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NAME : MOHD REDZA BIN ABDULLAH KHADZLI CLASS : I/C : 5 IBNU MAJAH
and how they react to the external environment such as air density. cloud. Flight simulation is used for a variety of reasons. etc. precipitation. control handling qualities. and for research into aircraft characteristics.Introduction Flight simulation is an artificial re-creation of aircraft flight and various aspects of the flight environment. Flight simulations have varying degrees of hardware. They can range from PC laptop-based models of aircraft systems. . turbulence. all mounted on six degree-offreedom (DOF) motion platforms which move in response to pilot control movements and external aerodynamic factors. to highly detailed cockpit replications with all controls and aircraft systems and wide-field outside-world visual systems. how they react to applications of their controls and other aircraft systems. and so forth. This includes the equations that govern how aircraft fly. including flight training (mainly of pilots). to simple replica cockpits for familiarization purposes. for the design and development of the aircraft itself. modeling detail and realism that depend on their purpose. to more complex cockpit simulations with some working controls and systems.
as well as various implementations of sensory cues such as sound.Types Of Flight Training Devices In Service Training for pilots Flight simulation is used extensively in the aviation industry for the training of pilots and other flight crew in both civil and military aircraft. It is also used for the training of maintenance engineers in aircraft systems.Used for basic training of flight concepts and procedures. Certain aircraft systems may or may not be simulated. The following training device types are in common use: Cockpit Procedures Trainer (CPT) . CPTs are usually not regulated. such as emergency checklists. This spectrum encompasses a wide variety of fidelity in both physical cockpit characteristics and quality of software models. These range from simple Part-Task Trainers (PTTs) that cover one or more aircraft systems to Full Flight Simulators (FFS) with comprehensive aerodynamic and systems modeling. A generic flight model representing a "family" of aircraft is installed. and for cockpit familiarization. and many common flight systems are simulated. and visual systems. and has applications in aircraft design and development. The aerodynamic model is usually extremely generic if one is represent at all. . Aviation Training Device (ATD) . Several different types of devices are utilized in modern flight training. motion.Used to practice basic cockpit procedures. also in aviation and other research.
Under these rules.Used for aircraftspecific flight training under rules of the appropriate National Civil Aviation Regulatory Authority. Comprehensive flight. relevant aircraft systems must be fully simulated. but comprehensive flight model is required. and a comprehensive aerodynamic model is required. . Full Mission Simulator (FMS) . Flight Training Device (FTD) . and many systems and environmental effects must be provided. All FFS require outside-world (OTW) visual systems and a motion platform. systems. Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainer (FNPT) . Basic Instrument Training Device (BITD) . and environmental models are required.Used for either generic or aircraft specific flight training.Used for generic flight training.used by the military to denote a simulator capable of training all aspects of an operational mission in the aircraft concerned. High level FTDs require visual systems but not the characteristics of a Full Flight Simulator (FFS) Full flight simulator (FFS) .A basic training device primarily focused on generic instrument flight procedures. A generic.
and flight control systems. RF. depending on the equipment to be tested. Simulation (emulation) and stimulation techniques can be used. hydraulic. For electrical.. Such signals can be electrical. sonar. etc.Engineering simulation Engineering flight simulators are used by aerospace manufacturers for such tasks as: Development and testing of flight hardware. . It is much safer to develop critical flight software on simulators or using simulation techniques than it is to develop using actual aircraft in flight. Development and testing of flight software. Development and testing of aircraft systems. full-size engineering rigs sometimes called 'Iron Birds' are used during the development of the aircraft and its systems. the latter being where real hardware is fed artificially-generated or real signals (stimulated) in order to make it work.
and then returns the motion system to a neutral position at a rate below the pilot's sensory threshold in order to prevent the motion system from reaching its limits of travel. FlightSafety International. Boeing Training and Flight Services (ex-Alteon) and at the training centers of the larger airlines. which can be assessed by test flight standards such as the numerical Cooper-Harper rating scale for handling qualities. In a re-structuring of civil flight training device characteristics and terminology that will take place in about 2012. particularly by pilots not used to making objective assessments and responding to a structured test schedule. In the military. This is described as "handling fidelity". motion platforms are commonly used for large multi-engined aircraft and also in helicopters. This is a result of a rationalisation of worldwide civil flight training devices through which 27 previous categories have been reduced to seven. Generally. A six degree-of-freedom (DOF) motion platform using six jacks is the modern standard. and is required for the so-called Level D flight simulator standard of civil aviation regulatory authorities such as FAA in the USA and EASA in Europe. the Level D Full flight simulator will be re-designated an ICAO Type 7 and will have improved specifications for both motion and visual systems. Since the travel of the motion system is limited. it is generally agreed that a motion-based simulation gives the pilot closer fidelity of flight control operation and aircraft responses to control inputs and external forces. particularly where motion cues are concerned. . CAE. and can be designed to give lower latencies (transport delays) compared to hydraulic systems.Technology Motion in flight simulators A Full flight simulator (FFS) duplicates relevant aspects of the aircraft and its environment. This simulates initial accelerations well. motion-based aircraft simulation feels like being in an aircraft rather than in a static procedural trainer. a principle called 'acceleration onset cueing' (which see) is used. However. Flight simulator motion platforms used to use hydraulic jacks but electric jacks are now being used. except where a training device is designed for rapid deployment to another training base or to a combat zone. Large sample sizes of pilot opinion are required and many subjective opinions tend to be aired. including motion. Statistically significant assessments of training transfer from simulator to the aircraft are difficult to make. The latter do not need hydraulic motor rooms and other complications of hydraulic systems. This is typically accomplished by placing a replica cockpit and visual system on a motion platform. Level D flight simulators are used at training centers such as those provided by Airbus.
called a Qualification Approval Guide (QAG) is approved. qualification was called certification. where each device is evaluated on an individual basis. such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States. If this document. FSTD qualification is regulated in 14 CFR Part 60. called the Master QTG (MQTG). and a number of both objective and subjective tests are conducted on the device. and QTGs were called Approval Test Guides (ATGs). . Rather than other FSTD. The result of the initial evaluation of the FSTD. In the United States and China. as well as several other parts of the world. the relevant regulations are defined in JAR-FSTD A and JAR-FSTD H. a document that contains the specifications of the model line and that proves compliance with the appropriate regulations is submitted to the FAA. In most of Europe. called a recurrent qualification. When a manufacturer wishes to have a model of ATD approved. Any significant deviations may result in the suspension or revocation of the device's qualification. The terms certification and ATG no longer have any regulatory meaning other than for FSTD that remain qualified under FAA AC 120-45 or any other legacy standard. The training device in question is evaluated against a set of regulatory criteria. ATDs are evaluated as a model line. The testing requirements vary between the different levels of qualification. along with other significant information about the FSTD and its operator. Until the publication of Part 60. all future devices conforming to the QAG are automatically approved. The main exception to the above process is the evaluation of an ATD by the FAA. it must be evaluated by the local National Aviation Authority (NAA). The criteria against which an FSTD is evaluated are defined in one of a number of regulatory and/or advisory documents. is performed regularly. are recorded in a Qualification Test Guide (QTG). A periodic reevaluation. details the baseline performance of the device as accepted by the qualifying authority. generally in one year intervals (although the interval can be as low as six months for some FAA evaluations and as high as three years for some European evaluations). and the performance of the device is evaluated against the MQTG. and individual evaluation is neither required nor available. but almost all levels require that the FSTD show that it matches the flight characteristics of the aircraft or family of aircraft being simulated.Qualification and Approval Procedure In order for a Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) to be used for flight crew training or checking. The results of each test.
ex JAA) Flight Navigation and Procedures Trainer (FNTP) EASA FNPT Level I EASA FNPT Level II EASA FNTP Level III MCC . A vibration system must be supplied.Model specific. European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA. Helicopter only. Requirements are for Level C with additions.Flight Simulator levels and other categories US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Flight Training Devices (FTD) FAA FTD Level 4 . The visual system must have an outside-world horizontal field of view of at least 75 degrees to each pilot. FAA FFS Level D . FAA FTD Level 6 . The motion platform must have all six degrees of freedom.Aircraft model specific aerodynamic programming. FAA FFS Level C . but accurate systems modeling is required. Full Flight Simulators (FFS) FAA FFS Level A .Similar to a Cockpit Procedures Trainer (CPT). Also lower transport delay (latency) over levels A & B.A motion system is required with at least three degrees of freedom.Requires a motion platform with all six degrees of freedom. FAA FFS Level B . FAA FTD Level 5 . and the visual system must have an outside-world horizontal field of view of at least 150 degrees. Helicopter only. . All applicable aerodynamics. Realistic sounds in the cockpit are required.Not a true "level" of qualification. with a Collimated (distant focus) display. control feel. flight controls. and this is the first level to require a visual system. This level does not require an aerodynamic model.Requires three axis motion and a higher-fidelity aerodynamic model than Level A. but an add-on that allows any level of FNPT to be used for multi crew cooperation training. and systems must be modeled. FAA FTD Level 7 .Aerodynamic programming and systems modeling is required.The highest level of FFS qualification currently available. Airplane only. and physical cockpit are required. The lowest level of helicopter flight simulator. also a number of special motion and visual effects. but it may represent a family of aircraft rather than one specific model.
Inc.Helicopter only. Frasca International. Full Flight Simulators (FFS) EASA FFS Level A EASA FFS Level B EASA FFS Level C EASA FFS Level D Manufacturers Flight Safety International (FSI) (United States). Mechtronix Systems (Canada) Sim Industries in the Netherlands Indra Sistemas in Spain Indra Systems (United States) Havelsan in Turkey AXIS Flight Training Systems in Austria Thales Group in France and the UK CSTS Dinamika in Russia Aerosim .Flight Training Devices (FTD) EASA FTD Level 1 EASA FTD Level 2 EASA FTD Level 3 . L-3 Link Rockwell Collins Opinicus CAE Inc.
money and lives. oncoming aircraft. either from a console behind the pilot's seats. navigational system failures and countless other problems which the crew need to be familiar with and act upon.The TL39 3-DoF motion simulator with IOS at MAI University Many simulators allow the instructor to control the simulator from the cockpit. lightning. downbursts. At the IOS. Figure 1 . storms. while not interfering with the lesson. from the co-pilot's seat on sorties where a co-pilot is not being trained. This can range from engine fires. malfunctioning landing gear. in some simulators. an instructor can quickly create any normal and abnormal condition in the simulated aircraft or in the simulated external environment. . Flight simulators are an essential element in individual pilot as well as flight crew training.Instructor operating stations Most simulators have Instructor Operating Stations (IOS). The cost of operating even an expensive Level D Full Flight Simulator is many times less than if the training was to be on the aircraft itself and a cost ratio of some 1:40 has been reported for Level D simulator training compared to the cost of training in a real Boeing 747 aircraft. They save time. electrical faults. Some simulators are equipped with PDA-like devices in which the instructor can fly in the copilot seat and control the events of the simulation. or. slippery runways.
After this exercise. Furthermore. nonexistent. The heave system supports a horizontal beam on which are mounted rails of length 40 feet.Stewart platform the six cylinder Stewart platform to generate cues of initial acceleration. . In the case of the Space Shuttle. Simulations have ranged from blimps. and an interchangeable cabin is mounted on the hexapod platform. it was used to try different longitudinal control algorithms and recommend the best for use in the Shuttle programme. These platforms are also known as Hexapods (literally "six feet") and use an operating principle known as Acceleration onset cueing (which see). commercial and military aircraft to the Space Shuttle. A conventional 6-degree of freedom hexapod platform is mounted on the 40 ft beam. This large scale simulator provides unlimited rotation via a gimballed cockpit. The gimbal sub-system is supported by a framework which adds vertical motion.20 feet. no similar Shuttle PIO has occurred. sway and surge. roll and yaw. and about one metre of the three linear movements heave. this framework is mounted on a large rotating platform with an adjustable radius. allowing lateral movement of a simulator cab of +/.35 degrees of the three rotations pitch. After identification of the problem on the VMS. The NASA Ames Research Center in "Silicon Valley" south of San Francisco operates the Vertical Motion Simulator. All civil Full Flight Simulators (FFS) and many military simulators for large aircraft and helicopters also have motion platforms for cues of real motion. in cloud. The Desdemona simulator is designed to provide sustainable g-force simulation with unlimited rotational freedom.Modern high-end flight simulators High-end commercial and military flight simulators have large field-ofview (FoV) image generation and display systems of high resolution. The majority of simulators with motion platforms use variants of Figure 2 . where a motion-based simulator is needed to replicate the conditions). The ability to simulate realistic motion cues was considered important in reproducing the PIO and attempts on a nonmotion simulator were not successful (a similar pattern exists in simulating the roll-upset accidents to a number of early Boeing 737 aircraft.30 ft) of vertical movement (heave). Platform motions complement the visual cues and are particularly important when visual cues are poor such as at night or in reduced visibility or. Motion bases using modern hexapod platforms can provide about +/. the large Vertical Motion Simulator was used to investigate a longitudinal pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) that occurred on an early Shuttle flight just before landing. This has a very large-throw motion system with 60 feet (+/. AMST Systemtechnik (Austria) and TNO Human Factors (the Netherlands) have developed the Desdemona flight simulation system for the Netherlands-based research organisation TNO. This design permits quick switching of different aircraft cabins.
and the model reaction.that are steered from the ground by a transmitter.Radio-controlling simulators A specific field for flight simulation are radio-controlled models . See also Force Feedback Australian flight & helisim builder Rainman Simulators currently has some of these systems in the development stage.org/wiki/Flight_training http://www.mostly airplanes and helicopters .gov/about/initiatives/nsp/ . These advances are also making it possible to home build controls with Force Feedback which simulates external forces on the control surfaces of the aircraft including hydraulic failures in control systems & the sensation of a landing on the controls.com/malaysiaairlines?ref=ts&fref=ts http://flyawaysimulation. A simple combination of COTS (commercial off the shelf) hardware & software now allows home builders to construct simple pitch & roll platforms with some even building hexapod type platforms. Reference http://en.masacademy.facebook. Advances in modern electronics Advances in electronics are now starting to bring pitch & roll motion platforms down into the realms of the high end home pilot. Here a major part of the learning curve for the pilot is the coordination between finger movement .com/ http://www.faa. With this setup the pilot can learn basic flying procedures without the risk of damaging the model. from the same transmitter that is used for the actual model. RC flight simulator software thus uses an input.typically via two joysticks for pitch/yaw and nick/roll .wikipedia. Current products use photographic textures from real flight fields and mimic the model and weather behaviour with complex physical models.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_game http://en. mostly an USB cable.com.my/masacademy/home https://www.
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