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I. PRESENT 1. Simple Present Tense
POLA: Subject + Verb 1 + …. They / We I / You FUNGSI: a. Untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan (habitual action) atau kegiatan yang terjadi berulang – ulang dan terus menerus. Contoh : • • • • The students go to school everyday. She studies English twice a week. I go to church on Sundays We celebrate our independence day once in a year. Subject + Verb s-es + …. He / She It
b. Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum (general truth). Contoh:
• • •
The sun rises in the east and sets down in the west. The earth revolves round the sun. The pineapple never grows up on a tree.
c. Digunakan dalam bahasa drama, komentar radio dan sejenisnya. When the curtain rises, Juliet is writing on her desk. Suddenly the window opens and a masked man enters. KETERANGAN WAKTU:
a. Every morning/day/week/month/year
b. Once, twice, three times, four times, … c. Adverb of frequency : always, usually, sometimes, often, never, seldom.
2. Present Continuous Tense
POLA : Subyek + to be (is, am, are) + Ving FUNGSI;
a. Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu
They are still playing at the moment. She is reading a novel now.
b. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tetapi belum tentu sedang
berlangsung ketika pernyataan diucapkan. Contoh:
I am learning French this year. Mr. Brown is teaching English. Now, at the moment, this afternoon, this evening, right now, today.
KETERANGAN WAKTU: maka tenses
Note : Ketika ada kata kerja seperti: Look!, Listen!, Watch!, Notice! ( Imperative), nya Present Continuous. Contoh: * Look! The man is climbing. * Listen! The girls next door are singing my favourite song.
3. Present Perfect Tense
POLA: Subject + Have + Verb 3 + …. Has FUNGSI : a. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan waktunya tidak tertentu. Contoh :
William Shakespeare has written many short stories. I have swept the floor. It looks clean now.
b. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan mungkin dilakukan lagi di
waktu yang akan datang. Contoh:
My friends and I have gone to Bali. Shinta has visited her grand parents many times.
KETERANGAN WAKTU: Since, for, just (baru saja), already, yet, so far.
4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
POLA : Subject + Have + Been + Verb-ing Has FUNGSI : Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang mulai dilakukan pada waktu lampau dan sampai sekarang masih berlangsung. Contoh:
My sister has been studying English for three months. The students have been doing the test since 11 o’clock.
KETERANGAN WAKTU: For, since.
5. Simple Past Tense
POLA: Subject + Verb 2 + Object + …. FUNGSI: Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Contoh:
• • • •
I met my music teacher yesterday. My mother bought a new carpet last Sunday. Rendy closed the window five minutes ago. The students presented their project work this morning.
Last …. Just now -
6. Past Continuous Tense
POLA: Subject + was + Verb- ing were FUNGSI:
a. Untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada masa lampau.
I was studying at my friend’s house. My parents were chatting in the living room.
b. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu
lampau, dimana peristiwa lain juga terjadi . Contoh:
When I was studying, someone knocked the door. When I was walking to school, I met Dian sastro.
7. Past Perfect tense
POLA: Subject + Had + Verb 3 FUNGSI:
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi sebelum kegiatan lain di waktu lampau muncul. Contoh: • The teachers went home after they had finished teaching. When I arrived Kridosono, my favourite artist had performed.
KETERANGAN WAKTU: when, after, before.
8. Future Tense
POLA: Subject + shall + Verb 1 + … will FUNGSI: a. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi. Contoh: • • Bobby will come here tomorrow. I shall call my parents when I get home.
b. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa mendatang yangbukan
merupakan keinginan atau kehendak. Contoh: • • Tomy will be fourteen years old next year. We shall die one day.
KETERANGAN WAKTU: Tomorrow, next week/month/year, the day after tomorrow.
Future Perfect Tense
I will have sung The future perfect tense is quite an easy tense to understand and use. The future perfect tense talks about the past in the future.
How do we make the Future Perfect Tense?
The structure of the future perfect tense is:
auxiliary verb WILL
auxiliary verb HAVE
+ main verb
past participle V3
Look at these example sentences in the future perfect tense: subject auxiliary verb will will will will you they not not auxiliary verb have have have have have have main verb finished forgotten gone left. arrived? received it? by 10am. me by then. to school.
+ + ? ?
I You She We Will Will
In speaking with the future perfect tense, we often contract the subject and will. Sometimes, we contract the subject, will and have all together: I will have you will have he will have she will have it will have we will have they will have I'll have you'll have he'll have she'll have it'll have we'll have I'll've you'll've he'll've she'll've it'll've we'll've
they'll have they'll've
We sometimes use shall instead of will, especially for I and we.
How do we use the Future Perfect Tense?
The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. This is the past in the future. For example:
The train will leave the station at 9am. You will arrive at the station at 9.15am. When you arrive, the train will have left.
The train will have left when you arrive.
past present future Train leaves in future at 9am. 9 9 .15
You arrive in future at 9.15am. Look at some more examples:
• • •
You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8. They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time. "Mary won't be at home when you arrive." "Really? Where will she have gone?"
You can sometimes think of the future perfect tense like the present perfect tense, but instead of your viewpoint being in the present, it is in the future: present perfect tense | have | done | >| past now future past now future perfect tense will | have | done | >| future
1. Every night, the guard turns on all the lights and … around the building every half an hour. a. walks b. is walking c. walked d. will walk 2. I … my holiday in Bali every year. a. spent b. spend c. will spend d. am spending 3. My friend … a lot of photographs when she went to Borodudur last month. a. has taken b. will take c. takes d. took 4. Four years ago, I … in Bojonegoro, East Java. a. have lived b. don’t live c. lived d. live 5. The students went to the zoo to learn Bilogy …. a. every Sunday b. next Sunday c. last Sunday d. on Sundays 6. Don’t make noise, please! The baby …. a. slept b. sleeps c. has slept d. is sleeping 7. I met my Elementary School teacher this morning when I …. a. was waiting b. am waiting c. waited d. wait 8. Bobby was studying Physics when suddenly someone … the door. a. was knocking b. had knocked c. has knocked d. knocked 9. Teacher : Wow! What a clean classroom it is. Katie : Yes ma’am. My friend and I … it a. sweep b. swept c. will sweep d. have swept 10. Windi : Look ! The flowers are beautiful. Who … them? Lola : I did, and I watered them regularly. a. are planting b. planted c. plants d. plant 11. Novi :“Where did you get the CONTACT magazine? Jaka : “ I … it from the library last week. I want to return it now, I … it. a. borrowed - read b. lent – have read c. read – have borrowed d. borrowed – have read 12. Dita : “What are you going to do after graduating from Junior High School?” Andi : “ I … my study in vocational school” a. continue b. continued c. will continue d. have continue 13. Lina : You look so pale, Han! Hani : Really? I … a rest yet all day long. a. will not b. didn’t take c. have taken d. haven’t taken 14. Rico : Hey, listen! The girls next door …our favourite song. a. sing b. sings c. will sing d. are singing 15. ‘I know that one of my students … in a big company since he graduated.’ a. works b. will be working c. is working d. has been working 16. Andi : Thom, What were you doing when the earthquake happened? Thom : I … soundly. a. sleep b. slept c. was sleeping d. had studied 17. Meta : What’s your plan for the coming holiday? Reza : I … my grandmother in Bandung. a. visit b. will visit c. am visiting d. will be visited 18. Ihsan : Have you ever been to Bali? Disit : Yes, I have Ihsan : When … ? Didit : Last year. a. will you go there b. have you go there c. did you go there d. are you going there Ina Ria Ina Ria : Wow, this floor is so clean. : Thanks. My servant (19) … it : How many times does she (20)… it? : Twice a day. c. will sweep d. has swept c. sweeping d. has swept
19. a. sweep b. swept 20. a. sweep b. sweeps