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Austria-Hungary and Serbia Author(s): George Macaulay Trevelyan Reviewed work(s): Source: The North American Review, Vol. 201, No. 715 (Jun., 1915), pp. 860-868 Published by: University of Northern Iowa Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25108481 . Accessed: 25/02/2012 17:09
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(Croat and Serb) from tyranny as bad as any Finns in from which and Poles have suffered in Prussia. brother . been told to England were unheard. Russia and the Russian Govern that there is to say against Everything to say against for years past there is much it?has ment?and But the wrongs of the and America. their deliberate choice of the just side of the quarrel in North even now the world Yet does not sufficiently Europe. and that little was chiefly derived sources. were as barbarians. of the war have the events served Because western realize a bad the Russian Government?was government?namely. It seemed Slav peoples regarded quite seven million that "barbarous" South Slavs should natural to the rule of "cultured" Germans be subjected from Vienna if the from Buda-Pesth. that the war against is a war of liber Austria-Hungary to free South Slavs quite ation. obtained of the they Slav sympathy which before. as a consequence in Southeastern of the quarrel of Europe. and Hungarian for the British Austrian Fortunately on to the just side circumstances threw them blindfold people.AUSTRIA-HUNGARY AND SERBIA BY GEORGE MACAULAY TREVELYAN to the outbreak Prior of war little was known singularly or America in England the Serbians and their quarrel about from with Austria-Hungary. or than the Hungarian in fact no worse government (though in its treatment the German of subject therefore all races). and "chivalrous" And Magyars over to liberate the border Serbians showed their any desire none of Bosnia brothers and Croatia. Austria the Piedmontese had obtained sixty years obnoxious to when they made on behalf of their themselves equally Italians. The preju a remarkable was dice against Slav peoples obsession which one to remove. The fact that of Austria-Hungary nationalities races were branches of the these suffering family prevented Sla\ a fair hearing them from getting before the world.
on the atrocities. of Lausanne also took first-hand and has been University. within a fresh war will only be a question even if every of years. Slav up very well against German The case for keep "culture" and Magyar "chivalry. . Croats.1 and although Austrian 60. in an article in the Contemporary Review. evidence. of The Hague. Reiss's in the Revue de Paris. some 1915. The expedition 1913. to make those prisoners when have no complaints questioned on an are treated The Austrian of their treatment. tion" against in Austria-Hungary. a large number near Shabatz of burned and Losnitza. expedition" "punitive began two or three last by the "chivalrous" Hungarians murdering of the "barbarous" and children thousand Slavs men. the satisfactorily problem inside Austria-Hungary movements nationalist have been grow es the last half-dozen years. in London with and Lausanne. engineer.000 captured they have prisoners. Arius von Tienhoven. were other European All solved. and finally wars. to Italy's but owing revealed Giolitti recently in a war of aggression it was postponed to join Austria refusal of the Archduke the murder for a year. daries. as Signor to the world. Jules Swiss Holland. article April. Reiss.AUSTRIA-HUNGARY AND SERBIA 861 was in its origin a "punitive world-war The present expedi for having the impudence to sym the Serbians. Slovaks. women. and M. 1915. their brother Serbs and Croats pathize with was to have been made in August. and the Serbian official Memorandum and Report. eyes of others. Schmidt. ing the South Croatia. them only "barbarism" shows xSee Dr. I gave lecturing photographs. March. great ing with rapidity during the movement pecially who the same speak the Croats toward drawing and are divided from language the Serbs. Dalmatia. there will never be peace There will always schools. They women the "barbarian" out the and children alive and gouged The Serbians have not taken any reprisals. Dr. within a few days of the commission of the atrocities. The in the Memorandum was evidence taken on the spot. by Dr. If a peace is patched revolts. account having of been these atrocities over the scene. of Austria-Hungary the boundaries intact and with up leaving no provision for a radical in the condition made of change and those boun Rumanians." and Slavonia Slavs of Bosnia. on the ground to Austrians of inferior and Magyars subject broken civilization down. Serbs. until sub by Austrian jects seemed a fitting opportunity to wipe Serbia off the diplo The in August matic map. be assassinations. wounded absolute In this equality with war the Serbian in the Serbian hospitals. has completely races of Austria-Hungary Until the various obtain political for their and cultural and self-government liberty languages in Europe.
of the state of things the restoration And when suggest people It . Hungary too. in March. thus alienated they do not now rise answer men all the young The is because in insurrection. slaves. the great after who and Bavarians in Serbia otherwise and prob last December. Rumanian except provinces. If we think and England so. they conscripts can do no less unless for a while?they they are fight well to sur to be shot?but they take the first opportunity ready the Serbians is why That render. When field. to-day have 60. where drafted are renders mutiny the most hazard and military another discipline ous and desperate act. made she is not a nation that Austria-Hungary is so It is because she has failed to defend herself. and since in war. if the subject races of Austria-Hungary Some people ask why. in Italy done and been 1848. has become State.862 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW in religion. from the Government. probably a vassal as well. are taken into the army of military by the modern system or exile. Hungary protected by defeat Germany. France. of her army soldier of her Large portions loyalty or garrisoning are guarding dis disaffected other portions. If that had and all the leaders are in prison slavery. singly are nations. Germany. not to be caught by the Austrians and duct.000 prisoners. weak Already 1915 she has been practically of the year the opening occupied It was the North Germans Kaiser Wilhelm's troops. The reign of terror that has existed in these prov it utterly has made inces ever since the war began impossible rule can continue in the Slav and that the Austro-Hungarian as the rule of the sword. as a "nation" in the sense in which Russia. to think of Austria and Hungary. Austria's great military and the secret dis of her subject is the hatred populations. were only anxious to fight again. is a mistake either or together. even Yet weakness in this war so. so far as I could judge by their words and con most of whom. throughout Europe The modern have been no year of revolutions. there would for it is revolutions makes militarist organization impossible. would have been torn to pieces by an invasion ably Austria. the the unwilling take tricts. are now men who all the young men rise in revolt?and young over one the races keep watch into the army. we fail to understand one of the root causes of the present war. over the Carpathian of Russians and Rumanians coming led to an Italian have invasion which would passes. by came and saved Hungary.
has been able to dictate well what Pesth. Joseph to introduce his wide universal suffrage throughout dominions. as its subject and nationalities of Austria-Hungary question to dominate ambition it does out of the German Even Europe. they forget of Vienna and Buda-Pesth is The Empire Austria-Hungary. Slovaks. And the repression in Bosnia has Hungary a hostile on the part of Austria in turn necessitated attitude are in reality For Serbia and Bosnia toward Serbia. represents Premier. Church an aggressive This has involved internal tyranny foreign in the Balkans For and toward Russia. The Magyars number of the Magyars. to oppress any man who wishes or to bring up his children as such. is a dead government machinery to remain a Slav or a Rumanian. doom of their race ascendancy. is the domination over half a dozen other races. war as much out of the the present arises quite Indeed. arms. In theory the law of 1868 gives of their State. but in practice this law is used The whole letter.AUSTRIA-HUNGARY before the war AND SERBIA ?63 as the basis for a permanent peace. . In 1912 has become they abolished funds and the Constitution of the Orthodox of Croatia Serb and seized the in Hungary. with alliance regardless to "Magyarize" of Hungary the determination of the Magyars who and Croats dwelt within the the Rumanians. part only forty-five And of Hungary. now upon the Prussian an anachronism. knowing of Vienna. it wanted. not alone have would to sufficed love of domination German on fire had not German Culture in world been set the whole a force equally of the rights of others. This Magyar oligarchy in the Austro-Hungarian dominant force Buda partnership. It dependent the Austrian-Germans and the of two races. the tyranny policy over in Hungary exercised the Croatian South Slavs in has as a corollary of the Serbian volved the repression South Slavs charters in Bosnia (the province abutting on Serbia. Magyars. The policy of the Hungarian on the to oppress" this "will Count Tisza. borders cul tural liberty to the Slavs in Hungary. Count Tisza's per cent. to the vacillating which has had statesmanship a more treatment of the after liberal occasional hankerings the old Emperor Francis wanted When subject peoples. saw in it the he was prevented who by the Magyar politicians. which is ruled by Austria and Hungary jointly). policy even their own race of all polit who deprive Magyar oligarchy has for years past been the ical power. of the population of the Magyar but of the is not even the policy nation. Their treatment of the subject races of Hungary worse of recent years.
of the population per Eighty-six democracy. contrast else. as their idle keepers enemies all "regicides. patrician. or "working or industrial class" classes?no "middle cantile The are yeomen. peasant their to the class of peasant cultivating proprietors. and as yet no important is no feudalism. and an country to the west of the Drina half River. by way great European one visited no one in on all sides. sion was across to the Drina looked the oppressed naturally peoples their brothers of free Serbia. No shut She was Serbia. of a the limitations and virtues cent. to the Austrians to prevent the further essential dovelopment over the Turks. except world. I should like are really like." as the Serbs say. Hence in making if Serbia it a casus belli for all Europe of Austria on the Adriatic. is demo . She has been then called prevented and intellectual with commercial the communication enjoying of her enemy. after her victory lest she should be of Serbia. There own farms.864 one THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW in half?a divided free half to the east. is inhabited Austria has by their co-nationals." as compared where the to neighboring is strange. from her uncivilized. success in war which has at length caused the their recent which the qualities to remark world they have always displayed visited who have As one of the few Englishmen in peace. on the other hand. Since enslaved oppres in Bosnia the order of the day and Dalmatia. Serbia both before and during the present war. coast half the eastern Adriatic though people. is no class of landlords There taking mer no squirearchy. Magyars. her to develop helped It was that assumed her land. and nothing There men. Hungary. to the of the cultivating and happiness fice the wealth peasant so carries off everything who landlord politically. "tied the bane of from the sea has been artificial seclusion This cut her off from civilization have and The Austrians Serbia. inland condemned Serbians no seaport. Serbia. it is only the Viennese And. Austria. to record what the Serbians the have Serbians The cially. Serbia up in a sack." dirty. come the liberator of the South the fatal policy Slavs. as so often happens. with the South Slavs. especially after Serbia had showed in war against the Turks redoubtable and the Bulgars herself more it became For than ever the same reason in 1912-13. reported. decree the By Austrian port got a single were to remain for ever a bucolic. one of the most sacri feudal of all European races. belong rents. no one knew what manner her resources. of men inhabited they were of pigs. and economically.
who is the about as likely as President Wilson to have had a hand in the of the Archduke Ferdinand. are no class questions. Since then culminating point have since 1908. when the rapidly. murder administration is up to the standard Of course not all Serbian of civil administration standard of M. The lead the people. The in Serbia as I have there is no class with is still very said. were enough they had been soldiers of Serbia. only too rejoiced to be out of the fighting and absolutely uninterested in the to show why issues of the war. a vile way of ending of this mismanagement. problem" can be no politics there except consequently foreign politics. regicide an intolerable state of things. lives on their farms. large part the . victory A few talks with the poor Austrian prisoners. The There is an improvisation. of the free yeomen. because are peasant community the Serbians vol. Passich. feeling is no "social there because and average Serbian. pillage. AND SERBIA 865 so than either America or Eng far more and equalitarian. politicians. improved especially things of Bosnia to a sense of aroused Austrian annexation Serbians a real moral and caused and national revival. however. But that of Macedonia. have now in Serbia the rule of the excellent M. was of 1903. We reality. because. cci. is no inherited leading group as in the class of of leadership tradition and administration or merchants in the countries we are with which gentlemen familiar. Passich. times in Serbia. administrative traditions. This matters the administrative have 715 to 55 comparatively a administer less in ordinary of a simple needs now small. them. murder. low. to the absence that the Serbian army has won in the field over the larger redoubtable victories forces on their sent into Serbia of that Austria-Hungary errand If ever a pure there was and destruction. in one beaten united by the sturdy peasant of heroism and devotion. because there is practically There is the sole political Patriotism of the only one class.AUSTRIA-HUNGARY cratic land. the improvised and happy living excellent as their political whom stewards have they elected politicians a terrible mess of Serbian often made The politics. There is no adequate to class of men pure form of democracy. and army administrators. manliness It is due to the independent and of all class division. over slaves who had been sent by the tyrant of freemen victory it was the Serbian to destroy last December. mood as well as merits defects in this very There are.?no. It has followed while the peasants have been that. are all peasants at one or two removes officers from the soil.
and Croats Illyria. that their deficiency and Macedonian comes out. It elements among service now from the army that supplied the is a very different regicides of 1903.866 won THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW and kept from the Bulgar from the Turk in. Ypres even turfs are cleverly made. their liberated with of the Serbians weakness the administrative is much But in the army in the civil service. professional in time of war. in the wettest Except ran short at of gun ammunition the supply when last autumn in a and food always ammunition the base. in the dangerous moment weather. In the want experience to govern not have Macedonia but only they fellow-Serbs. is more of administrative serious. Croatia. The Turks in 1912. but of living brothers. people Bulgar. but modest is There and kindly. gone the chief have been educated in the of whom These officers. one as men of superior strike Paris military schools. races and religions. If instead of ruling Mace ministrative experience to their own co-nationals. of different Albanian. but having only having manner in which scientific officers. and to the men They they command. they would not be a question It would better. The and artillery gunners between trenches they had dug out their lines of dry. group?lawyers. cases The officer is in most men of one and the same class. not merely who know the slackness of The and railway service. at their profession. is particularly Serbian army strong Creusot excellent excellent guns. and that suffered such easy defeat at the hands of the Bulgarians in 1885. each in turn failed in 1913. it was worthy amazed me when and Losnitza Shabatz marvels of the Aisne and of what we read of the engineering field huts of branches the soldiers' and Also trenches. gets to the front The not way somewhat Balkan ordinary Serbian army. and Slavonia. only clerks?is civilian small doctors. in the ranks of the officers also found in field artillery. than The best less marked the improvised leaders go into the army. some of the finest contains . to command other The a peasant educated peasants. covered I saw it. It is here in ad Slav. the Bul in 1914. dry inside both above and below. Turk. recent wars. and the Austrians garians it was too late how far army reform had recently to realize until in Serbia. united the Serbs donia they were of Bosnia. good in their relations officer about them of the Prussian nothing are brothers in arms. to those surprising civil organization in fact. quality. of governing the do much as a superior new provinces side by side race.
little. during are an emotional The Serbians and mercurial The people. respects is less stolid. and is still rotten with The rule. to his clergy. The background of his mind and legend of his country. cut up into fields by hedges after the or New like Devonshire or Mediter of the Balkans are scattered farm-houses for there is no need for about this pleasant widely countryside. but is organized and led so as to material fighting soldiers a chance. He attends church very voutly religious. English England ranean. more It is much pattern. have you undulating. There is a great difference between Serbia and the proper she has recently Macedonian which down acquired provinces contains south. Serbian like the Russian de peasant peasant. they ride out every morning that of many of the Sicilians resembles In this their custom the bare limestone mountains and South Italians. than like the typical scenery The white-walled. but from Turkish inhabitants dwell just released or ten of five in gigantic thousand people villages each. he is profoundly poetical. fertile hills. European all the vices of a country and Asiatic. from the Russian in many South Slav differs He Slav. are the food on which his youth Kossovo and Marco Kralyevitch is fed. as those of the Austrian were not nearly as deficient of army invasion. to till the distant whence fields." nor anti-clerical. produced The is not. as handed is occupied by the history down in this poetical and . that the Austrian troops so ruthlessly sacked their invasion. for a hundred free of the Turks and where has been the years a landscape is Serbian. standards Above are deficient. which Serbia. Serbian Macedonia many races. the inhabitants at nightfall. to draw for safety It together is this country. are curiously of Macedonia backward like some civilization parts of South Italy or Sicily. But the change from South than the change from Serbian Italy to North Italy is not greater to Northern In Northern Macedonia Serbia. having been crossed with Greek and Italian blood. indifferent but On the other and his national songs about hand. even so they its hospital arrangements though all. and Indeed. entire population of gentle. and he has not much of what we call "personal He is neither clerical religion. Before the coming the Serbian Empire works of Italian art of high rank. red-roofed and modified Ages. But by Western the valor of the private give it is of course miserably clothed and equipped. by Italian influence in the course of the Middle of the Turk.AUSTRIA-HUNGARY AND SERBIA 867 in Europe. the richest in Serbia.
with and Transylvania. the Croats of the same race among strongly as the Serbians. and language but of a different religion. while the Serb of Roman The Croats Catholic. too. rorism has now spread and Bosnia In all the South Slav provinces of Austria-Hungary this during war are the order of and executions arbitrary imprisonment the wholesale of the inhabi the day. as if they were to masters unfit barbarians. These national characteristics retreat than the Russians. to the The Dalmatian Croats not to the Magyars. and of sudden of recovery retour offensif against Their their hasty stopped they the pursuing and enemy most in feats extraordinary of the mercurial character . by their Magyar in government. during of Austrian and Magyar. The modern press not reached him. yet treated people. the Austrians when turned round and attacked retreat. George Macaulay Trevelyan.868 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW and modern literature have are also found still more of Dalmatia. But the system of military ter Austrians. we are fighting to prevent from being civilization Elsewhere of in the Southeast conquest. broke him to pieces. If ever there was their brothers there is such a battle now going on in Southeastern for freedom. than the Serbians the Italians and the outside world their Slav modified and display characteristics by centuries are subject of such contact. Con across the Carpathian to border they are looking sequently a battle of free Rumania. If this war ends in the Europe against Austrian an immense of the Magyar overthrow tyranny. for European men to hope for permanent if these races. being people. from Croatia into Dalmatia. peace fully aroused are left to to national consciousness the last few years. military put back by German we are fighting for a positive of the human improvement Europe lot. being is Orthodox. a sea-going have had more to do with Dalmatia. musical form. not even permitted and have any share the free dom of racial self-expression in education and literature. of Serbian heroism. Rumanians of Eastern Hungary They are a Latin of fine sensibility and intellect. the the tender mercies So. and Magyar. are The Serbs less patient in of more but fierce attack capable morale after all is apparently lost. step forward marked racial liberty and European will have been taken toward peace. and in Bosnia deportation states tants of suspected It is useless districts. ever had. in December. is one of the and is also highly illustrative war.
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