$hm Om` {H$ {ZË` {Zad`d àmH²${gÕ ñ\$moQ> (eãX) hr Üd{Z go
A{^ì`º$ hmoVm h¡, {Og àH$ma nyd{© gÕ AÝYH$ma Amd¥Îm KQ> Xrn go àH$Q> hmoVm
h¡, Z`m Zht ~ZVmŸ&
gËH$m`© {gÕmÝVíMoV² {gÕgmYZ_²Ÿ&5/60Ÿ&
(g_mYmZ) gËH$m`©dmX H$s Ñ{ï> go Eogm Zht hmo gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ Bg_| nhbo go
{gÕ Ho$ gmYZ H$m Xmof h¡Ÿ&
ZmÛ¡V_mË_Zmo {b“mV² VX²^Xo àVrVo:Ÿ&5/61Ÿ&
H$moB© AmË_m ~Õ h¡, H$moB© _wº$ h¡, AV: AmË_m EH$ Zht hmo gH$VmŸ& lw{VdmŠ` _|
Eogm {b“(~mø ê$n) h¡, {Oggo AË_mAm| _| nañna ^oX kmV hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Zm@ZmË_Zm{n àË`j~mYmV²Ÿ&5/62Ÿ&
AmË_m H$m Û¡V AZmË_dñVw (^moJ {df`) Ho$ H$maU Zht h¡Ÿ& ^mo½` Am¡a ^moº$m
AmË_m EH$ Zht hmo gH$VoŸ&
Zmo^mä`m§ VoZd¡ Ÿ&5/63Ÿ&
AmË_m Am¡a AZmË_ dñVw {~bH$wb {^Þ Zht hmo gH$Vo (nydm}º$ `w{º$ Ho$ H$maU)Ÿ&
AÝ` naËd_{ddoH$mZm§ VÌŸ&5/64Ÿ&
AÝ` àg§J _| emó _| AmË_Û¡V H$hmJ`m h¡Ÿ& A{ddoH$s ì`{º$ _| CnmgZm ~w{Õ
H$aZo Ho$ {b`o Bg àH$ma H$m AmË_Û¡V ~Vm`m J`m h¡Ÿ& eara-eara _| A{ddoH$ go
A^oX~w{Õ hmoVr h¡, Cg ~w{Õ H$mo _mZH$a lw{V _| AmË_m^oX nydH© $ CnmgZm H$m
dU©Z h¡Ÿ&
ZmË_m@{dÚm Zmo^` OJXwnmXmZH$maU§ {Z:g“ËdmV²Ÿ&5/65Ÿ&
Ho$db AmË_m `m Ho$db A{dÚm `m BZ XmoZm| Ho$ {_lU Ûmam OJV² Zht ~ZVm,
Š`m|{H$ Ho$db AmË_m {Z:g“-{ZJwU © -{ZY©_H© $ h¡Ÿ& (Ag“Vm Ho$ H$maU XmoZm|
H$m ñdm^m{dH$ `moJ Zht hmo gH$VmŸ& {ZJwU © Ëd Ho$ H$maU AmË_m CnmXmZ ^r Zht
hmo gH$Vm)Ÿ&
Z¡H$ñ`mZÝX{MÐÿnËdo Û`mo^X} mV²Ÿ&5/66Ÿ&
EH$ (AIÊS> AmË_m) Y_u H$m AmZÝX Am¡a {MV²-XmoZm| ê$n gå^d Zht h¡
Š`m|{H$ XmoZm| _| ^oX h¡Ÿ&
Xw:I{Zd¥ÎmoJm£U:Ÿ&5/67Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 283
{d_w{º$àe§gm _ÝXmZm_²Ÿ&5/68Ÿ&
Xw:I{Zd¥{Îm ê$n _| AmË_m H$s àe§gm H$aZo go A“mo§ H$s àd¥{Îm AmË_Ü`mZ H$s
Amoa hmoVr h¡, AV: Eogm Jm¡U à`moJ {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ&
Z ì`mnH$Ëd§ _Zg: H$aUËdm{XpÝÐ`ËdmÛm,dmñ`m{XdÀMjwam{XdÀMŸ&5/69Ÿ&
gm_mÝ` AÝV:H$aU Ho$ ê$n _| _Z ì`mnH$ Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ dh H$aU Am¡a BpÝÐ`
h¡Ÿ& V¥Vr` AÝV:H$aU ê$n Omo _Z h¡, dh {d^w Zht h¡Ÿ& dmñ` (Ka) EH$ hr ñWmZ
na h¡, O¡go eara _| pñWV _ZŸ&_Z H$s Vah Mjw ^r EH$ BpÝÐ` h¡ Omo EH$ hr h¡Ÿ&
g{H«$`ËdmX² J{VlwV:o Ÿ&5/70Ÿ&
AmË_m Ho$ AÝ` bmoH$ _| OmZo H$m AW© Cnm{Y^yV AÝV:H$aU H$s J{V h¡Ÿ& J{V
{H«$`m h¡, AV: AÝV:H$aU {d^w Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
Z {Z^m©JËd§ VÚmoJmX² KQ> (Am{X) dV²Ÿ&5/71Ÿ&
_Z {Z^m©J (Ad`dhrZ) Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ EH$ H$mb _| hr AZoH$ BpÝÐ`m| go
CgH$m `moJ ahVm h¡Ÿ& KQ> {Og àH$ma gr{_V n[a_mU H$m VWm Ad`d `wº$
h¡, d¡gm hr _Z ^r h¡Ÿ&
àH¥${Vnwéf`moaÝ`V² gd©_{ZË`_²Ÿ&5/72Ÿ&
àH¥${V, nwéf Ho$ A{V[aº$ g^r ì`º$ nXmW© A{ZË` h¢Ÿ&
Z ^mJ bm^mo ^m{JZmo {Z^m©JËdlwV:o Ÿ&5/73Ÿ&
àH¥${V nwéf H$m H$moB© Ad`d Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ lw{V _§o BÝh| {Zad`d H$hm J`m h¡Ÿ&
ZmZÝXm{^ì`{º$_w© {º${Z©Y_© (© H$) ËdmV²Ÿ&5/74Ÿ&
nwéf H$m H$moB© Y_© (bjU) Zht h¡, AV: AmZÝXê$n Y_© H$s A{^ì`{º$ H$mo
_w{º$ Zht H$h $gH$VoŸ&
Z {deofJwUmopÀN>{ÎmñVÛV²Ÿ&5/75Ÿ&
AmË_m Ho$ AgmYmaU JwUm| H$m CÀN>Xo ^r _w{º$ Zht H$h gH$Vo, Š`m|{H$ AmË_m
_| ñdê$nJV H$moB© JwU(Y_©) Zht h¡Ÿ&
Z {deofJ{V{Z©pîH«$`ñ`Ÿ&5/76Ÿ&
{deof J{V (~«÷ Am{X bmoH$m| _| J{V `m àH¥${Vb`) ^r _moj Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$
J{V O‹S> àH¥${V H$r hmoVr h¡, {ZpîH«$` AmË_m H$s ZhtŸ&
ZmH$mamonamJmopÀN>{Îm: j{UH$Ëdm{XXmofmV²Ÿ&5/77Ÿ&
j{UH$ {dkmZ ê$n AmË_m Ho$ {df` g§ñH$ma H$m Zme _mÌ _moj Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$
284 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
Bg _V _| j{UH$Ëd Am{X Xmof hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
Z gdm}pÀN>{ÎmanwéfmW©Ëdm{XXmofmV²Ÿ&5/78Ÿ&
kmZê$n AmË_m H$m nyU© CÀN>Xo _moj Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ Bg _| AnwéfmW©Ëd Xmof h¡Ÿ&
Ed§ eyÝ`_{nŸ&5/79Ÿ&
(nyd© `w{º$ go) A^mdê$nr eyÝ` AdñWm ^r _moj Zht h¡Ÿ (AmË_Zmeê$n A^md
na_ nwéfmW© Zht hmo gH$VmŸ)&
g§`moJmíM {d`moJmÝVm B{V Z Xoem{Xbm^mo@{nŸ&5/80Ÿ&
g§`moJ hmoZo g o{d`moJ ^r hmoVm h¡, AV Xoe Am{X H$s àm{á {deof h¡, {ZË` _moj
Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
Z ^m{J`moJmo @^mJñ`Ÿ&5/81Ÿ&
Ord A§e h¡Ÿ& dh A§er B©ída _| brZ hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ& AnZm b` nwéfmW© Zht hmo
gH$Vm VWm `h g§`moJ h¡, AV: {d`moJ ^r hmoJmŸ&
Zm@{U_m{X`moJmo@ß`dí`å^m{dËdmV² VXwpÀN>Îmo[aVa{d`moJdV²Ÿ&5/82Ÿ&
A{U_m, _{h_m Am{X {d^y{V H$s àm{á ^r _moj Zht h¡Ÿ& {d^y{V {ÌJwU go
CËnÞ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU CgH$m CÀN>Xo hmoZm Adí`å^mdr h¡Ÿ& AÝ` àH$ma H$m g§`moJ
O¡go Zï> hmo OmVm h¡, {d^y{V g§`moJ ^r d¡go hr Zï> hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ&
ZoÝÐm{XnX`moJmo@{n VÛV²Ÿ&5/83Ÿ&
BÝÐm{X nXm| H$s àm{á ^r _moj Zht h¡, `o Eoíd`© _mÌ h¢, AV: Zída h¢Ÿ&
Z ^yVàH¥${VËd{_pÝÐ`mUm_mh‘>m[aH$ËdlwV:o Ÿ&5/84Ÿ&
B{ÝÐ`m| H$s àH¥${V (CnmXmZ H$maU$) nÄM^yV Zht hmo gH$Vr Š`m|{H$ lw{V _|
H$hm J`m h¡ {H$ BpÝÐ`m| H$m CnmXmZ Ah‘>ma h¡Ÿ&
Z fQ²> nXmW©{Z`_ñVX²~moYmÝ_w{º$:Ÿ&5/85Ÿ&
d¡e{o fH$ gå_V Ðì`, JwU, H$_© Am{X 6 nXmW© h¢Ÿ& na BZHo$ ~moY go _w{º$ Zht
hmoVrŸ&
fmoS>em{Xîdß`od_²Ÿ&5/86Ÿ&
Ý`m` emó Ho$ 16 nXmWm] (à_mU, à_o` Am{X) Ho$ kmZ go ^r _w{º$ Zht hmoVrŸ&
nmewnV emó H$m ^r _w{º$-gå~ÝYr _V ^r Bgr àH$ma IpÊS>V hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
ZmUw{ZË`Vm VËH$m`©ËdlwV:o Ÿ&5/87Ÿ&
Ý`m`-d¡e{o fH$ gå_V AUw {ZË` Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ lw{V _| Cgo H$m`© H$hm h¡Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 285
Z (VX²){Z^m©JËd§ H$m`©ËdmV²Ÿ&5/88Ÿ&
AUw (na_mUw) H$mo {Zad`d _mZm OmVm h¡, na dh H$m`© hmoZo H$o H$maU Cg_|
Ad`d Adí` hmoJmŸ&
Z ê$n {Z~ÝYZmV² àË`j(Ëd) {Z`_:Ÿ&5/89Ÿ&
Eogm H$moB© {Z`_ Zht h¡ {H$ ê$n Ûmam hr àË`j hmo, CgH$m ~mhar Y_© Am{X Ûmam
^r gmjmËH$ma hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Z n[a_mUMmVw{d©Ü`§ Ûmä`m§ VÚmoJmV²Ÿ&5/90Ÿ&
AUw, _hV², õñd, XrK©-BZ 4 H$mo hr n[a_mU H$hZm AZmdí`H$ h¡Ÿ& AUw Am¡a
_hV²-BZ Xmo _| ^r ~mH$s Xmo H$mo ^r {JZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
A{ZË`Ëdo@{n pñWaVm`moJmV² àË`{^kmZ§ gm_mÝ`ñ`Ÿ&5/91Ÿ&
ì`{º$$ ApñWa hmoZo na ^r CgH$m Omo Am^mg (àË`{^km) hmoVm h¡, dh gm_mÝ`
H$s gÎmm Ho$ H$maU hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Z VXnbmnñVñ_mV²Ÿ&5/92Ÿ&
àË`{^km hmoZo Ho$ H$maU gm_mÝ` H$m Anbmn Zht {H$`m Om gH$VmŸ& AZoH$
dñVwAm| _| EH$ JwU hmoZo Ho$ H$maU Omo EH$Vm XrIVr h¡, Cgo gm_mÝ` H$hVo h¢Ÿ&
ZmÝ`{Zd¥{Îmê$nËd§ ^mdàVrVo:Ÿ&5/93Ÿ&
gm_mÝ` AÝ`-{Zd¥{Îm ê$n Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ ^mdê$n _| CgH$m ~moY hmoVm h¡Ÿ& `hr
H$maU h¡ {H$ -`h AKQ> Zht h¡- Eogm ~moY Zht hmoVmŸ&
Z VÎdmÝVa§ gmÑí`§ àË`jmonbãYo:Ÿ&5/94Ÿ&
AZoH$ Ad`dm| _| Omo g_mZVm àË`j XrIVr h¡, Cgo gmÑí` H$hVo h¢Ÿ& dh H$moB©
AbJ VÎd Zht h¡, Ad`dm| H$s g_mZVm _mÌ h¡Ÿ&
{ZOeŠË`m{^ì`{º$dm© d¡{eîQ>çmV² VXwnbãYo:Ÿ&5/95Ÿ&
AnZr e{º$ àH$Q> H$aZm ^r gmÑí` Zht h¡, gmÑí` Cggo {dbjU h¡Ÿ&
Z g§kmg§{kgå~ÝYmo@{nŸ&5/96Ÿ&
g§km (Zm_) Am¡a g§kr (Zm_ dmÀ` AW©) H$m gå~ÝY ^r gmÑí` Zht h¡Ÿ& Omo
g§km-g§{k-gå~ÝY H$mo Zht OmZVm h¡, Cgo ^r gmÑí` H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Z gå~ÝY{ZË`Vmo^`m{ZË`ËdmV²Ÿ&5/97Ÿ&
eãX Am¡a AW© H$m gå~ÝY {ZË` Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ g§km-g§kr XmoZm| A{ZË` h¢Ÿ&
ZmV:(O:) gå~ÝYmo Y{_©Jm« hH$ _mZ(à_mU) ~mYmV²Ÿ&5/98Ÿ&
286 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
gå~ÝY-J«mhH$ à_mU Ho$ {damoY Ho$ H$maU gå~ÝY H$mo {ZË` Zht _mZ gH$VoŸ&
Z g_dm`mo@pñV à_mUm^mdmV²Ÿ&5/99Ÿ&
Ý`m`-d¡e{o fH$ _| Ad`d-Ad`dr, JwU-JwUr Am{X _| {ZË` gå~ÝY H$mo g_dm`
gå~ÝY H$hVo h¢Ÿ& BgH$s gÎmm H$m à_mU Zht hmoZo Ho$ H$maU g_dm` ^r {ZË`
gå~ÝY Zht h¡Ÿ&
C^`Ìmß`Ý`Wm{gÕoZ© àË`j_Zw_mZo (Z§) dmŸ&5/100Ÿ&
{d{eï> JwU XrIZo `m AZw_mZ go g_dm` {gÕ Zht hmoVmŸ& ñdê$n gå~ÝY go hr
Bgo {gÕ {H$`m Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
ZmZw_`o Ëd_od {H«$`m`m Zo{XîR>>ñ` VÎmÛVmoado mnamojàVrVo:Ÿ&5/101Ÿ&
{H«$`m {g\©$ AZw_o` Zht hmoVr, CgH$m àË`j ^r hmoVm h¡Ÿ& {H«$`m VWm CgH$m
AmYma-XmoZm| {ZH$Q> Ho$ ì`{º$ H$mo àË`j kmV hmoVo h¢Ÿ&
Z nmÄM^m¡{VH$ eara§ ~hy Zm_wnmXmZm`moJmV²Ÿ&5/102Ÿ&
ñWyb eara nÄM^yV {Z{_©V Zht hmo gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ AZoH$ {dOmVr` Ðì` EH$
dñVw H$m CnmXmZ Zht hmo gH$VoŸ& AV: n¥{Wdr H$mo hr ñWyb eara H$m CnmXmZ
_mZ gH$Vo h¢, ~mH$s An² Am{X ^yV Cnï>å^H$(ghm`H$) ê$n _| ahVo h¢Ÿ&
Z ñWyb{_{V {Z`_ Am{Vdm{hH$ñ`m{n {dÚ_mZËdmV²Ÿ&5/103Ÿ&
ñWyb eara Ho$ A{V[aº$ AÝ` eara ^r lw{V VWm `w{º$ go {gÕ h¢, O¡go A{Vdm{hH$
earaŸ&
ZmàmáàH$meH$Ëd{_pÝÐ`mUm_àmáo: gd©àmáodm©Ÿ&5/104Ÿ&
{df` go gå~Õ hmoZo na hr BpÝÐ`m§ Cgo àH$m{eV H$aVr h¢, do Aàmá H$mo àH$m{eV
Zht H$a gH$VtŸ& `{X dh Aàmá H$mo àH$m{eV H$aVt Vmo gXm Xya VWm ì`d{hV
dñVw H$mo àH$Q> H$aVtŸ& BpÝÐ`m§ JmobH$ Ho$ A{V[aº$ h¢Ÿ& àH$meH$Ëd H$m AW© h¡
nwéf _| AW© g_n©U `m {df`m| H$m à{V{~å~ J«hUŸ&
Z VoOmo@ngn©UmV² V¡Og§ Mjwd©¥ {ÎmVñVpËgÕo:Ÿ&5/105Ÿ&
VoO nXmW© Ho$ Angn©U H$mo XoIH$a Mjw BpÝÐ` H$mo V¡Og Zht g_PZm Mm{h`oŸ&
àmU Hr$ gÄMaUerb d¥{Îm H$s Vah Mjw Xoh _| ahH$a ^r XyañW gy`© Am{X Ho$ à{V
AngaU(AZw^d) H$a gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
àmámW©àH$me{b“mX² d¥{Îm {g{Õ:Ÿ&5/106Ÿ&
àmá (gå~Õ) dñVw H$mo àH$m{eV H$aZo go Mjw Hr$ nydm}º$ d¥{Îm {gÕ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 287
^mJJwUmä`m§ VÎdmÝVa§ d¥{Îm: gå~ÝYmWª gn©Vr{VŸ&5/107Ÿ&
d¥{Îm Z BpÝÐ`m| H$m A§e h¡ Z »`{V H$s Vah JwU h¡Ÿ& d¥{Îm BpÝÐ` H$m n[aUm_
h¡, AV: Cgr _| pñWV h¡Ÿ& dh gå~Õ {df` H$s Va\$ OmVm h¡ Am¡a {df` _| {bá
hmoVm h¡Ÿ& d¥{Îm àgn©U-{H«$`m-`mo{JZr h¡ VWm dh Ðì`ê$n h¡Ÿ&
Z Ðì`(ì`o) {Z`_ñVÚmoJmV²Ÿ&5/108Ÿ&
d¥{Îm H$m AW© {g\©$ Ðì` Zht hmoVmŸ& AmOr{dH$m H$_© ^r d¥{Îm h¢ & d¥{Îm`m| go
{MÎm ì`º$ hmoVm h¡, AV: dh d¥{Îm H$hbmVm h¡Ÿ&
Z Xoe^oX@o ß`Ý`monmXmZVm@ñ_Xm{Xd{Þ`_:Ÿ&5/109Ÿ&
`Ú{nbmoH$ VWm àmUr(VWm CZH$s BpÝÐ`m§){dbjU àH$ma Ho$h¢,VWm{n CZ g^r
H$m CnmXmZ EH$ Apñ_Vm hr h¡, n¥{Wdr Am{X ^yV BpÝÐ`m| Ho$ CnmXmZ Zht h¢Ÿ&
{Z{_Îm ì`nXoemÎmX² ì`nXoe:Ÿ&5/110Ÿ&
Mjw Am{X BpÝÐ`m§ Ah‘>ma go hr hmoVr h¢,(VoO Am{X)^yV CgHo$ {Z{_Îm_mÌ h¢Ÿ&
D$î_OmÊS>OOam`wOmo{X²^ÁOgm‘>pënH$gm§{g{ÕH§$ Mo{V Z {Z`_:Ÿ&5/111Ÿ&
D$î_O (XÝXeyH$ Am{X), AÊS>O (njr-gn© Am{X), Oam`wO (_Zwî` Am{X),
C{X²^ÁO(d¥j Am{X), g‘>ënO (gZH$ Am{X) Am¡a gm§{g{ÕH$ (_ÝÌ, Vn,
Am{X {g{Õ OmV) eara A{gÕ h¢, BZHo$ {dbjU eara ^r hmo gH$Vo h¢Ÿ&
gd}fw n¥{Wì`wnmXmZ_gmYmaÊ`mV² VX²>ì`nXoe: nydd© V²Ÿ&5/112Ÿ&
g^r àH$ma Ho$ earam| _| n¥{Wdr hr CnmXmZ h¡ Š`m|{H$ dhr AgmYmaU ê$n go
Cg_| ahVr h¡Ÿ& AÝ` ^yVm| H$m g_mdoe Cnï>å^ ê$n go h¡Ÿ&
Z Xohmaå^H$ñ` àmUËd{_pÝÐ`e{º$VñVpËgÕo:Ÿ&5/113Ÿ&
Xoh Ho$ Amaå^H$ VÎd H$U©d¥{Îmê$n àmU Zht h¢Ÿ& àmU BpÝÐ` e{º$ go CËnÞ h¡Ÿ&
^moº$w a{Yð>mZmX²^moJm`VZ{Z_m©U_Ý`Wm ny{V^mdàg“mV²Ÿ(àgºo$:)5/114Ÿ&
àmUr ê$n ^moº$m nwéf Ho$ A{Yð>mZ go ^moJm`VZ (gwI-Xw:I ê$n ^moJ {OgHo$
ahZo go hmoVm h¡-eara) H$m {Z_m©U hmoVm h¡Ÿ& àmUr H$m A{Yð>mZ `{X Z hmo Vmo J^©
_| ewH«$-emo{UV Am{X g‹S> OmVo h¡§ (ny{V^md)Ÿ&
^¥Ë`Ûmam ñdmå`{Y{ð>[VZ£ H$mÝVmV²Ÿ&5/115Ÿ&
Xoh {Z_m©U _| ñdm_r nwéf ê$n {ZJw©U MoVZ H$mo H$moB© `moJ Zht h¡Ÿ& dh àmU H$m
_w»` H$m`© h¡Ÿ& nwéf àmU-gh`moJ Ûmam hr A{Yð>mVm h¡Ÿ&
g_m{Y gwf{w á_mojfo w ~«÷ê$nVmŸ&5/116Ÿ&
288 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
gwfwpßV, g_m{Y (AgåàkmV) Ed§ _moj-BZ VrZ AdñWmAm| _| nwéf nyar Vah
AnZo _yb ê$n _| ahVm h¡Ÿ& Eogr pñW{V ~«÷ê$nVm H$hbmVr h¡Ÿ&
Û`mo: g~rO_Ý`-Ì (ñ`) VÕ{V:Ÿ&5/117Ÿ&
g_m{Y Am¡a gwf{w á AdñWm _| ~«÷ê$n nwéf gOrd AWm©V² ~ÝY-OrdZ g{hV
ahVm h¡, na _mojmdñWm _| Cg ~rO H$m A^md hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ& gwf{w á-g_m{Y _|
~ÝY~rO ê$n H$_© Am{X Cnm{Y _| hr ahVo h¢Ÿ&
Û`moa{n Ì`ñ`m{n ÑîQËdmÞ Vw Ûm¡Ÿ&5/118Ÿ&
{Og àH$ma g_m{Y Am¡a gwf{w áê$n Xmo AdñWm`o§ h¢, Cgr àH$ma _mojê$n V¥Vr` ^r
h¡Ÿ& `w{º$ Am¡a emó go _moj à_m{UV hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
dmgZ`m Z ñdmW© »`mnZ§ Xmof `moJ@o {n, Z {Z{_Îmñ` àYmZ ~mYH$Ëd_²Ÿ&5/
119Ÿ&
gwfw{áH$mb _| g§gma H$s à~b dmgZm ahVr h¡, na dh V_ go {N>nr ahVr h¡,
AV: dh dmgZm {df` H$m ñ_aU Zht {XbmVrŸ& àm`: ~br AdñWm _| {df`-
dmgZm Hw$pÊR>V ahVr h¡Ÿ&
EH$: g§ñH$ma: {H«$`m {Zd©VH© $mo Z Vw à{V{H«$`§ g§ñH$ma ^oXm ~hþ H$ënZm àgºo$:Ÿ&
5/120Ÿ&
{Og g§ñH$ma go eara ^moJ Amaå^ hþAm h¡, Cgr go àmaãY ^moJ g_má ^r hmoVm
h¡Ÿ& ^moJ g_m{á go g§ñH$ma H$m Zme hmoVm h¡Ÿ& àË`oH$ ^moJ{H«$`m go g§ñH$ma H$m
ZmZmËd Zht hmoVmŸ& Hw$bmbMH«$ ^«_U _| EH$ hr doJê$n g§ñH$ma g_m{á n`©ÝV
ñWm`r ahVm h¡Ÿ&
Z ~mø~w{Õ{Z`_mo({dH$ën go n¥WH²$ gyÌ 5/121) d¥j Jwë_ bVm¡f{Y dZñn{V
V¥U dréYmXrZm_{n ^moº$¥ ^moJm`VZËd§ nydd© V²Ÿ&5/121Ÿ&(122)
g^r Ordm| _| ~mø{df`H$ kmZ Zht hmoVm, O¡go d¥j, Jwë_, bVm, Am¡f{Y,
dZñn{V, V¥U Am¡a bVm Ho$ Xoh ^r ^moJm`VZ h¢ , na do AÝV:g§kH$ h¢Ÿ&
ñ_¥Vío MŸ&5/122Ÿ&(123)
ñ_¥{V go ^r kmV hmoVm h¡ {H$ d¥j Am{X ^r ^moº$m àmUr Ho$ ^moJm`VZ ê$n h¢Ÿ&
Z Xoh_mÌV: H$_m©{YH$m[aËd§ d¡{eîQ>çlwV:o Ÿ&5/123Ÿ&(124)
Ord Ho$ Xoh_mÌ Ho$ H$maU CgH$m Y_m©{YH$ma Zht _mZ gH$Vo, Š`m|{H$ emó _|
{d{eï> Xoh H$m hr H$_m©{YH$ma(A_wH$ H$m_ Ho$ {b`o A_wH$ dU© Aml_ H$m _mZd
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 289
A{YH¥$V h¡) _mZm J`m h¡Ÿ&
{ÌYm Ì`mUm§ ì`dñWm H$_©Xho mon^moJXohmo^`Xohm:Ÿ&5/124Ÿ&(125)
Xoh VrZ àH$ma Ho$ h¢- CÎm_, _Ü`_, AY_Ÿ& `Wm H$_©Xho na_{f©`m| H$m,
Cn^moJ Xoh BÝÐ Am{X Xodm| H$m, C^` àH$ma H$m Xoh amO{f©`m| H$mŸ&
Z {H$pÄMXß`Zwe{`Z:Ÿ&5/125Ÿ&(126)
AZwe`r (Vrd« d¡am½`dmZ²) H$m Xoh BZ VrZ àH$mam| _| Zht AmVmŸ&
Z ~wÕçm{X{ZË`Ëd_ml`{deof@o {n d{•dV²Ÿ&5/126Ÿ&(127)
(d¥{Îm _V) _Zwî` H$s ~w{Õ A{ZË` h¡, na _hm gÎdembr B©ída H$s ~w{Õ H$mo ^r
{ZË` Zht H$hm Om gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ O¡go MÝXZ H$s AmJ ^r J_© hr hmoVr h¡, C>gr
àH$ma B©ída Am{lV kmZ ^r {ÌJwU Ho$ H$maU A{ZË` hr hmoJmŸ&
Aml`m{gÕoíMŸ&5/127Ÿ&(128)
{ZË`kmZ H$m Aml`^yV B©ída Cnm{Y à_mU go Zht {gÕ hmoVmŸ&
`moJ{gÕ`mo@ß`m¡fYm{X{g{ÕdÞmnbnZr`m:Ÿ&5/128&(129)
{Og àH$ma Amof{Y Am{X {gÕ`m| H$m Anbmn({ZÝXm) Zht {H$`m Om gH$Vm,Cgr
àH$ma `moJO {g{Õ`m| H$m ^r Anbmn Zht {H$`m Om gH$VmŸ&
Z ^yVM¡VÝ`§ àË`oH$mÑï>:o gm§hË`o@{n M gm§hË`o@{n MŸ&5/129Ÿ&(130)
My§{H$ àË`oH$ ^yV _| M¡VÝ` Zht h¡, AV:^yVm| Ho$ g§KmV _| ^r M¡VÝ` Zht h¡Ÿ&
AÜ`m` 6
AñË`mË_m ZmpñVËdgmYZm^mdmV²Ÿ&6/1Ÿ&
kmV¥Ëd Ho$ H$maU ê$n _| AmË_m H$m ApñVËd gm_mÝ`V: {gÕ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& kmVm H$mo
AmË_m Zht {gÕ H$a gH$Vo, Š`m|{H$ {g{Õ H$aZo dmbm ñd`§ EH$ kmVm h¡Ÿ&
Xohm{Xì`{V[aº$mo@gm¡ d¡{MÍ`mV²Ÿ&6/2Ÿ&
kmVmê$nr AmË_m Xoh Am{X nXmWm] go AbJ h¡,Š`m|{H $Xoh,_Z,~w{Õ Am{X n[aUm_r,
naàH$mí` Am¡a O‹S> h¡,VWm AmË_m An[aUm_r, ñdàH$me Ed MoVZ h¡Ÿ&
fð>rì`nXoem{nŸ&6/3Ÿ&
{~bHw$b A^oX ahZo na fð>r {d^{º$ H$m à`moJ Zht hmoVmŸ& _oam eara, _oar ~w{Õ
Am[X _| Omo fð>r {d^{º$ H$m à`moJ hmoVm h¡ Cggo ^r Xoh Am{X go {dbjU
AmË_m H$s {g{Õ hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
Z {ebmnwÌdÕ{_©Jm« hH$_mZ~mYmV²Ÿ&6/4Ÿ&
290 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
{ebmnwÌ (bmoT‹ >m) H$m Xoh (AmH¥${V)-Bg à`moJ _| EH$ hr nXmW© _| fð>r {d^{º$
H$m à`moJ hmoVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma _oam _Z, _oam eara Am{X H$hZo go ^r _¢(AmË_m)
Am¡a Xoh Am{X H$m EH$Ëd _mZm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& Bg e§H$m H$m CÎma h¡ {H ${ebmnwÌ
_| ^r XmoZm| H$s EH$Vm ^r ^oXnydH© $ hr H$hr J`r h¡Ÿ&
AË`ÝVXw:I{Zd¥Î`m H¥$VH¥$Ë`VmŸ&6/5Ÿ&
Xw:I H$s AË`ÝV {Zd¥{Îm hmoZo na hr H¥$VH¥$Ë`Vm hmoVr h¡Ÿ&
`Wm Xw:ImV² Šboe: nwéfñ` Z VWm gwImX{^bmf:Ÿ&6/6Ÿ&
Xw:H$ Ho$ à{V bmoJm| H$m O¡gm Vrd« Ûof hmoVm h¡, gwI Ho$ {b`o d¡gr CËH$Q> A{^bmfm
Zht hmoVrŸ& Xw:I {Zd¥{Îm H$s BÀN>m, gwI àm{á H$s BÀN>m go ~bdVr h¡Ÿ&
Hw$Ìm@{n H$mo@{n gwIr{VŸ&6/7Ÿ&
àm{U`m| _| em`X hr H$ht H$moB© gwIr {XIm`r n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ&
VX{n Xw:Ie~b{_{V Xw:Injo {Z:{jnÝVo {ddoMH$m:6/8Ÿ&
d¡f{`H$ gwI ^r Xw:I go {_bm ahVm h¡, AV: {ddoH$s ì`{º$ Cg gwI H$mo ^r
Xw:I nj _| hr _mZVo h¢Ÿ&
gwIbm^m^mdmXnwéfmW©Ëd{_{V MoÞ (Ed§) Û¡{dÜ`mV²Ÿ&6/9Ÿ&
`h H$hZm R>rH$ Zht h¡ {H$ Ho$db Xw:I {ZdmaU hr nwéfmW© Zht h¡, Š`m|{H$ Cg_|
gwI H$s àm{á Zht hmoVrŸ& Xmo nwafmW© _mZo OmVo h¢-gwIr hmoZm, Xw:Ir Z hmoZmŸ&
{ZJwU© Ëd_mË_Zmo@g“Ëdm{XlwV:o Ÿ&6/10&
lw{V _| AmË_m H$mo Ag“ H$hm J`m h¡, AV: AmË_m {ZJw©U h¡&
naY_©Ëdo@{n VpËg{Õa{ddoH$mV²Ÿ&6/11Ÿ&
gwI-Xw:I Am{X JwU {MÎm Ho$ Y_© h¢, na AmË_m _|CZH$m AdñWmZ (à{V{~å~
ê$n _|) _mZm OmVm h¡Ÿ& A{ddoH$ Ho$ H$maU `h {dn`©` kmZ hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
AZm{Xa{ddoH$mo@Ý`Wm XmofÛ` àgº$o:Ÿ&6/12Ÿ&
g§`moJ {Og A{ddoH$ Ho$ H$maU h¡, CgH$m AZm{X àdmh h¡Ÿ& `{X A{ddoH$ H$m
Amaå^ _mZm Om` Vmo CgH$s ñdV: CËn[Îm _mZZr hmoJr, {Oggo _wº$ H$m ^r
~ÝYZ hmoJmŸ& `{X A{ddoH$ H$mo H$_© Ûmam CËnÞ _mZm Om` Vmo H$_© Am{X H$m
H$maU A{ddoH$ Ho$ A{V[aº$ Hw$N> Am¡a _mZZm hmoJmŸ&
Z {ZË`: ñ`mXmË_dXÝ`WmZwpÀN>{V:Ÿ&6/13Ÿ&
A{ddoH$ AZ{X hmoZo na ^r AmË_m H$s Vah {ZË` Zht h¡, AÝ`Wm CgH$m CÀN>Xo
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 291
Zht hmoVmŸ& A{ddoH$ àdmh ê$n _| AZm{X h¡Ÿ&
à{V{Z`VH$maUZmí`Ëd_ñ` ÜdmÝVdV²Ÿ&6/14Ÿ&
~ÝY H$m H$maU A{ddoH$ {ZpíMV hoVw ({ddoH$) Ûmam Zï> hmoVm h¡, O¡go AÝYH$ma
AmbmoH$ Ûmam {ZpíMV ê$n go Zï> hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
AÌm{n à{V{Z`_mo@Ýd`ì`{VaoH$mV²Ÿ&6/15Ÿ&
AÝd` ì`{VaoH$ Ûmam `h kmV hmoVm h¡ {H$ {ddoH$ Ho$ ^r {ZpíMV H$maU h¢-
ldU-_ZZ-{Z{XÜ`mgZ Am{XŸ&
àH$mamÝVmgå^dmX{ddoH$ Ed ~ÝY:Ÿ&6/16Ÿ&
~ÝY H$m hoVw A{ddoH$ hr h¡, AÝ` Hw$N> Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
Z _wº$ñ` nwZ~©ÝY`moJmo@ß`Zmd¥{ÎmlwV:o Ÿ&6/17Ÿ&
_wº$ nwéf H$m nwZ: ~ÝY Zht hmo gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ lw{V _| _wº$ nwéf H$s AZmd¥{Îm
H$hr J`r h¡Ÿ&
AnwéfmW©Ëd_Ý`WmŸ&6/18Ÿ&
`{X _wº$ nwéf H$m ^r ~ÝYZ _mZm Om` Vmo _w{º$ H$mo nwéfmW© _mZZm ì`W©
hmoJmŸ&{Og àH$ma àb` _| Ord Xw:IeyÝ` hmoZo na ^r CgH$m g§gaU hmoZo Ho$
H$maU Cgo nwéfmW© Zht _mZVo, Cgr àH$ma _moj H$r ^r `{X nwZamd¥{Îm hmo Vmo
Cgo nwéfmW© Zht _mZ gH$VoŸ&
A{deofmn{Îmé^`mo:Ÿ&6/19Ÿ&
nwZamd¥{Îm _mZZo na AmJm_r H$mb _| ~ÝYZ hmo Om`Jm- Bg H$maU ~Õ Am¡a
_wº$ AdñWm`| g_mZ hmo Om`|JrŸ&
_w{º$aÝVam`ÜdñVoZ© na:Ÿ&6/20Ÿ&
_w{º$ dñVwV: {H$gr Aàmá AdñWm Hr CnbpãY Zht h¡, AÝVam`m| H$m Zme
hmoZm hr _w{º$ h¡Ÿ&(~Õ AdñWm _|) AmË_m H$m Xw:I à{V{~å~ AmdaH$ ê$n
{d¿Z h¡Ÿ& ~w{Õê$n Cnm{Y Ho$ Z ahZo na AmË_m AnZo ê$n _| AmVr h¡Ÿ&
VÌmß`{damoY:Ÿ&6/21Ÿ&
nwéf H$s Ñ{ï> _| ~ÝYZ Am¡a _moj dmñV{dH$ Zht h¢, AV: AÝVam`-Üd§g ê$n
_w{º$ nwéfmW© Zht h¡-Eogm Zht _mZm Om gH$VmŸ& à{V{~å~ ê$n _| Xw:I-^moJ
^r dmñV{dH$ h¡, AV: Xw:I-{Zd¥{Îm gM_wM nwéfmW© h¡Ÿ&
A{YH$m[aÌ¡{dÜ`mÞ {Z`_:Ÿ&6/22Ÿ&
292 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
_w{º$ `Ú{n ~ÝYZ-Üd§g _mÌ h¡, na ldU _mÌ go _moj Am{X H$s {g{Õ Zht
hmoVr, Š`m|{H$ _mojm{YH$mar Ho$ AbJ AbJ àH$ma h¢-CÎm_,_Ü`_, AY_Ÿ&
XmTç©mW©_Îw maofm_²Ÿ&6/23Ÿ&
AmË_kmZ gå~ÝYr ldU Ho$ ~mX _ZZ-Ü`mZ ^r H$aZm n‹S>Vm h¡, Š`m|{H$ Bg
H«$_ Ûmam hr AÝVam` H$m Üd§g Ñ‹T> hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
pñWagwI_mgZ{_{V Z {Z`_:Ÿ&6/24Ÿ&
nÙ Am{X AmgZm| _| hr ~¡R>Zm Oê$ar Zht h¡Ÿ& {Og AmgZ _| ~¡R>Zo go gmpÎdH$
àgÞVm Am¡a pñWaVm H$m ~moY hmo dhr AmgZ g_PZm Mm{h`oŸ&
Ü`mZ§ {Z{d©f`§ _Z:Ÿ&6/25Ÿ&
AÝV:H$aU (_Z) H$m {df`eyÝ` hmoZm Ü`mZ ({MÎmd¥{Îm {ZamoY ê$n `moJ) H$hm
OmVm h¡Ÿ&
C^`Wmß`{deofíMoÞd¡ _wnamJ{ZamoYm{Ûeof:Ÿ&6/26Ÿ&
`Ú{n `moJ Am¡a g§gma-BZ XmoZm| AdñWmAm| _| nwéf H$m ê$n EH$ hr h¡, VWm{n
`moJ AdñWm _| d¥{Îm à{V{~å~ Xya hmoVm h¡, Omo AÝ` AdñWm _| Zht hmoVmŸ&
{Z:g“o@ß`wnamJmo@{ddoH$mV²Ÿ&6/267&
na_mW©V: {Z:g“ nwéf CnamJ-eyÝ` h¡, na A{ddoH$ go Cg_| CnamJ XrIVm h¡&
Onm-ñ\${Q>H$`mo[ad ZmonamJ: {H$ÝËd{^_mZ:Ÿ&6/28Ÿ&
`h CnamJ (nwéf _| ~w{Õ Y_© H$m Amamon) dmñV{dH$ Zht h¡Ÿ& {Og àH$ma ñ\${Q>H$
Ho$ nmg Onm nwîn ahZo na Cg_| a§J à{V{~på~V hmoVm h¡ Ÿ& {~Zm a§J Ho$ ^r
CgH$m a§J hmoZm XrIVm h¡Ÿ& Cgr àH$ma nwéf _| ~w{Õ H$m à{V{~å~ hmoZo Ho$
H$maU ^«_ go nwéf H$mo ~w{Õ dmbm g_Pm OmVm h¡Ÿ&
Ü`mZYmaUmä`mgd¡am½`m{X{^ñV{ÞamoY:Ÿ&6/29Ÿ&
Bg CnamJ H$m {ZamoY Ü`mZ, YmaUm, Aä`mg Am¡a d¡am½` Am{X go hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
b`{djon`moì`m©dÎ¥ `oË`mMm`m©:Ÿ&6/30Ÿ&
AmMm`© H$hVo h¢ {H$ Ü`mZ Am{X go b` ({ZÐmd¥{Îm) Am¡a {djon (à_mU Am{X
d¥{Îm`m|) H$m {ZamoY H$aZm Mm{h`oŸ& Bggo d¥{Îm`m| H$m CnamJ hmoVm h¡Ÿ& `h
AgåàkmV g_m{Y h¡, {Og_| _moj Ho$ AÝVam`m| H$m Üd§g hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
Z ñWmZ{Z`_píMÎmàgmXmV²Ÿ&6/31Ÿ&
Ü`mZ Ho$ {b`o Jwhm Am{X ñWmZ Oê$ar Zht h¡Ÿ& Ohm§ ^r {MÎm àgÞ Am¡a pñWa aho
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 293
dht Ü`mZ H$m Aä`mg hmo gH$Vm h¡Ÿ&
àH¥$VoamÚmonmXmZVm@Ý`ofm§ H$m`©Ëd lwV:o Ÿ&6/32Ÿ&
lw{V _§o H$hm J`m h¡ {H$ _hV², Ah‘>ma, VÝ_mÌ Am{X g^r H$m`© h¢, AV: àH¥${V
hr _yb CnmXmZ h¡Ÿ& AÝ` emóm| _| AUw Am{X H$s H$m`©Vm ^r _mZr J`r h¡Ÿ&
{ZË`Ëdo@{n ZmË_Zmo `mo½`Ëdm^mdmV²Ÿ&6/33Ÿ&
nwéf (AmË_m) {ZË` Am¡a An[aUm_r h¡; AV: CnmXmZ H$maU Zht hmo gH$VmŸ&
gJwU Am¡a g“ `mo½` dñVw hr CnmXmZ hmo gH$V$s h¡Ÿ&
lw{V{damoYmÞ Hw$VH$m©ngXñ`mË_bm^:Ÿ&6/34Ÿ&
Hw$VH©$ Ûmam `h _mZZm {H$ {ZJwU© Ag§J, An[aUm_r nwéf OJV² H$m CnmXmZ h¡,
lw{V _V (OJV² H$m CnmXmZ àH¥${V h¡) H$m {damoY H$aVm h¡Ÿ&
nmaån`}@{n àYmZmZwd{¥ ÎmaUwdV²Ÿ&6/35Ÿ&
^m¡{VH$, ^yV Am{X g^r nXmWm] H$m CnmXmZ H$maU àH¥${V (àYmZ) h¡, na dh
gmjmV² H$maU Zht h¡(^m¡{VH$ H$m H$maU ^yV, ^yV H$m VÝ_mÌ, VÝ_mÌ H$m
Apñ_Vm, Apñ_Vm H$m ~w{ÕVÎd `m _hV² , Am¡a _hV² H$m H$maU àH¥${V h¡)
na_mUwdmXr H$s Ñ{ï> _| na_mUw {Og àH$ma naånam-H«$_ go ApÝV_ H$maU h¡,
Cgr àH$ma `hm§ ^r àH¥${V A[ÝV_ H$maU h¡Ÿ&
gd©Ì H$m`©Xe©Zm{Û^wËd_²Ÿ&6/36Ÿ&
g^r Xoe Am¡a H$mb _| àH¥${V hr H$m`©ê$n _| {dÚ_mZ h¡, AV: àH¥${V gd©ì`m{nZr
Am¡a nyU© h¡Ÿ&
J{V`moJ@o ß`mÚH$maUVmhm{ZaUwdV²Ÿ&6/37Ÿ&
àH¥${V _| jmo^ê$n {H«$`m hmoVr h¡ (J{V`moJ)Ÿ& Bg {H«$`m Ho$ ahZo na ^r CgH$s
AmÚH$maUVm (Ma_ CnmXmZ H$maU) g_má Zht hmoVrŸ& {Og àH$ma AUw _|
{H«$`m hmoZo na ^r d¡eo{fH$ CgH$s Ma_ H$maUVm _mZVo h¢Ÿ, d¡go hr `hm§ h¡&
à{gÕm[YŠ`¨ àYmZñ` Z {Z`_:&6/38Ÿ&
bmoH$ _| gw{d»`mV nXmWm] (`Wm d¡eo{fH$ gå_V Ðì`m{X nXmW©) _o§ àYmZ H$m
AÝV^m©d Zht§ h¡, AV: Cgo AZwnpñWV Zhr§Ÿ _mZ gH$VoŸ& nXmW© ì`m»`m gå~ÝYr
{d{^Þ gåàXm`m| Ho$ _V AIÊS>Zr` Zht h¢Ÿ&
gÎdmXrZm_VÕ_©Ëd§ VÐÿnËdmV²Ÿ&6/39Ÿ&
gÎd, aO,V_$ ê$n 3 JwU(aÁOw, `o Ðì` h¢),àH¥${V Ho$ Y_© Zht,CgHo$ ñdê$n h¢Ÿ&
294 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
AZwn^moJ@o {n nw_W©: g¥{ï>: à Ym Zñ`mo ï´> Hw$‘x>_dhZdV²Ÿ&6/40Ÿ&
àH¥${V H$s g¥{ï> AnZo ^moJ Ho$ {b`o Zht, ~pëH$ nwéf Ho$ {b`o(^moJ Am¡a AndJ©)
h¡, O¡go Cï´> {H$gr AÝ` Ho$ {b`o Hw$‘x>_ H$m dhZ H$aVm h¡Ÿ&
H$_© d¡{MÍ`mV² g¥{ï>d{¡ MÍ`_²Ÿ&6/41Ÿ&
H$_© (Y_©-AY_©) Ho$ d¡{MÍ` Ho$ AZwgma g¥{ï> H$m d¡{MÍ` hmoVm h¡Ÿ&
gmå` d¡få`mä`m§ H$m`© Û`_²Ÿ&6/42Ÿ&
àH¥${V H$s gmå`mdñWm hmoZo na àb` Am¡a d¡få`mdñWm(JwUm| H$m H$_-Á`mXm
^md _| pñW{V) hmoZo na g¥{ï> hmoVr h¡Ÿ& g¥{ï> àb` H$s _Ü` AdñWm ^r g¥{ï> _| hr
{JZr Om`JrŸ &
{d_wº$~moYmÞ g¥{ï>: àYmZñ` bmoH$dV²Ÿ&6/43Ÿ&
nwéf Ho$ {b`o VÎd{Z_m©U Ho$ ~mX àYmZ g¥{ï> ~ÝX H$a XoVm h¡, O¡go A_mË` Am{X
amOm H$m H$m_ g_má hmoZo na H$m_ ~ÝX H$a XoVo h¢Ÿ&
ZmÝ`mo ngn©U@o {n _wº$mo n^moJmo {Z{_Îmm ^mdmV²Ÿ&6/44Ÿ&
~Õ nwéfm| Ho$ à{V àYmZ H$s àd¥{Îm ahZo na ^r _wº$ Ho$ à{V àYmZ Aàd¥Îm hr
ahVm h¡, Š`m|{H$ àd¥{Îm Ho$ gmYZ (A{ddoH$ Am{X) H$m A^md hmo OmVm h¡Ÿ&
nwéf ~hþ Ëd§ ì`dñWmV:Ÿ&6/45Ÿ&
~ÝY-_moj H$s ì`dñWm Ho$ {b`o nwéf H$mo ~hþg»§ `H$ _mZZm n‹S>Vm h¡Ÿ&
Cnm{YíMoV² VpËgÕm¡ nwZÛ£V_²Ÿ& 6/46Ÿ&
nwéf EH$ h¡ Am¡a Cnm{Y`m| H$s AZoH$Vm Ho$ H$maU ~hþOrdê$n _| XrIVm h¡-Bg
ê$n go nwéf H$m EH$Ëd Zht {gÕ hmo gH$Vm, Š`m|{H$ Cnm{Y H$s ^r gÎmm _mZZr
n‹S>oJr, {Oggo Û¡Vmn{Îm hmoJrŸ&
Ûmä`m_{n à_mU{damoY:Ÿ&6/47Ÿ&
Cnm{Y H$mo A{dÚm_` _mZZo na ^r nwéf Am¡a A{dÚm ê$n Xmo gV² nXmWm] H$mo
_mZZm n‹S>oJm, AV: AÛ¡V ^md Ho$ à{VnmXH$ lw{V dMZ go {damoY hmoJmŸ&
Ûmä`m_ß`{damoYmÞ nyd_© Îw ma§ M gmY H$m ^mdmV²Ÿ&6/48Ÿ&
AmË_m Am¡a A{dÚm H$s gÎmm _mZZo na EH$mË_dmXr H$m nj H$Q> OmVm h¡Ÿ&
AÛ¡VdmXr H$mo EH$ AmË_m Ho$ A{V[aº$ AmË_gmYH$ ñdVÝÌ à_mU H$s gÎmm _mZZr
n‹S>Vr h¡Ÿ& Bg à_mU H$s gÎmm Zht _mZZo na EH$mË_dmX à_m{UV Zht hmoJmŸ&
àH$meVpËgÕm¡ H$_©H$Îm¥© {damoY:Ÿ&6/49Ÿ&
6.gm§»`-gyÌ 295
AnZo àH$me go AmË_m H$s gÎmm {gÕ H$aZo na H$_©-H$Îmm© EH$ hr _mZZm n‹S>Jo mŸ&
Omo àH$meH$ h¡ Cgr H$mo àH$mí` _mZZm n‹S>Jo m Omo R>rH$ Zht h¡Ÿ&
O‹S>ì`md¥Îmmo O‹S>§ àH$me`{V {MÐÿn:&6/50Ÿ&
MoVZ Ho$ {Og àH$meê$n Y_© H$m CëboI nyd© gyÌ _| h¡, dh {MV² ñdê$n h¡, Omo
OS> H$m àH$meH$ h¡ (nwéf {~Zm Y_© H$m h¡)Ÿ& gy`© Am{X Ho$ àH$me H$s Vah
`h Zht h¡Ÿ&
Z lw{V{damoYmo am{JUm§ d¡am½`m` VpËg (Õo:) Õ_²Ÿ&6/51Ÿ&
{MV²-O‹S>-ê$n Xmo _yb nXmW© {gÕ H$aZm lw{V Ho$ AÛ¡V Ho$ gmW H$moB© {damoY
Zht h¡Ÿ& gamJ nwéfm| _| _| d¡am½` CËnÞ H$aZo Ho$ {b`o H$hm J`m h¡ {H$ AmË_m H$o
A{V[aº$ AÝ` nXmWm] _| ^r AmË_m h¡Ÿ&
OJËgË`Ëd_Xwï>H$maUOÝ`ËdmX² ~mYH$m^mdmV²Ÿ&6/52Ÿ&
`h AZw^d {gÕ OJV² gË` h¡Ÿ& (añgr _| gm§n XrIZo O¡gm ^«_ Zht h¡)Ÿ&
Š`m|{H$ OJV² AXwï>H$maU go CËnÞ h¡Ÿ& ànÄM go BgH$s CËn{Îm H$o {damoY _| H$moB©
à_mU Zht h¡Ÿ&
àH$mamÝVagå^dmV² gXwËn{Îm:Ÿ&6/53Ÿ&
My§{H$ AÝ` H$moB© àH$ma gå^d Zht h¡, AV: `h _mZZm n‹S>Vm h¡ {H$ gV² go gV²
H$s CËn{Îm hmoVr h¡ , AWm©V² H$m`© AnZo H$maU _| gyú_ ê$n go VWm ì`mnma _|
ì`º$ ê$n go ahVm h¡Ÿ&
Ah‘>ma: H$Îmm© Z nwéf:Ÿ&6/54Ÿ&
(A{^_mZ Ho$ ~mX hr àd¥{Îm XoIr OmVr h¡), AV: (Bg d¥{Îm H$m AÝV:H$aU)
Ah‘>ma hr H$Îmm© h¡, {ZJw©U nwéf ZhtŸ&
{MXdgmZm ^w{º$ñVËH$_m© {O©VËdmV²Ÿ&6/55Ÿ&
Ah‘>ma H$Îmm© hmoZo na ^r ^moJ H$m AdgmZ {MXmË_m _| hmoVm h¡Ÿ& ^moJ ~w{Õ Ûmam
hmoVm h¡, na CgH$m AmYma {MÐÿn nwéf h¡Ÿ& Ah‘>ma Ûmam `h ^moJ A{O©V hmoVm
h¡, Ah‘>ma Ho$ amoY go ^moJ H$s ^r {Zd¥{Îm hmo OmVr h¡Ÿ&
MÝÐm{XbmoH$o @ß`md¥{Îm{Z© {_ÎmgX² ^mdmV²Ÿ&6/56Ÿ&
H$_© Ho$ ~b go MÝÐ Am{X bmoH$m| H$s àm{á Ho$ ~mX ^r Amd¥{Îm (nwZO©Ý_) hmo
gH$Vr h¡, Š`m|{H$ OÝ_ H$m H$maU A[ddoH$ VWm H$_©-g§ñH$ma [MÎm _| ah OmVo h¡Ÿ&
bmoH$ñ` ZmonXoemV² {gÕ: nydd© V²Ÿ&6/57Ÿ&
296 gm§»`-Xe©Z H$m d¡km{ZH$ AmYma
_Zwî`bmoH$ _| {Og àH$ma CnXoe go {g{Õ Zht hmVr, Cgr àH$ma MÝÐ Am{X
bmoH$m| _| ^r CnXoe_mÌ go {g{Õ Zht hmoVrŸ&
nmaån`}U VpËgÕm¡ {d_w{º$ lw{V:Ÿ&6/58Ÿ&
~«÷bmoH$ Am{X _| OmH$a `{X H$moB© ldU _ZZ AmX nydH© $ Aä`mg H$ao Vmo Cggo
_w{º$ hmoVr h¡-`h lw{V _| H$hm h¡Ÿ& ~«÷bmoH$ J_Z _mÌ go _w{º$ Zht hmoVrŸ&
J{V lwVío M ì`mnH$Ëdo@ß`wnm{Y`moJmX²^moJXoeH$mbbm^mo ì`mo_dV²Ÿ&6/59Ÿ&
AmË_m ì`mnH$ h¡, CgH$s J{V Ho$ ~mao _| emó AmË_m H$s Cnm{Y Ho$ ~mao _| hr
H$hVo h¢Ÿ& O¡go AmH$me gd©ì`mnr hmoZ na ^r KQ> Am{X Cnm{Y go `moJ hmoZo na
KQ>mH$me H$m J_Z H$hm OmVm h¡, Cgr àH$ma AmË_mH$m J_Z h¡Ÿ&
AZ{Y{ð>Vñ` ny{V^md àg“mÞ VpËg{Õ:Ÿ&6/60Ÿ&
^moº$ H$m AmYma Z ahZo na ewH$« -emo{UV_` eara Jb OmVm h¡, AV: AZ{Y{ð>V
ewH«$ Am{X go ^moJm`VZ Xoh H$m {Z_m©U Zht hmo gH$VmŸ& (AV: nhbo Xoh, {\$a
CgH$m AmË_m Ûmam A{Yð>mZ Zht hmo gH$Vm)Ÿ&
AÑï>Ûmam MoXgå~Õñ` VXgå^dmÁObm{XdX‘x>aŸo &6/61Ÿ&
Xoh CËnÞ hmoZo Ho$ ~mX AmË_m H$m A{Yð>mZ VWm AÑï> Ûmam Xoh~rO g§a{jV
ahZm Zht H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& {Og àH$ma Ob {Zaml` A‘x>a CËnÞ Zht H$a
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***
n[a{eï> -2
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*******
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