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Report #11 in a NEFA series, “Target: America” A NEFA analysis of the Richard Reid/Sajid Badat Shoe Bomb Plot September 2007
Mastermind – Senior Al-Qaida Official
During a March 2007 hearing at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (KSM) admitted, “I was responsible for the Shoe Bomber Operation to down two American airplanes.”1 KSM’s confession confirmed information released by the Director of National Intelligence in September 2006. In announcing the transfer of 14 “high value terrorist detainees” from CIA “black sites” to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, the DNI revealed the role played by KSM’s nephew ‘Ammar al-Balucchi: “In late 2001 in Afghanistan, KSM directed ‘Ammar to be the communications intermediary between al-Qa’ida and ‘shoe bombers’ Richard Reid and Saajid Badat.”2 (In addition to assisting the shoe bomb plot, ‘Ammar “played an important role” in the 9/11 plot “by transferring money to US-based operatives and acting as a travel facilitator to hijackers transiting the UAE…”3)
KSM Enlisted Another 9/11 Plotter to Assist the Plot
British-Based Plotter – Richard Reid
In October 2002, British citizen Richard Reid (a.k.a. Abdul-Raheem) pled guilty in a Massachusetts federal court to eight charges, including placing an explosive device on an aircraft and attempted murder.4 In January 2003, Reid was sentenced to life in prison and ordered to pay a $2 million fine.5
Reid’s Target - American Airlines Flight 63 from Paris to Miami
A government court filing summarizes Reid’s attempt to destroy a U.S.-bound commercial airliner:
Verbatim Transcript of Combatant Status Review Tribunal Hearing for ISN 10024, U.S. Department of Defense, Revised as of March 15, 2007, http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/Barot/DOD_KSM.pdf. 2 “Biographies of High Value Terrorist Detainees Transferred to the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay,” Biography of ‘Ali ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ‘Ali (a.k.a. ‘Ammar al-Baluchi), Office of the Director of National Intelligence, September 16, 2006, http://nefafoundation.org/web/miscellaneous/shoebomb/dni_bio.pdf. 3 “Biographies of High Value Terrorist Detainees Transferred to the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay,” Biography of ‘Ali ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ‘Ali (a.k.a. ‘Ammar al-Baluchi), Office of the Director of National Intelligence, September 16, 2006, http://nefafoundation.org/web/miscellaneous/shoebomb/dni_bio.pdf. 4 U.S. v. Reid, (D.C. MA.), 02-CR-10013-WGY, Judgment in a Criminal Case, Filed January 31, 2003 and “Reid Pleads Guilty,” CNN, October 4, 2002. 5 U.S. v. Reid, (D.C. MA.), 02-CR-10013-WGY, Judgment in a Criminal Case, Filed January 31, 2003.
” Time. v. the man in Seat 29H left his seat to use the restroom. a window seat aft of the wing of the aircraft…Between two and onehalf to three hours outside of Paris. and U. .S.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” “On December 22nd. 2002 provides an extensive account of the struggle to subdue Reid.” 10 The devices were made of TATP.org – info@nefafoundation. Filed January 17. Reid. 2002 Rule 11 Hearing. “11 Lives: The Flight Attendants.C. A safety fuse containing black power ran from the detonator and was accessible through the inner sole of the shoe. However. (D.).). 2002 Rule 11 Hearing. was laced through the shoes’ cushioning cells filed with plastic explosive. Government’s State of Relevant Facts Provided at Defendant’s October 4. MA. 6 www.). containing a small quantity of highexplosive and designed to propagate the explosion-induced shock wave…to ensure complete detonation. with 184 passengers and 14 crew members…The defendant was seated in Seat 29J on Flight 63. (D.). federal prosecutors stated: “At that time. 2002 Rule 11 Hearing. Reid. He then attempted to ignite the safety fuse through the use of matches he had brought onto the aircraft. He lit approximately six matches in an effort to ignite the safety fuse.”7 Next.C. Reid. Reid. 10 U.nefafoundation. 2003. Government’s State of Relevant Facts Provided at Defendant’s October 4. 02-CR-10013-WGY.C. MA.). Government’s State of Relevant Facts Provided at Defendant’s October 4. PETN. 7 U.C. Reid “took his right shoe and pulled the free end of the safety fuse through the inner sole and out of the shoe. (D. 02-CR-10013-WGY.org 2 . 02-CR-10013-WGY. MA. v.S. Reid.S. he was not able to ignite the black powder in the safety fuse before he was restrained8 by passengers and crew members. Note: Cathy Booth Thomas. v. (D. 2002 Rule 11 Hearing. melting the end of the safety fuse in the process. Each shoe contained a sophisticated explosive device of substantially identical design. seat-belt extenders and flexicuffs. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. 9 U. September 1. many of which had been packed with a quantity of plastic highexplosive.”9 A different government court filing notes that an FBI analysis “determined that the devices in Reid’s shoes were functioning explosive devices capable of exploding if the safety fuse had been properly ignited. An improvised detonator was fashioned from a paper tube filled with a quantity of non-commercial explosive. 02-CR-10013-WGY. The sole of the shoes consisted of waffle-patterned cushioning cells.S. the defendant removed his ankle-high hiking shoes.”6 Continuing in their account of the sequence of events. v. Government’s Statement of Relevant Facts Provided at Defendant’s October 4. MA. v. 8 Reid was restrained “in his seat by means of belts. the defendant boarded American Airlines Flight 63 in Paris France…The flight was nearly full.” See: U. [The] detonating cord.S.C. 02-CR-10013-WGY. (D. MA.
org – firstname.lastname@example.org/web/miscellaneous/shoebomb/statedept_badat. 17 “British National Indicted for Conspiring with ‘Shoe Bomber’ Richard Reid._v_Badat_DOJPRIndictment. File number 0413839059. Filed January 17. “What else is wrong” and “what’s up?” Shortly before Badat was to launch his attack. v.11 Moreover.S. December 19. 2004.” Department of Justice Press Release.” CNN. 2005. 11 www. “Badat admitted that he was asked to conduct a shoe bombing like Reid.14 According to U.”17 Badat’s Target – An Unidentified U.S. v. Note: Additionally. 2004.”15 Badat has also been indicted in Massachusetts federal court on a number of charges. MA. Rama. MA._v_Badat_DOJPRIndictment. Badat. Shoe-Bomb Conspirator Sentenced to 13 Years. October 4. Superseding Indictment.S. cited in British court proceedings. Sajid Badat. 16 U. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. 15 U. court documents.pdf.). telling police he wanted to “get away from danger and introduce some calm in his life. 2005.pdf. damage or endanger an aircraft. Reid. October 4. http://nefafoundation. 04-10223-GAO. February 28.16 Federal prosecutors asserted he conspired with Reid “to detonate homemade bombs hidden in shoes on American aircraft in 2001.org/web/miscellaneous/shoebomb/U.” Times Online. MA.nefafoundation. http://nefafoundation. reveal his handlers’ anxiety about his commitment as they inquired..S. Reid and Badat “left Pakistan within days of each other” and planned to “participate in corresponding and simultaneous attacks on passenger aircraft flights from Europe to America. http://nefafoundation.S. the FBI assessed that “if either device had been placed near or against the interior wall of the aircraft at Seat 29J…the resulting explosion would have breached the outside skin of the aircraft. April 22.”12 British-Based Plotter – Sajid Badat In April 2005.S. April 22. was sentenced to 13 years in prison in England13 after pleading guilty in February 2005 to conspiracy to destroy.” State Department Press Release. Badat emailed those contacts to inform them that he was having “big problems” and was “British National Indicted for Conspiring with ‘Shoe Bomber’ Richard Reid.C. Filed October 4. Badat lost his nerve and withdrew from the plot at the last moment. Badat. 2005. 04-10223-GAO. 12 U.”18 Badat Abandoned the Plot Unlike Reid.” The Guardian.S.). State Department designated Badat a “Foreign Terrorist” on December 19.C. 2005.K.pdf and Republic of France v. See: “Terrorist Designation of Sajid Badat. the loss of life would have been considerable. 2005. 2004. 14 “Guilty Plea in Shoe Bombing Case. “if they had succeeded. including conspiracy to destroy an aircraft and conspiracy to commit homicide. Filed June 16. Superseding Indictment. 2005.S. the U. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum.” He added. a British Al-Qaida operative..org 3 . 02-CR-10013-WGY.). 2003. (D. (D.-Bound Commercial Airliner According to British prosecutor Richard Horwell. 18 “Would-Be Suicide Bomber Gets 13 Years.org/web/miscellaneous/shoebomb/U. 2004. 13 “U. April 22.” Associated Press. 2005.” Department of Justice Press Release. Filed October 4. (D.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” other components. Judgment. 19 “Gloucester Shoebomber Jailed for 13 Years.”19 Email exchanges between Badat and his handlers.C. v.
). Judgment. April 22.S. (D. stating they were “essentially identical in chemical composition.” He added. a British judge commented that Badat had had a “genuine change of heart” and that “turning away from crime in circumstances such as these constitutes a powerful mitigating factor. he stated. 29 “Gloucester Shoebomber Jailed for 13 Years.”25 A French court document reports that Reid “claimed to have found the information required to make the explosives on the Internet.” BBC. Filed October 4. 2003 arrest. v.”29 “Gloucester Shoebomber Jailed for 13 Years. Filed June 16. 2004.C." 26 However. 23 U. Filed June 16.C. April 22. Rama. (D. MA. 25 U. 2005. French authorities believe that “Reid did not have the necessary technical knowledge for designing the device” and that “the explosive device integrated into the shoes was assembled in this country.). stating: “He had booked a ticket to fly from Manchester to Amsterdam in preparation for an onward flight to the United States on which the explosive device would be initiated. Badat. 27 Republic of France v. 04-10223-GAO. 2004. “I did not know how to dispose of…An Arab gave me these things in Afghanistan.nefafoundation. Badat reportedly said.” Times Online.S. “you will have to tell Van Damme that he could be on his own. “Terror Suspect Admits Plane Plot.”24 Badat’s U. Superseding Indictment.”22 Procuring the Shoe Bombs Badat’s U. 04-10223-GAO.S. Department of Justice noted “the shoe bombs obtained by Badat were substantially similar to the shoe bombs obtained by Reid. Judgment.S indictment asserts that Badat procured his shoe bomb in Afghanistan.500 dollars. Then.org 4 . declaring that he received it “at a time unknown.23 When pointing authorities to the shoe bomb in his house at the time of his November 27. February 28. 2004.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” “having trouble playing any sport whatsoever. MA.” Times Online.”21 When sentencing Badat to 13 years in prison. to have bought the ingredients in Amsterdam for 1. 21 20 www. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. 04-10223-GAO. 22 “Shoebomb Plotter Given 13 Years.S. (D.org – info@nefafoundation. 24 “Gloucester Shoebomber Jailed for 13 Years. File number 0413839059. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. British prosecutor Richard Horwell provided further detail on Badat’s withdrawal from the plot.” 27 Reid and Badat’s Shoe Bombs were “Essentially Identical” When charging Badat. Filed October 4. He had separated the fuse and the detonator from the plastic explosive.” Times Online. 2005. v. Badat. But he did not take that flight. April 22. 2005.” BBC.C.”28 In British court. Richard Horwell echoed this conclusion. indictment leaves Reid’s procurement of his shoe bomb shrouded in mystery. 2005. Rama. 2005. to have set up the device and placed it in the soles of his shoes.). Superseding Indictment. April 22. he had the shoe stitched up by a professional and wore them uneventfully for one month. File number 0413839059. Badat. Filed October 4. 28 U. the U. 26 Republic of France v. 2005. Superseding Indictment. 2005. v. MA.”20 During court proceedings.S. We accept by then he had withdrawn from the conspiracy…The device he brought with him to the UK was kept at his home.
including.”36 time. Magistrates’ Court of Paris.). He later claimed that the idea of placing explosives in his shoes came from his observations of El Al security. December 6. “Reid named Abu Khalid Sawahiri (Moussaoui) as the beneficiary of his belongings upon his ‘passing. January 10.”38 In a report on his travels. Jonathan Karp. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid.” CNN. March 5. “For Reid.33 Reid reportedly trained alongside convicted terrorists Ahmed Ressam and Zacarias Moussaoui. January 16. Reid traveled within Israel and also visited Egypt. British prosecutors revealed that Badat received training in both Afghanistan and Pakistan.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” Badat and Reid Attended Al-Qaida Training Camps During court proceedings.” Times Online. MA. 2001.C. and the fact that security personnel did not check the insides of his shoes.31 Similarly.’”35) Additionally. Reid focused on El Al security at the airports and aboard his flight.32 where he allegedly was trained by Al-Qaida “master bomb maker” Midhat Mursi (a.S. Reid flew into Tel Aviv. “During his trip. April 22. Judgment.” CNN. 33 Habibullah Khan and Brian Ross.” 39 El Al spokesman Nachman Klieman reported that “the red light went off immediately because of the way he answered questions. Strike Killed Al Qaeda Bomb Maker.org – info@nefafoundation.” The Wall Street Journal. Filed April 20. Reid.S.37 British prosecutors believe Reid and Badat were in Afghanistan at the same Reid Scouted Airport Security On July 12. 35 U. 38 U. In the following weeks. prosecutors noted that in his last will. File number 0413839059. “U. 39 Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. The U. Reid attended an Al-Qaida training camp (Khalden) in Afghanistan.30 he reportedly attended both the Khalden and Daruntag camps in Afghanistan. February 28. Mark Honigsbaum and Vikram Dodd.nefafoundation. 02-CR-10013-WGY. 36 Republic of France v.S. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. later found on Al-Qaida number two Ayman alZawahiri’s computer in Afghanistan. 37 “Gloucester Shoebomber Jailed for 13 Years. Filed June 16. “why do you want to go to Israel?. Stipulation Regarding Richard Reid. CR-No-01-455A. January 18.D. Rama. 2003.a. 2005. 2002. Abu Khabab al-Masri). (D.” U. David Pringle. 2003.” ABC News.”40 “Guilty Plea in Shoe Bombing Case. VA. 2005. Turkey. 2005.” CNN.).org 5 . 31 30 www.k. (E. a French court document asserts that Reid “took part in combat on the frontlines in support of the Taliban between April 1999 and March 2001. Moussaoui. v. 2006. 32 “Sources: Reid is al Qaeda Operative. 2005. 2006.S. government’s sentencing memorandum in Reid’s case states. Filed January 17. 40 Dan Bilefsky. v. a Tortured Path to Flight 63.S. “From Gloucester to Afghanistan: The Making of a Shoe Bomber. 2003. Israel on El Al Airlines. 2002. December 6.” The Wall Street Journal. Reid documented ten questions El Al security asked him. John Carreyrou.34 (Labeling Moussaoui and Reid “close associates.” The Guardian. and Pakistan. 34 “Sources: Reid is al Qaeda Operative.
”44 French prosecutors assessed that “this suggests that he…benefited from technical and financial support. Rama. Judgment. 2002. 2005. June 17. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. File number 0413839059. since he did not have any funds…. a Tortured Path to Flight 63. 2005. Rama. 52 Notably.S.”42 Documenting the scene on the plane. government has labeled a Specially Designated Global Terrorist. 2002. Rama.’” The New York Times. when Reid was questioned by the FBI following his arrest. June 17. June 16.52 which French intelligence believes was the French representative for the Pakistani terrorist group Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT). January 16. 2001. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. “France: Prison for Man Linked to ‘Shoe Bomber.) In June 2005. Filed June 16. April 9.41 and.” in fact. Moreover.” BBC.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” When Reid was finally allowed to board the plan to Tel Aviv. 45 Republic of France v. File number 0413839059. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid. according to Kleiman. “remained under scrutiny the whole way. Rama helped el-Cheguer and Mokhfi attend a LeT camp in Pakistan. and Mustapha Ghulam Rama. while the other men were given four year terms.” The Wall Street Journal. Filed June 16. 47 “France Jails Shoe-Bomber Contact. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. 44 Republic of France v. Jonathan Karp. John Carreyrou. Franco-Algerian Hakim Mokhfi.” The Wall Street Journal. 2005. David Pringle. “served as a compass on French territory” for Reid while he was in Paris.”47 Rama received a five year prison sentence. Filed June 16. a dual British-Pakistani citizen.49 Also in June 2005. Judgment. “he was not able to explain how. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid. 49 “3 Sentenced in France for Kashmir Terrorism Links. Rama’s butcher shop was long known “as being a place of proselytizing in favor of Jihad in Kashmir. January 16.”45 (Reid traveled to Paris on December 16. 2002. he was seated close to an armed air marshal. Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. Reid’s report established that “generally flight attendants are security and there are [security] people sitting among the passengers. 2005.51 Rama was the president of Chemin Droit.” Associated Press. the owner of a halal butcher shop.” Associated Press.50 French prosecutors charged that Rama. a Saudi-based NGO that the U. File number 0413839059.46 were convicted in France for belonging to a “criminal association in relation to a terrorist enterprise. “For Reid. Franco-Moroccan Hassan el-Cheguer.” The Wall Street Journal. 42 Dan Bilefsky. 2005. June 17.48 The men were linked to Lashkar-e-Taiba.” Le Figaro. June 17. 46 “French Police Investigate ‘Shoe Bomber’ Richard Reid’s Connections.”43 A Support Structure Aided Reid in France According to a French court document. January 10. namely France. 41 www. See: Republic of France v.org 6 .org – info@nefafoundation. 51 John Tagliabue. Tunisian Kamel Lakhram was convicted of being in France illegally and sentenced to three months in jail. 50 “3 Sentenced in France for Kashmir Terrorism Links.nefafoundation. a Pakistani terrorist group. 2005. 43 Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. 2005. the purchase of the organization’s headquarters was partially financed by AlHaramain. he had been able to purchase the [explosive] substances and to pay for his travels. 2005 48 “3 Sentenced in France for Kashmir Terrorism Links. Judgment. 2005. particularly from the place where he had embarked.” Associated Press.
Badat. British prosecutor Richard Whittam revealed that Reid and Badat shared a Belgian phone card in Amsterdam in September 2001. v.C. Superseding Indictment. 2005 and “Gloucester Shoebomber Jailed for 13 Years.62 Earlier in the summer. 2004.S. File number 0413839059.” Times Online. Badat. 2004. 55 “French Police Investigate ‘Shoe Bomber’ Richard Reid’s Connections.C. Reid utilized the same tactic at the British Embassy in Brussels to secure another passport. Judgment. v. MA.S. October 4. File number 0413839059. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. April 9. 62 “British National Indicted for Conspiring with ‘Shoe Bomber’ Richard Reid. 2005. Badat.54 The prosecuting attorney noted that El-Cheguer thought “Rama reported them in order to cover up for someone more important who put him in touch with Richard Reid. Judgment. 2001. 58 “Gloucester Shoebomber Jailed for 13 Years. on July 6th. 2002. MA. April 22. as documented in U.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” And an analysis of documents seized from Rama revealed Rama possessed the telephone numbers of multiple terrorists. (D. Rama acknowledged meeting with Reid but claimed el-Cheguer and Mokhfi had introduced them. Superseding Indictment. 2001 and applied for a new passport. 54 Republic of France v. Badat and Reid traveled to Pakistan…”57 While in Karachi. Filed June 16. Rama. 2001. Rama. (D.S. 2005. Judgment.”55 In court.org/web/miscellaneous/shoebomb/U.”63 Republic of France v. Pakistan.S. 04-10223-GAO. Rama. MA.).” Times Online. 2004. in December 2001 “Badat and Reid communicated directly and indirectly through…electronic mail accounts to coordinate their activities with respect to detonating their shoe bombs to be used to attack American interests…”59 Communications Between Reid and Badat Reid and Badat Procured Clean Passports The Badat indictment charges that Badat went to the British Embassy in Brussels on September 11. Superseding Indictment. 04-10223-GAO.S. Filed October 4. 04-10223-GAO.). January 16.” CNN. 2001. Superseding Indictment. http://nefafoundation. 61 U. though in different hotels.). court filings.56 Then. 2004. 04-10223-GAO.61 He used this new passport to board American Airlines Flight 63. Reid had procured a new passport from the British consulate in Amsterdam.pdf. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid. (D. 2005. 59 U. Badat. 2005. telling a consulate official. Filed October 4. Note: Reid failed to obtain a new passport from the British consulate in Karachi on November 30._v_Badat_DOJPRIndictment. Filed October 4. See: Republic of France v. 56 “Guilty Plea in Shoe Bombing Case. on December 5. according to the Department of Justice.” Le Figaro. Filed June 16. MA. “I was drunk and washed my passport. 2004. (D. 60 U.org – info@nefafoundation. 2005. “falsely claiming to have lost his…”60 Then. File number 0413839059.C. v. 53 www. 63 Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. they stayed on the same street. “on or about November 20. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. Filed June 16.C.S. 57 U.” Department of Justice Press Release.58 And. Filed October 4.” The Wall Street Journal. February 28. 53 When questioned by authorities. 2005. v.org 7 . Magistrates’ Court of Paris. April 22.nefafoundation.).
org – info@nefafoundation. Reid also had a copy of Time magazine titled “Islam in Europe” and an issue of Newsweek with a picture of Usama Bin Laden. according to federal prosecutors. Filed June 16. Judgment. “For Reid. Jonathan Karp. Reid wrote: “what i am doing is part of the ongoing war between islaam and disbelief…i didn’t do this act out of ignorance nor did i do just because i want to die. court filings.org 8 . However. Rama.64 When Reid’s possessions were searched.C. but rather i see it as a duty upon me to help remove the oppressive american forces from the muslim lands…we do not have other means to fight them…we are ready to die defending the true islaam rather to just sit back and allow the american government to dictate to us what U.S. Filed January 17. Rama. Reid. He did not appear at all anxious…”66 Nonetheless. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. indeed perplexed. 2003. Reid authored three emails and moved them to drafts folder in his Yahoo account. 64 www. airport security found a walkman and cassette with recordings of the Koran. security agents and agents of American Airlines – indicated that they had been troubled. 65 Republic of France v. v.nefafoundation.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” Additional Information – Reid’s Failed Attempt to Board American Airlines Flight 63 on December 21. John Carreyrou. 02-CR-10013-WGY. 66 Republic of France v. after a pat down search.). and. Reid had attempted to board the same flight at Charles de Gaulle Airport. 67 Dan Bilefsky. 2005. Magistrates’ Court of Paris.67 Additional Information – Reid’s Motivations: “I am at War with Your Country” As established by U. January 10. Reid was allowed to board an American Airlines flight the next day. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. Filed June 16. by the personality and the behavior of Richard Reid. File number 0413839059. 2005. In a letter to his mother. Judgment. as well as anti-Israeli messages. very unkempt. 2002. described as filthy. a Tortured Path to Flight 63.S. 65 Further. When probed about the purpose of his trip. “extra searches and questioning prompted by the suspicions of security personnel” delayed Reid and caused him to miss his flight.” The Wall Street Journal. MA. background checks reportedly returned nothing suspicious. David Pringle. the day before Reid’s first attempt to bomb American Flight 63. File number 0413839059. he told authorities he intended to visit an aunt in Antigua. 2001 The day prior to his unsuccessful attempt to bring down American Airlines Flight 63. French court documents reveal that “the thirteen witnesses interviewed regarding this inspection procedure – policemen. (D. emotionless and not attempting to find out why he was being subjected to an inspection.
Reid unleashed a tirade in which he shed even more light on the factors driving his actions: “I further admit my allegiance to Osama bin Laden. April 22.S. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. Filed January 17. (D. “America is the problem. “Your government has sponsored the rape and torture of Muslims in the prisons of Egypt and Turkey and Syria and Jordan with their money and with their weapons. MA. in large part due to Usama Bin Laden’s belief that his efforts in 68 U. January 31. or to the deaths of the two million children in Iraq. 02-CR-10013-WGY.”75 In its targeting strategy. I don't know.C.” Times Online.nefafoundation. Filed January 17.C. Reid. Economy In an interview with FBI agents. 02-CR-10013-WGY. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum.S. v.” He also told the FBI that he “switched his target from Israel to America after America began bombing the Taliban…”69 During his sentencing hearing.S. leading to a substantial loss of revenue which would in turn hurt the American economy. “I have a sincere desire to sell my soul to Allah in return for paradise. 2003.”73 Notably. (D. 73 U. “I think I ought not apologize for my actions. Reid admitted he targeted commercial aviation “especially during the holiday season” because he sought to “cause the American public to lose confidence in airline security and stop traveling.” CNN. against 2 million. MA. Filed January 17. Your government has killed 2 million children in Iraq. Al-Qaida has continually sought to strike targets of economic significance.C.” He added.” CNN. to Islam.). 2003. without America there would be no Israel. Badat wrote a letter to his parents in which he said.S.). 70 “Reid: ‘I Am at War with Your Country. 2003. Reid. MA. January 31. 2005. 2003.). 2003. Reid believed that “Allah would reward him in heaven. 74 “Gloucester Shoebomber Jailed for 13 Years. January 31. 71 “Reid: ‘I Am at War with Your Country. 02-CR-10013-WGY. 2003. v. 2003.). I will say one thing. I don't see no comparison. With regards to what you said about killing innocent people.”71 Reid added. If you want to think about something. 75 U. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. and to the religion of Allah. 69 U.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” we should believe and how we should behave…this is a war between islaam and democracy…”68 In interviews with FBI agents following his arrest.org 9 .C.”70 He continued. as he declared “that the United States should not be involved in Muslim affairs such as supporting Israel. Reid provided additional insights into his motivation. v.”74 Additional Information – Reid’s Desire to Damage the U. (D.org – info@nefafoundation.” CNN. Filed January 17. www. I am at war with your country.S. v. (D. Reid. so many children and they have oppressed my religion and they have oppressed people for no reason except that they say we believe in Allah. I'm at war with them not for personal reasons but because they have murdered more than. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. 02-CR-10013-WGY. 72 “Reid: ‘I Am at War with Your Country.” 72 By blowing up Flight 63. MA. Reid. see what I done as being equal to rape and to torture.
“KSM reasoned he could best influence U. then we have to prove to these investors that the enemy's land is not safe for them. p. “We. KSM and [1993 World Trade Center bomber Ramzi] Yousef reportedly brainstormed together about what drove the U. economy that captivated KSM when planning 9/11. 82 “‘Full Text’ of Usama bin Ladin Recorded Statement Aired by Al-Jazirah TV 27 Dec. Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism.”77 And an excerpt from the Al-Qaida publication Sawt al-Jihad states: “If the enemy has used his economy to rule the world and hire collaborators.S. that his economy is not capable of guarding their monies. 81 Paul Martin. he added.80 according to a section of KSM’s interrogation cited in the media. New York. The 9/11 Commission declares. “If their economy is destroyed. 80 “Press Briefing on the West Coast Terrorist Plot by Frances Fragos Townsend.S. Bin Laden remarked that the hijackers had “struck…the U. L. 2004. November 2. 153. Bin Laden has also stressed his “policy” of “bleeding America to the point of bankruptcy. they will be busy with their own affairs rather than enslaving the weak peoples.” FBIS. then we need to strike this economy with harsh attacks to bring it down on the heads of its owners. 79 The 9/11 Commission Report.S. 2006.” The Washington Times. economy.org/miscellaneous/WestCoast/Townsend_02-09-2006. If the enemy has built his economy on the basis of open markets and free trade by getting the monies of investors. 77 76 www. “What Else is There to Say About September 11. “Chicago.pdf. Towers Were Next Targets.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” Afghanistan in the 1980’s bankrupted the Soviet Union and led to the collapse of the Russian Empire.nefafoundation. November 2.”79 (KSM’s aborted second wave of hijackings allegedly targeted the Library Tower in California. so they would abandon him to suffer alone the fall of his economy. In the same speech.org 10 .”78 It was New York’s role as the heart of the U.S.”76 In publicly released statements.”81) Following the 9/11 attacks. policy by targeting the country’s economy. Transcript of Usama Bin Laden Tape.org – info@nefafoundation. therefore became the primary target. which KSM considered the economic capital of the United States.nefafoundation. http://www. markets.” White House Press Release. 78 Akhu Man Ta`a Allah. economy in the heart” and “inflicted…more than a trillion dollars in losses” on U. Bin Laden said.”82 Transcript of Usama Bin Laden Tape. It is very important to concentrate on hitting the U. 2004.S. economy through all possible means. March 30. 2004. In remarks broadcast in November 2004.A. Document ID: GMP20011227000257.S. California provided such an appealing target because “it was America’s richest state. bled Russia for 10 years until it went bankrupt and was forced to withdraw in defeat.” Sawt al-Jihad. Volume 26. February 9. alongside the mujahedeen.
” The Observer. Department of the Treasury. Haifa. 2002.org – info@nefafoundation. Reid assessed the vulnerability of the Wailing Wall: “It is clear that security 83 U. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid. 87 During his ten day stay in Israel.S.”90 Reid’s report notes that an operative potentially could “bring explosives from Bethlehem to Jerusalem” because his bag was not searched when he produced his British passport. 90 Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. former Deputy Assistant Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis at the U. January 16.nefafoundation. (D. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. 89 U. 85 Paul Harris. See: Matthew Levitt. v. Reid. New Haven.C. 91 Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. Filed January 17. government court filing states that Reid “reported to an associate in Afghanistan that the reception area of the Tel Aviv train station would be a particularly good bombing target. Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. 2003. © 2006. 02-CR-10013-WGY. CT. 2002. 02-CR-10013-WGY. 2002. and a kibbutz in Tiberias.84 At Feltham. once in 1992 and again in 1994. 84 “Timeline: The Shoe Bomber Case. 88 Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. Filed January 17.88 A U. Hamas: Politics. because it could be entered without being searched and contained at least 100 people at the arrival time of any given train.S.S. January 7. “The Making of a Human Timebomb. because it was full of military personnel following the Jewish sabbath.” The Wall Street Journal. Buses were also attractive targets because Reid “boarded with his bag more than once and was not subject to searches. January 16. (D. January 16. Reid was incarcerated twice at Feltham Young Offenders Institution in West London.). 02-CR-10013-WGY.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” Significantly. Bethlehem. and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad. v. who trained in an Al-Qaida camp in Afghanistan and had links with Hamas.” The Wall Street Journal. Reid traveled to Tel Aviv. December 30. Reid “scouted possible bombing missions. Reid. The report adds. (D. court documents. with encouragement from his father (who is also a convert) and under the tutelage of radical imam Abdul Ghani Qureshi. MA.). v. www. Reid described the World Trade Center as “a legitimate target being the main financial center for the US from which it supports itself and isra’el. MA. 2003. according to an Al-Qaida report on Reid’s trip. Yale University Press. 2002.”91 While in Jerusalem.org 11 . Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. Reid converted to Islam.” CNN.85 Additional Information – Reid Cased Targets in Israel/Egypt While in Israeli86 and Egypt in July 2001.” The Wall Street Journal.” according to U. Reid was hosted by Nabil Awqil. 87 U. MA. in Reid’s will. especially on a Saturday night. 2003. Filed January 17. The same Al-Qaida report points out that security guards at the Haifa station often were too busy to search each passenger. 86 According to Matthew Levitt.C. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid.”89 The Tel Aviv station was especially appealing. Jerusalem.C. “it appears that brothers with European passports are able to move about in Israel with greater freedom and can be treated as Israelis. Charity.”83 Additional Information – Reid’s Prior Incarceration/Conversion to Islam According to the British Home Office. Nick Paton Walsh and Burhan Wazir.S.S. 2001. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid. Reid.).S.
gathered from other hotel rooms. 2003 and Alan Cullison.” The Wall Street Journal. 95 U. September 30.” CNN.” CBS News. “Inside Al-Qaeda’s Hard Drive. April 22. invasion. January 16. February 28. Reid went to great lengths to hide his fundamentalist beliefs. Reid.” He also put cigarette butts. 93 Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. Magistrates’ Court of Paris. MA.” The Atlantic Monthly. 02-CR-10013-WGY.nefafoundation. Reid “inserted…photographs of the beach and such. Rama.” The Wall Street Journal. (D. 2005. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid.). Government’s Sentencing Memorandum. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid. especially as a response to the insult against the Al-Aqsa mosque by the Jews. the Armed Islamic Group (GIA). The report about Reid’s trip states that “at the hotel he would take empty alcohol bottles from the street and put them into trash containers in his room. extreme Islamists in the UK and overseas. and influence over. military base in Belgium. 97 “Terror Verdict for Soccer Pro. in his ashtray. Judgment.95 British prosecutors noted that both Badat and Reid had links with Nizar Trabelsi. September 2004. 2005.S. January 16.”93 In order to mask his true intentions.These groups and networks include the Al Qa’eda network.” Times Online. 94 Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. the report on Reid’s scouting mission was discovered on Ayman al-Zawahiri’s computer in Afghanistan following the U.org 12 . where there is a “wooded area and there is a side road that is covered by trees.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” at the Wailing Wall is as strong as one would expect. January 16. 2003. “Account of Spy Trip on Kabul PC Matches Travels of Richard Reid. 2005 and “Gloucester Shoebomber Jailed for 13 Years.94 As noted previously. the report highlights the feasibility of bombing a bus before Ismailia. which served as Reid’s jumping off point for Tel Aviv.S. the Salafist Group for Call and Combat Additional Information – Reid’s Links to Two Influential Extremist British Clerics Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins. Reid was in contact with Abu Qatada. File number 0413839059. 2002. preparation and instigation of terrorism overseas by providing spiritual and religious advice to a number of extreme Islamists prepared to carry out terrorist attacks…. Filed June 16.96 a former professional soccer player who is serving 10 years in prison for planning to bomb a U.S.” The Wall Street Journal.97 Additional Information – Badat/Reid’s Link to a Convicted Belgian Terrorist When living in England.” Nonetheless. Filed January 17. 2002. v. 96 “Guilty Plea in Shoe Bombing Case. 2002. 92 www.org – info@nefafoundation.”92 Reid’s trip to Egypt was less fertile as the report bemoans the fact that “there is not a lot of information from this trip and a [new] trip…is absolutely necessary.98 whom the British Home Department asserts is “a leading spiritual advisor with extensive links to.” And in Amsterdam. 98 Republic of France v.C.” The British Special Immigration Appeal Commission reports that “since at least 1995” Abu Qatada “has given encouragement to the commission.
N. 104 ABC News. Marjorie Miller. 100 Josh Meyer. 103 Sue Clough. Filed April 19.” The Los Angeles Times.” Metropolitan Police Service Press Release. Abu Hamza was sentenced to seven years in a British prison after he was convicted of six counts of soliciting to murder “in a series of hate-filled sermons.nefafoundation.” The British government is currently attempting to deport Abu Qatada. 2001. Sebastian Rotella. Reid was also influenced by Mustafa Kamel Mustafa (a. Filed February 26. v. and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ).99 In London. 101 “Abu Hamza Jailed for Seven Years.Y.S. Mustafa.k.” The Telegraph. 2005. 04-CR-356. (S. Indictment. December 27.102 Appendix The explosives found at Badat’s apartment and Badat’s British passport:103 Richard Reid’s shoe bomb: 104 Special Immigration Appeal Commission.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” (GSPC). 2006.100 In February 2006. who preached at the Finsbury Park mosque. 2004. Omar Othman (aka Abu Qatada) and Secretary of State for the Home Department. 102 U.org – info@nefafoundation. 2007. “Shoe-Bomb Suspect Linked to al Qaeda. February 8.”101 Abu Hamza has also been indicted in New York for providing material support to Al-Qaida and the Taliban. taking part in a kidnapping operation in Yemen in 1998. and attempting to establish a terrorist training camp in Oregon.D. Judgment. 99 www. “British Muslim Planned Second Shoe Bombing. Abu Hamza).org 13 .a.). March 1.
You’ll be able to satisfy yourselves with the fact that we can. in which he displayed a newly declassified X-ray image of explosives hidden in shoes (see below).” He added.“KSM’s Transatlantic Shoe Bomb Plot” In August 2006.” Transportation Security Administration Press Release. TSA official Kip Hawley held a press conference at Reagan Airport in Washington D. 105 www. 2006.nefafoundation.org 14 .C. “We decided to de-classify them because of intense interest on the part of the public on whether or not we can find shoe bombs with our X-ray equipment at the checkpoint. August 15.pdf.org/web/miscellaneous/shoebomb/kiphawley.jpg.”105 “Remarks by Assistant Secretary for TSA Kip Hawley on X-ray Shoe Screening.org – info@nefafoundation. He remarked. “This is a slide or several images showing a mockup of the Richard Reid shoe bomb with simulated explosives. http://nefafoundation. which look the same as real explosives on an X-ray.org/web/miscellaneous/shoebomb/x-ray_shoes. Note: See also http://nefafoundation.
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