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EXERCISE : STATES OF MATTER GASES

1 Calculate the volume of the following gases at stp: (a) 200 cm3 hydrogen at 30C and 2.00 104 Nm2 (b) 600 cm3 oxygen at 308K and 2.20 atm (c) 1.70 dm3 neon at 95C and 1.45 atm (d) 382 cm3 chlorine at 100C and 1.50 105 Pa An aerosol can containing helium gas at 30C and 1.8 105 Pa is heated to 60C. What is the pressure of helium in the can now? The pressure of a 1 dm3 sample of gas at 25C is 773.8 kPa. How much pressure must be applied to compress the sample of gas to 70% of its original volume, without any change in temperature? Determine the density of SO2 gas at 25 C and 1.00 atm. A 28.0 dm3 cylinder contains 27.5 g of helium at 28C. How many grams of helium must be released to reduce the pressure to 2.75 105 Pa if the temperature remains constant? A 10.0 dm3 storage tank which contained nitrogen gas at 30C and 348 kPa, developed a leak. When the leak was discovered and repaired, the tank had lost 11.7 g of N 2. (a) Calculate the mass of gas initially present. (b) What was the pressure of the gas remaining in the tank at 30C? A 20.0 m3 steel tank was constructed to store liquefied natural gas (LNG) which contained mainly methane at 160C and 101 kPa. (a) How many grams of methane can be stored in the container if the density of the liquid is 416 kg m3? (b) Calculate the volume of a storage tank capable of holding the same mass of LNG as a gas at 28C and 101 kPa. When 4.08 g of SO2, 2.00 g of Ne and 2.84 g of Cl2 are put into a 5.00 dm3 steel container, the temperature of the gaseous mixture is 36.8C. The gases does not react. (a) Determine the partial pressure of each gas in the container. (b) What is the total pressure in the container?

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SO2 1.10 dm3 O2 0.80 dm3

Vessel 1

Vessel 2

Vessel 1 contains SO2 gas at 800 mm Hg and 600 K whereas Vessel 2 contains O 2 gas at 650 mm Hg and 600 K. When the valve connecting the two vessels is opened, SO 2 reacts with oxygen to produce sulphur trioxide, SO3. (Assume that there is no change in temperature when the two gases react). 2SO2(g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) (a) Calculate the initial amount of SO2 and O2 in vessel 1 and vessel 2. (b) What will be the composition of the gas and the total pressure at 600 K after the two gases have reacted? (c) What is the weight of SO3 formed?

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50 cm3 of hydrogen gas is burnt in 10 cm3 of oxygen gas. What is the maximum reduction in volume after this experiment? [All volumes of gases are measured at 298 K and 1 atm] The pressure of nitrogen gas in a food can is 1.5 atm at 25C. What is the pressure of nitrogen gas if the can heated to 45C? Calculate the density (in g dm3) of carbon dioxide at a pressure of 99.33 kPa and 65C. The volume of a gas at 60C and 1.0 105 Nm2 62.0 cm3. Calculate the volume at stp. Calculate the number of nitrogen atoms in a container of volume 0.50 dm3 at 0C. [The pressure of gas is 101 Nm2] Cyanogen is a compound of carbon and nitrogen. If 25 cm 3 of cyanogen is burnt in excess oxygen, 50 cm3 of carbon dioxide and 25 cm3 of nitrogen are produced. What is the formula of cyanogen? The density of a gas is 2.6 g dm3 at a temperature of 25C and a pressure of 101 kPa. What is the relative molecular mass of the gas? 0.245 g of compound X occupies a volume of 112 cm 3 at a temperature of 293 K and a pressure of 5.20 104 Pa. Calculate the relative molecular mass of X. When 0.048 g of a metal, X, reacts with chlorine in excess, 0.19 g of the metal chloride with molecular formula, XCln, is produced. The vapour of the metal chloride occupied a volume of 41.4 cm3 at a temperature of 500 K and a pressure of 1 atm. Calculate (a) the relative molecular mass for XCln (b) the number of moles of XCln produced and hence determine the molecular formula of the metal chloride (c) the relative atomic mass of the element X. A mixture of gases contains 30% by volume of carbon dioxide (CO2), 20% by volume of oxygen (O2) and 50% by volume of carbon monoxide (CO). The total pressure of the gases is 101 kPa. (a) Calculate the partial pressure for each gas. (b) If carbon dioxide is removed from the mixture, what will be the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon monoxide? At flask (of volume 1 dm3) containing gas A at a pressure of 1 atm is connected to another flask (of volume 3 dm3) which contain gas B at a pressure of 3 atm. Calculate (a) the final pressure in the flasks (b) the mole fractions of A and B. A gaseous mixture, X, contains 20 cm3 of methane (CH4), 40 cm3 of ethene (C2H4) and 90 cm3 butane (C4H10). This mixture is burnt in excess oxygen and the products of the reaction is cooled to room temperature. The volume of oxygen remaining after the experiment is 105 cm3. All volumes are measured at room temperature and a pressure of 101.3 kPa. Calculate (a) the partial pressure of methane in the mixture, X (b) the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the final mixture. A container of volume 45.0 dm3 contains nitrogen gas at 55.0 kPa. Another container of volume 30.0 dm3 contains oxygen gas at 85.0 kPa. A valve connects the two containers. If the valve is opened without any temperature change, calculate (a) the partial pressure of each gas, (b) the finial pressure in the container, (c) the mole fraction of nitrogen gas and oxygen gas in the mixture.

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Structured Questions 1 A sample of 3.01 1021 atoms of a monoatomic gas X are contained in a closed container of volume 400 cm3. The temperature of the gas in the container is 127C. It has a boiling point of 15C. (a) i. Calculate the pressure exerted by the gas ii. If the temperature is lowered to 350 K, what will be the exerted pressure? (b) Draw the graphs of molecular speeds of the gas molecules at 350 K and 400 K in the same axes. (c) Does the gas X posses ideal properties? Give reasons. (d) If a carbon dioxide gas of 0.01 moles is added to the above gas in the container, calculate the partial pressure of each gas if the pressure of the mixture of the two gases is kept constant as in (a) i. (a) In a mixture of gases comprising of 3 g hydrogen gas, 4.25 g of ammonia gas and 11 g of carbon dioxide gas, total pressure exerted on the walls of the closed container is 4.4 103 Pa at a certain fixed temperature. i. Determine the partial pressures of each gas. ii. Explain why ammonia gas shows significant deviation from ideality. (b) 20 cm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon CxHy is exploded in 120 cm3 of oxygen gas. The gases that were left behind were passed over aqueous sodium hydroxide. This caused a reduction of volume of 40 cm3 and the final volume of gas was 50 cm 3. All volumes were measured at the same fixed temperatures. (c) In another experiment, gas A and gas B are contained in two bulbs L and M respectively. The bulbs are connected by a capillary tube but the gases are prevent from mixing by an air tight clip as shown below:

Bulb L

Bulb M

The volume of bulbs L and M are 5 dm 3 and 8 dm3 respectively. Gas A exerts a pressure of 10 atm in bulb L while gas B exerts a pressure of 12 atm in bulb M. If the clip is open and the two gases are allowed to mix freely; calculate i. the pressure of the gas present in L ii. the pressure of the gas present in M iii. total pressure of the gas system iv. if the bulb L is filled with carbon dioxide gas and bulb M is filled with oxygen gas at ideal conditions, how will it affect the pressure calculated in (c) i, (c) ii and (c) iii? 3 (a) What do you understand by ideal gas? (i) Ammonium nitrate is an explosive compound and it decomposes at a high temperature according to the following equation. 2NH4NO3(s) 4H2O(g) + 2N2(g) + O2(g) Calculate the total volume of gases collected from the decomposition of 100 g of ammonium nitrate at 1.01 105 Pa and 25C. (ii) Sketch a graph of

against p for 1.0 mol of ammonia gas at 0C. Based on the

graph, explain the negative deviation of ammonia gas compared to an ideal gas.

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An analysis of the exhaust gases from a Proton car produced the following data :

Gas

Formula

Percentage by volume

Carbon dioxide CO2 11.0 Carbon monoxide CO 2.0 Oxygen O2 0.80 Unburnt octane C8H18 0.05 Assume that all gases are ideal and that all measurements are taken at 200C. (a) If 1 mol of gas occupies 22.4 dm3 at stp, calculate the volume occupied by 1 mol of gas at 200C and 1 atm. (b) Calculate the volume, and hence how many moles there are, of unburnt octane in 1.0 dm3 of the exhaust gas. (c) Calculate the overall volume, and hence how many moles of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide there are in 1.0 dm3 of the exhaust gas. (d) Subsequently determine how many moles of octane produced these oxides on burning. (e) Assume all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are obtained from the combuction of octane. Determine the percentage of octane that remained unburnt. (f) Suggest why the exhaust gases contained unburnt octane, despite oxygen still being present. (g) Name a gas, not listed above, that is chief component of the exhaust gases. 5. A real gas X behaves almost like an ideal gas. For n mol of gas X at pressure p, the graph of volume V versus temperature T is shown below:

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200 T(C)

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(a) What is the most probable identity of gas X? Explain your answer. (b) On the graph above, sketch and label a graph of the variation in volume with temperature at a lower pressure p while other conditions remain constant. (c) At pressure p and temperature 0C, a gas Y shows a negative deviation from an ideal gas. Mark the expected volume of gas Y on the above graph. Explain your answer.