Metodyka – Wykł. 1.
( 2006r) Reasons( for learning English )– school curriculum, advancement, need to survive in the community, job perspective, etc. English – International language for communication. Target Language Community – TLC - where inhabitants speak the ( their ) language which the student is learning. English for Specific Purposes /ESP/: - English for Occupational Purposes /EOP/-( waiter etc. ) - English for Academic Purposes/EAP- ( At University – students may need English just to function only during one semester ). - English for Science and Technology/EST/- ( In scientific field, disciplines, when one needs to be able to read articles and textbooks about specific topic ). ESP EOP EAP EST
Another reason for learning foreign language: culture ( attraction base study of English, need to learn history, etc. ). We need to consider all the reasons as well as some other factors which decide about failure or success in learning English. MOTIVATION is the biggest factor affecting success. What is motivation? – it is a kind of internal drive which encourages somebody to pursue a course of action. If we perceive goal we will be strongly motivated to achieve that goal. Language students perceive goals of various kinds: Long term goals – better job, etc. Short term goals – need to pass an exam, write class work, etc. Students with long term goal are easier to teach.
Motivation Extrinsic motivation Factors outside the classroom ( adults have this kind of motivation ). Intrinsic motivation Is concerned with what takes place in the classroom. ( People with no motivation –what happens in the classrom will be of vital importance ).
How can we increase intrinsic motivation? - Physical conditions - they can alter student’s motivation positively or negatively ( colours, patterns, not overcrowded, nice view, light, etc. ). Making classroom as nice as possible improves atmosphere where students are supposed to work. - Method – for ex. Communicative approach, Grammar translation approach.
fairness.curious – highly motivating. which methods are more successful which are less successful. ) = frequent changes of activity = they need activities which stimulate their curiosity.group work -. .emphasize on cooperative learning activities: -.explains clearly 4 .letting student long time goals .makes his course interesting 2 .allow our students sufficient time for learning . they need to be involved 2
. 15 min.viewing a class as a team -. educated ) .teaching writing as a thinking process in which students develop their own ideas openly and freely -. . 2.teacher needs to know his subject ( well prepared. There is no clear evidence. makes them active 7 – shows great patience 8 – makes his pupils work Additional qualities: .remember to reward innovation and creativity -.If someone is motivated . ( 29. There are no ideal teachers.Teacher – is a most important figure in the classroom.most demanding group .sympathy.rapport with students ( relationship ) . ) Teaching different age groups.he will learn. because teacher is main authority in the classroom . children will seek teacher approval.oral fluency exercises should be designed in a way what interests students -. Children .the level of challenge right – too high or too low activities can be demotivating How to increase motivation? . .allow risk-taking behaviour -. 10.success – both: complete success or failure can be demotivating for our students .inspires confidence
Teachers mentioned 2 areas: . If student loses confidence in our method he will become demotivated.teacher’s personality . Study that has been made in 70-ies on a group of children age: 12-17 who were asked about qualities that make a good teacher revealed that most important is when teacher: 1 . The students have to find confidence with the method they are thought.their attention span and concentration as less than of an adult ( approx.emphasize communicative language teaching – they need to see the purpose why they learn
Wykl.speaks good English 5 – shows the same interest in all student ( being fair ) 6 – makes all the students participate. 2006r.teaches good pronunciation 3 .
complex problems can be solved with logical thinking. esp. . supportive. They are very sensitive to peers – affected by inhibitions. Almost everything which happens in the classroom depends on the behaviour and attitude of the teacher.affirm each person talents and skills .the teacher should never forget that student needs to be seen in a good light by their peers.they have longer attention span. When the level is too low – they will switch off. Rules.various skills that we teach need to be interrelated to make our students see connections. peer approval is more important for them.avoid embarrassment of student at all costs . Children are focused on HERE and NOW – functional purposes of language. are more mature. . need to be appreciated for their activity.the teen are in age of transition.elicit as much oral participation from students. confusion. Adolescent student . to be laughed at.children need to be exposed to authentic language. Sensory aids – will help to internalize concepts. all the visual aids – videos. They have little appreciation for correctness – it is difficult for them to grasp linguistic concepts. and teenagers are very sensitive. When is too high – they will feel discouraged. Children need to have all senses stimulated. Teacher needs to be lively and enthusiastic about subject matter.teacher may not be ‘leader’ for them but potential ‘enemy’ . Sense of humour is important – learning in a positive atmosphere will help maintain attention and being focus.you are no longer authority for them. What can we do about inhibitions? . explanations. quiet ones – to give them a chance to try things out . they will not take notes. because his energy will be picked up. but they present teacher with more problems than other groups . tapes. role-play.in an exciting activity. music.some say ‘most interesting group’.be patient.encourage group work where risks are more easily made
.help them overcome their fears by helping them to laugh with each other at various mistakes they make. other abstract talk about language must be approached with caution. it needs to be presented in context . touch. prone to humiliation if teacher is careless with criticism . intellectual processes are possible . taste. Smell. games – will be useful.allow mistakes and other errors to be accepted . Projects and other ‘hands on’ activities will help them to internalize language. their egos are still being shaped.highly intelligent if stimulated – very dedicated if involved .at this age getting the level of challenge right is vital. grooving and changing bodies and minds . Physical activity. more fragile than adults.are very important elements in English teaching. pictures. . sophisticated. .
too much generalization.longest attention span for material that may not be interesting to them. setting realistic goals for our students to achieve. Major factor – getting the accurate level of challenge for our students.intellectual motivation – they are more able to handle abstract rules and concepts . easier because are mature . advancement. the same applies to advanced students – the job of the teacher is to show the student that there is still a lot to learn.Adults Easy group – intrinsic motivation. but it doesn’t mean our classes should be boring .intermediate student may not perceive progress. explanation can be deadly for adults too .INTERMEDIATE PLATEAU – stage in learning when student can become easily demotivated or frustrated because he/she doesn’t see the progress – because that level allows to function. can be overwhelmed by the completely new language ( vocabulary ) .adult beginners – they will be satisfied soon because they will achieve success quickly = what is motivating – since everything is new – little progress is success . they have purpose.