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AP Calculus BC

Infinite Series Tests Review

You should understand the following key ideas for the quiz next Tuesday: lHopitals Rule for indeterminate limits of the form 0 or 0 Improper integrals Geometric series and the condition for convergence Divergence test for infinite series Direct comparison test, integral test, ratio test, alternating series test Error in approximating an alternating series

This chart may help organize your thinking about the tests: Test Divergence (or nth Term) Geometric Series Telescoping Series p-series Alternating Series Integral Test (f is continuous, positive, and decreasing) Ratio Test Direct Comparison Test
n =1

Series

Converges

Diverges lim un 0
n

u
n =1 n =0

ar ( u
n

r <1 lim un = L
n

r 1

Comment This test cannot be used to show convergence a S = 1 r S = u1 L

un +1 ) 1
p n +1

n
n =1

p >1 un 0 < un +1 un and lim un = 0


n

p 1 Remainder: RN uN +1 Remainder: 0 < RN < f ( x ) dx


N

( 1)
n =1

u
n =1

, with

un = f ( n ) 0

f ( x ) dx converges
1

f ( x ) dx diverges
1

u
n =1

u lim n +1 < 1 n u n 0 un cn where

u lim n +1 > 1 n u n 0 d n un where

Test is inconclusive u if lim n +1 = 1 n u n

u
n =1

cn converges
n =1

d
n =1

diverges

Some Review Questions... 1. Test for convergence or divergence using any appropriate test. (a) (d)

n =1

( 1)

n +1

n
n

(b) (e)

5 n n =1 2n n +1 n =1

(c) (f)

n
n =1 n =1

3 n n
2

4 n =1

2n

+1

(g)

n =1

( 1)

3n 2

2n

(h)

n =1

10 3 n3

(i)

10n + 3 n 2n n =1

(j)

2n 4n 2 1 n =1 n7 n n! n =1

(k)

cos n 2n n =1 ln n n2 n =1

(l)

n ln n
n =1

( 1) ( 1)

(m)

(n)
n

(n)
n

n =1

3n 1 n!
n

(o) 2.

n =1

( 1)

3n

n 2n

(p)

( 3 ) 3 5 7 ( 2n + 1) n =1

(q)

n =1

( 3)

2n n !

You are told that the terms of a positive series appear to approach 0 rapidly as n approaches infinity. In fact, u7 0.0001 . Given no other information, does this imply that the series converges? Support your answer with examples. Use the ratio test

3. 4.

n =1

( 1)

n +1

for convergence.

Hopefully you saw that the ratio test failed for the series in the previous question. Since it is an alternating series, if you can show that un +1 un , then the sequence is decreasing. By letting

x , use calculus to find the derivative and demonstrate that f ( x ) < 0 (i.e. it is decreasing!) for x +1 all x > 1 . Then, complete the rest of the Alternating Series Test to show the series converges. f ( x) = 5. What is the minimum number of terms needed of the series from question 3 to approximate the actual sum to an accuracy of less than one-millionth?