A Commentary of the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica


Bishop John Lightfoot (1601-1675) Bishop J. Lightfoot's Works; 2 vol.'s; 1684,1st Ed.

"That the destruction of Jerusalem and the whole Jewish state is described as if the whole frame of the world were to be dissolved. Nor is it strange, when God destroyed his habitation and city, places once so dear to him, with so direful and sad an overthrow; his own people, whom he accounted of as much or more than the whole world beside, by so dreadful and amazing plagues. Matt. 24:29,30, 'The sun shall be darkened &c. Then shall appear the 'sign of the Son of man,' &c; which yet are said to fall out within that generation, ver. 34." "With the same reference it is, that the times and state of things immediately following the destruction of Jerusalem are called 'a new creation,' new heavens,' and 'a new earth.' When should that be? Read the whole chapter; and you will find the Jews rejected and cut off; and from that time is that new creation of the evangelical world among the Gentiles. Compare 2 Cor. 5:17 and Rev. 21:1,2; where, the old Jerusalem being cut off and destroyed, a new one succeeds; and new heavens and a new earth are created. 2 Peter 3:13: 'We, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth.' The heaven and the earth of the Jewish church and commonwealth must be all on fire, and the Mosaic elements burnt up; but we, according to the promise made to us by Isaiah the prophet, when all these are consumed, look for the new creation of the evangelical state" (On John 21:22)

TABLE OF CONTENTS Exercitations upon St. Matthew A Chorographical Century
[chorography: the art of describing or mapping a region or district.

Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary]

Exercitations upon St. Mark Dedication A Chorographical Decad; searching into some places of the Land of Israel; those especially whereof mention is made in St. Mark. Exercitations upon St. Luke Dedication A Few Chorographical Notes upon the places mentioned in St. Luke. Exercitations upon St. John Dedication A Chorographical Inquiry into some places of the Land of Israel, particularly those which we find mentioned in the Evangelist St. John. To His Dear Friends, the Students of Catharine-Hall, Health. ____________________
Those very arguments which, first and chiefly, moved me to turn over the Talmudical writings, moved me also to this present work: so that, from the same reasons whence that reading first proceeded, from them proceed also this fruit and benefit of it. For, first, when all the books of the New Testament were written by Jews, and among Jews, and unto them; and when all the discourses made there, were made in like manner by Jews, and to Jews, and among them; I was always fully persuaded, as of a thing past all doubting, that that Testament could not but everywhere taste of and retain the Jews' style, idiom, form, and rule of speaking. And hence, in the second place, I concluded as assuredly that, in the obscurer places of that Testament (which are very many), the best and most natural method of searching out the sense is, to inquire how, and in what sense, those phrases and manners of speech were understood, according to the vulgar and common dialect and opinion of that nation; and how they took them, by whom they were spoken, and by whom they were heard. For it is no matter what we can beat out concerning those manners of speech on the anvil of our own conceit, but what they signified among them, in their ordinary sense and speech. And since this could be found out no other way than by consulting Talmudic authors, who both speak in the vulgar dialect of the Jews, and also handle and reveal all Jewish matters; being induced by these reasons, I applied myself chiefly to the reading these books. I knew, indeed, well enough, that I must certainly wrestle with infinite difficulties, and such as were hardly to be overcome; yet I undervalued them all, and armed myself with a firm purpose, that, if it were possible, I might arrive to a fuller and more deep knowledge and understanding of the style and dialect of the New Testament. The ill report of those authors, whom all do so very much speak against, may, at first, discourage him that sets upon the reading of their books. The Jews themselves stink in Marcellinus, and their writings stink as much amongst all; and they labour under this I know not what singular misfortune,

that, being not read, they displease; and that they are sufficiently reproached by those that have read them, but undergo much more infamy by those that have not. The almost unconquerable difficulty of the style, the frightful roughness of the language, and the amazing emptiness and sophistry of the matters handled, do torture, vex, and tire him that reads them. They do everywhere abound with trifles in that manner, as though they had no mind to be read; with obscurities and difficulties, as though they had no mind to be understood: so that the reader hath need of patience all along, to enable him to bear both trifling in sense and roughness in expression. I, indeed, propounded three things to myself while I turned them over, that I might, as much as I could, either under-value those vexations of reading, or soften them, or recreate myself with them, and that I might reap and enjoy fruit from them, if I could, and as much as I could. I. I resolved with myself to observe those things which seemed to yield some light to the holy Scriptures, but especially either to the phrases, or sentences, or history of the New Testament. II. To set down such things in my note-books, which carried some mention of certain places in the land of Israel, or afforded some light into the chorography of that land. III. To note those things which referred to the history of the Jews, whether ecclesiastical, or scholastic, or civil; or which referred to the Christian history, or the history of the rest of the world. And now, after having viewed and observed the nature, art, matter, and marrow of these authors with as much intention as we could, I cannot paint out, in little, a true and lively character of them better than in these paradoxes and riddles: There are no authors do more affright and vex the reader; and yet there are none who do more entice and delight him. In no writers is greater or equal trifling; and yet in none is greater or so great benefit. The doctrine of the gospel hath no more bitter enemies than they; and yet the text of the gospel hath no more plain interpreters. To say all in a word, to the Jews, their countrymen, they recommend nothing but toys, and destruction, and poison; but Christians, by their skill and industry, may render them most usefully serviceable to their studies, and most eminently tending to the interpretation of the New Testament. We here offer some specimen of this our reading and our choice, for the reader's sake, if so it may find acceptance with the reader. We know how exposed to suspicion it is to produce new things; how exposed to hatred the Talmudic writings are; how exposed to both, and to sharp censure also, to produce them in holy things. Therefore, this our more unusual manner of explaining Scripture cannot, upon that very account, but look for a more unusual censure, and become subject to a severer examination. But when the lot is cast, it is too late at this time to desire to avoid the sequel of it; and too much in vain in this place to attempt a defence. If the work and book itself does not carry something with it which may plead its cause, and obtain the reader's pardon and favour; our oration, or begging Epistle, will little avail to do it. The present work, therefore, is to be exposed and delivered over to its fate and fortune, whatsoever it be. Some there are, we hope, who will give it a milder and more gentle reception; for this very thing, dealing favourably and kindly with us, that we have been intent upon our studies; that we have been intent upon the gospel; and that we have endeavoured after truth: they will show us favour that we followed after it, and, if we have not attained it, they will pity us. But as for the wrinkled forehead, and the stern brow, we are prepared to bear them with all patience, being armed and satisfied with this inward patronage, that "we have endeavoured to profit." But this work, whatever it be, and whatever fortune it is like to meet with, we would dedicate to you, my very dear Catharine-Hall men, both as a debt, and as a desire. For by this most close bond and tie wherewith we are united, to you is due all that we study, all that we can do; if so be that all is any thing at all. And when we desire to profit all (if we could) which becomes both a student and a Christian to do; by that bond and your own merits, you are the very centre and rest of those desires and wishes. We are sufficiently conscious to ourselves how little or nothing we can do either for the public benefit, or for yours; yet we would make a public profession, before all the world, of our

desire and study; and, before you, of our inward and cordial affection. Let this pledge, therefore, of our love and endearment be laid up by you; and, while we endeavour to give others an account of our hours, let this give you an assurance of our affections. And may it last in Catharine-Hall, even to future ages, as a testimony of service, a monument of love, and a memorial both of me and you! From The Calends of June, 1658. my Study,

Chapter 1
1:1 The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

[The book of the generation of Jesus Christ.] Ten stocks came out of Babylon: 1. Priests. 2. Levites. 3. Israelites. 4. Common persons, as to the priesthood: such whose fathers, indeed, were sprung from priests, but their mothers unfit to be admitted to the priests' marriage-bed. 5. Proselytes. 6. Liberti, or servants set free. 7. Nothi: such as were born in wedlock; but that which was unlawful. 8. Nethinims. 9. Bastards: such as came of a certain mother, but of an uncertain father. 10. Such as were gathered up out of the streets, whose fathers and mothers were uncertain. A defiled generation indeed! and, therefore, brought up out of Babylon in this common sink, according to the opinion of the Hebrews, that the whole Jewish seed still remaining there might not be polluted by it. For Ezra went not up out of Babylon, until he had rendered it pure as flour. They are the words of the Babylonian Gemara, which the Gloss explains thus; "He left not any there that were illegitimate in any respect, but the priests and Levites only, and Israelites of a pure and undefiled stock. Therefore, he brought up with him these ten kinds of pedigrees, that these might not be mingled with those, when there remained now no more a Sanhedrim there, which might take care of that matter. Therefore he brought them to Jerusalem, where care might be taken by the Sanhedrim fixed there, that the legitimate might not marry with the illegitimate." Let us think of these things a little while we are upon our entrance into the Gospelhistory: I. How great a cloud of obscurity could not but arise to the people concerning the original of Christ, even from the very return out of Babylon, when they either certainly saw, or certainly believed that they saw, a purer spring of Jewish blood there than in the land of Israel itself! II. How great a care ought there to be in the families of pure blood, to preserve themselves untouched and clean from this impure sink; and to lay up among themselves genealogical scrolls from generation to generation as faithful witnesses and lasting monuments of their legitimate stock and free blood! Hear a complaint and a story in this case: "R. Jochanan said, By the Temple, it is in our hand to discover who are not of pure blood in the land of Israel: but what shall I do, when the chief men of this generation lie hid?" (that is, when they are not of

pure blood, and yet we must not declare so much openly concerning them). "He was of the same opinion with R. Isaac, who said, A family (of the polluted blood) that lies hid, let it lie hid. Abai also saith, We have learned this also by tradition, That there was a certain family called the family of Beth-zeripha, beyond Jordan, and a son of Zion removed it away." (The Gloss is, Some eminent man, by a public proclamation, declared it impure.) "But he caused another which was such" [that is, impure] "to come near. and there was another which the wise men would not manifest." III. When it especially lay upon the Sanhedrim, settled at Jerusalem to preserve pure families, as much as in them lay, pure still; and when they prescribed canons of preserving the legitimation of the people (which you may see in those things that follow at the place alleged), there was some necessity to lay up public records of pedigrees with them: whence it might be known what family was pure, and what defiled. Hence that of Simon Ben Azzai deserves our notice: "I saw (saith he) a genealogical scroll in Jerusalem, in which it was thus written; 'N., a bastard of a strange wife.'" Observe, that even a bastard was written in their public books of genealogy, that he might be known to be a bastard, and that the purer families might take heed of the defilement of his seed. Let that also be noted: "They found a book of genealogy at Jerusalem, in which it was thus written; 'Hillel was sprung from David. Ben Jatsaph from Asaph. Ben Tsitsith Hacceseth from Abner. Ben Cobisin from Achab,'" &c. And the records of the genealogies smell of those things which are mentioned in the text of the Misna concerning 'wood-carrying': "The priests' and people's times of wood-carrying were nine: on the first day of the month Nisan, for the sons of Erach, the sons of Judah: the twentieth day of Tammuz, for the sons of David, the son of Judah: the fifth day of Ab, for the sons of Parosh, the son of Judah: the seventh of the same month for the sons of Jonadab the son of Rechab: the tenth of the same for the sons of Senaah, the son of Benjamin," &c. It is, therefore, easy to guess whence Matthew took the last fourteen generations of this genealogy, and Luke the first forty names of his; namely, from the genealogical scrolls at that time well enough known, and laid up in the public repositories, and in the private also. And it was necessary, indeed, in so noble and sublime a subject, and a thing that would be so much inquired into by the Jewish people as the lineage of the Messiah would be, that the evangelists should deliver a truth, not only that could not be gainsaid, but also that might be proved and established from certain and undoubted rolls of ancestors. [Of Jesus Christ.] That the name of Jesus is so often added to the name of Christ in the New Testament, is not only that thereby Christ might be pointed out for the Saviour, which the name Jesus signifies; but also, that Jesus might be pointed out for true Christ: against the unbelief of the Jews, who though they acknowledged a certain Messiah, or Christ, yet they stiffly denied that Jesus of Nazareth was he. This observation takes place in numberless places of the New Testament; Acts 2:36, 8:35; 1 Corinthians 16:22; 1 John 2:22, 4:15, &c. [The Son of David.] That is, "the true Messias." For by no more ordinary and more proper name did the Jewish nation point out the Messiah than by The Son of

David. See Matthew 12:23, 21:9, 22:42; Luke 18:38; and everywhere in the Talmudic writings, but especially in Bab. Sanhedrim: where it is also discussed, What kind of times those should be when the Son of David should come. The things which are devised by the Jews concerning Messiah Ben Joseph (which the Targum upon Canticles 4:5 calls 'Messiah Ben Ephraim') are therefore devised, to comply with their giddiness and loss of judgment in their opinion of the Messiah. For, since they despised the true Messiah, who came in the time fore-allotted by the prophets, and crucified him; they still expect I know not what chimerical one, concerning whom they have no certain opinion: whether he shall be one, or two; whether he shall arise from among the living, or from the dead; whether he shall come in the clouds of heaven, or sitting upon an ass, &c.: they expect a Son of David; but they know not whom, they know not when.
2. Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren;

[Judas.] In Hebrew, Jehudah. Which word not only the Greeks, for want of the letter "h" in the middle of a word, but the Jews themselves, do contract into Judah: which occurs infinite times in the Jerusalem Talmud. The same person who is called R. Jose Bi R. Jehudah, in the next line is called R. Jose Bi R. Judah...
5. And Salmon begat Booz of Rachab; and Booz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse;

[Booz of Rachab.] So far the Jewish writers agree with Matthew, that they confess Rachab was married to some prince of Israel, but mistaking concerning the person: whether they do this out of ignorance, or wilfully, let themselves look to that. Concerning this matter, the Babylonian Gemara hath these words: "Eight prophets and those priests sprung from Rachab, and they are these, Neriah, Baruch, Seraiah, Maaseiah, Jeremiah, Hilkiah, Hanameel, and Shallum. R. Judah saith, Huldah also was of the posterity of Rachab." And a little after, "There is a tradition, that she, being made a proselytess, was married to Joshua": which Kimchi also produceth in Joshua 6. Here the Gloss casts in a scruple: "It sounds somewhat harshly (saith it), that Joshua married one that was made a proselyte, when it was not lawful to contract marriage with the Canaanites, though they became proselytes. Therefore we must say that she was not of the seven nations of the Canaanites, but of some other nation, and sojourned there. But others say that that prohibition took not place before the entrance into the promised land," &c.
8. And Asa begat Josaphat; and Josaphat begat Joram; and Joram begat Ozias;

[And Joram begat Ozias.] The names of Ahazias, Joash, and Amazias, are struck out. See the history in the books of the Kings, and 1 Chronicles 3:11, 12. I. The promise that "the throne of David should not be empty," passed over, after a manner, for some time into the family of Jehu, the overthrower of Joram's family. For when he had razed the house of Ahab, and had slain Ahaziah, sprung, on the mother's side, of the family of Ahab, the Lord promiseth him that his sons should reign unto the fourth generation, 2 Kings 10:30. Therefore however the mean time the throne of David was not empty, and that Joash and Amazias sat during the

space between, yet their names are not unfitly omitted by our evangelist, both because they were sometimes not very unlike Joram in their manners; and because their kingdom was very much eclipsed by the kingdom of Israel, when Ahazias was slain by Jehu, and his cousin Amazias taken and basely subdued by his cousin Joash, 2 Chronicles 25:23. II. "The seed of the wicked shall be cut off," Psalm 37:28. Let the studious reader observe that, in the original, in this very place, the letter Ain, which is the last letter of wicked, and of seed, is cut off, and is not expressed; when, by the rule of acrostic verse (according to which this Psalm is composed), that letter ought to begin the next following verse. III. "Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image, &c. For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth generation," (Exodus 20:5. Joram walked in the idolatrous ways of the kings of Israel, according to the manner of the family of Ahab, 2 Kings 8:18. Which horrid violation of the second command God visits upon his posterity, according to the threatening of that command; and therefore the names of his sons are dashed out unto the fourth generation. IV. The Old Testament also stigmatizeth that idolatry of Joram in a way not unlike this of the New; and shows that family unworthy to be numbered among David's progeny, 2 Chronicles 22:2: Ahazias, the son of two and forty years: that is, not of his age (for he was not above two-and-twenty, 2 Kings 8:26), but of the duration of the family of Omri, of which stock Ahazias was, on the mother's side; as will sufficiently appear to him that computes the years. A fatal thing surely! that the years of a king of Judah should be reckoned by the account of the house of Omri. V. Let a genealogical style not much different be observed, 1 Chronicles 4:1; where Shobal, born in the fifth or sixth generation from Judah, is reckoned as if he were an immediate son of Judah. Compare chapter 2:50. In the like manner, Ezra 7, in the genealogy of Ezra, five or six generations are erased.
11. And Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon:

[And Josias begat Jechonias.] The sons of Josias were these: the first-born, Jochanan; the second, Joachim; the third, Zedekiah; the fourth, Shallum, 1 Chronicles 3:15. Who this Shallum was, the Jerusalem Talmudists do dispute: "R. Jochanan saith, Jochanan and Jehoachaz were the same. And when it is written, Jochanan the first-born, it means this; that he was the first-born to the kingdom: that is, he first reigned. And R. Jochanan saith, Shallum and Zedekias are the same. And when it is written, Zedekias the third Shallum the fourth; he was the third in birth, but he reigned fourth." The same things are produced in the tract Sotah. But R. Kimchi much more correctly: "Shallum (saith he) is Jechonias, who had two names, and was reckoned for the son of Josias, when he was his

grandchild" (or the son of his son); "For the sons of sons are reputed for sons." Compare Jeremiah 22:11 with 24; and the thing itself speaks it. And that which the Gemarists now quoted say, Zedekiah was also called Shallum, because in his days 'Shalmah,' 'an end was put to' the kingdom of the family of David: this also agrees very fitly to Jechonias, Jeremiah 22:28-30.
12. And after they were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; and Salathiel begat Zorobabel;

[Jechonias begat Salathiel.] That is, "a son of the kingdom," or successor in that dignity of the house of David, whatsoever it was, which was altogether withered in the rest of the sons of Josiah, but did somewhat flourish again in him, 2 Kings 25:27. And hence it is, that of all the posterity of Josiah, Jechonias only is named by St. Matthew. Jechonias, in truth, was without children, Jeremiah 22:30; and Salathiel, properly speaking, was the son of Neri, Luke 3:27: but yet Jechonias is said to beget him; not that he was truly his father, but that the other was his successor; not, indeed, in his kingly dignity, for that was now perished, but in that which now was the chief dignity among the Jews. So 1 Chronicles 3:16, Zedekias is called the son, either of Jehoiakim, whose brother indeed he was, or of Jechonias, whose uncle he was; because he succeeded him in the kingly dignity. The Lord had declared, and that not without an oath, that Jechonias should be without children. The Talmudists do so interpret "R. Judah saith, All they of whom it is said, These shall be without children; they shall have no children. And those of whom it is said, They shall die without children; they bury their children." [Lev 20:2021.] So Kimchi also upon the place; "The word (saith he) means this; That his sons shall die in his life, if he shall now have sons: but if he shall not now have sons, he never shall. But our Rabbins of blessed memory say, That he repented in prison. And they say moreover, Oh! how much doth repentance avail, which evacuates a penal edict! for it is said, 'Write ye this man childless': but, he repenting, this edict turned to his good," &c. "R. Jochanan saith, His carrying away expiated. For when it is said, 'Write this man childless,' after the carrying away it is said, 'The sons of Coniah, Assir his son, Shealtiel his son.'" These things are in Babyl. Sanhedrim, where these words are added, "Assir his son, because his mother conceived him in prison." But the words in the original (1 Chron 3:17) are these...Now the sons of Jechonias bound [or imprisoned] were Shealtiel his son. Which version both the accents and the order of the words confirm...
16. And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.

[And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary.] The mother's family is not to be called a family. Hence the reason may very easily be given, why Matthew brings

down the generation to Joseph, Mary's husband; but Luke to Eli, Mary's father. These two frame the genealogy two ways, according to the double notion of the promise of Christ. For he is promised, as the 'seed of the woman,' and as the 'Son of David'; that, as a man, this, as a king. It was therefore needful, in setting down his genealogy, that satisfaction should be given concerning both. Therefore Luke declareth him the promised seed of the woman, deducing his mother's stock, from whence man was born, from Adam; Matthew exhibits his royal original, deriving his pedigree along through the royal family of David to Joseph, his (reputed) father.
17. So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations.

[Fourteen generations.] Although all things do not square exactly in this threefold number of fourteen generations, yet there is no reason why this should be charged as a fault upon Matthew, when in the Jewish schools themselves it obtained for a custom, yea, almost for an axiom, to reduce things and numbers to the very same, when they were near alike. The thing will be plain by an example or two, when a hundred almost might be produced. Five calamitous things are ascribed to the same day, that is, to the ninth day of the month Ab. "For that day (say they) it was decreed, That the people should not go into the promised land: the same day, the first Temple was laid waste, and the second also: the city Bitter was destroyed, and the city Jerusalem ploughed up." Not that they believed all these things fell out precisely the same day of the month; but, as the Babylonian Gemara notes upon it, That they might reduce a fortunate thing to a holy day, and an unfortunate to an unlucky day. The Jerusalem Gemara, in the same tract, examines the reason why the daily prayers consist of the number of eighteen, and among other things hath these words; "The daily prayers are eighteen, according to the number of the eighteen Psalms, from the beginning of the Book of Psalms to that Psalm whose beginning is, 'The Lord hear thee in the day of trouble,'" [which Psalm, indeed, is the twentieth Psalm]. "But if any object, that nineteen Psalms reach thither, you may answer, The Psalm which begins, 'Why did the heathen rage,' is not of them," a distinct Psalm. Behold, with what liberty they fit numbers to their own case. Inquiry is made, whence the number of the thirty-nine more principal servile works, to be avoided on the sabbath-day, may be proved. Among other, we meet with these words; "R. Chaninah of Zippor saith, in the name of R. Abhu, Aleph denotes one,Lamed thirty, He five, Dabar one, Debarim two. Hence are the forty works, save one, concerning which it is written in the law. The Rabbins of Caesarea say, Not any thing is wanting out of his place: Aleph one, Lamed thirty, Cheth eight: our profound doctors do not distinguish between He and Cheth": that they may fit number to their case... "R. Joshua Ben Levi saith, In all my whole life I have not looked into the [mystical] book of Agada but once; and then I looked into it, and found it thus written, A hundred and seventy-five sections of the law; where it is written, He spake, he

said, he commanded, they are for the number of the years of our father Abraham." And a little after; "A hundred and forty and seven Psalms, which are written in the Book of the Psalms [note this number], are for the number of the years of our father Jacob. Whence this is hinted, that all the praises wherewith the Israelites praise God are according to the years of Jacob. Those hundred and twenty and three times, wherein the Israelites answer Hallelujah, are according to the number of the years of Aaron," &c. They do so very much delight in such kind of concents, that they oftentimes screw up the strings beyond the due measure, and stretch them till they crack. So that if a Jew carps at thee, O divine Matthew, for the unevenness of thy fourteens, out of their own schools and writings thou hast that, not only whereby thou mayest defend thyself, but retort upon them. 18. Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. [When as his mother was espoused] No woman of Israel was married, unless she had been first espoused. "Before the giving of the law (saith Maimonides), if the man and the woman had agreed about marriage, he brought her into his house, and privately married her. But after the giving of the law, the Israelites were commanded, that, if any were minded to take a woman for his wife, he should receive her, first, before witnesses; and thenceforth let her be to him a wife, as it is written, If any one take a wife. This taking is one of the affirmative precepts of the law, and is called espousing." Of the manner and form of espousing, you may read till you are weary, in that tractate, and in the Talmudic tract, Kiddushin. [Before they came together.] "In many places the man espouseth the woman; but doth not bring her home to him, but after some space of time." So the Gloss upon Maimonides. Distinction is made by the Jewish canons, and that justly and openly, between private society or discourse between the espouser and the espoused, and the bringing of the espoused into the husband's house. Of either of the two may those words be understood, before they came together, or, rather, of them both. He had not only not brought her home to him, but he had no manner of society with her alone, beyond the canonical limits of discourse, that were allowed to unmarried persons; and yet she was found with child. [She was found with child.] Namely, after the space of three months from her conception, when she was now returned home from her cousin Elizabeth. See Luke 1:56, and compare Genesis 38:24. The masters of the traditions assign this space to discover a thing of that nature. "A woman (say they) who is either put away from her husband, or become a widow, neither marrieth, nor is espoused, but after ninety days: namely, that it may be known, whether she be big with child or no; and that distinction may be made

between the offspring of the first husband and of the second. In like manner, a husband and wife, being made proselytes, are parted from one another for ninety days, that judgment may be made between children begotten in holiness," (that is, within the true religion; see 1 Cor 7:14) "And children begotten out of holiness."
19. Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a public example, was minded to put her away privily.

[But Joseph, being a just man, &c.] There is no need to rack the word just, to fetch out thence the sense of gentleness or mercy, which many do; for, construing the clauses of the verse separately, the sense will appear clear and soft enough, Joseph, being a just man, could not, would not, endure an adulteress: but yet not willing to make her a public example, being a merciful man, and loving his wife, was minded to put her away privily. [To make her a public example.] This doth not imply death, but rather public disgrace, to make her public. For it may, not without reason, be inquired, whether she would have been brought to capital punishment, if it had been true that she had conceived by adultery. For although there was a law promulged of punishing adultery with death, Leviticus 10:10, Deuteronomy 22:22, and, in this case, she that was espoused, would be dealt withal after the same manner as it was with her who was become a wife; yet so far was that law modified, that I say not weakened, by the law of giving a bill of divorce, Deuteronomy 24:1, &c., that the husband might not only pardon his adulterous wife, and not compel her to appear before the Sanhedrim, but scarcely could, if he would, put her to death. For why otherwise was the bill of divorce indulged? Joseph, therefore, endeavours to do nothing here, but what he might, with the full consent both of the law and nation. The adulteress might be put away; she that was espoused could not be put away without a bill of divorce; concerning which thus the Jewish laws: "A woman is espoused three ways; by money, or by a writing, or by being lain with. And being thus espoused, though she were not yet married, nor conducted into the man's house, yet she is his wife. And if any shall lie with her beside him, he is to be punished with death by the Sanhedrim. And if he himself will put her away, he must have a bill of divorce." [Put her away privily.] Let the Talmudic tract 'Gittin' be looked upon, where they are treating of the manner of delivering a bill of divorce to a wife to be put away: among other things, it might be given privately, if the husband so pleased, either into the woman's hand or bosom, two witnesses only present.
23. Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.

[Behold, a virgin shall be with child.] That the word virgin, in the prophet, denotes an untouched virgin, sufficiently appears from the sense of the place, Isaiah 7:14. King Ahaz there was afraid, lest the enemies that were now upon him might destroy Jerusalem, and utterly consume the house of David. The Lord meets this fear by a signal and most remarkable promise, namely, 'that sooner should a pure

virgin bring forth a child, than the family of David perish.' And the promise yields a double comfort: namely, of Christ hereafter to be born of a virgin; and of their security from the imminent danger of the city and house of David. So that, although that prophecy, of a virgin's bringing forth a son, should not be fulfilled till many hundreds of years after, yet, at that present time, when the prophecy was made, Ahaz had a certain and notable sign, that the house of David should be safe and secure from the danger that hung over it. As much as if the prophet had said, "Be no so troubled, O Ahaz; does it not seem an impossible thing to thee, and that never will happen, that a pure virgin should become a mother? But I tell thee, a pure virgin shall bring forth a son, before the house of David perish." Hear this, O unbelieving Jew! and shew us now some remainders of the house of David: or confess this prophecy fulfilled in the Virgin's bringing forth: or deny that a sign was given, when a sign is given. In what language Matthew wrote his Gospel. [Which is, being interpreted.] I. All confess that the Syriac language was the mother-tongue to the Jewish nation dwelling in Judea; and that the Hebrew was not at all understood by the common people may especially appear from two things: 1. That, in the synagogues, when the law and the prophets were read in the original Hebrew, an interpreter was always present to the reader, who rendered into the mother-tongue that which was read, that it might be understood by the common people. Hence those rules of the office of an interpreter, and of some places which were not to be rendered into the mother-tongue. 2. That Jonathan the son of Uzziel, a scholar of Hillel, about the time of Christ's birth, rendered all the prophets (that is, as the Jews number them, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, the Books of the Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve lesser prophets) into the Chaldee language; that is, into a language much more known to the people than the Hebrew, and more acceptable than the mother-tongue. For if it be asked why he translated them at all, and why he translated not rather into the mother-tongue, which was known to all? and if it be objected concerning St. Matthew and St. Paul, that, writing to the Jews, one his Gospel, the other his Epistle (to the Hebrews), they must have written in the Syriac tongue (if so be they wrote not in Hebrew), that they might be understood by all:--we answer, First, It was not without reason that the paraphrast Jonathan translated out of the Hebrew original into the Chaldee tongue, because this tongue was much more known and familiar to all the people than the Hebrew. The holy text had need of an interpreter into a more known tongue, because it was now in a tongue not known at all to the vulgar. For none knew the Hebrew but such as learned it by study. However, therefore, all the Jews inhabiting the land of Canaan, did not so readily understand the Chaldee language as the Syriac, which was their mother-language, yet they much more readily understood that than the Hebrew, which, to the unlearned, was not known at all. Hence it was not without necessity that the prophets were turned into the Chaldee language by Jonathan, and the law, not

much after, by Onkelos, that they might a little be understood by the common people, by whom the Hebrew original was not understood at all. We read also that the Book of Job had its Targum in the time of Gamaliel the Elder; that is, Paul's master. Secondly, it is no impertinent question, Why Jonathan and Onkelos did not rather translate into the Syriac language, which was the mother-language to all the people, when both they themselves were in Judea, while they were employed about this work, and laboured in it for the use of the Jews that dwelt there? To which we give this double answer; 1. That, by turning it into the Chaldee language, they did a thing that might be of use to both them that dwelt in Judea, and in Babylon also. 2. The Syriac language was not so grateful unto the Jews, who used it for their mother-tongue, as the Chaldee was; as being a language more neat and polite, and the mother-tongue to the brethren in Babylon, and which they that came up out of Babylon, carried thence with them into Judea. You may wonder, reader, when you hear that canon which permits a single man "to say his prayers in any language, when he asks those things that are needful for him, except only the Syriac: While he asketh necessaries for himself, let him use any language but the Syriac." But you will laugh when you hear the reason: "Therefore, by all means, because the angels do not understand the Syriac language." Whether they distinguish the Syriac language here from the pure Chaldee, is not of great moment solicitously to inquire: we shall only produce these things of the Glosser upon Beracoth, which make to our purpose:--"There are some (saith he) who say, that that prayer which begins 'sermon,' is therefore to be made in the Syriac language, because it is a noble prayer, and that deserves the highest praise; and therefore it is framed in the Targumistical language, that the angels may not understand it, and envy it to us," &c. And a little after; "It was the custom to recite that prayer after sermon: and the common people were there present, who understood not the Hebrew language at all; and therefore they appointed it to be framed in the Targumistical language, that it might be understood by all; for this is their tongue." Mark, the Hebrew was altogether unknown to the common people: no wonder, therefore, if the evangelists and apostles wrote not in Hebrew when there were none who understood things so written, but learned men only. That also must not be passed over, which, at first sight, seems to hint that the Syriac language was not understood even by learned men. "Samuel the Little, at the point of death, said, Simeon and Ismael to the sword; and all the other people to the spoil: and there shall be very great calamities." And because he spoke these things in the Syriac language, they understood not what he had said. This story you have repeated in the Babylonian Gemara, where the words of the dying man are thus related; Let the Glosser upon the place be the interpreter: "Simeon and Ismael to the sword [that is, Rabban Simeon the prince, and R. Ismael Ben Elisha the high-priest, were slain with the sword], and his fellows to slaughter [that is, R. Akibah and R. Chananiah Ben Teradion were slain by other deaths; namely R. Akibah by iron teeth, and R. Chananiah by burning alive before idols]; and the other people for a prey: and very many calamities shall fall upon the world."

Now where it is said that, "They understood not what he said, because he spake in the Syrian tongue," we also do not easily understand. What! for the Jerusalem doctors not to understand the Chaldee language! For Samuel the Little died before the destruction of the city; and he spake of the death of Rabban Simeon, who perished in the siege of the city; and he spake these things when some of the learnedest Rabbins were by: and yet that they understood not these words, which even a smatterer in the oriental tongues would very easily understand! Therefore, perhaps, you may beat out the sense of the matter from the words of the author of Juchasin, who saith, He prophesied in the Syriac language, But now, when prophecies were spoken only in the Hebrew language, however they understood the sense of the words, yet they reputed it not for a prophecy, because it was not uttered in the language that was proper for prophetical predictions. But we tarry not here. That which we would have is this, that Matthew wrote not in Hebrew (which is proved sufficiently by what is spoken before), if so be we suppose him to have written in a language vulgarly known and understood; which, certainly, we ought to suppose: not that he, or the other writers of the New Testament, wrote in the Syriac language, unless we suppose them to have written in the ungrateful language of an ungrateful nation, which, certainly, we ought not to suppose. For when the Jewish people were now to be cast off, and to be doomed to eternal cursing, it was very improper, certainly, to extol their language, whether it were the Syriac mother-tongue, or the Chaldee, its cousin language, unto that degree of honour; that it should be the original language of the New Testament. Improper, certainly, it was, to write the Gospel in their tongue, who, above all the inhabitants of the world, most despised and opposed it. II. Since, therefore, the Gentiles were to be called to the faith, and to embrace the Gospel by the preaching of it, the New Testament was written very congruously in the Gentile language, and in that which, among the Gentile languages, was the most noble; viz. the Greek. Let us see what the Jews say of this language, envious enough against all languages besides their own. "Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel saith, Even concerning the holy books, the wise men permitted not that they should be written in any other language than Greek. R. Abhu saith that R. Jochanan said, The tradition is according to Rabban Simeon; that R. Jochanan said, moreover, Whence is that of Rabban Simeon proved? From thence, that the Scripture saith, 'The Lord shall persuade Japhet, and he shall dwell in the tents of Sem': the words of Japhet shall be in the tents of Sem": and a little after, God shall persuade Japhet; i.e. The grace of Japhet shall be in the tents of Sem." Where the Gloss speaks thus; "'The grace of Japhet' is the Greek language; the fairest of those tongues which belonged to the sons of Japhet." "Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel saith, Even concerning the sacred books, they permitted not that they should be written in any other language than Greek. They searched seriously, and found, that the law could not be translated according to what was needful for it, but in Greek." You have this latter clause cut off in Massecheth Sopherim, where this story also is added: "The five elders wrote the law in Greek for Ptolemy the king: and that day was bitter to Israel, as the day wherein the golden calf was made, because the law could not be translated

according to what was needful for it." This story of the 'five interpreters' of the law is worthy of consideration, which you find seldom mentioned, or scarce anywhere else. The tradition next following after this, in the place cited, recites the story of the Seventy. Look at it. When, therefore, the common use of the Hebrew language had perished, and when the mother Syriac or Chaldee tongue of a cursed nation could not be blessed, our very enemies being judges, no other language could be found, which might be fit to write the (new) divine law, besides the Greek tongue. That this language was scattered, and in use among all the eastern nations almost, and was in a manner the mother tongue, and that it was planted every where by the conquests of Alexander, and the empire of the Greeks, we need not many words to prove; since it is every where to be seen in the historians. The Jews do well near acknowledge it for their mother-tongue even in Judea. "R. Jochanan of Beth Gubrin said, There are four noble languages which the world useth; the mother-tongue, for singing; the Roman, for war; the Syriac, for mourning; and the Hebrew, for elocution: and there are some who say, the Assyrian for writing." What is that which he calls the mother-tongue? It is very easily answered, the Greek, from those encomiums added to it, mentioned before: and that may more confidently be affirmed from the words of Midras Tillin, respecting this saying of R. Jochanan, and mentioning the Greek language by name. "R. Jochanan said, There are three languages; the Roman, for war; the Greek, for speech; the Assyrian, for prayer." To this also belongs that, that occurs once and again in Bab. Megillah, In the Greek mother tongue. You have an instance of the thing; "R. Levi, coming to Caesarea, heard some reciting the phylacteries in the Hellenistical language." This is worthy to be marked. At Caesarea flourished the famous schools of the Rabbins. The Rabbins of Caesarea are mentioned in both Talmuds most frequently, and with great praise, but especially in that of Jerusalem. But yet among these, the Greek is used as the mother-tongue, and that in reciting the phylacteries, which, you may well think, above all other things, in Judea were to be said in Hebrew. In that very Caesarea, Jerome mentions the Hebrew Gospel of St. Matthew, to be laid up in the library of Pamphilus, in these words: "Matthew, who was also called Levi, from a publican made an apostle, first of all in Judea composed the Gospel of Christ in Hebrew letters and words, for their sakes, who were of the circumcision and believed. Which Gospel, who he was that afterward translated it into Greek, it is not sufficiently know. Moreover, that very Hebrew Gospel is reserved to this day in the library at Caesarea, which Pamphilus the martyr, with much care, collected. I also had leave given me by the Nazarenes, who use this book in Berea, a city of Syria, to write it out." It is not at all to be doubted, that this Gospel was found in Hebrew; but that which deceived the good man was not the very handwriting of Matthew, nor, indeed, did Matthew write the Gospel in that language: but it was turned by somebody out of the original Greek into Hebrew, that so, if possible, the learned Jews might read it. For since they had little kindness for foreign books, that is, heathen books, or such as were written in a language different from their own, which might be illustrated

from various canons, concerning this matter; some person converted to the gospel, excited with a good zeal, seems to have translated this Gospel of St. Matthew out of the Greek original into the Hebrew language, that learned men among the Jews, who as yet believed not, might perhaps read it, being now published in their language: which was rejected by them while it remained in a foreign speech. Thus, I suppose, this gospel was written in Greek by St. Matthew, for the sake of those that believed in Judea, and turned into Hebrew by somebody else, for the sake of those that did not believe. The same is to be resolved concerning the original language of the Epistle to the Hebrews. That Epistle was written to the Jews inhabiting Judea, to whom the Syriac was the mother-tongue; but yet it was writ in Greek, for the reasons above named. For the same reasons, also, the same apostle writ in Greek to the Romans, although in that church there were Romans, to whom it might seem more agreeable to have written in Latin; and there were Jews, to whom it might seem more proepr to have written in Syriac. Chapter 2
A calculation of the times when Christ was born. 1. Now when Jesus was born in Beth-lehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem.

[Now when Jesus was born.] We thus lay down a scheme of the times when Christ was born: I. He was born in the year of the world 3928. For from the creation of the world to the deluge are commonly reckoned 1656 years. From the deluge to Abraham's promise are 427 years. This being supposed, that Abraham was born the 130th year of Terah: which must be supposed. From the promise given, to the going out of Egypt, 430 years, Exodus 12:40; Galatians 3:17. From the going out of Egypt to the laying the foundations of the Temple are 480 years, 1 Kings 6:1. The Temple was building 7 years, 1 Kings 6:38. Casting up, therefore, all these together, viz. 1656 + 427 + 430 + 480 + 7 = The sum of years amounts to 3000. And it is clear, the building of the Temple was finished and completed in the year of the world 3000.

embrace the former opinion. When. as following after those three hundred and ninety years. in the first year of Rehoboam. and shalt take upon thee the iniquity of the house of Judah forty days. the computation of his monarchy beginning from the victory at Actium. whether those forty years are to be numbered together within the three hundred and ninety years. from the third year of Josias to the sacking of the city: whom the people not hearkening to. Of which matter thus Dion Cassius writes: "This their sea-fight was on the second of September: and this I speak upon no other account (for I am not wont to do it). when the ten tribes fell off from the house of David.The Temple was finished in the eleventh year of Solomon." We confirm this our computation. Daniel 9:24. according to the number of the days. did Jeremiah prophesy daily. and shalt put the iniquities of the house of Israel upon it. the age of the world when Jerusalem perished. but because then Caesar first obtained the whole power: so that the computation of the years of his monarchy must be precisely reckoned from that very day. whose fourth year begins the Babylonian monarchy. &c. or by themselves. and suppose those forty years to be included within the sum of three hundred and ninety. Daniel 1:1. From the first of Cyrus to the death of Christ are seventy weeks of years. Jeremiah 25:1. by drawing down a chronological table from this year of Augustus to the fifteenth year of Tiberius. or four hundred and ninety years. For those remarkable seventy years took their beginning from the third year of Jehoiakim. therefore. And. they are marked for that peculiar iniquity with this note. in the first year of Cyrus. and you observe Christ crucified in the year of the world 3960. the Temple was destroyed. these three hundred and ninety years being added to the year of the world. in the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar. and other fifty remained: which fifty being added to the year of the world 3420. having now completed the nine-and- . it is doubted. For by the space of forty years before the destruction of the city by the Chaldeans. He was born in the one-and-thirtieth year of Augustus Caesar. but mentioned by themselves particularly. three hundred and ninety days. unto 3470. the years of the world amount. 1 Kings 6:38: and thence to the revolting of the ten tribes. when Christ. And when thou shalt have accomplished them. a year fatal to the Temple. We. arose to the year 3420. for a particular reason. From the revolt of the ten tribes to the destruction of Jerusalem under Zedekiah were three hundred and ninety years: which appears sufficiently from the chronical computation of the parallel times of the kings of Judah and Israel: and which is implied by Ezekiel 4:4-6: "Thou shalt sleep upon thy left side. you will find him born in the year of the world 3928." Concerning the computation of these years. you have subtracted thirty-two years and a half. Therefore. thou shalt sleep upon thy right side the second time. wherein Christ lived upon the earth. not without cause. 2 Kings 25:8. that revolt was in the year of the world 3030. Add these to the three thousand four hundred and seventy. 3030. were 30 years. when now the twentieth year of the captivity passed. At that time there remained fifty years of the Babylonian captivity to be completed. Therefore. II. namely.

Fonteius Capito. Camarin. and C. Lepid. we thus frame: A. L.twentieth year of his age. Silanus. Valerius Messala. Sulpit. Caes. Paulus. Aemilius Carus. Q. Junius Silanus. and Cn.U. 3928 754 31 1 3929 755 32 2 3930 756 33 3 L. Corn. XIV. Cret. and Pub. and Sext. Pomp.C.M. Aemil. Munatius Plancus. 3931 757 34 4 3932 758 35 5 3933 759 36 6 3934 760 37 7 3935 761 38 8 3936 762 39 9 3937 763 40 10 3938 764 41 11 3939 765 42 12 and C. Apuleius Sexti F. A. Aruntius. Aemil. adding the consuls of every year. Aug. and Q. Nonius quintilianus.D. M. Statilius Taurus. Germanicus Caes. CONSULS. Pub. was baptized. 3940 766 43 13 L. and C. 3941 767 44 14 . Publius Vinicius Alfenus Varus. Sexti F. Nerv. Sext. and entering just upon his thirtieth. Sentius Saturninus. Servilius. Augustus A. Poppaeus Sabinus. Lepidus. Metell. Dolabella. Silius Caecina. Corn. and T. Sext. Licin. and L. M. Cinna Magn. A. and M. and Sext. and C. Furius Camillus. and L. Now this table. Caecil. Aelius Lamia. Aemil. and C.

C. III. with grievous cruelty. Statil. and L. and 3942 768 1 15 3943 769 2 16 3944 770 3 17 3945 771 4 18 3946 772 5 19 3947 773 6 20 3948 774 7 21 3949 775 8 22 3950 776 9 23 3951 777 10 24 3952 778 11 25 . Tiber.M. Rufus. Haterius Agrippa. and C. Pomponianus Flaccus. He lived seventy-five years. Asinius Agrippa. and Germanicus Caes. Valerius Messala. C. II. and twenty-six days. Augu. Sisenna Taurus. and C. and C. Cethegus. Cotta. forty-four years. He bore the empire alone. Sext.D. Aurel. and Visellius Varro. Tiberius A. Tiber. and Drusus Caes. C. A. Julius Silanus. Caecil. wicked covetousness. ten months. Sulpitius Galba. Drusus Caes.] Augustus Caesar died the 19th day of August: on which day he had formerly entered upon the first consulship. from the victory at Actium. Cornel. Asinius Pollio. "Tiberius held the empire in great slothfulness. and Scribonius Libo." A. M. M. C.M Latin anno mundi = in the year of the world. Latin ab urbe condita = from the year of the founding of the city (of Rome). D. wanting only thirteen days. Caes. II.U. M.[A. A. Caes. Norbanus Flaccus. Antistius Veter. and L. Aug. CONSULS. and M.C. and filthy lust. IV. Norban Flac. vel Balbus.U.

2. Between the death of Herod and the death of Augustus there was this space of time: 1. Marcus Ambibuchus [Ambivius] succeeds Coponius. Lentulus Getulicus. So that if it be asked when the fifth monarchy of the Romans arose. who relates that in that very year wherein Christ was born. L. 3. 2. only fourteen years passed from the nativity of Christ to the death of Augustus. C. and C. banished to Vienna in the presidentship of Judea. of which Luke speaks. therefore. Silanus. Augustus laid a tax upon the whole world. chapter 2. Herod reigned. Of Augustus. Appius Jul. now entering upon his one-and-thirtieth year. he continued his government. 3953 779 12 26 3954 780 13 27 3955 781 14 28 3956 782 15 29 In the early spring of this year came John baptizing. after the dissolution of those four mentioned by Daniel. The thirtieth of Christ is to be reckoned with the sixteenth of Tiberius. Coponius succeeds him. Calphurnius Piso. and P. The ten years current of the reign of Archelaus. seven-and-thirty years. indeed. 4. Silvius Nerva. being compelled. when he had now accomplished the nine-and-twentieth year of his age. and had now newly entered upon his thirtieth. Luke. Calvisius Sabinus. and P. Fusius Geminus. and entered upon a fourth ten of years: being now more easy and slothful by reason of age. Christ was born in the thirty-fifth year of the reign of Herod: which we gather from the observation of these things: 1. to it. Licinius Crassus. and C. wherein Christ was born." In this very year was the taxation under Cyrenius. Dion Cassius hath moreover these words: "Having now completed thrice ten years. out of which sum when you shall have reckoned the ten years current . during whose presidentship Augustus dies. from that time he was first declared king by the Romans. an easy answer may be fetched from St. Since. M. III.Cossus Cornel Lentulus. In the month Tisri Christ is baptized. Cn. Annius Rufus succeeds Ambibuchus [Ambivius]. Rubellius Geminus.

bare the government for a hundred years before the laying waste of the Temple. they put him into the chair. "In the half of a week" (that is. appears hence. and his son Simeon. The splendour and pomp of this family of Hillel had so obscured the rest of the families of David's stock. If Messiah be among the living. and the times of the three presidents. Now Hillel went up to Jerusalem and took the chair a hundred years before the destruction of the city: "Hillel and his son Simeon. Judah the Holy. Rabh said. to inquire of the wise men concerning some things. and forty years (as it is commonly deputed) coming between the death of Christ and the destruction of the city. by computing backwards from his death. We mention it chapter 26:1. And when he who had resorted thither to learn something. "in which it was written. omitting other things." Now Hillel went up out of Babylon to Jerusalem. our Holy Rabbi is such: if among the dead. not to make any delay by mentioning more things. The rise of the family of Hillel took its beginning at the decease of the Asmonean family (Herod. at the feast of the Passover. For "a book of genealogy was found at Jerusalem" (which we mentioned before). succeeded in the kingly government). we must reckon that Christ was not born but in the last years of Herod. when now. and. in the month Nisan. For if he died in his two-and-thirtieth year and a half. that he was baptized now beginning his thirtieth year. you must necessarily lay the time of his birth in the month Tisri. and his son Gamaliel. after the death of Shemaia and Abtalion. of the stock of David. You have the full story of it in the Jerusalem Talmud. IV. now newly begun. the wise men came: presently after this was the slaying of the infants. his son also held it after him. that the Messias should spring from any of them. a family sprung from Babylon. which they had forgot. Yea. that perhaps they believed or expected the less. as was believed." Of those hundred years if you take away two-and-thirty and a half of the life of Christ. Hillel held the government forty years: so that his death happened about the twelfth or thirteenth year of Christ. and that he lived after his baptism three years and a half. Christ was born about the twenty-seventh year of the presidentship of Hillel in the Sanhedrim. after a few months. in a long succession. three . and. by his wife Abital. Daniel was he. the two sons of Betira held the chief seats. Christ was born in the month of Tisri. there remain the twenty-seven years of Hillel before the birth of our Saviour. and his grandsons. one in the Babylonian Gemara was almost persuaded. In his thirty-seventh. indeed. that Hillel was sprung from the stock of David. as the space of his public ministry is determined by the angel Gabriel. somewhat answering to our September. that "Rabbi Judah the Holy. was the Messias. Thus we conjecture: In his thirty-fifth Christ was born. had taught them some things of the Passover rites. of the Hillelian family. But that he died at that age. the death of Herod.of Archelaus. even to R. This we conclude." V. Daniel 9.

" [In Beth-lehem. and the fifteenth day. at Pentecost he bestowed the Holy Ghost from heaven. the Lord of hosts. that of the Beginning of the Year. which the Jews assert not without reason. and seven days after. and they set upon this work with all their strength. and to keep the feast of Tabernacles. But of this hereafter. that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up. that whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem. he offered himself for a passover. a messenger of good things. From this month also was the beginning of the Jubilee. VI. For Moses. So it ariseth exactly to three-and-thirty years and a half. for the feast of Tabernacles. This month was ennobled in former times. when. 1. the Lord of hosts. Weigh well Exodus 23:15. the feast of Tabernacles. For the repairing the tables of the law. even upon them shall be no more rain. Leviticus 23:17. At that time the first-fruits of the Spirit were given by him (Rom 8:23). knowing they were not to depart from that place before the divine tabernacle was finished. 2. when the first-fruits of corn had been wont to be given. and forsake them no more. 1 Kings 8:2. to worship the King. namely. And. is plain enough.] It will not be improper here to produce the Gemarists themselves. with no antitype. that of Expiation. when he died at the feast of the Passover. "he shall make the sacrifice to cease. 4. comes down from the mountain. 17: "And it shall come to pass. And it shall be. which was from hence appointed for the feast of Expiation to following ages. 1. in memory of their dwelling in tents in the wilderness. the tenth day of this month. Whence the tenth day of that month. to worship the King. after the third fast of forty days. The institution of the feast of Tabernacles agrees excellently with the time of Christ's birth. For the dedication of the Temple. seeing that God now would dwell among them. 4. declaring that God was appeased." &c. 5. the Israelites immediately pitch their tents. and that of Tabernacles. 3.years and a half). when God dwelt in the midst of them: which things with how aptly typical an aspect they respect the incarnation. Weigh Zechariah 14:16. Joel 2:23. from year to year. was appointed for the feast of Expiation. 3. It is probable Christ was born at the feast of Tabernacles. openly confessing that the Messias was born now a good while ago before their . at the Passover. that the people was pardoned. It had been a wonder if he had honoured the third solemnity. For three solemn feasts. For the creation of the world. For the nativity of the first fathers. For when Moses went down from the mount on the tenth day of the month Tisri. 2. when God dwelt among men in human flesh. He fulfilled the typical equity of the Passover and Pentecost. wherein Moses came down and brought this good news with him. as at that time the law had been given from heaven. namely. and that the building of the holy tabernacle was forthwith to be gone in hand with (hitherto hindered by and because of the golden calf).

and shall inquire after the Lord their God. O Jew. For so they write: "After this the children of Israel shall be converted. if you are at leisure. going about from town to town. When he came to that city [Beth-lehem]. and saith to her." The Gloss is. yoke thy oxen and fit thy ploughs. Jew. because on the day that he was born the Temple was laid waste!' To whom he said.' Away he went.times. should you misspend your penny?" You may fetch the reason of this calculation. if any shall say to you. 'Take for a penny a field worth a thousand pence.'" Hear your own countrymen. And what follows after? 'A branch shall come out of the root of Jesse'" (Isa 11:1). the Arabian said to him.' take it not. said to the Jew at plough. His name is Menahem [that is. but from thence expect him. that as it was laid waste at his feet. and David their king. or in the end?' He answered him. The world is to last six thousand years. 'And what is the name of his father?' 'Hezekiah.' The ox bellowed the second time. 'But we hoped. Hosea 3:5. "For that is the time of redemption. 'How does the little infant?' And she said. thou mother of Menahem. and hearing the ox bellow. Chaninah saith. David is his name. saith the Jew. R. "After four thousand two hundred thirty-and-one years from the creation of the world. That is king Messias: if he be among the living. 'May the enemies of Israel be strangled. And that which happened to a certain Jew." &c. his name is David.' But Rabh Asher asserts that he answered thus. Thus I prove it: 'He showeth mercy to David his Messiah' (Psa 18:50). O Jew. 'From the palace of the king of Beth-lehem Judah.' She saith. after some days I will come back and receive it. and you shall be brought back to the holy mountain. 'Take to thyself for one penny a field worth a thousand pence. Bon saith. out of the tract Sanhedrim: "The tradition of the school of Elias. 'From the time you saw me last. to the inheritance of your fathers: why. Our Rabbins say. and in the last jubilee shall the Son of David come. Judan Bar Aibu saith.' saith the Arabian.' After some days he returns to that city. loose thy oxen. therefore. spirits and tempests came. To whom the Jew. R.' R. how many centuries of years are past by and gone from the eighty-fifth jubilee of the .' do not take it. Joshua Ben Levi saith. 'And Lebanon shall fall before the powerful one?' (Isa 10:34). the comforter]. but the mother of Menahem bought nothing. His name is A branch (Zech 3:8).' To whom he replied. so at his feet it would be built again. 'O thou mother of Menahem. And a little after. and became a seller of infants' swaddling-clothes. agreeth with this business:--A certain Arabian travelling.' But she replied. But. all the women bought of him. carry thy son the things that are here sold. 'But why should this be prejudicial to him? Carry him what you buy here. 'I know not. What need have we to learn from an Arabian? Is it not plainly written.' 'Whether is this whole time to be finished first. and sold his oxen and his ploughs. 'Whether in the beginning of it. He heard the voice of the women saying.' He saith to him. After four hundred years are past from the destruction of the Temple. The Babylonian doctors yield us a confession not very unlike the former: "R. 'O Jew. and snatched him away out of my hands. if any one shall say to you. Ranchum said. or if dead. as he was ploughing. R. "Elias said to Rabh Judah. and loose thy ploughs: for behold! the Temple is laid waste. 'I know not. for behold! King Messiah is born. 'But whence is he?' The other answered." And again. 'The world shall last not less than eighty-five jubilees. 'Until then expect him not. and if you have no money to-day. 'I have no money. 'What is his name?' 'Menahem.' saith he. or not?' He answered him.

have seen his star:-that heavenly light. and who first publicly declared him to be born. they first broke out into various and those wild conjectures of the time.' Consider this passage in the Talmud. 'Out of the land of the heathen. is perhaps some shadow of this story of the magicians' coming out of Arabia. and Acon is as the north. which in that very night wherein the Saviour was born shone round about the shepherds of Beth-lehem. And hence came these first-fruits of the Gentiles: whence it is not unlikely that Jethro also came. that is. [For we have seen his star in the east. are more particularly called the 'eastern' countries. and Ascalon itself is reckoned for the south": that is. that is. This more generally denotes as much as. that is. Matthew 12:42. taking the occasion of their impostures hence. "They thought the kingdom of God should presently appear". Daniel's weeks had so clearly defined the time of the true Messias's coming. And that which is spoken by the Gemara concerning the Arabian. and Rekam is as the east: from Ascalon to the south. and coming to see.. Saying. 'a heathen queen. Those countries where the sons of Abraham by his wife Keturah were dispersed.] We. whence ." These words R. But when those times of expectation were past. Hence it was that the Jews are gathered together from all countries unto Jerusalem [Acts 2].world. they would not see him). Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east. May their soul be confounded who compute the times! [Wise men from the east. Matthew 24:5. &c. because at that time the term of revealing the Messias. Luke 3:15. and fulfilled: and in one word. From the east. resembling a star hanging over Judea. and at length all those conjectures coming to nothing. and illustrates it with this Gloss. and not for the land of Israel. Luke 19:11. was come. Hence it was doubted of the Baptist whether he were not the Messias. that the minds of the whole nation were raised into the expectation of him. being then a great distance off. 2. and are come to worship him. and yet the Messias of your expectation is not yet come. that now the time of that great expectation was at hand. expecting. or such as practised ill arts: for in this sense alone this word occurs in holy writ. "From Rekam to the east. being in the east. So also from Ascalon onwards to the south is the heathen country.' in the same sense as 'the queen of the south' is taken. and Rekam itself is reckoned for the east of the world. and elsewhere often. for heathen land.] Magi. Hence it was that there was so great a number of false Christs. perhaps was seen by these magicians. nor did such a Messias appear as they expected (for when they saw the true Messias. wizards. that had been prefixed by Daniel. the first proselyte to the law. Judges 6:3. Nissim quotes from R. the first pointer-out of the Messias born. "From Rekam to the furthest bounds of the land eastward is heathen land. all ended in this curse (the just cause of their eternal blindness). Judah. and Ascalon is as the south: from Acon to the north. the year 4250. Genesis 25:6.

nevertheless. and under the scribes of the people are comprehended all those of the Sanhedrim who were not of the clergy. are comprehended the two former. Among the priests were divers differences: . they had some affection and love for. Hillel escaped likewise. if he were then present. And others escaped. and Menahem. his coming to the kingdom. that he might establish his throne. adhering stiffly to this law. [And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together. "But all the Rabbins indeed he slew not (saith the Gloss upon the place alleged).they might the more easily guess that the happy sign belonged to the Jews. Who is there that interprets these words. "Herod said. become their king. he assembled the Sanhedrim. he demanded of them where Christ should be born. Shammai also escaped. who. first it seemed necessary to him that the Asmonean family should be removed out of the way." And a little after. foretold this slaughter. who afterward persuaded Herod that he should repair the Temple to expiate this bloody impiety. with whom he consulted. The Babylonian Gemarists do thus relate the story: "Herod was a servant of the Asmonean family. He cast his eyes upon a young maid [of that family]. as the Gemara relates. 4. namely. [The chief priests. For. whosoever of the clergy were members of the Sanhedrim. what they could. The Rabbins [interpreted the words].] That is. He arose up against his masters. Herod is said by very many authors to have slain the Sanhedrim. that he might. and which still remaining. he suspected he could scarce be secure. although he had been raised unto the kingdom by the Romans. opposed his access to the kingdom. but those only who. and slew them all. with the peace and favour of the Jews." Therefore he slew not all the elders of the Sanhedrim. Whatsoever servant shall now rebel shall prosper. the people remaining quiet and accepting him. if it were to be understood of the whole. which. under the word chief priests. who held the first places in the Sanhedrim after the death of Shemaiah and Abtalion. that law of setting no king over them but of their brethren debarred him. Secondly. opposed.] When the Sanhedrim consisted of priests. would it denote the total subversion of the Sanhedrim. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together. leaving only Bava Ben Buta. 'Thou shalt set a king over thee out of the midst of thy brethren?' (Deut 17:15). formerly governing the people. for the sons of Betira were left alive. but this is neither to be understood of the whole Sanhedrim. and Israelites (as Maimonides teacheth). who held the chair when Hillel came out of Babylon. On a certain day he heard the Bath Kol [a voice from heaven] saying. Bava Ben Buta escaped also. Levites." Herod was to overcome two difficulties. Therefore he took away all those Rabbins. who certainly was there. Out of that slaughter the two sons of Betira escaped. according as Josephus relates. since he himself was of the stock of Edom. who. nor. He rose up and slew all the Rabbins. and who thenceforth sat second in the chair. taking occasion from that law.

namely. in the sense above mentioned. addicted themselves especially to handling the pen. were they who. Of them. see Shekalim. who ate together. when both of them are scribes: But if one be a scribe. such who indeed were not of the common people. who. bills of contracts.I. and to writing. yet were called private. For." So we read of The scribes of the Samaritans. Hence is that distinction. but wanted school education. And in this sense a scribe. let the scribe give thanks. phylacteries.] A scribe. So it may be doubted of a Plebeian priest. Chief priests. and were not reckoned among the learned." However ignorant and illiterate these were. In the Babylonian Talmud it is disputed (a passage not unworthy our reading). The poor Israelites and the poor priests are gatherers. yet they had their courses at the altar according to their lot. being of the priestly or Levitical stock. II. denote such. or clownish. [The scribes of the people. and thence satisfaction is made for the duty of the ignorant. and a writer of contracts. that is. Such were the public notaries in the Sanhedrim. who although they both were learned. being instructed at that time by certain rules for the performing their office. here and elsewhere. III. who was not Sophra. or divorce. nor among such as were devoted to religion. in number twenty-four. amanuenses who employed themselves in transcribing the law. being learned. scribes. short sentences to be fixed upon the door-posts. or unlearned person. The worthier degree of priests was fourfold. There were the heads of the Ephemeries. what disagreement in calculation may be borne with between an expounder out of the chair. and not of a worthier. 4. are bound to give thanks each by themselves. besides the degree of the highpriest. and is opposed to the word rude. and of the sagan his substitute. and a Plebeian priest. are sometimes opposed. priests. whether he will eat it in cleanness or in uncleanness. A Votary priest. and a Talmudic doctor. or private. (although not of these orders). were chosen into that chief senate. Of the priests some were called. as if you would say the plebeian priests. a Talmudic doctor. indeed. &c. no wonder if some ignorant and poor were found among them. or courses. and the other ignorant [or a clown]. "Two. Of both. registrars in the synagogues. or bills of . see the Jerusalem Talmud. although he was not Tanna. And the reason of it is added. That the oblation be not given to a Plebeian priest. And caution is given. or the pulpits. and of scholastic education. order. For seeing the whole seed of Aaron was sacerdotal. and priests were not so much made as born. More particularly. The presidents over the various offices in the Temple. therefore. There were the heads of the families in every course. 2. of which it may be doubted whether he will treat it under his feet and eat it or not. 3. You would stand amazed to read those things which are supposed concerning the ignorance and rudeness even of the high-priest himself. denotes more generally any man learned. and performed the public office at the altar. the learned among the Samaritans: for among them there were no traditionarians. a scribe. There were others who were called Idiot. 1. that were chosen into the chief Sanhedrim. "Because whosoever giveth an oblation to a Plebeian priest doth all one as if he should give it to a lion. appointed them by lot. because they were priests of a lower. where the discourse is of the Sanhedrim. Any priests or Levites.

Concerning which matter. who were not sprung from the sacerdotal or Levitical stock. were the scribes of the clergy. concerning writing out the law. they departed.divorce." See the same sense of the word in the Targum upon Psalm 73:2. 5. these were present. 6. in reckoning up the year of the Temple. . 3. the rest were the scribes of the people. and. therefore. the phylacteries. The sons of Betira. Hosea 1:4. whom Matthew calls the scribes of the people. which I thus render. the Chaldee paraphrast. it was their guide. that. 9. which they saw in the east. When they had heard the king. [The star. but going forward thence to Bethlehem. Beth-lehem Ephrata. Micah 5:2. vice-president. but of other tribes: the elders of the Sanhedrim. "for from thee shall go forth a ruler. among other things. for thou art to be crowned with higher dignity. &c." &c. went before them. and that. which dictates to the scribes of that sort of which we are now speaking.] These words do not at all disagree with the words of the prophet whence they are taken. does the Chaldee paraphrast plainly render it. that shall rule my people Israel. We may therefore guess. in this assembly. this. whom I suspect to be present at this very council. is concluded on.] It is probable the star had shone in the very birthnight: and thence-forward to this very time it had disappeared. of the Greek empire. the elders of the Sanhedrim): which is clear enough in these and such-like expressions: The words of the scribes are more lovely than the words of the law. in the land of Juda. traditions are better than the written law: This is of the words of the scribes: that is. &c. 2. Jonathan the son of Uzziel. a city well known. Judah. It will not repent one to read the place. sprung of the blood of the priests. or a register. among others:--1. "Thou art within a little to become chief. the star. till it came and stood over where the young child was. which they saw in the east. Hillel. lo. Simeon. the president. nor that whole tract called The tract of the scribes. went before them. 4. by night. the son of Hillel. 'this is from the traditionary decrees.. &c. and that no improbable conjecture. But. and Joshua. [Art not the least. above all others. Shammai.' These. called together by Herod. The wise men had no need of the star to be their guide when they were going to Jerusalem. as it seems. that a scribe computes more briefly. it is a small thing that thou art" [or. And in effect to this sense. were those elders of the Sanhedrim. art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor. indeed. a doctor more largely. art reckoned] "among the thousands of Israel". unless I mistake. that is. "But thou. &c. Bava Ben Buta. the fathers of the traditions are called scribes (who were. And thou Beth-lehem. 6.

partly with them that flocked thither. There were seventy golden chairs set with gems. therefore. shall we put in thy place?' He answered. And a little before that. more latewardly." So provision was made for the poverty of Joseph and Mary. but every artificer with the professors of the same art: so that if a stranger came. fled. repeating that of the prophet. Therefore he rose up. in which the bishop of the synagogue stood. the son of Kareah. &c. But his brother Simeon envied him.' But they sat not confusedly and mixedly together.'" And a little after.. Simeon Ben Shetah sent thither. of which Josephus writes. he might know his own fellow-workmen. to thee. my sister. O Alexandria in Egypt. so that if a poor stranger came in. When he arose. the silversmiths by themselves. they all answered 'Amen. 'Whom. while they sojourned in Egypt (at Alexandria. "Elisaeus turned away Gehazi with both his hands. and betake himself to them. that they might have matter the more liberally to reproach him. and R. Jeremiah 43. he took the young child and his mother by night. and partly by a supply of victuals from their countryfolks in Egypt when they had need. partly by reason of them that travelled thither under Jochanan. after every benediction. in the mean time. a sign being given by a private person waving a handkerchief. and built there an altar. to the temple of Onias. The Babylonian Gemara repeats almost the same things. but so corrupted with venomous malice and blasphemy (as all their writings are). alleging these last matters after this manner: "They sat not confusedly. 'Behold! my son Onias is before you. and both Talmuds: "When Simeon the Just said. double cloistered. And when the law was read. the weavers by themselves. These did wicked Trajan destroy. and thence receive sustenance for himself and family.14. but the artificers by themselves. probably).' they said to him. health." &c. 'I shall die this year. and anathematized" [Jesus]. according to the number of the seventy elders. the braziers by themselves. and went. went away unto Alexandria in Egypt. for so they speak: "When Jannai the king slew the Rabbins.'" "He that hath not seen the cathedral church of Alexandria hath never seen the glory of Israel." . partly by selling the presents of the wise men for food and provision by the way. therefore. Josua Ben Perachiah. sit alone. and that. Onias. 'From me Jerusalem the holy city. he might mingle himself with the workmen of the same trade. while I. and Jesus. 'In that day there shall be an altar to the Lord in the midst of Egypt.' They made Onias therefore high-priest. "He brought forth four hundred trumpets. R. and departed into Egypt. There are some footsteps in the Talmudists of this journey of our Saviour into Egypt. speaking thus. Josua Ben Perachiah thrust away Jesus with both his hands. &c. and then into Egypt. It was after the manner of a court-walk. first into the Royal Mountain.] Egypt was now replenished with Jews above measure. [Departed into Egypt. My husband dwells with thee. A wooden pulpit also placed in the middle. that they seem only to have confessed the truth. There were sometimes there so many as doubly exceeded the number of those that went out of Egypt.

that is. verse 4. and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem. and unworthy of the society of men. when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men." But now all the prophets. Tam.] It was now two years ago. according to the prophet was born there. by no means to be despised. according to the law. no man knows whence the Son of man is. I was a stranger to my brethren. and sent forth. being forty days old. that they believed that the Messias. going forth from hence. was exceeding wroth. Let it be observed. as a despicable person. humble. when they had now presented him in the Temple. from two years old and under. who. the son of Perachiah. II. he hints his separation and estrangement from other men. 23. Akiba: but Jesus was in the days of R. I. who was in the days of R. do preach the vile and abject condition of Christ. 16. and "Nemo novit. should have been brought up nowhere but there also. and under. denies it: for thus he. And they had taken care for his education in this place. form the authority of R. have their weight. in his person. the Branch. might show himself openly the Messias.] Those things which are brought from Isaiah 11:1 concerning Netzer. and those things also produced concerning Samson the Nazarite. R. speaks thus."Did not Ben Satda bring enchantments out of Egypt in the cutting which was in his flesh?" Under the name of Ben Satda they wound our Jesus with their reproaches. that Matthew may be understood concerning the outward. Only it was confessed by all without controversy. and mean condition of our Saviour. in a manner. or thereabouts. [From two years old. David. that the evangelist does not cite some one of the prophets. It was doubted whether he should come from the living or from the dead. And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets. whither Joseph and Mary had again betaken themselves with him. The Jewish nation are very purblind. He shall be called a Nazarene. [He shall be called a Nazarene. according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men. We add. Nazarene. from what original. &c. which the priests and scribes of the people assert. although the Glosser upon the place. This was not Jesus of Nazareth. . because they say here. and Christ was born. and in all the coasts thereof." John 7:27. the son of Judah. Tam saith. and not elsewhere. Hence you have Christ now in his second year at Beth-lehem. until he himself. nor dared they to carry him elsewhere. Then Herod. a most noble type of Christ. The reason of the tarrying of Joseph and Mary in Beth-lehem was this. since the star had shone. And that by the word. if they had not been sent away somewhere else by permission from heaven. that his original should be out of Nazareth. Josua. none. Psalm 69:9. how and whence the Messias shall arise. Ben Satda was in the days of Paphus. that he should first make some show of himself from Beth-lehem. Luke 2:22. but all: "spoken by the prophets. before they had leave to do so by an angel from heaven.

to be so ignorant of the sense of the word wilderness. that word denotes not only a separation. half a year before the nativity of our Saviour. and into the city Nazareth. had not the fear of Archelaus hindered him. and not worthy of their company. the other at the winter. But. six country seahs. which were in value six seahs of the wilderness. "They shall be on the head of Joseph. the royal city. one born at the vernal equinox. Luke 1:36. So the conceptions and births of the Baptist and our Saviour ennobled the four famous tekuphas [revolutions] of the year: one being conceived at the summer solstice. "John lived in the deserts. his education was more coarse and plain in the country. and that he was born about the feast of the Passover. you may observe that fulfilled to a tittle which is so often declared by the prophets. which not a few do. namely. or to Jerusalem.III. the other at the autumnal. trees in groves and common meadows. from Nazir. by the signification of an angel. Therefore. The royal . that is. So 2 Corinthians 11:26: "in perils in the city. Be ashamed." Therefore. one may not unfitly conjecture by comparing Luke 1:39 with Joshua 21:11. Chapter 3 1. that the Messias should be Nazor. and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren." II. In those days came John the Baptist. a very contemptible country. The wildernesses of the land of Canaan were not without towns and cities. a Nazirean. or separate from men. a place of no account: whence. if the pope's school may be interpreter. and not appropriate to one master": that is. as if he were a very vile person. a stranger. "A Jerusalem seah exceeds a seah of the wilderness by a sixth part. nor was he presently to be called an Eremite who dwelt in the wilderness." "The trees of the wilderness are those which are common. he led the life of a hermit. not in the city. he is sent away into Galilee. until he made himself known unto Israel. and the name of it." Luke 1:80. but it signifies also the separation of a man from others. without the breeding of the university. O papist. from this very place. such as that of the Nazarenes was. If you derive the word Nazarene. dedicated to God. That is. and in perils in the country. or court at Jerusalem. John's native soil. [John The Baptist preaching in the wilderness of Judea." An oblation for thanksgiving consists of five Jerusalem seahs. or desert. let us digest the sense of the evangelist by this paraphrase: Joseph was to depart with Christ to Beth-lehem. I. preaching in the wilderness of Judaea. as being unworthy of their society. Genesis 49:26. which in the common dialect sounds all one as if it had been said.] That John was born in Hebron. "He lived in the country. the city of David. is called by the Talmudists. The hillcountry of Judea.

whether Israel were to be redeemed with repentance or without repentance. And hence is that which is said. it is very fitly argued by the Baptist." "If Israel shall repent but one day. 'And thence thou shalt seek the Lord thy God. 2. and determines the question: "From the words of our Rabbins (saith he) it is plain there arose a doubt among them concerning this matter. David passed much of his youth in the wilderness. his own arm brought salvation. 'I will remember for them my old covenant. and most suitable to the time. therefore. which we observe presently. that there was none to intercede. A nation leavened with the error of the Pharisees. concerning justification by the works of the law. and he wondered. For when I read. 1 Samuel 17:28: but yet. not only spending his time in leisure and contemplation. II. [Repent ye. Psalm 75:6. make for repentance: 'Thou shalt return to the Lord thy God. who will call him an eremite? In the like sense I conceive John living in the deserts. but employing himself in some work. namely. However the schools of the Pharisees had illy defined repentance. that many of Israel shall repent. forthwith the Redeemer cometh" (Taanith). Therefore.' &c. from the approach of the kingdom of heaven to repentance. I.' And again. he ought to have come to the chief Sanhedrim to undergo their examination. 'Not for your sake. he is diverted to another ministry. since they themselves to whom this is preached do acknowledge that thus the kingdom . and by the Psalmist. as it had done before to the prophets. "the word of God coming unto him. and shalt find him. And saying. when they shall see the signs of redemption. The desert hill-country. Concerning this matter the Babylonian Gemarists do dispute: whom Kimchi also upon Isaiah 54:19 cites.] A doctrine most fit for the gospel. when. I scarcely believe his forerunner employed his youth in no calling at all." Luke 3:2. and yet "in the royal mountain were a myriad of cities. and shalt hearken to his voice. And these places. And it sprang from this occasion. But these may be reconciled after this manner. and there was no man.mountain. and by our Saviour after him. was necessarily to be called off to the contrary doctrine of repentance.' &c.' And again. 'He saw. Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.' And also. that the youth of our Saviour was taken up in the carpenter's trade. and to be entered into the priesthood by them. according to the custom of the priests. namely. Matthew 4:17. and the word or the phrase as agreeable to the doctrine. or studies. on the other hand. that some texts of Scripture seemed to go against them: such as those." III. O Israel. if thou seekest him with all thy heart.' because they will not repent until they see the beginning of redemption. yet they asserted that repentance itself was necessary to the reception of the Messias. Beginning now the thirtieth year of his age. do I this. or hill. No receiving of the gospel was otherwise to be expected. 'And he saw that there was no man.

that. in Matthew. that hereby they might openly profess that they renounced the doctrine of justification by the works of the law. committed either out of ignorance or presumption. And because the scape-goat is the expiation for all Israel. out of error or presumption. "The mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. so among the Jews it was necessary that it should be so expressed. for his office. his sin is not taken away by his death. that John said not. for the most part. The word repentance as it does very well express the sense of true repentance. "The kingdom of God is at hand. when John urgeth those that came to his baptism to repent. or the manifestation of the Messias. . Therefore the Baptist doth very properly urge repentance upon those that looked for the Messias." which our Saviour did. III. "Repent. when he repents and returns from his sins. Matthew 4:17. yet for the most part they do but speak the sense of their fathers. is the kingdom of God. Mark 1:1. for the most part.2. and necessary for those that were then brought in to the profession of the Gospel. it is said. whether they be those that command or those that forbid. who when he should come was to be the great preacher of the gospel. therefore the high priest makes confession over him for all Israel. his sin is not expiated by the offering. theirs is the kingdom of heaven." Matthew 13:11." It is worthy observing." Mark 1:15." Matthew 5:3. chiefly. It is worthy of observing also. [For the kingdom of heaven is at hand.] I. until he makes an oral confession. is to be brought in. (and yet John preached the gospel. "confessing their sins": which was a sign of repentance highly requisite among the Jews. John 1:7). Whosoever brings an offering for a sin. or by his scourging. among whom repentance. "The least in the kingdom of God.of heaven. and the text of the Gospel used a very proper word to express true and lively repentance. shall transgress the precepts of the law. was to make Christ known. The kingdom of heaven. "Whosoever. For however the Gemarists who dispute of this were of a later age. in the other evangelists. and believe the gospel. he is bound to make confession. if he do not repent and make confession. was thought to consist in the confession of the mouth only. Or whosoever is guilty of death. Compare these places: "The poor in spirit. or of scourging by the Sanhedrim. that they were baptized." Luke 7:28.

1 Corinthians 6:2. 2. John 3:27. in these and such-like speeches. certainly. Matthew 12:28. death. "Whereas. 1. 19:28. where. that that kingdom of heaven took its beginning immediately upon the preaching of the Gospel. "For they called God by the name of Heaven. And. under the reign of Christ there should be Christian kings. as it is universal over the whole world. When both the Baptist and Christ published the approach of the kingdom of heaven from their very first preaching. The phrase the kingdom of heaven very frequently occurs in the Jewish writers. This manner of speech. is taken from Daniel. being conquered: whence is a most evident manifestation that he is that 'eternal King. III. the entrance and nature of the reign of Christ is described." Mark 10:14."Little children. his most implacable enemies: this is another. scattered in the Talmudists: Death by the hand of heaven: The name of heaven is profaned: The worship of heaven: by the help of heaven." Unto which that of the apostle hath respect. I think it is to grope in the dark. hell. the Babylonian. as the Gloss renders it. that is. and eternal throughout all ages: "under whom the rule. 12:13. taken for God. Luke 15:21.' See John 3:3. Grecian. The story of the Jews is related. of such is the kingdom of God. 4. and the destruction of them at last. in the Jewish dialect. His dominion by the sceptre of the gospel among the Gentiles. Matthew 21:25. and authority of kingdoms under the whole heaven is given to the people of the saints of the Most High. the kingdom of heaven. 14. for any to think that the fulfilling of those things in Daniel did not then begin. because his habitation is in heaven" (Tishbi). The resurrection of Christ. cast out devils. before. Romans 1:4. . the rule had been in the hands of heathen kings. by the finger of God.: see Matthew 26:29. "But if I. after the description of the four earthly and tyrannical monarchies. The exhibition and manifestation of the Messias. Ah! Jehovah! II. chapter 7:13. Daniel 4:23. Mede-Persian. &c. since the books of the Gospel afford us a commentary clearer than the sun. O Heavens! that is. why is Hear. His vengeance upon the Jewish nation. And so we have it elsewhere very often. the kingdom of God is come upon you": that is. Joshua Ben Korcha saith. 'Hence is the manifestation of the Messias. &c.' &c. not to receive its completion before Rome and antichrist shall fall. and Syro-Grecian. let the reader gather the sense of them: "R. either through wilfulness or ignorance. for my part. and dominion. Satan. In reciting the phylacteries. Matthew 21:43. We will produce some places. groaning out under their persecution these words. In this place which is before us it points out the exhibition and revelation of the Messias. O Israel. IV. For Heaven is very usually. "know ye not that the saints shall judge the world?" Truly I admire that the fulfilling of that vision and prophecy in Daniel should be lengthened out still into I know not what long and late expectation. and most eminent manifestation of him: see Matthew 16:28. The kingdom of heaven implies." verse 27: that is. 3.

is the taking of the kingdom of heaven upon thee. and took upon himself the yoke of flesh and blood. &c. nor will I lay aside the kingdom of heaven from me.'" "What is the yoke of the kingdom of heaven? In like manner as they lay the yoke upon an ox. When he heard with the ear those words from mount Sinai. 'The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. And when his scholars said unto him." If by the kingdom of heaven. "If. At that time when he put his hands to his face. if thou shalt hearken. O our master. no. "Rabban Gamaliel recited his phylacterical prayers on the very night of his nuptials. in the repeating of that passage of the phylacteries [Deut 6:4]. 'Hast thou not taught us. We never saw Rabbi [Judah] taking upon himself the kingdom of heaven.. 'And it shall be. and then the yoke of the precept.[Deut 6:4. you shall pronounce the letters distinctly and deliberately. thou shalt make the shadow of death to be cool to thee"." "The scholars of Jochanan Ben Zaccai asked. be suited to this sense of . &c. he becomes unprofitable: so it becomes a man first to take the yoke upon himself. for until the time came of reciting the phylacteries.'" For the same Gloss had said. 'Hear. "Behold. 'thou shalt make cool the shades of death. that a bridegroom is freed from the reciting of his phylacteries the first night?' he answered. he instructed his scholars. O Israel. but the Babylonian thus: "That a man first take upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of heaven. and divided the letters of the kingdom of heaven. that he may be serviceable. which indeed they seem to do. To wit. if you shall hearken [Deut 11:13]. so that you shall have sounded out the names of God rightly. and this is the kingdom of heaven fulfilled. he is unprofitable: as it is said. 'I will not hearken to you.] recited before that passage And it shall come to pass. and to serve in all things with it: but if he casts it off." Where the Gloss speaks thus: "We saw not that he took upon himself the kingdom of heaven. that is. 'in fear?' the same that is written.' And this is the kingdom of heaven.' he broke the yoke of the kingdom of heaven from him. 'Hear. [Deut 19:13] is the taking of the yoke of the precept upon thee. and if he bear not the yoke. which asserts the inward and spiritual kingdom of Christ especially. The repeating of that passage. 'Serve the Lord in fear. repeat them." "Doth any ease nature? Let him wash his hands. in these and other such-like places. so far they agree with our gospel sense. which it would be too much to heap together. and then the yoke of the precept." "If thou shalt have explained Shaddai. that a man first take upon himself the kingdom of heaven. 'Thou shalt have no other Lord before my face. Bar Pahti answered.. they mean the inward love and fear of God. But the repeating of that place." "Rabh said to Rabbi Chaijah. O Israel. and when that time was come. put on his phylacteries. rather than through some other part of the body? He answered. and pray. the kingdom of God is within you. the Lord our God is one Lord." So the Jerusalem Misna hath it.' &c. And if the words of our Saviour.' &c. he took upon himself the kingdom of heaven.' &c. I saw him not interposing any space.' What means. not for an hour. Why a servant was to be bored through the ear." Luke 17:21.

Let us consult a little his . yet they used it also for the exhibition and revelation of the Messiah in the like manner as the evangelical history doth. therefore. 4. And the same John had his raiment of camel's hair. and so ready a reception of his baptism? I. [And were baptized. is used by the Jerusalem Gemara: "From Beth-horon to the sea is one region round about. and the country further." But. stirs up the minds of his hearers to meet the coming of the Messiah. and the like to them.] He that by vow tieth himself from flesh." Isaiah 53:11." or. or with much show? Your very schools teach that the kingdom of God is within a man. is one and the same thing with a coast. in Pliny: "The country (saith he) along the coast is Samaria": that is. the sea-coast. however they most ordinarily applied this manner of speech hither. and his meat was locusts and wild honey. and all Judaea. And were baptized of him in Jordan. confessing their sins.] The word the region round about. is forbidden the flesh of fish and of locusts. now presently to be manifested. Hence are these expressions. all well watered and full of dwellings. Perhaps. The Baptist. The kingdom of your God is revealed.] It is no unfit or unprofitable question. concerning the plain bordering on Jordan. the weeks of Daniel being now spent to the last four years. in sacred writers: "The Pharisees asked Jesus when the kingdom of God should come. [The region round about Jordan. lying along by that coast: which may be said also concerning the region round about Jordan. See the Babylonian Talmud (Cholin) concerning locusts fit for food." A few things concerning Baptism. by his preaching. and all the region round about Jordan. Because the manifestation of the Messias was then expected. [His food was locusts. 6. Then went out to him Jerusalem. or a country along a coast." And these words in the Chaldee paraphrast." "They thought that the kingdom of God should presently be manifested. The first reason is. hath these words. with that repentance and preparation as is meet. whence it came to pass that there was so great a conflux of men to the Baptist. and a leathern girdle about his loins. both in the Talmudist and in the evangelist. there is nothing sounds hard or rough in them: for it is as much as if he had said "Do you think the kingdom of heaven shall come with some remarkable observation. 5. "It is a place of a hundred furlongs.the nation concerning the kingdom of heaven. "Say ye to the cities of Judah. one circumjacent region. Strabo." "Josephus of Arimathea waited for the kingdom of God." Isaiah 40:9: "They shall see the kingdom of their Messiah.

Not in the middle of that week." &c.--namely. from the giving of Cyrus' patent for the rebuilding Jerusalem. For. from the first of Cyrus to the death of Christ. "Seventy weeks [of years] are decreed concerning thy people. and hence it was called Baptism for proselytism: and was distinct from Baptism [or washing] from uncleanness. and of the Syro-Grecian.--and since the time of his appearing was so clearly decreed by the angel that nothing could be more. 1. and in reference to that. "he shall make the sacrifice and oblation to cease. and should flock to him. or four hundred thirty-four years. chiefly to be observed. 3. II." (Luke 3:2) went forth." &c. had been both known and received in most frequent use among the Jews. as we observed before.--the institution of baptism. the times so exactly set out by the angel Gabriel. come:-it is no wonder if the people. were all run out. to the finishing the rebuilding of it by Nehemiah. in the middle of it the Messias shall begin his ministry. within a very little. but in the latter half. and then sixty-two weeks. and they very unequal. into two equal parts. wherein the Romans ruled over the Jews. should be stirred up beyond measure to meet him. and those times also. that by it proselytes might be admitted into the church. was first in the hand of the Baptist. very many centuries of years backwards. "And he shall strengthen.--now there remained one only of the seventy. which being finished in three years and a half (the latter halved part of that week).--and for the very same end as it now obtains among Christians. The nation could not but know. "They thought that the kingdom of God would immediately be manifested. in the half of that week he shall make to cease. therefore. the coming of the Messias was the great wish and desire of all. the times of the Persian empire (which remained after Nehemiah. That is. if indeed there was any time now remaining). and the times of the Grecian empire.--namely.text:-Daniel 9:24. from the finishing the building of the city to the beginning of the last week of the seventy. who. the covenant with many in that one week: and the half of that week shall make the sacrifice and oblation to cease: or. These years are divided into three parts. The holy text divides the last week. for an evangelical sacrament. or the last seven years. which I thus render. that is. Into seven weeks. could not but take great notice of. verse 25. Into sixty-two weeks. Another reason of it was this. See the Babylonian Talmud in . verse 27. hearing from this venerable preacher that the kingdom of heaven was now come. But yet the first use of baptism was not exhibited at that time. First. seven weeks having been reckoned up before. 2. "the word of the Lord coming to him. four hundred and ninety years. backed with the same authority as the chiefest prophets had in times past. or confirm. For baptism." &c." Luke 19:11. or forty-nine years.--and when the latter half of the last seven years. In which space of time. Since. the latter three years and a half of the seven. was now.

baptism and oblation. when he chose into his family and church the young women of Sychem. lest they should betake themselves to proselytism out of a fear of the kingdom of Israel: not in the days of Solomon. And yet abundance of proselytes were made in the days of David and Solomon before private men. we can assert that for a deed rightly done.Jevamoth. and be ye clean. and oblation. "One baptizeth a heathen woman in the name of a woman. "To be baptized in the name of a woman. nevertheless. II. IV. 'Thou shalt sanctify them to-day and to-morrow. Joshua saith. as it were with one mouth. and the great Sanhedrim was full of care about this business: for they would not cast them out of the church. that they were circumcised. but not circumcised." &c. for a complete proselytess. Is he baptized. but not circumcised. "Jacob said to his family. Genesis 35:2. the great interpreter of the Jewish law) was admitted into the covenant by three things. Put away from you the strange gods. and change your garments. which reason itself also persuades us to believe. as it is said." That was a common axiom No man is a proselyte until he be circumcised and baptized. 'None uncircumcised shall eat of the passover. and place himself under the wings of the divine Majesty. Eliezer saith Behold. that is circumcised and not baptized. what of him? R. They assert. voluntary circumcision. assert her. that that infinite number of proselytes in the day of David and Solomon were admitted by baptism: "The Sanhedrims received not proselytes in the days of David and Solomon: not in the days of David. for this end. and to all who were with him. that all the nation of Israel were brought into the covenant. I. "Whensoever any heathen will betake himself. and not with the baptism to proselytism. are required: but if it be a woman. or baptism. baptism. All the nation of Israel do assert. Is he circumcised. and not circumcised? Or. "Israel (saith Maimonides. I ascribe the first use of it.--namely. and other heathens who then lived with him. among other things. Behold. Circumcision was in Egypt. because they were baptized. Aben Ezra does very well interpret to be the washing of the body. lest they might do the same by reason of the glory of the kingdom. to the patriarch Jacob. and take the yoke of the law upon him. and sacrifice. and be joined to the covenant of Israel." But baptism was sufficient for women so far forth as this held good. until he be circumcised and baptized. and be ye clean. It is disputed by the Babylonian Gemara. was to be baptized with the washing of a woman polluted. he is a proselyte: for so we find concerning our fathers. because that baptism of washing for uncleanness serves for ." Where the Gloss is this. as it is said. and not baptized? He is not a proselyte. baptism. But we may.'" III. "A proselyte. he is a proselyte: for so we find concerning the maidservants. and let them wash their garments. What that words means. by baptism.' Baptism was in the wilderness before the giving of the law. But the wise men say. One is baptized. who were baptized. what of him? R. but not baptized." &c. who is so baptized. by circumcision.

" But certainly baptism ever followed. indeed." V. because water might be injurious to the wound. as the Gloss renders it. who are now instead of a father to him. not only that you may receive satisfaction concerning the people flocked. Jochanan inquired." "A heathen woman." We cannot also pass over that. that which is done by their father redounds to their good. There was. Joseph saith. They baptized also young children (for the most part with their parents). And yet it is worthy of observation. R. which indeed is worthy to be remembered: "Any one's servant is to be circumcised. "If an Israelite take a Gentile child.--behold. some little distance of time. our Saviour rejected circumcision. that three men be present at the baptism. If with a proselyte his sons and his daughters are made proselytes also. do you circumcise him by force? Yea. Hezekiah saith. Where the Gloss writes thus. was instituted. and he baptizeth him in the name of a servant: in the name of a freeman." And the Gemara a little after. which afford some light to certain places of Scripture. for "they were not baptized till the pain of circumcision was healed. "This is to be understood of little children. a man finds an infant cast out. they may retract. they baptize him [because none becomes a proselyte without circumcision and baptism] according to the judgment [or right] of the Sanhedrim. to John's baptism (because baptism was no strange thing to the Jews). is doubtful. They baptize a little proselyte according to the judgment of the Sanhedrim: that is. . and his mother brings him to be made a proselyte. "If he be deprived of his father. he were to be baptized. that was inseparable from it. for a heathen woman is not baptized [or washed] for uncleanness. that is. he is a proselyte. but by whom baptism. Behold a little son. who are made proselytes together with their father. in so universal a concourse. although he be as the son of Urcan. though he be unwilling. if he be unwilling. and will help to clear some knotty questions about baptism. but that some other things may be observed hence. You see baptism inseparably joined to the circumcision of proselytes. R.-the child needs not baptism: for the baptism of his mother serves him for baptism. Behold. indeed. do you also circumcise him in the name of a freeman. but any one's son is not to be circumcised. We acknowledge. he preferred this 'proselytical introductory' (pardon the expression) unto the sacrament of entrance into the gospel.proselytism to her. and baptizeth him in the name of a proselyte. R." We have therefore alleged these things the more largely. that circumcision was plainly of divine institution." Otherwise. First. and retained the appendix to it: and when all the Gentiles were now to be introduced into the true religion. when she is now big with child. or find a Gentile infant. When they grow into years. if she is made a proselytess.

but whence he had a license so to baptize. and frequent. and continueth it unto all ages. For when Paedobaptism in the Jewish church was so known. that little children should be baptized. the manner of baptizing. by the common use of them.--as. if Christ had been minded to have that custom abolished. The whole nation knew well enough that little children used to be baptized: there was no need of a precept for that which had ever. 'It is not forbidden to baptize infants. to the public assembly in the church". by some more accurate rule. there was need of a plain and open prohibition that infants and little children should not be baptized. certainly he would be mad. as he found it. usual. John 1:25. how very known and frequent the use of baptism was among the Jews. in times to come. by their messengers. who. Hence also the reason appears why the New Testament doth not prescribe. "Let every one resort. Secondly. by common use. usual.One might observe the same almost in the eucharist. he would have openly forbidden it. when baptism was now passed into an evangelical sacrament. The Anabaptists object. and every where. Thirdly. therefore. by what hath been already said. on the Lord's day. prevailed. well known and in daily use before the publishing of the proclamation. as heretofore it was used for admission into proselytism to the Jewish religion. but concerning the authority of the baptizer. &c. because there is no mention of them in the proclamation. The particulars belonging to it. in the admission of proselytes. that he might promote it to a worthier end and a larger use. inquired not of John concerning the reason of baptism.-1. whereby all should be admitted into the possession of the gospel.--therefore they are to be baptized. For the proclamation provided for the celebration of the Lord's day in the public assemblies in general: but there was no need to make mention of the particular kinds of the divine worship to be celebrated there. and so indeed was the bread. Christ instituted the sacrament in the bread and wine. and when it was published. But whence was the wine? But yet. should argue hence that prayers. 'It is not commanded to baptize infants.--had no need of a rule and definition. in what sense that is . confirms Paedobaptism. sufficiently known even to mechanics and the most ignorant men. the sex to be baptized. Observing from these things which have been spoken. this only added. who the persons are to be baptized. not what baptism meant. Therefore his silence.' To whom I answer. For Christ took baptism into his hands. 2. The case is the very same in baptism. Fourthly. if our Saviour would not have had them baptized. Christ instituted it for an evangelical sacrament. It is clear enough. The lamb in the Passover was of divine institution. singing of psalms. the age.--therefore they are not to be baptized.' And the reason is plain. If a royal proclamation should now issue forth in these words. because these were. the reason appears very easy why the Sanhedrim. On the other hand. in all ages foregoing. when they were always. For. sermons. and into evangelical use. rejecting the lamb. that nothing almost was more known. There was no need to strengthen it with any precept. and frequent. since it was most common. and the silence of the Scripture in this matter. were not to be celebrated on the Lord's day in the public assemblies.

They baptize a proselyte in such a confluence of waters as was fit for the washing of a menstruous woman. either tenacious of their former customs. Our wise men have esteemed this proportion to be a cubit square." When it is said. Nor. that it cannot be proved there were infants in those families. These reasons the Glossers give. as it is concluded truly and deservedly. or. as also all other unclean persons. it is required. and all other unclean persons." Maimonides adds."--it forbids not a menstruous woman. indeed. have corrupted others with their example." II. 33. . to wash in a confluence of waters. were washed in some confluence of waters. nor by night. whether there were infants in those families. Some things are now to be spoken of the manner and form which John used.--namely. III. that "he that hath the gonorrhea is to wash in a spring [or a stream]. they had all been to be baptized.--if there were. When. who may take care that the business be rightly performed. who was allowed to wash himself in streams: and was allowed also. "were the unclean to be washed but in the day-time. and other unclean persons. were the cause that the divine glory did rest the less upon them. Concerning it the Talmudic Canons have these sayings:-I. that the master of the family was baptized with his whole family. and may judge of the matter itself. The same is to be understood concerning the baptism of a proselyte. for the inquiry is not so proper. who are scholars of the wise men. in some confluence of waters. were so forgetful of the manner and custom of the nation. A proselyte hath need of three: that is. which was not lawful for a man that had the gonorrhea to do. where they might not. that they brought not their little children also with them to be baptized. First. nor on a holy-day. Proselytes are dangerous to Israel. therefore. For they. Nor do I believe this people. and three cubits depth: and this measure contains forty seahs of water. to wash in streams. be present at the baptism of a proselyte. "They baptized not a proselyte on the sabbath. being mingled with Israel. For the admission of a proselyte was reckoned no light matter. they were not to be admitted but by the judicial consistory of three. not to have followed them. that three men. that flocked to John's baptism. the admission of proselytes was of so great moment. like the itch. to wash in some confluence of water.to be taken in the New Testament which we sometimes meet with. was an axiom. Acts 16:15. Nor is it of any strength which the Anti-paedobaptists contend for. where there were no streams. Of such a confluence of waters the lawyers have these words: "A man that hath the gonorrhea is cleansed nowhere but in a fountain: but a menstruous woman. because it resteth not on any but upon families of a nobler pedigree. in which so much water ought to be as may serve to wash the whole body at one dipping. or ignorant of the law of Israel. and may briefly instruct the catechumen [the person to be baptized]. &c. where they might: but it permits. in other things. but a menstruous woman. They do not baptize a proselyte by night. In some things he seems to have followed the manner whereby proselytes were baptized.

as that. he is still in his uncleanness. and that he baptized himself." In the baptizing of a proselyte. and they. he is as an Israelite in all things. But a proselyte was baptized not only into the washing-off of that Gentile pollution. and their garments would not hinder it. for fear.--and servants also that were to be made free: not so much because they were defiled with heathen uncleanness. he must wash all the hair of his head. "Every person baptized" [or dipped. or plunged himself in the waters. And hence the sons of proselytes. it means nothing else than the washing of the whole body. they again instruct him in some weightier and in some lighter commands of the law. of the reward of obedience. except the very top of his little finger. if he professed that he embraced them he is forthwith circumcised. standing without. being married to an Israelite woman. and ours with both. Which being heard. Hence. And when they saw that he came out of love of the law. stands in the waters. a little to compare the baptism of John with that proselytical baptism. he plunges himself. he might produce a free and legitimate seed. because they were already Israelites. but that by the most accurate rite of translation that could possibly be. by that rite becoming Israelites in all respects. with the baptism of proselytes. now stripped and made naked. &c. &c. prescribed by the law. that they might take upon themselves the obligation of the law. while she. But if any should enter into the water with their clothes on. go out. instruct her about some lighter precepts of the law and some weightier. and comes up. at one dipping. and their children be accounted as Israelites. "As soon as he grows whole of the wound of circumcision. that implies legal uncleanness. but not baptized. for that also was reckoned for the body. They were circumcised. or baptized into proselytism]. in the meantime. of the world to come. were circumcised indeed. whether he were washed from pollution. And wheresoever in the law washing of the body or garments is mentioned. that others baptized him. that. If you compare the washing of polluted persons. these things are to be considered:-I. Now. "must dip his whole body. what that plunging was. When a proselyte was to be circumcised. in following generations. From these things . but let it be observed. yet their washing holds good. of one God. namely. And if any hath much hair. you may understand from those things which Maimonides speaks in Mikvaoth in the place before cited.--this. they first asked him concerning the sincerity of his conversion to Judaism: whether he offered not himself to proselytism for the obtaining riches.--but both polluting. heathen. The women place a woman in the waters up to the neck. he might so pass into an Israelite. and behold. and being placed in the water. of the evil of idolatry. nor only thereby to be transplanted into the religion of the Jews. or dipped. and an undefiled offspring. they instructed him concerning the various articles of the law.--both that and this imply uncleanness. however something different." And now. of the privileges of Israel. because the water would pass through their clothes. and two disciples of the wise men. And then she plungeth herself. they might be more fit to match with Israelites. but they needed not baptism. All which. For if any wash himself all over. while she comes up out of the water. turning away their faces. they bring him to baptism. or for love to some Israelite woman.IV. servants that were taken into a family were baptized. this is not to be passed over.

between the Mosaical washings of unclean persons.--and circumcision of others. That the baptism of John was by plunging the body (after the same manner as the washing of unclean persons." But the baptism of John was a 'baptism of repentance'.it is plain that there was some difference as to the end.--yet a traditional and erroneous doctrine at that time had joined this to both. III. "Philip and the eunuch went down into the water. that he baptized "in Aenon. but because other ends were added over and above to this or that. that they used the world to come by a form of speech very common among them. and. That the notion of washing in John's baptism differs from ours. Mark 1:4: which being undertaken. Let us return these three things only for a present answer:-1. for the times of the Messias. who. that he is a debtor to do the whole law. at that time. The reason of which is to be fetched from hence. that the people so readily flocked to him. and that Christ. from the oracles of the prophets. "I testify again to every man that is circumcised. and the baptism of proselytes. that the proselytes covenanted in both. because there was much water there". and that. being baptized.And that also. The baptism of proselytes was the bringing over of Gentiles into the Jewish religion. This is no place to dispute of these things. that the state of things was plainly to be changed. Acts 8:38. Some complain. and the baptism of proselytes was).--that at the coming of the Messias they thought. or some ends were withdrawn. and some between the baptism of proselytes and John's baptism: not as though they concurred not in some parallel end. and that an irreligious . acknowledged themselves to be obliged to repentance and faith in the Messias to come. For although proselytical baptism admitted of some ends. that this rite is not retained in the Christian church. Galatians 5:3. IV. in that he baptized none who were not brought over from one religion. would renew the world for a thousand years. that of John was an obligation to repentance. and obliged himself to perform the law. so much the obligation undertaken in the baptism of proselytes differed from the obligation undertaken in the baptism of John: which obligation also holds amongst Christians to the end of the world. the baptism of John was the bringing over of Jews into another religion. seems to appear from those things which are related of him. II. to which that of the apostle relates. when the sprinkling of water is used instead of plunging. not without cause. described the times of the Messias for a new world. or as though it were to be called an innovation. on the contrary. as though it something derogated from the truth of baptism. that he "baptized in Jordan". "came up out of the water": to which that seems to be parallel. with one mouth. they who were baptized professed to renounce their own legal righteousness.. Hence was that received opinion. That God.. when he introduced a baptism so different from the known proselytical baptism. The baptism of proselytes was an obligation to perform the law. How much the Pharisaical doctrine of justification differed from the evangelical. namely." &c. And hence it is the more to be wondered at. which we observe more largely elsewhere.

that the Messias was coming. it scarcely gave place to circumcision. but the application of it in this or that manner speaks but a circumstance: the adding also of the word was of the nature of a sacrament. and that a true one. The application of water was necessarily of the essence of baptism. And if it be demanded of them who went about to take away that dipping. and therefore it was less to differ in a less matter. John 1:31: yet he knew well enough. "In the days of R. because. instructing them in the doctrine of the gospel. which is less harsh. Do ye go about to take away that which hedges in Israel from transgression?" Surely it is hard to lay this yoke upon the neck of all nations. they passed by a deeper and severer washing. which seemed too rough to the Jews themselves. that you may observe it to have been threefold in the history of the New Testament. 2. therefore. have need of washing: but this is to be understood of our natural and sinful stain. if all nations should be subjected under it. because it was accompanied with so much severity. concerning faith in the . Would you have no purification at all by water? it is probable that they would have allowed of the sprinkling of water. according to the custom of the nation. and by divine prescript. in regard of these things. in truth. he baptized those that came to him in his name. they were defiled who were baptized by John.--namely. administered a baptism differing in a greater matter from the baptism of John. from which. the rite is not only lawfully.one too. and uncleanness. would you not call this a circumstance also? And yet we read the form of baptism so changed. indeed. they became barren. the sprinkling of water is as sufficient as the dipping into water. and after a manner visible. by reason of the cold. to be washed away by the blood of Christ and the grace of God: with which stain. indeed. being varied. 3. But there is no place for this among us who are born Christians: the condition. this argues washing and purification as well as that. In reference to the form of John's baptism [which thing we have propounded to consider in the second place]. Secondly. which he confesseth himself. whose condition is different from theirs.--into another. varied also. therefore. men too much given to such kind of severer rites. it is not at all to be doubted but he baptized "in the name of the Messias now ready to come": and it may be gathered from his words. if. yet wished that dipping in purification might be taken away. and demonstrates this doctrinally. But those who were baptized by John were blemished with another stain. that is. being polluted. The following ages. and is moreover so harsh and dangerous. for the sake of the women of Galilee. and not less agreeable to the thing itself. when it is neither necessarily to be esteemed of the essence of baptism. it were something hard. but especially.--when. Since dipping was a rite used only in the Jewish nation and proper to it. and not to be borne by them. but deservedly. with good reason. but the changing of the word into this or that form.--that we. and from his story. and that an outward one. We read that some. As yet he knew not that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messias. some endeavoured to abolish this dipping. Joshua Ben Levi said unto them. Judaism or heathenism. a polluted religion. R. leavened with Judaism to the highest degree. Joshua Ben Levi. that. But to denote this washing by a sacramental sign.--they neither underwent it without reason. Our baptism argues defilement. nor with any reason may it be laid upon us.

] John could not baptize in any part of Jordan. that Jesus of Nazareth was the true Messias. every one of you. that men. baptizing the Jews. that Jesus of Nazareth was he (under which virulent spirit they labour even to this day). and that they did. and into the profession of the doctrine of the gospel concerning faith and repentance. yea. so it were within the bounds of Judea (which the evangelists assert). that by that seal might be confirmed this most principal truth in the gospel. And that which is said of them. &c. that they baptized in the name of Jesus.' that thence it might be known that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messias. The apostles. and acknowledged and confessed themselves sinners. "In the name of the Father. Luke 1:17. namely. [In Jordan. in the name of Jesus Christ": and that. John 3:23.Messias. that was now immediately to come. "Baptize all nations in the name of the Father. and of the Holy Ghost. or by openly declaring some particular sins. suddenly to come. "They were baptized in the name of Jesus. that they standing in Jordan were taught by John that they were baptized into the name of the Messias. John had baptized. 4:2. Consider well Malachi 3:1. and children came to John's baptism. therefore. that they plunged themselves into the river. nor without necessity. according to the manner of the nation in the reception of proselytes. baptized them "in the name of Jesus". and of the Son." We suppose. and of the Holy Ghost. because Jesus of Nazareth had now been revealed for the Messias. not that they did this man by man. That of St. John 1:7." Matthew 28:19. Some few remarks concerning the Pharisees and Sadducees. Acts 2:38. that they might be the readier to receive the Messias when he should manifest himself. the controversy was not concerning the true Messias. but concerning the true God: among them." But the apostles baptized the Gentiles." is to be understood according to the tenour of the Baptist's preaching. therefore. which had not been dried up. "Be baptized. stiffly and without ceasing. but when the doctrine of John exhorted them to repentance and to faith in the Messias. Peter is plain. and were now entering into the promised land. and repentance. and Holy Spirit. concerning the disciples of Christ baptizing. they renounced and disowned the doctrine and opinion of justification by their works. wherewith they had been beforetime leavened.31. women. and that those that were baptized might profess it. and that unbelieving nation denied. and had afforded a passage to the Israelites when they came out of Egypt. namely. in the name of whom. according to the precept of our Lord. when it had been before commanded them by Christ. Son. and of the Son. it was needful that baptism should be conferred in the name of the true God. Acts 8:16. For since it was very much controverted among the Jews about the true Messias. and so came out. that they baptized in 'the name of Jesus. that they were baptized by him "confessing their sins. it was not without cause. "Father. But among the Gentiles. ." So you must understand that which is spoken. or by some auricular confession made to John.

would be next to madness: we will briefly touch at a few things. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism.. "The Rabbins teach. O my daughter. manners. not only that it may be shown that there were women-Pharisees." "Joanna the daughter of Retib [the Gloss also being witness] was a certain sorceress widow. that there were women-Pharisees as well as men. he said unto them. less obvious. thou hast created hell also. 1. 'I will go and pray for you. and the receiving of a reward from a widow. who. And when the poor woman had endured long and great torments. and those." Those things are worthy observing. perhaps my prayers will be heard': when she was gone. for there was a certain widow. On a certain day as a hired man wrought in her house. "R. shut up the womb of the child-bearing woman with magic arts. and a boy whose months are not fulfilled. she being gone to a woman's labour. thou hast created Paradise. when there were synagogues nearer everywhere. because they are no other but bawds and sorceresses. or a maid of many prayers. for my journey hither]? for [the tradition] saith. Jochanan to pray: to whom R. These destroy the world. a maid given to fasting: losing her virginity by fasting. We learn the shunning of sin from a maid. after so many very learned men. a wicked man crafty. But R. destroy the world. who.] To attempt a history of the Pharisees and Sadducees. that she could not be delivered. and so that the name is not take from interpreting or . taking off the cover. a gadding widow. "who always goes about from place to place to visit her neighbours". Eternal Lord. and the dashing of the Pharisees [against the stones]. "And these corrupt the world.. and. A praying [procax] maid. thou hast created the righteous.[O]ne Gloss [says] a maid given to prayer. they are the words of the Gloss. Joshua saith. Jochanan saith. as Joanna. 'The receiving of a reward from a widow'." I have therefore cited these passages. who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? [And seeing many of the Pharisees and Sadducees. A religious man foolish. he heard the charms tinkling in a pan.7." . 'The shunning of sin from a maid'. the daughter of Retib. Jochanan said. for R. she would dissolve the enchantments. A gadding widow they call her. are there not synagogues at hand round about you? But she answered. Jochanan heard a certain maid prostrate on her face thus praying. O generation of vipers. these corrupt the world. who have treated of their original. a woman-Pharisee. and strait the infant is born. By another it is rendered. she always resorted to the school of R. which are spoke by the Babylonian Gemarists on that clause. and yet they pretend sanctity. perhaps. and thou hast created the wicked: let it be thy good pleasure that I be not a scandal to men. she would say. Will there not be a reward for my steps [or. and institutions. and presently the infant would be born. That the Pharisees do not derive their name (as some would have it) from the word which signifies to expound is sufficiently evinced by this. the charms presently came out. and hence it was known that she was a witch. A woman-Pharisee. when the time of any child's birth drew near.

and recites the Misna. or inferior to. the people of the earth. under the veil of sanctity and devotion. lest they tithe not rightly. and. in which a great part of the Jewish religion was placed. Women. Jochanan Ben Joseph saith. and the thing itself. Eleazar said. although he read the Scriptures. namely. Why. And the illiterate person is "more vile than. Eleazar. Let them rather go and be burnt. we will begin with the women.' R. are not bound to recite their phylacteries. To whom he replied. R. yet attends not on the scholars of the wise men. servants. this is a Cuthean.'" And a little after.' Ben Azzai saith. the people of the earth [or the plebeians]. for the most part. first. Pass we from the women to the men. namely. Hircanus his son said unto him. first. "Women. is more commonly asserted.'" The Gloss upon the place speaks thus. this man is illiterate. Achabar saith. as well as the word. hiding and practising all manner of wickedness. and children. nor to wear them. that lays not up his phylacteries. this is a magician.' But the wise men say. 'Behold. but that it may be observed also what kind of women. 'Behold. whosoever he be. So that by a word more known to us. 2.' R. this is. when Aaron sinned in making the golden calf. widows and maids. Behold. let this one serve instead of many: "A certain matron asked R. nor take care aright concerning cleansings. Samuel Bar Nachmani saith." Compare that. Meith saith. you might rightly call the Pharisees. That the Pharisees therefore were so called from the word signifying separation. and not repeat the tradition? Behold. this is an illiterate man. and more truly. not to dwell upon things that are obvious. thus the Gemara in Sotah newly cited: "One reads the Scriptures.' Others say.expounding." From hence it appears that the women that embraced Pharisaism did it of their own free will and vow. Does he read the Scriptures. "this people that knoweth not the law is cursed. are not bound to these things. 'He. and yet he waits not upon the scholars of the wise men. R. 1. The differences of the Jewish people are to be disposed here into diverse ranks: and. "The people of the earth are they of whom there is suspicion of tenths and cleanness": that is. 'He who. Of them. And so much we gain of the history of the Pharisees. and children. speaks it. than the words of the law be delivered to women. This is one of the people of the earth. II. has need of more narrow inquiry. embrace Pharisaism. The Passovers of women are at their own will. and repeats the traditions. Separatists. Because no answer is given her in one word out of the law. to the lowest degrees of men in the distinction relating to religion. How numberless are the times that that occurs in the Talmudic pandect. Let not a woman be learned beyond her distaff." . John 7:49. 'He that recites not his phylacteries morning and evening with his prayers. she will withdraw from us three hundred tenth cori yearly. while we are tracing the etymology of the word. how their canons indulged (shall I say?) or prescribed the woman a freedom from very many rites. or the plebeians. and the people of the earth." And. not by command: which the men-Pharisees also did. servants. but in what sense. to them whom they ordinarily called illiterate. "Who is the people of the earth? R. the people are punished with a threefold death? He answered. It were an infinite task to search particularly. 'He who hath not a fringe on his garment. 'He that instructs not his sons in the doctrine of the law. Jannai saith. what of him? R.

And the phrase seems to be drawn from Psalm 119:63. above all others. Let the seven seniors meet me in the chamber. To the Pharisees. Behold. The religious Galileans purify: that is. before there were any Sadducees: in his days also. Hoshaia said. if perhaps the Temple may be built in their days. denoting all such who have more professedly devoted themselves to religion. or some other. "Do the colleagues [or fellows] go in to intercalate the year? Let us learn this from the example of Rabban Gamaliel. Isaac led me in to the appointment of the new moon. "I am a companion of all those that fear thee": They take upon them the habit of religion. whether of the sect of the Pharisees. as well learned as unlearned. 'without leave?' 'I. There were some of the learned whom they commonly called colleagues of the Rabbins. before it came to maturity. whether they were learned or unlearned. R. and of not fixed form when it was brought forth. are convertible terms. We must not think that Pharisaism arose altogether and at once. the Aruch citing. as the Gloss explains it. who as yet were candidates. perhaps. differs nothing from a scholar of a wise man. how the word religious. 'Who came in hither. By which very thing the Gloss defines Pharisees. "They cleanse their wine and their oil for a drink-offering. and scholars of the wise men. that is. and have professed a more devout life and rule than the common people. Hence you have mention of a religious Samaritan. to them that eat their common food in cleanness. that the foundations of Sadduceeism were laid in the days of Ezra. Samuel Ben R. See the Babylonian Talmud in Avodah Zarah in the Gloss. The thing may be illustrated by one example: "Do the colleagues enter in to appoint the new moon? R. But how many centuries of years passed before the birth of this whole monster was full ripe? In like manner." And a little later. but it was long a-conceiving. and how this was the proper notion whereby a Pharisee was defined. Under the title of scholars of the wise men are comprehended all that were learned and studious: under the title of religious.' answered Samuel the Little." Which. So. But eight entered. was a long time growing. who said. the first seeds of Pharisaism were cast long before its birth. "That he ate his common food in cleanness": that is. put on a splendidly cloaked religion. The religious eat their common food in cleanness. We observe presently. as being men who. and of a religious baker. were opposed to these vulgar persons. Yet the word seems sometimes to be appropriated to the Pharisees. When I was a colleague. That distinction also is worthy of consideration. The traditionarians do refer the first conception of the Traditions to the times of Ezra. The same may. is that to be understood.' saith he. hath a wider sense. and being now brought forth. and Pharisees. thus explains them. but I knew not whether I were of the number or no. and not preferred to the public office of teaching or judging. nevertheless.The colleagues or associates. if so be any can define what its maturity was. be said of this. I suspect. in that both signify a student and a learned man. in a manner. the . which appears enough from the history of the Gospel. which is of the traditions: both these and that were the issue of many years. of The greater and the less religious. or of the Sadducees. that he washed his hands when he ate. III. But the word a colleague." In this sense the word a colleague.

We shall not trace the time wherein the name of Pharisee first arose. "Stand off. A Pharisee struck or dashing. that the reader may see to what a degree of madness this sect was come. For when the Scripture commands Christians that they communicate not "with unbelievers. Which very thing we experience in our present Separatists. and so does the Aruch: which it will not be irksome to describe with their pencil. which served for a stay and patronage to this sect and separation. to wit. the Ashdodites. not much after. let themselves look to it. and that they place the highest sanctimony in this. in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah. and dashed his feet against the stones. that he might not press upon men in the ways. that is. &c. A Shechemite Pharisee. some do hence make a pretence of withdrawing themselves from the assemblies of Christians: by what right. the Moabites. to withdraw themselves from the common people. since the Pharisees were marked with that title because they separated themselves from other men. or something of that nature. to separate the seed of Israel from the heathen inhabitants of the land. and to put themselves under a more austere rule and discipline. Who dasheth his feet. it was certainly necessary to circumscribe. that they might retain the name and fame of religious person in other things besides that separation. the same to a Pharisee. For." Strike me (or surround me). in a manner. After once this pretence of religion was received." The Aruch writes." 2. this is done by learneder men: and therefore let it be enough to have observed that only. and increased age after age: hence sprang the frequent fasting and prayers. but not for the honour of God.. the cares of the phylacteries. . the Samaritans. Hence the troubles about tithings and washings arose. as more profane. "that it was a pious matter to separate a man's self from the common people. as too profane. that argued so much pride and arrogancy. and a Pharisee was. the heel of one foot touching the great toe of the other: nor did he lift up his feet from the earth. so that his toes were dashed against the stones. and very unfit (alas!) for their communion.. it was the great care. The Pharisees are seven: 1. For when they had espoused a religion so supercilious. fringes. "Who is circumcised. some men." superstition increased every day. and other matters without number: so that (a thing fatal to Separatists) this sect. This [Pharisee] does as Shechem Where the Gloss is. and that a holy care too. as profane. at last. "Who withdrew himself a great way off. with those who are without. Both Talmuds reckon seven sects of Pharisees. with heathens. I am holier than thou" (which was also foretold by the prophet with an execration. that the people of the earth was to a Pharisee. arrogating too much for themselves. as well as to what a degree of hypocrisy. was crumbled into sects. and yet I will perform the command. by what foundation." He carrieth his precepts upon his shoulders: that is. "wood to make a booth [in the feast of Tabernacles]. and since. Isaiah 65:5). took occasion hence of separating themselves from the men of the Israelitic seed. that they commonly said.foundations of Pharisaism were laid long before there were any Pharisees. The Gloss is. "He who walketh in humility." &c. as the Aruch explains it.

Zadoc and Baithus. we dispute not. "He so pressed up himself against the walls." In the Jerusalem Talmud he is called "who saith. that he might not look upon a woman. resembling a mortar with the mouth turned downwards. Be not as servants. which the doctrine of John diametrically contradicted." And a . Of him thus speaks the tract Avoth: "Antigonus of Socho received traditions of Simeon the Just. learned men as well Jews as Christians. "The Pharisee which saith." The Aruch writes. besides that which was of the works of the law. A Pharisee of love: Among all these. was straiter above and broader below. A Pharisee of the mortar. and highly contrary to the doctrine of the Pharisees. and I will do it. and hereupon dashed his head against the walls. none is worthy to be loved but the Pharisee of love: as Abraham. when they heard this from their master. said among themselves." "This wise man (saith Rambam upon the place) had two scholars. So he. of whom there was so great a concourse to John. Let me know what my duty is. with his loose garment. He said. they mutually strengthened one another. I withdraw whatsoever is mine and fulfil the command. A Pharisee that lets out his blood. Our master in his exposition teacheth us that there is neither reward nor punishment." The Gloss is. 7. Let it be granted." The Aruch thus." 6. The wise men." "I have done my duty. that he might not touch those that passed by. nor any expectation at all [for the future]: for they understood not what he meant: therefore."--"He performed one precept. a scholar of Antigonus Socheus. who. that the command may be performed according to it. who wait upon their master for the sake of the reward. The original of the Sadducees. The Aruch thus describes him. which Antigonus took the chief seat in the Sanhedrim after the death of Simeon the Just. but be ye like servants who wait upon their master not for the sake of the reward: but let the fear of the Lord rule you. There is no man can show me wherein I have transgressed. therefore. A Pharisee of fear: such was Job." 5. called them Sadducees and Baithusees. and let out his blood. "He strikes out his blood against the walls. refer to one Zadoc." 4. and one duty. Whether Pharisaism ran out into any of these sects in the days of the Baptist. and departed from the rule. "He shows himself such a one as if his eyes were hoodwinked. And it is so much the more to be wondered at that these men should receive his baptism after that manner as they did. when it was highly contrary to the rule of the Pharisees to converse among the common people. and forsook the law: and some company adhered to both. that by the dashing he fetched blood of himself.3. that the best and the most modest of that order came to his baptism: the best of the Pharisees certainly were the worst of men. do. "As though he should say. so much as to dream of any righteousness. for the most part. "He went in a loose coat. and struck out blood at each. when they were gone away.

sat Simeon the Just. Ezra and his consistory appointed that it should be said. when. and that was their principal heresy. to be denied that the Sadducee-heretics were so named from Zadoc. seeing no resurrection. and was eaten by Saracens. nor that that cursed doctrine first arose from the words of Antigonus. To which. it sometimes looked white and sometimes red. were alive.little after. concerning the resurrection. the little scarlet tongue looked always white. called by the name of Sadducees. namely in Egypt. they call them Karaites. if that Ezra were not the same with Malachi. together with it. when Simeon the Just was dead. that the state of things became worse after his death. When I fetch the rise of the Sadducees not much after the death of Simeon the Just. succeeded him in the chair of the Sanhedrim. which is mentioned by the Talmudists. the president of the Sanhedrim. but he was broken into pieces: but. Nathan. those words do agree (which sufficiently taste of such a heresy). All the days of Simeon . he fled away [alive] into the desert. as the Jews suppose. "All the days of Simeon the Just. and one to come].. for ever and ever." See also the Avoth of R. for ever and ever. After Ezra. Therefore I do rather think that heresy sprang from the misunderstanding of the words of Ezekiel. Malachi. but when Simeon the Just was dead. performing the office of the high-priest. do bear an ill report for denying the resurrection. But when the heretics brake in and said. It is not. dreamt that there would be none afterward. the lot of God [in the day of expiation] went forth always to the right hand: Simeon the Just being dead. it went forth sometimes to the right hand and sometimes to the left. Yet that raiseth a scruple here: "At the conclusion of all prayers in the Temple they said. that does not unseasonably come into my mind. "Ye have said. but Sadducees and Baithusees are their names among the wise men. Zadoc and Baithus asserted that it was so determined out of the chair by their master Antigonus. the scape-goat had scarce come to the middle of the precipice of the mountain [whence he was cast down]." when as yet Zadoc. or from age to age. but that the heresy of the Sadducees. to root out of the heart the opinion of those that deny the resurrection of the dead. and his great synagogue (which endured many a year after Ezra was dead). was older than that name. There was no age but one.' But when the heretics brake in and said there was no age but this. with good reason. which some understanding according to the letter. to imply there is a double world [this. for the space of forty years: and Antigonus Socheus. one may suppose not without reason. for ever. but was of an ancienter original. 'Blessed be the Lord God of Israel for ever. And this doctrine increased. or from age to age." Upon these words thus the Gloss. and Ezra himself. when as yet there were no heretics. All the days of Simeon the Just. and exalted itself into a sect. chapter 37. "But in these countries. "In the first Temple they said only. the father of the Sadducees. It is in vain to serve God. So that although the Sadducees. when as yet the prophets Zecharias. therefore. While Simeon the Just lived." Take notice. was not born. the master of Zadoc. Malachi 3:14." &c. perhaps. at length. and. it was appointed to be said. illy understood by Zadoc and Baithus. that "there were some who denied the resurrection of the dead in the days of Ezra. yet that heresy was. reader.

to the quantity of an olive at least. the west light always burnt. serpents sprung from serpents. but an offspring of vipers. it is concluded that that nation was rejected and given over to a reprobate sense. as "the seed of the serpent. and there were some others to whom something remained after they had eaten their fill: but when Simeon the Just was dead. before the destruction of that nation. or to be of that opinion. so that a portion came to every priest. it sometimes burnt and sometimes went out. and. 2 Thessalonians 2:4. those that are baptized are said to "fly from the wrath to come?" that is. not without ground. the fire upon the altar burnt clear and bright." which ye boast of. by the plain words of the Baptist. Not so much "the seed of Abraham. and now almost ready to fall upon them. Epistle 1. that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. Think here. All the days of Simeon the Just. and so little remained to each. [Think not to say. See that Matthew 13:13-15. and which was to bruise his heel. the force of the fire languished in that manner that they were compelled to supply it all the day. We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you. Romans 11:5.the Just. even before the coming of Christ. indeed. "Ye were not a people. Serpents. a certain remnant among them to be gathered by Christ: and when that was gathered. To this belongs that of St. This is that remnant of the apostle.] I. when they had long since rejected God.. chapter 3:20." "O. Nor is it wonder that they were rejected by God. 1 Peter 2:10. which then as to be gathered. chapter 23:33. they laid on nothing else the whole day: but when he was dead. if those that came to baptism brought not their little ones with them to baptism: when. but when he was dead.] These words respect the very last words of the Old Testament. a blessing was sent upon the two loaves and the showbread. They were not only a generation.' that was not long hence to destroy the nation by a most sad overthrow. The receiving of John's baptism signed and fenced those that received it from the ruin that was just coming. 'the wrath of God. saveth us" from the deluge of divine indignation. Hence.] A Jerusalem phrase." There was. after two pieces of wood laid on in the morning. the antitype of that type. [To fly from the wrath to come. and God's word. the Antichrist. 21: in that manner as Noah and his sons were by water delivered from the flood. 9." Malachi 4. and those that were greedy still stretched them out. And think not to say within yourselves. All the days of Simeon the Just. "lest I smite the earth with a curse. A nation and offspring diametrically opposite. and denote the most miserable destruction of the nation. which then was. . and an enemy to that seed of the woman. the rest of the nation as delivered over to everlasting perdition." II. that those that were modest withdrew their hands. to be met with everywhere in the Talmud: To think a word. by their traditions. "so also baptism now. which in a short time is to overflow the Jewish nation. the Opposer. Peter. when he writ those things." [Generation of vipers. that blessing was withdrawn.

is to be noted. and with fire: [Whose shoes I am not worthy to bear.] In Luke it is to unloose the latchet of his shoes: which comes to the same thing: both sound to the same import. in respect of buying: for he is bought with money. because presently after the threatening of that ruin follows. and the Holy Ghost. And Jesus. and lighting upon him: [And Jesus being baptized. That Christ conversed upon earth two-and-thirty years and a half (as many years as David lived at Jerusalem. is proved hence:--1. now laid to the root of the tree. "A Branch shall arise out of the stock of Jesse. and to preach it too. whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost. yea. or binds on his shoe. shall certainly cut it down." &c. rubs. The destruction of the nation was to proceed from the Romans. who had now a great while held them under the yoke. so was he by baptism. necessary. by the way." Isaiah 11:1. it was just. and lifts him up from the earth. which the Gloss intimates. he carrieth such things after him as are necessary for the bath. This. puts on his shoes. and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove. being initiated into his ministerial office. That axe. lo. those that entered into the profession of the gospel were to be introduced by baptism. and thence it is argued.] These words seem to be taken from Isaiah 5:33. that all servants. and cast into the fire. These things Maimonides produceth out of the Talmud. of what heathen nation soever. or by some service done as a pledge or pawn. And now also the ax is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down. bought by the Jews. That this great priest. by the institution of Christ. should be admitted by baptism. 11.] I. that the Messias should be born not much after the time of that destruction. or with a writing. compare 2 Samuel 5:5). dresses him. "How is a servant bought by service? He looseneth the buyer's shoe.' "A Canaanite servant is like a farm. who were initiated by washing and anointing." [Thus it becomes us to fulfil all righteousness. he unclothes him.' because it is said of Canaan.' Now in the baptism of Christ there were these two just things especially:--I. When.] That is. washes. that Christ.10." &c. anoints. where these words are.34. that he looseth the shoe of him [who buys]. when he was baptized. "Canaan a servant of servants. 16. the heavens were opened unto him. or carries to the bath such things as be necessary for him. if from this last dressing by the gospel it bears not fruit. In the Talmud. went up straightway out of the water: and. I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I. That he was baptized when he had now completed his . those words of Isaiah are applied to the destruction of the city. 'that we fulfil every thing that is just. And what is such a pawning in the buying of servants? Namely. being to enter into the same profession. should answer the type of the admission of the Levitical priests. See also the Tosaphta. as if he had said. 'Whose servant I am not worthy to be. II. were called 'Canaanite servants. [The axe is laid to the root.

the ark. 2. and about the time of the feast of Tabernacles: and when John the Baptist was elder than he by half a year. This is intimated by the angel Gabriel. who clearly mentioneth four Passovers (chap 2:13. They hold it for a tradition: "After the death of the last prophets. for Jewish fables. and that John was born about the feast of the Passover. and had newly begun his thirtieth. the oil of anointing. in the month Tisri. superstition.twenty-ninth year. [And behold. 6:4. heresy. For when Christ lived two-and-thirty years and a half.] Christ was honoured with a threefold testimony. was Urim and Thummim taken away? Or rather. and not a little time spent in Galilee. do so harmoniously agree with the said axiom. from his baptism to his cross. What things the Jews relate of Bath Kol. See what we say at chapter 17:2. And lo a voice from heaven. II. "In the half of a week" (that is. was baptized beginning to be about thirty years old": how could it be understood by them of the thirtieth complete (much less of the thirty-first.--partly. was prophecy withdrawn. . for devilish witchcrafts. He began to be about thirty years old. Daniel 9:27. For there this axiom holds. if God.--yet in the Jewish schools. "N. and that when the nation had degenerated. That. Zechariah. Therefore. although they are applied by some Christians to I know not what large latitude. 5:1. For let it be supposed that the evangelist uttered these words in some Jewish school. if heavenly oracles were to be continued? Why. certainly. and died at the feast of the Passover. as scarcely any thing can do more clearly. 17. you must necessarily reduce his birth to the month Tisri. a voice from heaven. another voice came out from it. and 13:1) after his forty days' fast. he lived three years and a half." "The Bath Kol was this: When a voice (or thunder) came out of heaven. I pray. they must pardon me if I esteem them. why was it not restored after the Babylonian captivity? For "Five things (say they) were wanting under the second Temple. according to his threefold office. Haggai. That the words of Luke imply. and at that time began to baptize. they would not admit. Malachi. as some wrest it)? when the words beginning to be about. the fire from heaven. saying. should bestow upon them a nobler oracle. and the Holy Spirit. we suppose Christ was baptized about the feast of Tabernacles. and it is confirmed from the computation in the evangelists. of another sense than we produce. in three years and a half) "he shall make the sacrifice and oblation to cease". which were under the first." It would certainly be a wonder. This is my beloved Son. also. taking away from his people his ordinary oracles. The first day of the year is reckoned for that year. pronounced by a voice from heaven. or thirty-second. Urim and Thummim." But why. Luke speaks with the vulgar. But of these things we have said something already. in whom I am well pleased. partly. at which time we suppose him born. you must necessarily suppose him born about the feast of the Passover. And. but especially in John. the Holy Spirit departed from Israel [which was most true] but they used thenceforth the Bath Kol. questionless. and among that nation. Which words. namely. You find not a voice sent from heaven between the giving of the law and the baptism of Christ. or as noble. and were sunk into all kind of impiety.

that in very many places the stories are false. Travelling therefore. Jochanan. as to vouchsafe to talk familiarly with them from heaven. "R. R. And one may safely suspect. They observed this. invented for this purpose. namely. 'The light is put out. They follow the hearing of Bath Kol. and making it of none effect by vain traditions. nor let the light of Israel be quenched. as the prophets themselves had not the like? If I may speak plainly what I think. that hence the worth of this or that Rabbin or story may be illustrated: the rest are mere magical and diabolical delusions. and. were dead. when they were guilty of so grievous apostasy. Haggai and the rest. and noted with the name of Bath Kol. in the rest. See the notes upon the tenth verse of the seventeenth chapter. for Samuel of Babylon was dead. Eliezer saith. desired to see the face of Samuel [the Babylonian Doctor]. for those of Hillel. I cannot but either suspect these to be tales. were either formed by the devil in the air to deceive the people. The very same which I judge of the Bath Kol. And a little after. with which the leaves of the Talmud do every where abound. and to afford them oracles so sublime. That it was given to an easiness of believing all manner of delusions beyond measure. a people very well contented to be deceived with a new kind of Bath Kol.' To whom she said. let two things only be observed: 1. under the second Temple was given to magical arts beyond measure. that the Bath Kol in Jabneh yielded the same testimony to Samuel the Little. They heard the voice of a certain woman speaking to her neighbour. Not to be more tedious therefore in this matter. so frequent. Hence the apostle Peter saith with good reason. I should reduce those numberless stories of the Bath Kol which occur everywhere under these two heads. and innumerable other stories of that kind. Simeon Ben Lachish. the hearing of Bath Kol. and the Pharisaical heresy also. and so it came to pass. concerning the resurrection crept in. or by magicians by devilish art to promote their own affairs. namely. that the Bath Kol again in Jabneh determined the controversies between the schools of Shammai and Hillel. Acha lying sick: Let us follow. 'Let it not be put out. say they. And. And shall I believe that God should so indulge his people. of which the Roman historians speak frequently. Jonah and R. the hearing of Bath Kol. weakening all Scripture. say they. 2 Peter 1:19. that those voices which they thought to be from heaven. That the nation." "R. the apparitions of him were diabolical. and R. It is remarkable what is related in the Jerusalem Talmud. they heard a boy's voice reading [in 1 Samuel 25:1] And Samuel died. or that these voices were framed by art magic for the honour of the Rabbins.'" Behold! reader. Compare these things with Virgil's lots. near a school. is my opinion also of the frequent appearances of Elias.When the last prophets. that he was worthy to have the Holy Ghost abide upon him. Let us follow. When I read these and such-like passages. . that the Bath Kol in Jericho gave witness to Hillel. that "the word of prophecy was surer than a voice from heaven". the Sadducean heresy. Josah went to visit R. that very many are mere fables. 2.

&c. from the beginning of our month of October to the middle of November. because he found 'nothing in him' in which such a temptation might fix itself. "he was tempted forty days": so also doth Luke: but Matthew. proclaimed of old in Eden between the serpent. and this for forty days: while the tempter endeavoured with all his industry to throw in his suggestions." By "the lust of the flesh": she lusted for it." that she might become wiser by it. from the same coast or region of Jordan in which he had been baptized. not contented with the state of perfection wherein she was created. unto the public office of his ministry) to fight with that old serpent. [He was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted. The time of his temptations was from the middle of the month Tisri to the end of forty days. namely. . and the seed of the serpent. into the mind of Christ. She fell by the "lust of the flesh. and did eat. or thereabouts: so that he conflicted with cold. as he does to mortal men. John 14:30. Let the evangelists be compared. that is.' which Luke intimates. The same tempter set upon our Saviour with the same stratagems. in a visible form. that is. And. that is. as the devil is wont to tempt sinners. Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil. that it was pleasant to the sight. he attempted another way. now takes place. and the seed of the woman. By "the lust of the eyes": for "she saw the fruit. that "Jesus returned from Jordan. since the devil was always a most impudent spirit. invisibly. First." By "the pride of life". even of waging war with him whom he knew to be the Son of God. The manner of his temptations was twofold. if possible. because from that ancient proclamation of this war he knew well enough that he should bruise his heel. The first scene or field of the combat was the 'desert of Judea. and anointed by the Holy Ghost. by appearing to him in a visible shape.] The war. now he takes upon him a more hardened boldness than ever. she affected a higher. and at last to bruise his head. Mark saith. Genesis 3:15. when that promised seed of the woman comes forth into the field (being initiated by baptism. when he saith.Chapter 4 1. because "it was desirable to be eaten. 1 John 2:16. Which when he could not compass. The matter of his temptations was very like the temptations of Eve. and that in the form of an angel of light. the lust of the eye. and conversing with him. as well as want and Satan. that "the tempter came to him after forty days". and that he was led by the Spirit into the wilderness". and she "took of the fruit. and the pride of life": which are the heads of all sins.

he may well be said to have placed him upon the wing of the Temple. therefore. nor did any part of the earth bear any vogue without that empire. his eyes not being able to reach to so vast a depth. "When fire was first put to the Temple. I should reflect upon the royal gallery. and they are said to have ascended hither. and the glory of them. it extended itself in breadth on each side. Rome was 'the seat of Satan. to thee they are delivered.] That is. that deserves to be mentioned among the most magnificent things under the sun: for upon a huge depth of a valley." Above all other parts of the Temple the porch of the Temple. stairs being made for this purpose." 8. the whole space before it. clothed with light and feigned glory. supposing a good angel discoursed with her when it was a bad. If it were upon the Temple itself. or upon some building within the holy circuit. the devil had placed Christ in the very precipice of this part of the Temple. He endeavours to ensnare Christ by "the lust of the flesh". and took them from them: and they leaped down. For. "All these things will I give thee. both in sacred and profane writers. it is in vain to seek. the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain. with these words. 'O thou eternal Lord. far beyond the breadth of the Temple: which we take notice of elsewhere. as it were. because we are not worthy to keep these keys. and the glory of them": by "the pride of life". Rome with her empire and state. because. and fell into the fire.I. Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city. both because this part was like a wing to the Temple itself. (which word Luke useth in this story). II." 5. the form of a hand out of heaven. "'Throw thyself down. and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world. As Eve was deceived by mistaking his person.' Revelation 13:2. because it cannot be found. 1. 2. At this time all cities were of little account in comparison of Rome. may not unfitly be called the wing of the Temple. like wings. so the devil in like manner puts on the good angel here. and be held up by angels. and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple. and he . The priests were wont sometimes to go up to the top of the Temple. I should reflect upon the top of the porch of the Temple: if upon some other building. That empire is called all the world. [Showed him all the kingdoms of the world. [Upon the pinnacle of the Temple. "Command that these stones be made bread": by "the lust of the eye". yea. scarcely to be fathomed by the eye of him that stands above. look upon it thus painted out by Josephus: "On the south part [of the court of the Gentiles] was the king's gallery.' and fly in the air. and to have thrown up the keys of the chambers of the Temple towards heaven. Herod erected a gallery of a vast height.' And there came. he would grow dizzy.] Whether he placed him upon the Temple itself. 3. from the top of which if any looked down. and that that precipice was the wing of this part. If. But if you suppose him placed upon the royal gallery. Again. &c. and described in the Talmudic book entitled Middoth.

The same is recited again elsewhere. Whether his father Joseph had any inheritance at Capernaum." &c. We do not read that he returned thither again. "That people who sat in darkness. concerning the straits and miseries that compassed the transgressors of the law and the testimony. "If he tarry in the city thirty days. it will redound to his hardship. if six months.granted to the beast of that city both it and the dominion. in respect of burial. "For the dimness shall not be like to that wherein it was ill with him. saw a great light. to bury the dead poor. and so. he becomes as one of the citizens in respect of the alms-chest. or under the second. and here." That is. and the land of Nephthalim. And leaving Nazareth.] Why he left Nazareth after he had passed six or seven-and-twenty years there. as a citizen. That which the prophet means here is this: 1. This therefore seems to be that whereby he attempts to ensnare our Saviour in this object. the reason appears. leaving Nazareth. Matthew 9:1. by the way of the sea. 2. and of . He had been discoursing. beyond Jordan. if twelve months. &c. and he shall be driven to darkness. at what time the former [afflicter] lightly touched the land of Zabulon. in respect of tributes and taxes. namely. that is. if six months. that is. 13. to clothe the poor. Matthew 17:24. we dispute not. in the eighth chapter towards the end. Galilee of the Gentiles. Luke 4:28. thou perishest by thine own folly and perverseness. he came and dwelt at Capernaum." verse 22. he is bound to undergo all other taxes with the rest of the citizens. and behold trouble and darkness. the Roman." &c. or rather dwelt there in some hired house. he came and dwelt in Capernaum. antichrist afterward obtained. he paid the half-shekel. unhappy Nazareth.. which is upon the sea coast. and the land of Nephthali. verse 20. For those places saw light at last restored to them. if nine months. &c. with the other citizens. the gospel.. "if nine months. that he promiseth to give him the pomp and power of Caesar.. The land of Zabulon. chapter 9:1. when the Messias preached the gospel there: but the contemners of the gospel are driven into eternal darkness. he becomes a citizen in respect of clothing. they require of him alms for the poor. whence these words are taken. either under their first conqueror Ben-hadad." The Babylonian adds. Where it is worthy marking what is said by the Jews: How long does a man dwell in some city before he be as one of the citizens? Twelve months. should undergo far greater calamities than those places had undergone. and to deliver into his hand the highest empire of the world. And then it follows. [The land of Zabulon. "But if a man transgress against it [that is." &c. which he possessed as his heir. "And he shall look to the earth." &c. This. He foretells the morning of liberty. if twelve months. The Jerusalem Gemara thus explains it. and the land of Nephthali. he is bound. dimness of anguish. if any abide in a city thirty days. and the latter grievously afflicted. That the contemners of Emanuel and his testimony.] It is needful that the words of Isaiah be considered. "To the law and to the testimony. the king of Assyria. and he shall suffer hunger. 4. the law and the testimony]. 15. This is certainly called his city. in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim: [And. verse 21.

Here is an ellipsis of the conjunction and.' [Beyond Jordan. James the son of Zebedee. And he saith unto them. The Gloss is. let us here despatch the history of them as briefly . where the first darkness and the calamities of their captivity had arisen. it may be needful to know something more clearly what the customs and institutions of the synagogues were. yet it was free for any Israelite to fish in it. And Jesus." However therefore the sea of Tiberias belonged to the tribe of Nephthali. the first clause of the verse. the king of Assyria. that he might show the prophecy to be fulfilled. and produceth those words only. 2:1. 23. chapter 1:11.] Since we meet with very frequent mention of synagogues every where in the books of the Gospel. Among others. omits those words which speak of their former misery. Follow me. And that a man gather wood in common in his neighbour's field. [Casting a net into the sea.' and 'Ruchamah. and that very fitly too. in which the fish may be taken: but this is not permitted. [Fishers of men. And going on from thence. but beyond Jordan. and to be allowed of: Our Rabbins have a tradition that Joshua ordained ten conditions: That cattle graze in common in woody places. 'Ammi. and Andrew his brother.' and 'LoRuchamah'. 18. [Teaching in their synagogues. in a ship with Zebedee their father.] This phrase is something agreeable with that of Maimonides upon the Talmud. St. And that any. "It is the manner of fishermen to fasten stakes in the water. in Talmudic speech. as lawful. For the latter afflicter. That none set up a wall. and John his brother. casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. walking by the sea of Galilee. and to make fences of canes or reeds.] We meet with a certain Rabbin of this very same name. and I will make you fishers of men. 1 Chronicles 5:26.] Fishing in the sea of Tiberias. for the better understanding very many things which have some reference thereunto in the New Testament. The prophet Hosea affords us an instance of curtailing a sentence after that manner. had carried away that country also into banishment and bonds. and he called them. &c. and preaching the gospel of the kingdom. 19. Simon called Peter. and which aim directly thither by the prophet's intention.] Not by Jordan. There the fathers of the traditions dream that Joshua the son of Nun gave ten laws to the Israelites concerning having some things in common. spread his nets for fishing in the sea of Tiberias. in common. teaching in their synagogues. he calls them 'Lo-Ammi. when happy. so it were under the condition mentioned. Jacob the son of Zabdi. Matthew citing these words. and healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people. which may be any stop to ships. mending their nets. to arise there. when he proclaims Israel and Judah miserable. saw two brethren. A fisher of the law. And Jesus went about all Galilee. R.evangelical light. 21. But yet under this caution. that is. of that light that should arise there. which make to his purpose. he saw other two brethren. because it is an impediment to the ships. [James the son of Zebedee.

of a man enticing a virgin. A congregation consists of ten: which they prove hence. and with good reason." The reason of the number of ten. taken I know not whence. ravishing a virgin. "Wheresoever there be ten of Israel. namely. These judged concerning money-matters.' who prayed publicly. This person was called the angel of the church. is given in the Talmud: and it is this. had been determined with less noise. and calling him back and correcting him if he had failed in any thing." Not that any ten of Israel made a synagogue. "were at leisure only to take care of the affairs of the synagogues. and there remain only ten". and whom he may call out to read in the law. because on them laid the chief care of things. but. restitutions. thefts. and divers other things. now when the mention of synagogues first occurs. 1. and this house is called a synagogue. If there be less than this number." not being encumbered with worldly things. He stood by him that read. of the spies of the land. These were properly. and men had not vainly disputed about the signification of words.[it as] one that oversees. these were called Batlanin. but such who. The service and worship of the Temple being abolished. to which they may resort to prayers in the time of prayer. as being ceremonial. A synagogue was not formed anywhere but where there were ten learned men professedly students of the law. and the Chazan or bishop of the congregation. and studious of the law. called rulers of the synagogue. men of leisure. and to give themselves to the study of the law. of the admission of proselytes. if there were not some other to discharge this office. God transplanted the worship . II. and angel of the church. because it is said.." The public minister of the synagogue himself read not the law publicly. 2. Of the Synagogues.. Three bear the magistracy. Let that of the Talmud be observed. behold.. "who were not to be esteemed for lazy and idle persons. (Num 14:27). there a house must needs be built. The Aruch gives the reason of the name: "The Chazan (saith he) is the angel of the church (or the public minister).. and the chief power. I. "How long shall I bear with this evil congregation." 2. Take away Joshua and Caleb. fewer) whom he judged fit to read. with great care observing that he read nothing either falsely or improperly. and to take care about other matters of the synagogue. he called out seven of the synagogue (on other days. Observe that of Maimonides. losses. laying on of hands. every sabbath. but wheresoever were ten learned men. of which see the tract Sanhedrim. Of these ten men: 1. for it is incumbent on him to oversee how the reader reads. and took care about the reading of the law. though lean and empty enough. and the Targum renders. it is a village. if recourse had been made to the proper fountains. and sometimes preached.as we may. Besides these there was 'the public minister of the synagogue.Certainly the signification of the word bishop. &c. and were called The bench of three: whose office it was to decide the differences arising between the members of the synagogue. "What is a great city? That in which were ten men of leisure.

and these were called Parnasin. Chaggai. and preaching. on whom was the care of the poor. There were two. how much more are ye so! R. the two collectors of alms. They do not make two brethren Parnasin. why. 3. R. Chaiia Bar Ba set rulers. being faithful in their care and provision for the poor. he appointed Parnasin. &c. Hence the names of the ministers of the Gospel were the very same. He went away. To whom was added a third to distribute it. R. And I do not think that was said by the apostle." This perhaps holds out a light to those words of the apostle. that the churches of that first age were wanting to themselves. or almoners.and public adoration of God used in the synagogues. if they took not up the same liberty of government as the Romans allowed the Jewish synagogues to use. this power of their own government being allowed them. how easily may those words of the apostle be understood. Ben Bebai was only set over the threaded [linen of the lamps]. the public ministry. but they received him not. were learned and studious. which belonged to the ministers in the synagogues. nor did it permit them to live after their own laws. Chelbo in the name of R. reading God's word. Lazar was a Parnas. or Pastors. There were also three deacons. into the Christian church. They do not make fewer than three Parnasin. without this foundation. R. Ba Bar Zabda saith. public prayers. they might with good reason be preferred from the care of bodies to that of souls. The apostles' deacons are to be reckoned also of the same learned and studious rank. in the history of the New Testament. which have so racked learned men (shall I say?). argued to them out of the law. over them. which was moral. I am not. and the bishop. of whom there is frequent remembrance in the Talmudists. and the Christian synagogues or churches of Jews. if so be they were minded to enjoy what they might. 1 Timothy 3:13. R. should there not be the same toleration allowed to the apostolical churches? The Roman censure had as yet made no difference between the Judaizing synagogues of the Jews. and they were called. all dominion that is given is given from the law. as also all the ten. Of these Parnasin we shall only produce these things. For when those Parnasin. 1 Corinthians 6:2. And now let us turn our eyes a little from the synagogues to Christian churches. intending there to set Parnasin over them. And these seven perhaps were reputed the seven good men of the city. after he had said these words before them." . "They that have performed the office of a deacon well have obtained to themselves a good degree": that is. they may well be probationers for the care of souls. to wit. and yet he was reckoned worthy to be numbered with the eminent men of that age. "R. therefore. Therefore. For I see the judgments about many matters to be managed by three: therefore much more these which concern life. who demanded alms of the townsmen. the angel of the church. and forbid these. afraid to assert. that is. 3. By me kings reign. Josi went to Cephar. Ye who are set over the lives of men. when he appointed the Parnasin. Josi in the name of R. 1 Timothy 5:17: "Let the elders that rule well. When the Romans permitted the Jewish synagogues to use their own laws and proper government. as to their corporal life. &c. I pray. Jochanan saith. or which have been so racked by them.

and his interpreter: of whom we shall have a fuller occasion of inquiry.. Hence. and the second day and the fifth of every week. Explaining: that was the Targum. and not without good reason. and that no house should be built higher than it. "And they read in the book of the law: that was the text. "Ezra (say they) decreed ten decrees. Also on the sabbath at the time of the sacrifice. or the sabbath between". He appointed washing to those that had the gonorrhea. "Anciently their synagogues were in fields: therefore they were afraid to tarry there. on the days of that intervening week. rendered in the mother-tongue. and provision was made by sharp canons. where they might be in danger.. because they were situated in the fields. And added the meaning: they are the accents: and they understood the text: that was the Masoreth. that is." See Nehemiah 8:8. until the evening prayers were ended. in which a short sum of all the eighteen prayers had been compacted". IV. which was also the representative body of the synagogue. The like provision was made. "To the evening recital of the phylacteries are to be added two prayers going before. "The Rabbins instituted that prayer that they might retain their colleagues in the synagogue. that every one at the stated times of prayer should frequent the synagogue. Of the sabbath there is no question. being skilled in the tongues.&c. 5. and two following after. and standing by him that read in the law. III. it will appear in what sense that is to be understood. The duty of this interpreter. who. It was therefore appointed that they should recite some verses. "God does not refuse the prayers. And thus much concerning the head of the synagogue. and the rules of his duty. perhaps. Let us suppose them to be the master of the divinity-school. see also Buxtorf's Tiberias. The use of such an interpreter. They refer the appointment of the second and fifth days to Ezra. Synagogues were anciently builded in fields. that learned Decemvirate. those things that were read out of the Hebrew text." &c. that a synagogue should be built in the highest place of the city. Acts 13:42. But the following times brought back their synagogues for the most part into the cities. And this certainly respected their synagogues at that time. He appointed the session of the judges in cities on the second and fifth days of the week. "The Gentiles besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath. The days wherein they met together in the synagogue were the sabbath. We may reckon the eighth man of these ten to be the interpreter in the synagogue. 4. although sinners are ." Where the Gloss thus." And so Rabbenu Asher upon the same tract. was drawn down to them from the times of Ezra. you may read at large in the Talmud. We do not readily known whom to name for the ninth and tenth of this last three. verse by verse. wherein they met together in the synagogue. chapter 8. they think. V. He appointed the public reading of the law in the second and fifth days of the week.

There is no need to mention that prayers were made publicly by the angel of the church for the whole congregation. But of what place is this better . a priest. then it is allowed him to pass by. as if he redeemed me and my sons from the nations of the world. 1. Therefore it is necessary that a man associate himself with the congregation. and also in the Chaldee paraphrast himself. 3. was the chief business in the synagogue. to read the law in their order. and that both were under the care of the angel of the synagogue. and that he pray not alone when an opportunity is given of praying with the congregation. Examples of this we meet with in the Talmud. Luke 4:16. The sixth. 2. Hence it is. for then it may be judged that he goes to another. and whosoever prays with the synagogue. Observe that of the Glosser. Consider what that means. 'Thus saith the Lord of all my evil neighbours. there is no need to speak any thing of the other days)." Where the Gloss thus. Jeremiah 12:14. unless a man carry some burden upon his back: or unless there be more synagogues in the same city. that their sons read in the synagogue.'" &c. But if he carry his phylacteries upon his head." These things are taken out of the Babylonian Talmud: where these are also added: "The holy blessed one saith. I account concerning him. Women and the common people were wont to meet together to hear the exposition or the sermon. It is known enough to all that prayers. and measuring out hereby the portion read by each one. the minister of the church calls out seven. because they bear him witness that he is not unmindful of the law. or unless there be two doors in the synagogue. First.-sometimes used a liberty of enlarging himself in paraphrase. and reading according to the custom as a member of that synagogue. The Levite. Whosoever employeth himself in the study of the law.mingled there. The fourth. and rendered what was read out of the Hebrew original into the mother-tongue. who stood by him that read in the law. the service being begun. I. or Interpreter. 4. The Targumist. VI. "The boys that were scholars were wont to be instructed [or to learn] before their master in the synagogue. "What is the privilege of women? This. and after these five Israelites. When they were met together in the synagogue on the sabbath-day (for this being observed. Let every one therefore come morning and evening to the synagogue. The priest. 7. III. The seventh:--denoting by these words the order of the readers. 6. O young student in Hebrew learning. then a Levite. The fifth. and that the congregation answered Amen to every prayer: and it would be too much particularly to enumerate what those prayers were. And whosoever prays not with the synagogue is called an 'ill neighbour." And "It is forbidden to pass by the synagogue in the time of prayer." II. There seemed to have been catechizing of boys in the synagogue. if they were present.' as it is said. and to recite them. that in some editions of the Hebrew Bible you see marked in the margin of the Pentateuch. whomsoever he pleases to call out. Thus. 5. for it may be judged that he passed by one to go in at another. and reading of the law and the prophets. I suppose. Christ was called out by the angel of the church of Nazareth. That their husbands recite in the school of the doctors. The third. and in the returning of mercy.

IV. say on. and he pronounced it aloud to all the people." Where the Gloss hath these words." One may safely be of opinion that the word synagogue. and said to Hotspith the interpreter. and in these exercises. But by what right was Christ permitted by the rulers of the synagogue to preach. So that here the doctor had his interpreter in this sense. to propound questions. "While the interpreter preached the synagogue [or the whole congregation] sat on the ground: and whosoever walked through the middle of them to take his place. 'Hold your peace'. Shilla. that preach ye upon the house-tops.to be understood than of the synagogue? That especially being well weighed which immediately followeth. as well as the reader of the law his in the synagogue. seemed as if he walked upon their heads. the people sat upon the earth." Hither that of our Saviour hath respect. to preach in the synagogues. In the Beth Midrash they taught traditions. as well as in the synagogues. and their exposition. "Rabh went to the place of R." &c. and he rendered it in the mothertongue to the people. In that remarkable story of removing Rabban Gamaliel of Jafne from his presidentship. was used sometimes in the New Testament in this sense. Service being done in the synagogue. is upper synagogue to be taken. which we meet with in divers places of both Talmuds: when they met together in the Beth Midrash. 3. that is. call it by what name you will. "What ye hear in the ear. In this place a doctor read to his auditors some traditional matter. He that read to the auditors spake not out with an audible voice. 1. "He had no speaker. And the doctor whispered him in the ear in Hebrew." Consult the same place." The Gloss is. or a lecture of divinity. If ye have any word of exhortation for the people. and he held his peace. it may be. "Let not a judge go upon the heads of the holy people. who stood before the doctor when he was reading the lecture. but muttered it with a small whisper in somebody's ear. is it observed by way of duty. mentioned in the Talmud. "The questioner stood forth and asked. or the church. and that Christ sometimes preached in these divinityschools. being the son of a carpenter. For it was permitted to none to teach there . and expounded it. The evening prayer. Shilla. There are three things to be taken notice of concerning the rites used in this place. It is called also not seldom by the Talmudists The synagogue. and there was no interpreter to stand by R. Matthew 10:27. if he had the confidence himself to it? By no means. they went to dinner. and of no learned education? Was it allowed any illiterate person. or mechanic. 2. It was customary in this place. he had no interpreter present. And after dinner to the school. or of free will?" And after a few lines. if it be not to be taken of the Sanhedrim. Rabh therefore stood by him. In this sense. And they had need of expounders [or preachers] to affect their hearts: which is not much unlike that which is said Acts 13:13. the mention of an interpreter occurs: "The whole multitude murmured against it. While the interpreter preached from the mouth of the doctor.

who should bring the blessing. "Blessed. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. therefore. Amen. 'Blessed is the man that shall make no idol.' &c. Amen." thundereth out curses. having begun with blessings. 'Blessed is the man who shall continue in all the words of the law'. [Blessed. But the priests and the Levites stood below with the ark of the covenant. Turning their faces to mount Ebal. Which seems not to be without a mystery.' &c. and little benefit. blessed. It hath that which is like it among the Jews: for thus they write. but the blessings not so. Turning their faces to Ebal. and the whole people of Israel stood on one side and on that other: as it is said. When. 'Cursed is the man who shall make an idol. since the law brought the curse with it. Christ was reckoned among the religious. and the answer on both sides is. 'All Israel and the elders. the Levites compassed the priests. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. they pronounced the curse.] It is commanded. For however the religion of Christ and his disciples was both scorned and hated by the scribes and Pharisees. but Christ. and that on a mountain. 'Cursed is every one that shall not continue in all the words of the law': and the answer from both sides is. no wonder if he raised among the people an earnest desire of hearing him. and that he gave out himself the head of a religious sect. turning their faces to Gerizim. "Woe. or molten image. yet they accounted them among the religious in the same sense as they did the Sadducees. or the seculars. Deuteronomy 27. Amen. and obtained among the governors of the synagogues a liberty of preaching. woe. And so of the rest. was yet to come a great while hence. In like manner Christ here. blessed. they began with the blessing. that is. and in like manner ." &c. they pronounce the curse. and six to the top of mount Ebal. who took little care of religion.but those that were learned. "There is a tradition from the school of R. that. and the shining rays of his doctrine. and grew so famous by the rumour of his miracles. distinguished from the common people. (Josh 8:33). upon the entrance of the people into the promised land. Chapter 5 3-5. that twenty blessings are pronounced in the Book of the Psalms. And both the one and the other answered. namely. But there were two things especially that gave Christ admission to preach in every synagogue. the fame of his miracles. they began with the blessing. or molten image': and both the one and the other answered. And at last. &c. The priests compassed the ark. Turning their faces to mouth Gerizim. That which many do comment concerning the octonary number of beatitudes hath too much curiosity. Esaiah Ben Korcha. blessings and curses should be denounced from the mounts Gerizim and Ebal: the curses being particularly reckoned up. The Jewish writers do thus relate that matter: "Six tribes went up to the top of mount Gerizim. Amen. Now he is present pronouncing the blessings." Luke 6:24-26.

III. and his three companions. but [that an unclean man eat not with an unclean man] that a Pharisee that hath the gonorrhea eat not with a common person that hath the gonorrhea." 3. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. and that according to the letter. even to the greatest pomp. as namely. 18. all whose praise lies in outward cleanness. and would fulfil those things that were foretold by the prophets. 'But I say. that "not one iota shall perish from the law. every one with six blessings. That he asserts. one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law. and readily objected that he was not the true Messias. and benefit in the life to come.twenty woes in the Book of Isaiah. therefore. that a clean man eat not with an unclean woman. 2.] Hearken. saith R. [Verily. though the . Simeon Ben Eleazar. The scribes and Pharisees. Think not that I am come to destroy the law. I say unto you." 9. snatch an occasion of cavilling against Christ. [Think not that I am come to destroy the law. and king Messias." "These six are blessed. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. That he brought in an observation of the law much more pure and excellent than the Pharisaical observation of it was: which he confirms even to the end of the chapter. [Blessed are the peacemakers. 17. &c. O Pharisee. that he would bring in a new law. till all be fulfilled. Such an asseveration was usual to the nation." 8. explaining the law according to its genuine and spiritual sense.] Making peace between neighbours is numbered among those things which bring forth good fruit in this life. He meets with this prejudice here and so onwards by many arguments.] I. 'that there are two-andtwenty blessings. how far the purity of Israel extends itself: when it is not only appointed. Daniel. or the prophets: I am not come to destroy. [Blessed are the pure in heart. How foolish is this boasting of a Jew! "Come and see. Till heaven and earth pass. but not at all to the prejudice or damage of Moses and the prophets: but that he would advance the Mosaic law to the very highest pitch. but to fulfil.'" "Abraham was blessed with seven blessings.] I. according to the number of the two-and-twenty letters.' saith Rabbi. That he abolished not the law when he abolished traditions. For verily I say unto you. for therefore he came that he might fulfil the law. because he abolished the doctrines of the traditions which they obtruded upon the people for Moses and the prophets. It was the opinion of the nation concerning the Messias. David. II. 1.

1. [One tittle. If it were Daleth." II. The matter may be illustrated by these examples. 'Hitherto thou hast been in the name of a woman. destroys the world.syllables were something changed.' R.. 'O Lord of the universe. Honna said in the name of R. it is a tradition of Moses from Sinai. 3. which. John 18:37. 'Solomon and a thousand such as he shall perish. 2. who did often vent their blasphemous and frivolous tales under this seal. and Kimchi there. destroys the world. "In truth is a manner of speech used in swearing. thou hast rooted me out of the name of that holy woman. There is a certain little city mentioned by name Derokreth. Of the letter Jod. They speak in truth: and "wheresoever this is said (say they). Because he published the gospel. Jehoshua." Revelation 3:14.] The Jerusalem Gemarists speak almost to the same sense: "The Book of Deuteronomy came and prostrated itself before God. but henceforward thou shalt be in the name of a man. Thy face is like to a swineherd or a usurer. Solomon endeavours to root the letter Jod out of me' [to wit. In truth. and that in the end [viz. "It is written [Lev 22:32] Ye shall not profane my holy name: whosoever shall change Cheth into He. and that in the beginning. in Sarai]. 'And Moses called the name of Hoshea.' Hence is that which is written. he is guilty. Judah Bar Allai.It is written [Psa 150:6]. after this manner: "The letter Jod.'" The Babylonians also do relate this translation of the letter Jod out of the name of Sarai to the name of Joshua. The holy blessed God answered. was called Jod in the Gloss. A tradition of R. the faithful witness. It is written [Deut 6:4].. "A certain matron said to R. And there was a rabbin named Rabh Jod. the highest truth. destroys the world. Hoshaia: The letter Jod came and prostrated itself before God. and said. or should have formed Resh into Daleth. He shall not multiply wives. Acha. but now a testament defective in some part is defective in all. stood and cried to me for very many years. whereby the difference is made between letters of a form almost alike. and said. The Lord our God is one Lord: he that changeth Daleth into Resh. in this text. 'O eternal Lord. both are forbidden me. It is written [Jer 5:12]. see Midrash Tillin upon the hundred and fourteenth Psalm. destroys the world. destroys the world. But our Saviour useth this phrase by the highest divine right. saith God. The letter Jod which God took out of the name of Sarai our mother. thou hast written in me thy law. 2 Corinthians 1:20: see also Isaiah 65:16." The Gloss there. and a man should have formed it into Resh [on the sabbath]. It is written [1 Sam 2:2] There is none holy as the Lord: whosoever changeth Caph into Beth. which I took out of the name of Sarai." [One jot. By this asseveration he doth well oppose his divine oracles against the insolent madness of the traditional doctors. They lied against the Lord: whosoever changeth Beth into Caph. &c." .. Deuteronomy 17:17]. but the least word shall not perish out of thee. How long will it be ere Joshua arise? to whose name I have added it".] It seems to denote the little heads or dashes of letters. To whom he answered. Because he is "Amen. Let every spirit praise the Lord: whosoever changeth He into Cheth. by reason of the smallness of it.. was given half to Sara and half to Abraham. Behold.' The blessed God answered.

yet writing [that is." So the Jerusalem Talmudists. the Samaritan. by whose hands the law might have been given. in letters more rude and more disjoined]: and the matter is as R. Ezra was fit. R. these being added over: The law was given to Israel in Hebrew writing. the forms of the letters] and the language were given by his hand. that our Saviour also so far asserts the uncorrupt immortality and purity of the holy text. I show to-day.. the doubled. but let me.' Ezra 4:7. 'And they could not read the writing. and he in the name of R. for war. They chose to themselves the Hebrew language in the Assyrian character. Because it came up into their hands out of Assyria. but that the age of Moses prevented. and in the holy language. in which they think the law was first given and written. Rabbi [Judah Haccodesh] saith. Simeon Ben Eleazar saith. that I will render to you Mishneh. and rendered in Syriac. the Syriac. that no particle of the sacred sense should perish. The Assyrian hath writing [that is. evacuating that precept He shall not multiply wives. produce and consider some passages of the Talmud. in Assyrian writing. that is. And he shall write for himself the Mishneh (the doubled) of this law in a book (Deut 17:18). where he renders it. it was turned for them again into the Assyrian. from the beginning of the law to the end of it. and that that Hebrew wherein we now read the Bible was substituted in its stead. and when they sinned it was turned into breaking. in a writing that was to be changed. And it was given to them again in the days of Ezra. whence.' Daniel 5:8. R. Eleazar Ben Parta. We shall not expatiate in the question. the form of the characters and letters] was given that very same day. The Israelites chose to themselves the Assyrian writing. but writing it hath not. or rather the original character of it is perished. with the reader's good leave. their opinion offers itself. Christians seem first to have taken up this opinion. To him that diligently considers these words of our Saviour. But although the law was not given by his hand. 'And the writing of the epistle was writ in Syriac. Nathan saith: The law was given in breaking [that is. Discourse is had of the same business in the Babylonian Talmud. R. Lazar the Hammodean. The law was given in Assyrian writing. Josi saith. but a language it hath not. namely. The Jerusalem Talmud treats of this matter in these words: "R. and left the Hebrew . Levi saith. did not only understand the bare letters. the Hebrew. The Hebrew hath a language. The law was given in the Assyrian language. And yet it appears enough hence.But that our Saviour. There are four noble tongues which the world useth: the mothertongue. appears sufficiently from verse 19. and the Syriac language. And when they were worthy in the days of Ezra. for singing. From whence is shown that the writing [that is. in the name of R. or.." "A tradition. Josi saith. R. for mourning. for writing. namely. one of "these least commands": in which sense is that also in the Jerusalem Gemara of Solomon's rooting out Jod. or the little marks that distinguished them. who suppose that the whole alphabet of the law. for elocution: and there are some which add the Assyrian. the Roman. and almost in the same words. letters or characters]. and the holy language. But why is it called the Assyrian? Because it is blessed (or direct) in its writing. by jot and tittle. Jochanan de Beth Gubrin saith. if I be not mistaken. as if he should say the seconded (Zech 9:12).

For to think that the divine law was writ in characters proper to the cursed seed of Ham. I do not understand)." Therefore. let it be observed. and that. That the law was given by Moses in Assyrian letters.. the Canaanitish (if so be these were not one and the same). indeed. that is. is agreeable neither to the dignity of the law. if you will. and in the Assyrian also by Ezra). For when under the first Temple the Israelites degenerated into Canaanitish manners. which were the same with those of the inhabitants beyond Euphrates. "Great letters. the sounder by much. Though all had the same language. III. and endured and obtained unto the degenerate age under the first Temple.. The Assyrians and Israelites refer their original to Sem. these had the Assyrian writing: the sons of Ham that inhabited beyond Euphrates had another. the Mesopotamians. perhaps that which is now called by us the Samaritan. but this was done by reason of the sin of the people. according to these men's opinion. That by 'the mother-tongue' (the Hebrew. the Assyrians. A second question might follow concerning Keri and Kethib: and a suspicion might ." That we may a little apprehend the meaning of the Rabbins.according to the Gloss. the Syrians. And what is the Hebrew writing? R. The Samaritans. but by Ezra it was at last restored into the original Assyrian. Many nations were united into one language.--namely.. the Assyrian writing was the original of the law. it was changed into breaking to them. the Chaldeans. because the change cannot be built and established upon stronger arguments. They that assert the mother-writing was Assyrian. But who are those idiots (or ignorant persons)? R. and through negligence. I. Roman. Chasda saith. or. we have shown at the three-and-twentieth verse of the first chapter. do indeed confess that the characters of the law were changed. perhaps they used the letters of the Canaanites. the old Syriac. Then they think it was changed into the writing used beyond Euphrates or the Samaritan. it is no wonder if all had not the same letters. Chasda saith. Syriac. which it may be the sons of Ham the Canaanites used. is the opinion (as you see) of some Talmudists.. Truly. being named particularly) no other certainly can be understood than the Greek. I wonder that learned men should attribute so much to this tradition (for whence else they have received their opinion. These words of theirs put the matter out of doubt: "The law was given to Israel in the Assyrian writing in the days of Moses: but when they sinned under the first Temple and contemned the law. Of these some were the sons of Sem and some of Ham. that they should think that the primitive writing of the law was in Samaritan: seeing that which the Gemarists assert concerning the changing of the characters rests upon so brittle and tottering a foundation.writing and the Syriac language to ignorant persons. that it is much more probable that there was no change at all (but that the law was first writ in Assyrian by Moses. nor indeed to reason itself. such as those are which are writ in charms and upon doorposts.

The two copies that agreed. If it be asked. they speak to them.also arise. and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: [Ye have heard.] That is. They approved [or confirmed] those two. and makes it of none effect. but little or nothing at all as to the sense. that he might more .. I do much suspect that these three books laid up in the court answered to the threefold congregation of the Jews.. as we observe in the following verses. to favour more than any elsewhere. the book Zaatuti. 21. These things are delivered by tradition. that the word Zaatuti smells of the Seventy interpreters. (Deut 33:27). and in Egypt. that is. a saying very frequent in Maimonides. "Whosoever shall kill shall be guilty of the judgment. Reverend was the name of the first good men. Concerning this business we will offer these few things only. and the book Hi. why Christ makes mention of "those of old time?" it may be answered. for the very sake of the place. II. and the first wise men. the Jewish and the Babylonian: which when they differed from one another in so many places in certain little dashes of writing." For the particular passages of the law which are here cited by our Saviour are not produced as the bare words of Moses. whom the Jews of Egypt might be judged. the book Meoni. "it is an old tradition. that so we may return to our task:-I. that that differed to be out of Egypt: and this last I suspect by this. that is." do hold out the false paint of tradition. but was clothed in the Glosses of the Scribes. by very sound counsel they provided that both should be reserved. Babylon. [That it was said by them of old time. that the memory of the ancienter Fathers of the Traditions was venerable among the people. I judge to be out of Judea and Babylon. and the sacred text its purity and fulness. in Babylon. where those words. by tradition. in Judea. however that nation was scattered abroad almost throughout the whole world.] That is. which most plainly appears above the rest. Thou shalt not kill. it more plentifully increased in these three countries than any where else: in Judea. They learned by hearing. yet. when so many various readings do so frequently occur. 'The eternal God is thy refuge': but in the two other they found it written. For. whilst not one jot nor one title of it perished. by number and companies scarcely to be numbered. In one they found written. by those that returned not. whence these copies might be particularly taken. If they have heard [that is. It is therefore very probable. verse 43. ye have received it by tradition. and. learned by tradition]. but rejected that one". "They found three books in the court. so that both copies might have their worth preserved. such as misrepresents the law. that the Keri and Kethib were compacted from the comparing of the two copies of the greatest authority. that the test of the law was not preserved perfect to one jot and one tittle. and sufficiently in this first allegation. and Egypt. namely. Therefore Christ chose to confute their doctrines and Glosses. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time. by the temple of Onias. For it is asserted by the Jewish writers that Zaatuti was one of those changes which the Septuagint brought into the sacred text. by those that returned from Babylon.

'Whosoever shall proudly rise up against his neighbour to kill him' Exodus 21:14: and it is needless to say he shall not be punished with death for killing a heathen. Raca. and without any difficulty. verse 17. Solomon speaks thus. even such as are strangers to our religion: Luke 10:29. a proselyte. But under the Gospel. in that it saith.30. writes thus.] First let us treat of the words. is to be referred to the . and the Essene. And when the Scripture saith. This teacher is king Messias. in the clause before. chapter 11:8." 22. very frequently to be met with in the Hebrew writers. "The sons of the covenant." But neighbour is extended to all. because it is said. "It is an old tradition which hath obtained for many ages. To this you may lay that of Isaiah. the words of one that refutes or determines a question. &c. And that of Zechariah." Where R. that is.'" Maimonides writes thus: "It is all one to kill an Israelite and a Canaanite servant: for both. 'If any one's ox gore the ox of his neighbour. or tribunal of the magistrate. For that judgment. and the Sadducee. But I say unto you. [But I say unto you." &c. "If thy brother sin against thee. as if he should say. Thou fool. Guilty of hell unto hell: which agrees with the last clause of this verse. "If any one who is called a brother": and Matthew 18:15. an Israelite in religion and worship. chapter 2:3. [That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause. [Of the council:] Of the Sanhedrim: that is. 1 Corinthians 5:11. But the sense which we have produced is plain. brother is taken in the same latitude as among the Jews both brother and neighbour were. Where Kimchi writes thus. where this great Shepherd destroys "three evil shepherds. "If he hear not the church. shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say." Where this is to be noted. in the word A son of the covenant. Isaiah 24:23. [He shall be guilty:] [W]ords signifying guilt or debt [are] to be met with a thousand times in the Talmudists. were not qualified with the title of neighbour. that is. who were not admitted to perfect and complete proselytism. "They shall be gathered together. and then of the sentences.] But I say.clearly prove the vanity of traditions.' it excludes all the heathen." &c. 'of his neighbour. when he reproved their most famous men. That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother. where there is no distinction of nations or tribes. but an Israelite who shall kill a stranger-inhabitant shall not be punished with death. that heathens and stranger-in-habitants. as captives are gathered into prison. these are Israel. The author of Aruch.. for all professing the gospel: and is contradistinguished to the heathen. the Pharisee. &c. let him be a heathen. shall be in danger of hell fire. that a brother signifies an Israelite by nation and blood: a neighbour." namely. the punishment is death. "And he will teach us of his ways. [With his brother:] The Jewish schools do thus distinguish between a brother and a neighbour. of the judgment. nor with any privileges.

by the word Gehinnom. and to be his butler." "A certain captain saluted a religious man praying in the way. I must not eat of clean beasts with you. alive into hell' (Num 16:33). to him that calls Raca. and all that belonged to them. To whom he replied. saith he. Jochanan made sport with the teaching of his master: but returning at last to a sober mind." "A king's daughter was married to a certain dirty fellow." "One of the scholars of R. chapter 33:14. will appear by what follows. or the place of the damned.' Isaiah 31:9. as it is written. He commands her to stand by him as a mean servant. and so most fit to represent the horror of hell. We come now to the sentences and sense of the verse. 'Whose fire is in Sion. and for a fire that always was burning. the very girdle wherewith you gird yourself shall not be your own. and very common in the mouth of the nation. 'They went down. and that by the Sanhedrim. Swine's flesh. The tradition of the school of R. Gehenna. To whom he replied. Teach thou... for the howlings of infants roasted to Moloch." &c. the manner of speech being taken from the valley of Hinnom. Judgment also. if it be appointed you to repent. Ismael. unless thou hadst seen. Raca. Another in the sea. as it is written. Raca (saith the Jew). "There are three doors of Gehenna. &c. That which is here produced of the threefold Sanhedrim among the Jews pleases . [Into hell-fire." "A heathen said to an Israelite. The Gehenna of eternal fire.without cause. "One returned to repentance: his wife said to him. Very suitable food is made ready for you at my house. 'Out of the belly of hell have I called. [Raca.] The Jews do very usually express hell. 'Thus saith the Lord. and saith to him. for thou art worthy to teach: for I have found and seen that which thou hast taught. and his furnace in Jerusalem. O master. A threefold punishment is adjudged to a threefold wickedness. one in the wilderness. To whom she said." The Chaldee paraphrast upon Isaiah. but he saluted him not again: he waited till he had done his prayer. it is written in your law. whose fire is in Sion. filth carried out thither. eternal fire. thou hadst not believed.judgment of God. which might be shown in infinite examples. I am a king's daughter. What is it? saith the other. Raca.] A word used by one that despiseth another in the highest scorn: very usual in the Hebrew writers. Judgment to him that is angry. Raca. Judgment of hell to him that calleth Fool. Raca. The third in Jerusalem. a place infamous for foul idolatry committed there.' this is the gate of Gehenna. as it is written. thou hast heard my voice' (Jonah 2:2).

and sometimes not. Absolved from the judgment of men. so that he die. but guilty in the judgment of Heaven. But if he shall thrust another into the water or fire. this man is liable to the judgment of God." Behold a double manslayer! Behold a double judgment! Now let the words of our Saviour be applied to this Gloss of the ancients upon the law of murder: "Do ye hear. Whosoever shall kill. They are very much deceived who understand." When they adjudge a thing or a guilty person to cutting off. this man is liable to the judgment of the Sanhedrim: but I say unto you. and he is liable to death by the hand of God. Let these two be enough on both sides. "What is said by the ancients. in that worn phrase. that is. every one of these is a shedder of blood. striking him with his sword. than to adjudge very many transgressions to cutting off. or fire. though not of the judgment of the Sanhedrim: and whosoever shall kill his neighbour by himself. Raca. he is guilty. in any manner whatsoever killing him in his own person. and whosoever shall say to his brother. passing over other reasons. "Of not killing": "he is a manslayer. Death by the Sanhedrim. he is guilty of cutting off. Which might be illustrated by infinite examples. and the iniquity of manslaughter is in his hand. they deliver and leaven him to the judgment of God." saith he. concerning the cutting-off from the public assembly by ecclesiastical censure. or who sends his servants. of God. A man sets a dog or serpent on another. whosoever shall strike his neighbour with a stone or iron. . whether by the hand of one that he hath hired. of which there is very frequent mention in the Holy Bible. if he die.. he is bound for a sacrifice for sin. after what manner soever a man shall kill him. and death by the hand of Heaven. or he that kills himself. but if he shall do it out of ignorance. a censure and punishment from the Sanhedrim sometimes is added."If he shall do this out of presumption." See also the Babylonian Gemara there. or he that thrusts him violently upon a lion. Such as these. mention of the Sanhedrim is made only in the middle clause. or upon some other beast. very usual in the Jewish schools. such a one is to be put to death by the Sanhedrim. behold. but we are afraid of being tedious. perhaps. And in a word. cutting off. because. we shall more truly understand by comparing some more phrases and doctrines. "Whosoever shall slay his neighbour with his own hand. But he that hires another by a reward to kill his neighbour. speaks vengeance by the hand of God. none other interposing. nevertheless. he is guiltless. or thrust him into the water. and they kill him.cutting off.. or by his servants.. so that he kills him. he is guiltless. whence he might come out.me not. when as it means nothing else than cutting off by divine vengeance." These words of our Saviour. he is guilty of the judgment of God. but he is not to be punished with death by the Sanhedrim. There is nothing more usual and common among the Hebrew canonists. or by setting a beast on him. and the beast kill him. whence he cannot come out. or with a stone. How the judgment in the first clause is to be distinguished from the judgment of the Sanhedrim in the second.. will very easily appear from this Gloss and commentary of the Talmudists. or shall strangle or burn him so that he die. That whosoever is rashly angry with his brother. he is liable to the Sanhedrim.

and hell-fire to the censure that adjudgeth another thither. let him be punished with forty stripes. He had said. yea. who everywhere by a fool understands a wicked and reprobate person. You have a form of speaking." But what was there more grievous in the word fool. though it be but a farthing. let him be in excommunication. is bound to . Of the judgment of God and of the Sanhedrim joined together. he is thy brother. "They therefore excommunicate him. they vilify in like manner.I. Raca denotes indeed morosity. &c. but also arrogated it to themselves. behold. foolishness being opposed to spiritual wisdom. is cursed. "He is absolved from the judgment of men. "into misery and penury. therefore.. even unto the judgment of hell. The Gloss is. and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee. without any punishment inflicted by the Sanhedrim. guilty of judgment and of the council. and a very equal compensation: to unjust anger.' When he shall be beaten." "If he call him bastard. those words speak. Christ extends to all offences against our brother.that which the Jews restrained only to pecuniary damages. when they are beaten are absolved from their cutting off: as it is said. than in the word Raca? Let king Solomon be the interpreter." But he that bears a punishment laid on him by the Sanhedrim is absolved from cutting off. "He that offers an oblation." John 7:49. the just anger and judgment of God. and swears falsely. as if he should have said. and lightness of manners and life: but fool judgeth bitterly of the spiritual and eternal state. according to the Gloss." II. but liable to the judgment of Heaven." Liable or guilty even to the hell-fire. does not do that which is his duty. to public reproach. as their merit and due. But what do they say of the common people? "This people. not restoring that which he had unjustly taken away. "All persons guilty of cutting off. Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar. Fool. They did not only suffer themselves to be styled wise men. Heaven [or God] doth not pardon him until he pay it. a public trial. and that in a higher emphasis. Let the judgings and censures of the scribes and Pharisees concerning the common people serve us instead of a lexicon. but now he saith unto hell." After this manner. which were lately cited. let it descend with him into his life": that is. If wicked man. 23. and decreeth a man to certain destruction. not much unlike this which is now under our hands: He that calls his neighbour Servant. our Saviour suits a different punishment to different sins by a most just parity." And again. because he vilified an Israelite: him. these words in the same place speak: "If he that is made guilty by the Sanhedrim be bound to make restitution. shall be guilty of judgment.. "Whosoever shall say to his brother. Of mere delivering over to the judgment of God. that knoweth not the law. [That thy brother hath ought against thee. therefore.] . before. 'And thy brother become vile in thy sight. "He that steals any thing from his neighbour.

"An oblation is not offered for a sin. Of which things. the Hebrew lawyers speak much. and for whatever cause. should prescribe such a duty." &c. That a man is not held in his sin. But Christ urgeth charity.--and not new alone. [Leave there thy gift before the altar. 24. and his pardon asked in very many days after: and what shall become of the beast in the mean time. treating of the worship at the altar. But among those things we do not meet at all with this whereof our Saviour is here speaking: so that he seems to enjoin some new matter. in that instant. either of a blemish. because one may offer his sacrifice to-day. . but the sacrifice itself hath been rejected. as soon as they were due. be first restored either to the owner or the priest. either of the Pruta [small money]. and a pure desire of reunion with our offended brother. and to make restitution. is bound to inquire after the owner. and go thy way. "He that swears falsely. how provision is here made for pecuniary damages only and bare restitution. whether the Passover. and then come and offer thy gift. whatsoever that were. but that they should be reserved to the feast next following. These things shall ye do in their solemnities. that is.restitution. or Pentecost. reconciliation of mind. reserve their pigeons until they go up to the feast. delayed after the sacrifice was offered: "For the wise men say. to be then offered. but in any other. unless that which is [wrongfully] taken away. "Teeming women. or of somewhat else. if. be brought to the altar. in some cases hath not only been delayed." Observe. against whom one had sinned. first be reconciled to thy brother." See also Baal Turim upon Leviticus 6. and men that have the gonorrhea. Unto which time and custom of the nation it is equal to think Christ alluded. discovery was made. Leave there thy gift before the altar. was not then far off from the altar. or what the Pruta is worth. For the offended brother might perhaps be absent in the furthest parts of the land of Israel. women that have the gonorrhea." We read also that the oblation of a sacrifice presented even at the altar. We read. whereby he was rendered unfit for the present to offer a gift. It was a custom and a law among the Jews. when the drink-offering is put off by some delay. in such a cause. or if some uncleanness or other cause appeared in the offerer. meeting the wronged party half way. even as far as the islands in the sea. or Tabernacles. which is left at the altar? It is a wonder indeed that our Saviour. But it is answered:-I. whereby it became an illegal sacrifice. which might be done without a charitable mind and a brotherly heart.] This business was altogether unusual in gifts offered at the altar. wherein our neighbour complains that he is grieved." In like manner. causing the oblation of the sacrifice already presented at the altar to be deferred."--"The oblations which were devoted before the feast shall be offered at the feast: for its is said. But now all the Israelites were present at the feasts. which was both unusual (in such a case) and next to impossible. indeed. so that he could not be spoke with. but his drink-offering twenty days hence. of the drink-offering. that the sacrifices of particular men should not presently. but seemingly impossible. and that not only in money matters. in sacrificing the best. and any brother.

' "For if the lender say to the debtor. [And the judge deliver thee to the officer. "while thou goest with him to the magistrate. by judge. in effect. Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates." . 'Let us go.. do the Gemarists confess. as though he were already delivered over to the officer. whose office is to whip. where there is a clear distinction between the magistrate.' they force the debtor to go up thence with him. if any accuse another of something taken away from him. And so it is done with all other things of that nature. lest he compel you to some higher tribunal. as if he were already delivered over to the officer. or of money that is due to him? and are ye now going in the way to the bench of three to commence the suit? compound with your adversary. Joma writes thus. 25.] That is. Christ had argued from piety. therefore.] A word answering to an executioner. ready to lead him away before the judges." Now it was the business of the bench. that God is worshipped in vain without true charity to our brother. And he teacheth. of the verse have this sense: 'Does your neighbour accuse you of some damage. and he that is the accuser will have the higher Sanhedrim to judge of the suit." Luke 12:58. whiles thou art in the way with him. they bring before the judges. and the judge: so that by magistrate. These go through the lanes and streets and inns. Whomsoever they see doing evil. the judges in the highest. But all their business is by the order of the judges." &c. among the Rabbins. as the Gloss hath it. and an honest care of a man's self. "Contentions and contentious men will there be met with Gentiles and Israelites: so that let him reckon concerning himself. . "is the executioner of the Sanhedrim. Agree with thine adversary quickly. and thou be cast into prison. In like manner.. That allusion is here made to contentions about money matters. Deuteronomy 16:18. [Whilst thou art in the way with him. now he argues from prudence. verse 26. And Whosoever goes out into the street. The same also. a whipper. one may understand the judges in the lower Sanhedrims. that judgment may be had of our case from the chief Sanhedrim. to judge of such matters. He does silently chastise the curiosity used in deferring of a sacrifice brought about lesser matters. The words. when this that was greater was unregarded." The Gloss upon Babyl."vergers and scourge-bearers [executioners] who stand before the judges. and scourge those that do amiss. or of some damage done him. that is. or ruler. let him reckon concerning himself.II." Before. "Thou shalt by no means come out of prison till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge. where your danger will be greater. they force the debtor to go up thence with him. and the judge deliver thee to the officer. that men should seek to be reconciled. sufficiently appears from the following words. that consisted of three men. and take care about weights and measures.

chapter 12:59. For although the Jews. so in Rambam. in the days of Moses our master. but the fourth part of an assar. which. is sixteen barleycorns. Now a meah. in the Talmudists. Two prutahs make a farthing. it is Kordiontes. a farthing. two assars. yet they were permitted to use their own . farthing. is the very same thing that is said. and a prutah is the eighth part of an assar. which how very small a part of a penny it was. Let this be noted by the way. The prutah. as our Saviour argues." pondion. Kontrik. a pondion. assars. not that it was the fourth part of a penny." that is. six meahs. confessed their subjection to the Romans. [Farthing. it contains two pondions. semisses. the last mite. which is also called a gerah. was called a gerah. according to the Babylonian. For thus they write: "Two assars make a Two semisses make an Two farthings a Two prutahs a A pondion is in value two An assar is two A semissis is two A kontric. which was the eighth part of the Italian assarius. The weight of a meah. used Roman money." "No land is bought for a price less than a prutah. So Maimonides. the last prutah. semissis. a penny contains six zuzim. or a farthing. we may observe by those things that are said by both Gemaras in the place before cited.26. assar. pondions. is two prutahs. was also commonly called zuz. a meah. is not to be reckoned among riches." make worth two a penny. given as an earnest. so it seems to have been a coin merely Jewish. which make a farthing." Luke hath. was anciently called a gerah.] According to the Jerusalem Talmud. farthings. You have the value of these coins in the same Maimonides: "Selaa (saith he) is in value four-pence: a penny. That which is here said by the Jerusalem Talmud. being subjects to the Romans. Therefore. Mark 12:42. And the weight of an assar is four barleycorns. and thence. A prutah was the very least piece among coins. till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. For as it is said here. Verily I say unto thee. that is. Thou shalt by no means come out thence. Two mites. That which is not worth a prutah. And the weight of a prutah is half a barleycorn. as Maimonides before testifies. not Roman. was so called. six meahs of silver make a penny. Hence are those numberless passages in the Talmudic Pandects relating to the prutah: "He that steals less than a prutah is not bound to pay five-fold. "Six silver meahs A meah is A pondion is worth two assars. as it was the least piece of money among the Jews.

namely. quite through. 27. "This is the thirty-fifth precept of the law. It hath been said.] "He that looketh upon a woman's heel. let his hand be cut off unto his navel." The discourse is of moving the hand to the privy member. "Whosoever looks upon a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery already": but the Jewish lawyers said. and that with a married woman. And if thy right hand offend thee. R. And in the other Talmud. Tarphon saith. that it whispers a silent objection. let him give her a writing of divorcement: [Whosoever putteth away his wife. than that he should descend into the well of corruption. 'Thou shalt not commit adultery. 31. is as if he lay with her." And a little after. Whosoever shall put away his wife. &c. [If thy right hand offend thee. and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish. fol. R.'" 30." 28.] See here Babyl. but as deformed by those of old time with such a gloss as almost evacuated all the force of the command. "But it hath been said. "It is better that his belly should be cleft in two. and the prutah. Thou shalt not commit adultery. over whom an evil affection could not rule. [Whosoever looketh upon a woman to lust after her. Jochanan were wont to sit at the place of dipping. but speaks more to the capacity of all. cut it off. "If any one sees a woman which he . the least Jewish." And yet.' hath these words. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time. and when they were admonished by some of the danger of lasciviousness. and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. Niddah. "He that looks upon the little finger of a woman. where the women were washed. That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. which appears by the common use of the shekels and half-shekels among them: with good reason. Christ had said. for they interpreted it of the act of adultery only." This particle hath this emphasis in this place. if you have leisure. Whilst our Saviour mentions both. which is answered in the following verse. as barely delivered by Moses. one may hold the farthing was the least Roman coin. that it hath been said by them of old time. that." And yet "Rabh Gidal and R. Thou shalt not commit adultery: [Ye have heard. is as if he looked upon her belly: and he that looks upon her belly. is as if he looked upon her privy parts. it might be known whether the party had the gonorrhea. 13. let him giver her a bill of divorcement] Notice is to be taken how our Saviour passeth into these words.] He citeth not the command or text of Moses. But I say unto you. by the handling it. 'I am of the seed of Joseph. by using the particle but. namely. That no man lie with another man's wife. It was Rabban Gamaliel's custom to look upon women.money. therefore. Exodus 20:14. or no: and yet they adjudge never so little handling it to cutting off the hand. So the enumeration of the six hundred and thirteen precepts of the law. he is not inconstant to his own speech. "Whosoever brings his hand to his modest parts. Jochanan answered. Read the place. Among other things. and that. cut it off.

That he hateth putting away. When God had established that fatal law of punishing adultery by death (Deut 22)." Some of them interpreted this law of Moses (as by right they ought to interpret it). granted to that nation a law concerning divorces. Malachi 2:15. because it is said. Through the whole chapter. that it is not lawful to put her away. nevertheless.is delighted withal above his wife.' R. Eliezer saith. to the Gentiles I have not granted it. Malachi 2:16. the whole Seder Nashim. If he find not adultery in her. "Let no man put away his first wife unless for adultery. A wife is not to be divorced. Divorces are not granted to the nations of the world. he is called the Lord of Hosts: but here. we meet with none concerning which it is treated more largely. Jochanan saith. even the altar itself sheds tears. where it is said. Because he hath found filthy nakedness in her. in the case of adultery. To him that turns over the book Gittin (as also." Among the chapters of Talmudical doctrine. as though it were indulged them by mere privilege. by reason of the roughness of the men. you are thence taught concerning the matter propounded. and for their avoiding of that sin. For the divorcing of the first wife. When the merciful God revealed concerning him that corrupted a maid." Which Gloss they fetch from thence." Matthew 19:8: in which permission. concerning which that fatal law was given." With the like honesty have some commented upon those words cited out of the prophet. adultery. The putting away of a wife is odious. "Let no man deal treacherously towards the wife of his youth". than of divorces: and yet there the chief care is not so much of a just cause of it as of the manner and form of doing it. God. that it was not lawful for him to put her away in his whole life (Deut 22:29)." that is. namely. "The school of Shamaai said. 'To the Israelites I have granted the putting way of wives. mitigating the former." And "R. indeed. and loathing their own wives. perhaps. implied their hearts to be hard." Which others also have granted. of the case of adultery only. Chaijah Rabbah saith. Phineas. So that that law of divorce. of the first wife. saith R. not without some complacency. in the exhibition of it. for the terror of the people. Deuteronomy 24:1. what then? Rabba answered. and. let him dismiss his wife and marry her. indeed. permitted only "for the hardness of their hearts. For this is approved among them for a canon. lusting. As if he should say. indeed. "R. and allowed the putting away a wife in the same case. For he hateth putting away. of Israel. they shewed them to be carnal. unless for filthiness [that is. but only among the Israelites. . and more to a punctilio. adultery] only. the same merciful God foreseeing also how hard (occasion being taken from this law) the issue of this might be to the women. the diligence of the Masters about this matter will appear such that they seem to have dwelt. And yet hear them thus boasting of that law: "The Lord of Israel saith. that it might appear that God subscribed not his name to divorces. in the use of it. if he shall not find filthiness in his wife. they boast. that part of the Talmud that treats of women). he more graciously provided against such kind of wife-killing by a law. after other women. upon this article above all others. Chananiah in the name of R. but not of those that a man took to himself over and above. "Rabh Papa said.

Deuteronomy 24:1. who sees his wife going out. departing away]. even as many as you will: but our wise men have decreed. R. and the divorcing of their wives. who. "It is written in the bill. Yea. with one and the same license: and this. so also concerning their wives. and due benevolence: for thus they comment concerning this bridle of polygamy. Another takes out a fly found in his cup. But if he writes. "If. If the wife cook her husband's food illy." III. For what causes they put away their wives there is no need to inquire. "It is commanded to divorce a wife that is not of good behavior. by oversalting or over-roasting it. That no man have above four wives. might not be able to afford them food and clothing. "It is lawful (say they) to have many wives together. A bill of divorce. But not to relate all the things for which they pronounce a wife to be divorced (among which they produce some things that modesty allows not to be repeated). I. and sees her washing in the baths. eats it: and this is the part of an evil man. R. let him put her away": excepting only that wife that he first married. bolted the doors and shut in his wife." So they speak in Maimonides and Gittin in the place above specified: where this also is added in the Gemarists: "R. If he hate her. let him put her away. as that lest a man. that they might have change." But they restrained this. If any man sees a woman handsomer than his own wife. Meir saith. Behold. Akibah said. Akibah instead of all: "R. whereas by the law he is bound to put her away. Matthew 19:7. "The school of Hillel saith. by any stroke from the hand of God. and who is not modest as becomes a daughter of Israel. &c.The Jews used polygamy. I am . not in respect of the wife put away. have followed. and diametrically contrary to the canonical doctrine of the Jews: for thus they write. as of the husband departing away form his wife. that he doth. V." II. not so much out of some principles of chastity. thou art put away. if he find a fly in his basket. let it be enough to mention that of R. and in the Septuagint. Judah thus interprets that of the prophet. As men have their pleasures concerning their meat and their drink. she become dumb or sottish. who sees his wife talking freely with her neighbours and kinsfolk." &c. if she obtain not favour in the eyes of her husband. being burdened with many wives. for this they did for any cause of their own free will. without a veil upon her head. In like manner. This man takes out a fly found in his cup. Behold. thou art thrust away. 'If she find not favour in his eyes." IV. he may put her away. And there is another. "This bill may seem to be called a bill of divorce [as much as. dangerously enough. Of which Beza thus." Something hard. she is to be put away. "If any man hate his wife. and all for the sake of lust. Which sense some versions. and drinks up his cup. as often as he went forth. Solomon expresses the sense of that place thus: "It is commanded to put away one's wife. because it is said.'" [Bill of divorce. and yet will not drink: after such a manner did Papus Ben Judah carry himself: who. and yet allows of it. and with a bare neck. and yet cares not for it.] And. where men are wont to wash.

. it is not a just bill: for it is said.--thee. letters of divorce. the son of N. and a schedule of expulsion. and without any compulsion urging me. You have the copy of a bill of divorce in Alphesius upon Gittin. and a bill of expulsion. with the greatest consent of my mind. and let no man hinder thee." &c. "A wife was not put away. So that thou art free. IV.. in this form: A Bill of Divorce "On the day of the week N. the daughter of N. who heretofore wert my wife. But now I have dismissed thee. of the year of the world's creation N. &c.. I say... for if he were unwilling. by what name soever thou art called. N. have put away. not. N. and by what name soever I am called. therefore. and expelled thee." R. "Let him that writes a bill of divorce comprise it in twelve lines.. according to the computation by which we are wont to reckon in the province N.. I am not thy spouse. For four lines come between the Book of Genesis and the Book of Exodus. of the city N. that the bill of divorce should be written with the same number of lines wherein the books of the law are separated. N. &c. according to the law of Moses and Israel. from this day forward even for ever. For although a wife were obtained three ways" [of which see the Talmud]. And let this be to thee a bill of rejection from me. because that book is only a repetition of the law. by what name soever thou art called. four between the Book of Leviticus and the Book of Numbers. "yet there was no other way of dismissing her.not thy husband. thee. four between the Book of Exodus and the Book of Leviticus. for any man. if her husband would. Thou art free.. He shall put her away. she was to be divorced. .. neither more nor less. A wife might not be put away. and an instrument.. in these words. and letters of forsaking. I say. and in thine own power to marry whosoever shall please thee. and an instrument of dismission." This bill is called by the Jews a bill of cutting off. But Rabh Saadias interprets. He shall put himself away. the daughter of N. of the city N.. But the four between the Book of Numbers and Deuteronomy are not reckoned. of the month of N. unless the husband were freely willing.. "A bill of divorce was written in twelve lines. REUBEN the son ELIEZER the son of Gilead witness.. I. besides a bill of divorce. I." II. dismissed. Mordecai gives the reason of this number. because there is nothing else that cuts her off from the husband." III. it was not a divorce: but whether the wife were willing or unwilling. unless a bill of divorce were given." of Jacob witness. "Therefore it is called (saith Baal Turim) A bill of cutting off. according to the value of the number of the letters in the word Get. of the city N. or.

32. The dismissed person likewise might marry whom she would: if the husband had not put some stop in the bill. yet keeping it within the Mosaic bounds. was to be delivered into the hand of the wife. saving for the cause of fornication. in memory of the thing. how often. thus dismissed. this is a bill of divorce to you. bring this bill to the Sanhedrim. but permitted. 33. Israelites were compelled. Again." VII. But our Saviour. so that what you swear be true. said thus. which allowed it for any cause. if present. In this chapter of oaths they doubly sinned: I. and in like manner in Maimonides. It was not to be delivered to the wife. is said "to commit adultery. and the subscription of witnesses. being confirmed with the husband's seal. Leviticus 19:12. if she commits adultery: or although she commit not adultery in act. does not impose a compulsion to divorce. "He that puts away his wife without the cause of fornication makes her commit adultery": that is. Divorce was not commanded in the case of adultery. &c. In the Talmudic tract Shevuoth. but in the presence of two. or by some other deputed by him for this office: or the wife might deput somebody to receive it in her stead. oaths are . "Behold. if she desired it. &c. That they were nothing at all solicitous about an oath. sometimes even by whipping. Thou shalt not forswear thyself. the husband. so that what was sworn were not false. Thou shalt not forswear thyself. by some clause forbidding it. that is. They do but little trouble themselves. how rashly. V. &c. you swear. for he that lustfully desires. little caring for a rash oath. condemning that liberty in the Jewish canons. as appears in Maimonides (Gerushin). might. yet he is guilty of all the lustful motions of her that is put away. if she pleased. causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.] The law forbids perjury. Our Saviour does not abrogate Moses' permission of divorces. what. VI. how. either by the husband himself. in the case of adultery. [Whosoever shall put away his wife." verse 28. But I say unto you. ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time. To which the Fathers of the Traditions reduced the whole sin of swearing. III. even in the case of adultery. who might read the bill both before it was given into the hand of the wife and after: and when it was given.See also this form varied in some few words in Maimonides (Gerushin). but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths: [It hath been said by them of old time. II. but indulgeth a license to do it. That whosoever shall put away his wife. where it was enrolled among the records. but tolerates it. to put away their wives. The wife.] I. This bill.

"There were twenty-four assemblies in the south. and yet eats." 2. that is." And in the same tract. or a negative or affirmative oath concerning something to come: namely. 4. A promissory oath: when a man swore that he would do. An oath concerning something left in trust: namely. as. this or that. when he hath cast it. A testimonial oath. "that he would not wear phylacteries. Fourthly. before a judge or magistrate. 3. "Whosoever. and yet not come within the limits of the caution concerning vain swearing. who so swears. When any swore that he would abstain from that which was commanded. that "Heaven is heaven. For example. "that he saw a camel flying in the air. or not done it. as. which were also fourfold. and they were all destroyed for a vain oath. and yet eateth not. or that he will not do it. a stone-pillar to be a pillar of gold. when any swore concerning something left in trust with him. such as that is in the very same place. or not do. and the thing is not as he swears. this man is not guilty. that he will not eat." &c. That he be beaten." 2. and again. In three of these kinds of swearing." &c." &c. care is taken only concerning the truth of the thing sworn. &c. swears any of these four ways. that he would taste nothing for a full week. a negative or affirmative oath. let him be beaten for his vain oath. or perjury. that he hath cast it. and become cursed: which Maimonides hints in the twelfth chapter of the tract alleged: with whom the Jerusalem Gemarists do agree.) behold. When a man swore that he would do that which was altogether impossible. and not embezzled by him." Secondly. when any one swears that he hath done this or that. that a man might swear a hundred thousand times. This also is fourfold.. &c. Thirdly. that he hath not cast a stone into the sea. which was altogether impossible. They seemed. as.distributed into these four ranks: First. but not in the same manner as the former: 1. . When they asserted that with an oath which was contrary to most known truth. "If he should swear a man were a woman. a stone is a stone. These very examples are brought in the places alleged. indeed. They also added terror to it from fearful examples. A vain or a rash oath. that he will eat. &c. When one asserted that by an oath. or that he will do this or that. not of the vanity of swearing. Yet they concluded vain oaths in so narrow a circle. therefore." &c. And this was one of the twofold oaths. concerning which there was no reason that any should doubt. "that he would not sleep for three days and three nights. (for example. to make some provision against a vain and rash oath: namely." "Whosoever swears that he will not eat. that it was stolen or broke or lost. and yet eats some things which are not sufficiently fit to be eaten. this is a false oath. when he hath not. a woman buried her son for an oath. a negative or affirmative oath concerning something past. 1. namely. or when any swore that was or was not. "He that swears two is two.

and the Anabaptist." &c. 34. for the wood. for the altar. yet this is not an oath. Judah saith. between the Jew. Zechariah Ben Ketsab said. 'By Jerusalem. They swore by the Temple. Swear not at all. Or if any swear by some of the prophets. although one should swear concerning things that are true: for in much swearing it is impossible not to profane. and he saith. with good reason." "R. "Jerusalem. "R. Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel said. The dishes. by earth.] In the tract Demai are some rules prescribed to a religious man: among others. neither by heaven. or by some of the books of the Scripture." Where. for the lamb. That he be not too much in swearing and laughing. By Heaven so it is. "so was the custom. also. The sense of these words goes in the middle way. Vow (or swear) to me by the life of thy head. The altar. although the sense of the swearer be to swear by Him that sent that prophet. who allows none for a necessary one. unless they be sold for a penny of silver. for the Temple. for the sacrifices on fire. Where the Gloss of R. binds his followers with a straiter bond." "If any adjure another by heaven or earth. by this Temple] I will not rest this night. by the sun. "When turtles and young pigeons were sometimes sold at Jerusalem for a penny of gold. The wood. by the chambers of the Temple. But I say unto you. It was customary and usual among them to swear by the creatures." Our Saviour. "One is bound to swear to his neighbour. by Jerusalem." "R. that I will do this to you. and Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel in the beginning. By the Temple it is in our hand. By this Temple. by the wood. by the altar. The Temple. &c. By this habitation [that is. The sacrifices on fire. although the mind of the swearer be under these words to swear by Him who created them. He that saith." Note this." They swore by Heaven. by the Temple. Be not much in oaths." They swore by their own heads. after two lines coming between those forms of swearing and vowing are added. By all these things. for the dishes. nevertheless this is not an oath. "Bava Ben Buta swore by the Temple in the end of the tract Cherithuth." &c. for Jerusalem. or that gave that book. Solomon is this. by the lamb. for it is God's throne: [Swear not at all. And so was the custom in Israel. he is not guilty. The chambers of the Temple. "means this.II. the hand of the woman departed not out of my hand.' saith nothing. unless with an intent purpose he shall vow towards Jerusalem. who allowed some place for an arbitrary oath. . for the chambers of the Temple. "If any swear by heaven. Jochanan said." They swore by the city Jerusalem. The lamb. by the sacrifices on fire. by the dishes. permitting no place at all for a voluntary and arbitrary oath.

and to Yes. Yea. so much is to be paid to the maimed person. "Does any one give his neighbour a box on the ear? let him give him a shilling. no. but into a pecuniary compensation. [Thou canst not make one hair white or black. 37. We have received by tradition. as he hath maimed another. Yea.] This law he also cites. nevertheless. Let it be in truth and faith. 'If a man cause a blemish in his neighbour. little care was taken of lively charity. and now received in the Jewish schools.' &c. which will appear in what follows. out of very great charity. concerning No. An eye for an eye. [Let your communication be. in the mean time. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head. "Does any cut off the hand or foot of his neighbour? They value this according to the example of selling a servant. and of the forgiving an offence. no. nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. yes.--an open door being still left them to exaction and revenge. that this is to be understood of pecuniary satisfaction. No. Yes. and give it to his wife.] That is. But whereas it is said in the law. no: or. they write it. [Ye have heard that it hath been said. "If it be said to a lunatic. business] among the disciples of the wise men. let the Jewish doctrine be set against it. Josi of Galilee saith. concerning Yes. 'An eye for an eye.] In Hebrew. &c. nay. he deserveth to pay the damage to the person maimed. as clothed in the Gloss of the scribes. the same shall be done to him' [Lev 24:19]. yea. Ye have heard that it hath been said. it means not that he should be maimed. because thou canst not make one hair white or black. Shall we write a bill of divorce for your wife? and he nod with his head. yea. according to the very words. 39. and a tooth for a tooth. or lay them aside. That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek. by saying." "Does he give him a blow upon the cheek? Let him give him two hundred zuzes: if . when. And how much of the price is diminished." They seemed. An eye for an eye. yes. yes. as it is said. Judah in the name of R. Giving and receiving [that is. turn to him the other also. and for how much less now he is maimed.36. R.] That the doctrine of Christ may here more clearly shine out. But I say unto you. But they resolved the law not into a just retaliation. they try thrice. [Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek. Nay. but when he deserveth maiming. to soften that severe law to themselves. But let your communication be." 38. nay. and if he answer to No. to which he opposeth his. computing at what price he would be sold before he was maimed. Thou canst not put on gray hairs. Let him give him a pound.

that by a bill of divorce: or. Talith. So in the words of the Talmud alleged.with the other hand. that. or does he pull off his hair. by laying one against the other. and. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile. and patience." They fetch the reason of so severe a mulct chiefly from the shame done him that is thus injured. nor an upper garment. In this upper garment were woven in those fringes that were to put them in mind of the law.. And if any man will sue thee at the law.' &c. let him give four hundred. Isaac. go with him twain. an upper and an inward garment. Both were to be softened by charity. turn to him the other also. nay.]. 41. and take away thy coat. for terror. that is. concerning which they did not a little boast. or does he spit. this by forgiveness. 2.'" Hence the entrance to our Saviour's doctrine lies easy: 1. because it is the outermost garment. But R." He lends him an inner garment and a coat. let him not buy a coat. Hence is that. and compare verse 40 with it. Talith is a cloak: and why is it called Talith? Because it is above all the garments. and not to be borne by the high quality of a Jew.. from the dignity of an Israelite: which is declared at large by the Gemarists upon the words cited. so that his spittle falls upon him. if the husband so pleased. he takes his coat Of this garment. and from the disgrace of the thing itself. or does he take away his coat" [note this also. of which there is mention Numbers 15:38.' "Does he twitch him by the ear. [And if any will sue thee at the law. Hereupon the disgrace was increased together with the wrong. "If any give a poor man a penny to buy an inward garment. &c. and take away thy coat. 40. "Those mulcts [say they] are established and inflicted according to the dignity of the person injured. "or does he uncover a woman's head in public? Let him give four hundred zuzees. if at last it is melted down into this? On the same reason as the law of death was given concerning adultery. He mentions these particulars which seemed to be the most unworthy. and by Maimonides. Akibah said. thus the Rauch. because they are the sons of Abraham. and self-denial. and to demonstrate what the sin was. &c. But why was the law of retaliation given." Compare with this passage verse 39: 'If any shall strike thee on the right cheek. by forgiveness also. 'He that will take away thy coat. [And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile. namely. Christian charity and forgiveness might shine the clearer. 'Even the poorest Israelites are to be esteemed as though they were persons of quality divested of their estates.] Coat. He cites the law of retaliation.] To him that had some . let him have thy cloak also. that he might the more preach up evangelical humility. when that was taken away. that is. He that takes care of his skirts deserves a good coat. and in which they placed no small religion: Matthew 23:5. and Jacob. moreover.

the first words of our Saviour. or his trained. and he was here to serve himself [for he was the lord of the city]. a mulct for the reproach brought upon him: and a mulct for ceasing. The second and fourth. but thought him to belong to one of those his cities: for its was incumbent on them to attend on their master. none excepted. compel him. The same almost is said of King Asa: "Rabba asked. and reverence: but that which was required by the Jewish masters.' 'compelled' the disciples of the wise men to go with him: as it is said he armed his catechumens. reaches not the sense of the word compel.corporeal wrong done him were these five mulcts to be paid. sounds harsher. Judah Nasi. so that it cause pain and shame': and those words also." Again. 'By the life of R. But to compel to go a mile. being wounded or beaten. love.'" &c. they were marks of respect. as a compulsion of violence: and the Talmudists retain that very word Angaria.' To the last do these words under our hand refer. Ep. we will not dismiss you. Eliezer saith. and a Rabbin departing somewhere. 'Why was Abraham our father punished. seem to relate: Do not so resist or rise up against an injurious person. 3 verse 6. when. Hence is that story." &c. what it means." which the famous Beza asserts. the servant of R. But they knew him not. To the first. "It is reported of R. dismiss me. John. every day carrying along with him a bottle of meal on his shoulder. caused by the blow or wound given: a mulct for the cure of the wound or blow. to learn the law. and from country to country. or instructed. as to require the law of retaliation against him. and do show. That ye resist not evil. 1 Kings 15:22. met a mad dog. out of honour and respect. out of arrogance and a supercilious authority. and to the second certainly. It is reckoned for a duty to accompany a dead corpse to the grave. if so be the party were maimed: a mulct for pain.. 'I beseech you. and speaks not so much an impulse of duty. by examples not a few. that I may go and learn the law. viz. if "some intolerable kind of service be propounded. but is too soft and low for it.'" &c. he kept his bed. The footsteps of this civility we meet with among the Christians. and angariate. according to the reason and quality of the wrong: A mulct for maiming. 'And Asa gathered together all Judah. Why was Asa punished [with the gout]? Because he compelled the disciples of the wise men to go along with him: as it is said. Where the Gloss is. Titus 3:13." Genesis 14:14. Illa going away. "R. "Angariah is the service of the governor of the city.' They say to him. 'Whosoever smiteth thee. 'Him that will take away thy coat. travelled from city to city. was to be done to a Rabbin. . On a certain day his servants met him. and why were his sons afflicted in Egypt two hundred and ten years?' Because he 'angariavit. He saith to them. Eliazar Ben Harsum. the words following seem to respect. as a Rabbin. "Germani. The word very usual among the Talmudists. and a thousand ships on the sea: but yet he. that his father bequeathed him a thousand cities on the dry land. willing to conduct R. whereby they denote accompanying him that goes elsewhere. and could not follow his business. Eliazar Ben Harsum.

that is. let him by no means lift him out thence: for it is written. the hirer saith to the owner." And a little after (O! the extreme charity of the Jews towards the Gentiles). Under an injury. nor is their money to be mingled with thine." &c. and that all their business was the business of extortioners. You see. 'Thou shalt not rise up against the blood of thy neighbour': but this is not thy neighbour. and how they reckoned them the very worst of all mankind. and others of that sort. "An Israelite. "An ass is hired for a hilly journey. "A Jew sees one of them fallen into the sea. Behold." And further. if he repents not. or violence. To patience under an open injury. Under an injury. Ye have heard that it hath been said. "It is not lawful to use the riches of such men. is bound to hate him. but it is forbidden them to deliver them from death if they are in danger of it. verse 40. in every respect. 3. such as publicans and robbers are. especially those that were sprung of that nation. &c. and the very same is their character in their own writers. that is. For if ye love them which love you. ten miles. 2. are by precept to be slain. appears many ways in the evangelists. they of Israel that worship idols. But if the ass were angariated. but if not openly. The Gooss is. that is. then. but he that hireth him travels in the valley: although both be of the like distance. and admonisheth him. take your beast to yourself. and hate thine enemy. and likewise to the shepherds of smaller cattle. patronized by the authority of a king. are . and that openly.We meet with mention also of angariating cattle. what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same? [Do not even the publicans the same?] How odious the publicans were to the Jewish nation. they do not so plot their death. verse 39. if an ass dies. whither the exhortation of our Saviour tends: 1. because it is presumed to have been gotten by rapine. of whom it is presumed that they were thieves. and of whom it is presumed that all their wealth was gotten by rapine. for which some right and equity in law is pretended. if any can slay them. walk with them in the same traditions and rites. to provoke God: also Epicurean Israelites. he who hired him is guilty. nor to give a testimony in judgment. compulsion. or who transgress." 46. Thou shalt love thy neighbour. and for which there is no pretence. 43. "If he were angariated. who do not." For instance. with whom we have no war.] Here those poisonous canons might be produced. "But as to the Gentiles. and by subtilty." Among those who were neither fit to judge. if they take him for some work of the king. [Thou shalt hate thine enemy. who alone sees another Israelite transgressing. and against Israelites themselves. you may compass their death secretly. that is. or of those that are above us." &c. which are to be met with everywhere: "The heretical Israelites. whereby they are trained up in eternal hatred against the Gentiles. Israelites who deny the law and the prophets. Let this one example be instead of very many.

Publicans are joined with cut-throats and robbers. should he call it righteousness. and alms in the following. became respecters of persons. &c. that to the burden laid upon the nation they themselves added another burden. to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven. partly by reason of their rapine.numbered the collectors of taxes.6" /> 1.. Zeira is to be reputed for a rare person.] It is questioned. &c. though sprung of Jewish blood. This is an offering. when our Saviour spoke those words. He is known by his companion. "When the king laid a tax. these publicans. burdening some and indulging others. who. being a publican for thirteen years. [Take heed. and so became plunderers. so much the more hateful to them was this kind of men. to be exacted of the Jews. I beseech you. partly. it signified nothing so much as alms. and the publicans. did not make the burdens of the taxes heavier. but exacts according to his own will. according to the idiom of the Old Testament." Therefore the father of R. I. "When are publicans to be reckoned for thieves? when he is a Gentile. to robbers and to publicans [invading their goods]. yet rendered their yoke much more heavy by these rapines. and that not without good reason. he doth not exact the set sum. yet now. being deputed by the king. I answer. That our Saviour certainly said righteousness. or when of himself he takes that office upon him. Christ used also the same word righteousness in the three verses next following. signifies nothing else than righteousness. where our Saviour had not changed in Syriac. "They swear to cut-throats. whether Matthew writ alms. but that that word could not be otherwise understood by the common people than of alms. that the Lord Jesus used the word righteousness in these ." By how much the more grievous the heathen yoke was to the Jewish people. being deputed to proportion the thing. Chapter 6 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 6" parsed="|Matt|6|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. but rather eased them. boasting themselves a free nation..I make no doubt at all. or righteousness. that ye do not your alms. II. or when. who. there is as little doubt to be made. Therefore we must say. in the first verse. For although the word righteousness." They were marked with such reproach. Take heed that ye do not your alms before men. and Matthew used the word alms: but by what right.--when Christ every where used one and the same word? Matthew might not change in Greek. of each according to his estate.

for they shall be at the fruit of their works. according to the doctrine of the Pharisaical chair. Perhaps those words of our Saviour are spoken in derision of this doctrine. "This money goes for alms. speaking in the dialect of common people. 'Your ancestors increased both their own riches and those that were left them by their fathers. 'I shall behold thy face because of alms. "Yea. but yet withal striking at the covetousness of the Pharisees. given to a poor man in alms. and had these words spoke to him by his kinsmen and friends.' One saith. from their own opinion of the efficacy of alms. and behold all things shall be clean to you.' To whom he answered. My fathers laid up treasure that bears no fruit. indeed. and therefore ye call it by the . Justice and judgment is the habitation of his throne.four first verses: but that. as it is said. As if he had said. namely. Hear the Jewish chair in this matter: "For one farthing. My fathers heaped up for others. but I lay up such as bear fruit. as it is said. a man is made partaker of the beatifical vision. They scraped together for this world. Behold the justifying and saving virtue of alms from the very work done. but you waste both your own and those of your ancestors. that they pointed out alms by no other name (confined within one single word) than righteousness. Righteousness shall deliver from death. as it is written. give those things which ye have in alms. 'My fathers laid up their wealth on earth." Luke 11:41. and the common people believed. exhorting them to give alms." "If you afford alms out of your purse.' after this manner. that my sons may live. as it is said. "Ye assert that alms justifies and saves. as it is said. but I where it is not. and confuting their vain opinion of being clean by the washing of their hands. You see plainly in what sense he understands righteousness. in the sense of alms: and that sense not so much framed in his own imagination.'" These things are also recited in the Babylonian Talmud. but righteousness shall look down from heaven. God will keep you from all damage and harm. With good reason. And hence the opinion of this efficacy of alms so far prevailed with the deceived people. And this shall be to thee for righteousness. My fathers treasured up where power was in their hands. and that I may obtain the world to come. Truth shall flourish out of the earth. as in that of the whole nation." "Monobazes the king bestowed his goods liberally upon the poor. I lay up mine in heaven. I for the world to come. Now they called alms by the name of righteousness. in that the Fathers of the Traditions taught. that alms conferred very much to justification." Where it renders these words [Psa 17:15] 'I shall behold thy face in righteousness. and which the royal catechumen had imbibed from the Pharisees his teachers. as heretofore the altar did by sacrifice. I for myself." "A man's table now expiates by alms. he was understood by the common people to speak of alms. It shall be well with the just.

whether this sounding a trumpet be to be understood according to the letter." [Otherwise ye have no reward. The alms-dish was for every man. I would most willingly be taught this from the more learned. By the poor of the world are to be understood any beggars. that no suspicion might arise. when they went to the gate. 'Some came hither. and another to the shop. therefore. This alms was gathered daily by three men. that they privily converted what was given to their own use and benefit. do ye affect cleanness by the washing of hands. Hence the Jerusalem Talmud in the place above quoted. than so to have given. unless that one may go by himself to the gate.] He therefore seems the rather to speak of a reward. That is. being to be bestowed upon vagabond strangers. The collection of alms may not separate themselves one from another. yea. They have their reward.' saith he. Therefore when thou doest thinealms. as we said. even the least mention of a trumpet in almsgiving. when this alms was of the lowest degree. as the Gloss explains it.' 'Now. or in a borrowed sense. 'there is no good reward. and not rather by the performance of charity?" See the praises of alms. somewhat too high for it. which appears by that caution. and they very often . and ate and drank. although I have sought for it much and seriously. he said. 'there will be a good reward. as the hypocrites do in the synagogues.' Another time going into his house. [Do not sound a trumpet before thee. even heathen beggars. and made prayers for thee. Lazar was the almoner of the synagogue. 'What news?' It was answered. and that.' 'Then.' saith he. and in the streets. and ate and drank. This only was allowed them. in which bread and food was gathered for the poor of the world.'" 2. one might betake himself to the gate. do not sound a trumpet before thee. because they expected a reward for their alms-doing without all doubt. for the mere work done. he said. It is better you had not given at all. "R. that they may have glory of men. and railed upon you. he calls it a dish. 'What news?' They answered. "R. begging from door to door.name of righteousness: why. So that at each door it might be seen that this alms was received by the collectors. and another to a shop near it. and that out of Bava Bathra in the place lately cited) was a certain vessel. They gave alms to the public dish or basket: Tamchui (according to the definition of the author of Aruch. in the Talmud. and distributed by three. One day going into his house.] It is a just scruple. to whom he said. Verily I say unto you. You may divide the ordinary alms of the Jews into three parts: I. to ask of the dwellers in both places: yet with this proviso. 'Some others came. The alms'-dish. It was gathered of the townsmen by collectors within their doors. that withal both were within sight of one another. And the Aruch moreover. You may not improperly call it the alms-basket. I have not found. Jannai saw one giving money openly to a poor man. And here was no probability at all of a trumpet. as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets. they might not gather this alms separately and by themselves.

and distributed by three. in the tract of the Sabbath. 2. and it was distributed to the poor on the sabbath-eve. This was collected of the townsmen by two Parnasin. there was a trumpet in every synagogue. For the instruments of judges. of which the Talmudists largely in the tracts. while yet they treat of these alms very largely. 4. either by forgetfulness. "A trumpet (saith the Gloss) for excommunication and anathematizing: and a sandal for the taking off of the shoe of the husband's brother. Hence among the utensils of a judge is numbered a trumpet. The alms'-dish is for the poor of the world. The poor's tenth. 3." This alms was collected in the synagogue. The gleaning of the vintage. therefore. For. III. and put it up in their bosom. It is gathered by two. as appears there. Sheaves left in the field. And. and Maaseroth. The poor's-chest. every synagogue had its trumpet. and that was especially fourfold: 1. on the sabbath (compare 1 Corinthians 16:2). as they proclaim on a common day: but collect it privately. the alms'-dish.10. Indeed. by that sign given. a trumpet. not unworthy to be marked: "A tradition of the Rabbins. but whether it were used while alms were done. They gave alms also out of the field." But whether this proclamation did publish what was giving by every one. Thus. To the gathering of these. because they do not constitute a superior office in the synagogue less than of two. Deuteronomy 24:19. II. and a sandal.heathen. Hence is that. the poor were . at the coming in of the new year. Peah. The trumpet sounded six times at the coming in of every sabbath: that from thence. of whom before. for the distributing it. They gave alms also in the public poor's-box: which was to be distributed to the poor only of that city. or voluntarily. and it is distributed by three. The corner of the field not reaped. of which see Leviticus 19:9. to whom also a third was added. since the Jewish canonists do not openly mention it. I still inquire." And in the same place mention is made of the excommunicating of Jesus. a whip. That comes into my mind. "The alms'-chest is from the sabbath-eve to the sabbath-eve. Demai. the trumpet sounded in the synagogue when alms were done. They sounded with the trumpet when any was excommunicated. or did admonish of not giving any thing. The Babylonian Gemarists give a reason of the number. as pecuniary judgments are transacted by three. four hundred trumpets being brought for that business. The alms'-chest is gathered by two. Of this matter discourse is had in the Babylonian Talmud. They sounded with the trumpet in every city in which was a judiciary bench. "The collectors of alms do not proclaim on a feast-day. 3. 2. 1. But this was not used but after the destruction of the Temple. but what might rightly be given. all people should cease from servile works. every day. let the more learned judge by looking upon the place. but the alms'-chest for the poor only of that city." Whether. were a rod. it again remains obscure.

and the Glossers upon the Babylonian Talmud. "The cup of wine which was used to sanctify the coming in of the sabbath. 'And Abraham rose early in the morning at the place where he had stood before the Lord. [They love to pray standing in the synagogues." And to name no more. and at Minchah. they might the more freely go forth for this purpose: at noon. So the Jerusalem Gemarists. Mark 11:25. that it was used in peculiar and extraordinary alms. thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets. for the sake of old men. and in the corner of the streets. in the mean time. or. They prayed standing. that he would feed himself only with one hand. "By three manifestations in the day. that he cover his head. if there were any trumpet used. or sprinkle it with his left hand. or.' 3. "It is written. was to be taken with the right hand. and that it might be said of them. whither "some very religious men brought their alms in silence and privacy. The Jews did very highly approve of alms done secretly." And hence is that proverb.] He seems to speak according to the custom used in some other things.13. that he that prayeth. Verily I say unto you. in the morning. which pertained to religion.' That is. for the sake of nurses. the same Maimonides asserts these things are required in prayer. that they may be seen of men. they admitted not the left hand to meet with the right. which was as good as a trumpet. that then the poor should come and gather: in the morning. when he stands praying. There were the ordinary alms of the Jewish people: in the doing which. I guess that either our Saviour here spoke metaphorically." And in the same tract. He that doth alms in secret is greater than our master Moses himself. Luke 18:11. it is related of Shammai. and at noon. for the sake of children. stand.] 1. for in some actions." or 'the evening. But when thou doest alms. and found them standing in prayer. without the assistance of the left.' But to stand was nothing else than to pray: as it is said. who also at that time were prepared to gather: at Minchah." "One entereth into the synagogue. 5. with a proud desire of making them known: that they might the more be pointed at with the finger. that they did them not without a trumpet.called. And when thou prayest. And Phineas stood and judged. when the poor children of good men were maintained. hence the treasury of the silent was of famed memory in the Temple. And yet they laboured under such an itch to make their alms public. They have their reward. because." "Let scholar of the wise men look downwards." "Let not man receive into a vessel the blood of the sacrifice. the owner of the field openly shewed himself three times in the day. . and that he fix his eyes downwards. bring it to the altar. seeing as yet I cannot find so much as the least sound of a trumpet in their writers. lest they should not be seen by men. that he turn his face towards Jerusalem. for this end. let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth: [Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doth. 'These are the men. while their young children slept. namely.

but yet publicly also. does he find them praying the additionary prayer? If he is sure he shall begin and end. Jochanan said. And then let him say over the phylacteries. and then praying the additionary prayer. let him not say.' &c. They loved to pray in the synagogues. O brethren. of the Ninevites. and every one put ashes upon his own head. but prayers everywhere. both in the synagogues." Two things especially shew their hypocrisy here: . They do not recite them in the synagogue for that end. or their fastings. if he can recite the traditions. so that he may answer 'Amen' after the angel of the church. Jannai standing and praying in the streets of Tsippor. I. and they set some fit elder before the ark. when they are not bound to do it? R. to mutter private prayers. and the vice-president. let him say his prayers. They prayed in the streets. and he prays four-and-twenty prayers before them. let him recite them. Josi saith.II. that so the whole office of the phylacteries may be performed. and the streets. and pray. let him read something. whereby the eyes of all might be the more fixed upon him that prayed. they were wont to betake themselves to the synagogues. One of the elders makes this exhortation. 'I will go into my house'. They prayed also by themselves in the streets. that God saw their sackcloth. when they came home." "Why do they recite their phylacteries in the synagogue. "R." But that we be not too tedious. For this recitation was to be said over again. 'It is not said. and in the sight of all. III. it was customary also for those that hunted after vainglory." But doth our Saviour condemn all prayers in the synagogue? By no means. but. For he himself prayed in and with the synagogue. I saw R. that were made privately. So Maimonides. "Hath not a man prayed his morning prayers? When he goes into the synagogue. "He goes to the synagogue to pray. and going four cubits. even from this very opinion. and sprinkled ashes upon the ark. that thereby he that prayed might get some name and reputation from those that saw him. Nor did he barely reprove those public prayers in the streets. "They prayed in the streets on the feasts and public fasts. and such as were different from those of the synagogue." "What are the rites of the fasts? They brought out the ark into the streets of the city." II. that he saw their works. They stand praying. but to persevere in prayer. and upon the head of the president of the Sanhedrim. because they were persuaded that the prayers of the synagogue were certainly heard. but first let him betake himself to the synagogue: and if he can read." Rabbenu Asher hath these words: "When any returns home in the evening from the field. made by the whole multitude in those great solemnities. While public prayers were uttered in the synagogue.

those vainglorious hypocrites got an occasion of boasting themselves. The name is also given to a series of prayers ("Rosary of the Blessed Virgin") consisting of fifteen decades. they were seen in a praying habit and posture. fifteen groups or series of prayers. with more of them.--Universal Standard Encyclopedia ROSARY. he presently betakes himself to prayers: "A workman. for three hours together. and 150 Ave Marias. These are the very instances that the canonists give. which. and blessings. 2. "When one saw a place. their care and endeavour was. when they allowed the space. you may find in the tract Beracoth. Blessed be He. a chaplet of roses or beads used as an aid to memory in the repeating of prayers. See the Babylonian Talmud. The groups of beads are "decades". &c. for the phylacterical prayers. for the large beads stand for Paternosters (Our Father's) and Glorias. and as much after they were ended. both before they began their prayers. Hence. and that the ordinary people might admire and applaud both their zeal and religion. where an idol now was. or a place. and say his prayers. therefore. prayers." &c. 7. they might be the more seen by all persons. when the set time was come. Mohammedans. For the hour of the phylacterical prayers being come. a short prayer was to be used. and after they had done them: so that very usually. and a Gloria." &c. They addicted themselves to ejaculations. and the small beads for Aves (Hail Mary's). pausing one hour before they began prayer. Let him that sees a fair tree. who created the beauty of the creature. use not vain repetitions. to be taken in the streets: whereby the canonical hour compelling them to their prayers in that place. each series consisting of a Paternoster (Lord's Prayer). and Buddhists all employ the rosary. The string of beads used in counting the prayers is also called a rosary. that wheresoever a man had been. To which hypocritical pride they often added this also. as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking. But when ye pray. and the prayers added (that it might be done within the just time). divided into three parts. or a beautiful face. he that rides on an ass. Hindus. from the rising of the morning to the third hour of the day. fifty small ones for the Ave Marias. That so much provision is made concerning reciting the phylacteries. a crooked. must immediately come down. a place. as the Paternosters and Ave Marias. because those three-hour praying men scarcely despatched them within less space. separated into groups of ten by five large ones to mark Paternosters. When any saw a blackamoor. So that the Canonists played the madmen with some reason. There are various patterns in use. upon the sight almost of any thing meeting them either in the streets or in the way. comprising fifteen paternosters and doxologies. a maimed person.1. or he that is upon the top of a tree. wherein some miracle was done for Israel. from whence idolatry was rooted out. while the crucifix on the pendant symbolized the Apostles' Creed. ten Aves (salutes to the Virgin Mary). It is symbolic. a dwarf. bless thus. generally only five decades are said at one . one is a rosary of fifty-five beads. Part of the ritual of the Roman Catholic Church is the rosary. that they used very long pauses. they were to bless. [ROSARY.

in words only multiplied. "The priest of Baal called upon the name of Baal from morning to noon. but the heart absent. Let the false accusers be condemned to the lion. either in the same words. indeed." After the same manner almost as the heathen mixed vain repetitions. Hear us. For this was an axiom with them. the gods keep thee. the rosary consists of 103 beads which are divided into groups by four larger ones.--The Wonderland of Knowledge Encyclopedia. if it were done out of a pious and sincere heart. in their prayers. Caesar. In the Russian Church. that he might not condemn the public prayers of the Jews without cause. Instead of a large bead at the end and at the beginning of each decade. only one bead is used to represent the Gloria and the Paternoster. Hear us. the worshiper meditates on one of the fifteen mysteries of the life and death of Christ. During the telling of the beads in each decade. which is composed of a hundred beads of equal size. And certainly the sin is equally the same in using different words of the same thing. representing the Evangelists. Rosaries are also used by Buddhists and Mohammedans. as well the more ancient as those of a later date. Caesar. therefore. hear us." See also Capitolinus. Augustus. Antoninus the merciful. the gods keep thee." &c. as if there were some power. when he prayed in the garden). in the Maximini. he strikes the Jews also. Let the false accusers be condemned to the lion. does not so much condemn the bare saying over again the same petitions. Christ. the same thing in varied phrases. or piety. in such kind of repetitions. let the parricide be dragged. let the parricide be dragged. as the heathen do] See the civil battology [vain repetitions] of the heathen in their supplications: "Let the parricide be dragged: we beseech thee.time. which the Jews boasted of. and not the lay members of the congregation. partly because this savoured rather of heathen blindness than of the profession of true religion. which appears sufficiently to him that reads their liturgies through. saying. . and especially. Antoninus the merciful. 1 Kings 18:26. as a false opinion. as in a vain repetition of the same words. Hear us. the gods keep thee. and that they would be sooner heard. recite their prayers with the rosary. or in words of the same import (for he himself spake the same things thrice. And in this matter the Jew sinned little less than the heathen. if so be there were the same deceit and hypocrisy in both. O Baal. This is the thing we ask. Caesar. the monks. who laboured under the same phrensy: but there is mention only of the heathen. "Antoninus the pious. While he strikes the heathen. Every one that multiplies prayer is heard. in which they sinned not at all by using synonymous expressions. 1965] [Use not vain repetitions. In the Greek Church. and more prevail with God. partly. did the Jews in their using divers words importing the same thing: not repeating. Those words savour of vain repetition in prayer. or zeal.

he joined himself to the public liturgy in the synagogues. which seem more difficult about this divine form of prayer. most evidently appears also in this form of prayer. This summary they called a fountain. to which the apostles could not but have regard when they clearly acknowledged here the highest conformity with them. will perhaps pass into a softer sense. if there were need. be observed: I. After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven. that Simeon Pekoli reduced into order the eighteen prayers according to their course. in the order that they afterward appeared in while Christ was upon earth. before Rabban Gamaliel in Jafne. yet so many there were in daily use at that time when he conversed on earth. wanted of the quantity and bulk of such a number. That the stated prayers of the Jews. nor esteemed them of no account. therefore. Joshua saith. Gamaliel. was Paul's master. in which the marrow of them all was comprised. 'Let every one pray the eighteen prayers every day. or indeed nothing at all. Now he condemned not those prayers altogether. which is here spoke of. "Rabban Gamaliel saith. if certain things. that little. however it was done after the death of our Saviour.' of Jafne) was the nephew of Paul's master. yet Paul's master also lived in Jafne: and that this was he of whom is the story before us.] Some things. in regard of their reducing into order. some scruple ariseth from some things which are said by the Babylonian Talmudists in the place alleged: but it might be plainly proved. Whom consult. &c. that they should have a short epitome of those prayers. or to be at leisure to do it. Let these things. and that provision was made for the memory. or in a quantity equalling it. 'Is there any that knows to compose a prayer against the Sadducees?' Samuel the Little stood forth and constituted one. and this thing is mentioned to be done in Jafne. yea. the Gemarists of both Talmuds treat at large. for the most part. sufficiently appears hence. whom the weakness of their memory. be observed.9. That Rabban Gamaliel. For. Under Gamaliel the elder. they were reduced into a brief summary. Let him pray the summary . very usual in the Jewish church and nation. were eighteen in number. so they were lawful. Of this number of their prayers. he extinguisheth not other forms. Hallowed be thy name. II. or sometime the unavoidable necessity of business. [After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father. and in the Temple: and when he delivereth this form to his disciples. both in religious and civil matters.' R. "The Rabbins have a tradition (say they). although Rabban Gamaliel (who was commonly styled 'Jafnensis. daily to be said at that time when Christ prescribed this form to his disciples. on the contrary. For that it was customary with our Saviour. therefore. were those daily prayers reduced first into that order wherein they were received by the following ages. to conform himself to the church and nation. permitted not to repeat a longer prayer. who certainly died before the destruction of the city. Whether they were reduced to the precise number of eighteen. because his business is with Samuel the Little. When all could not readily repeat by heart those numerous prayers. Which. Rabban Gamaliel said to the wise men." &c.

In interpreting very many phrases and histories of the New Testament. Akibah saith. To compose forms of short prayers. 1. In like manner. but wheresoever in the world he be placed. was wont to say thus. it was very usual to add some short prayer over and above. whereof you will find some examples. in the tract Beracoth. but they superadded their own to them. O Lord. but if not. R. when he is most alone. In which . 'Let it be thy good pleasure. and feign arguments to the contrary out of their own brain. Luke 11:1). what we think of them from notions of our own. If prayer be free in his mouth. whether it was possible that the apostles and disciples. to our prayers. and suited them to proper and special occasions. III. and with the most received rite and custom of the nation? IV. That church held it for a just canon. and that indeed no discommendable one neither. He that prays ought always. who from their very cradles had known and seen such forms instituted for common use. let him pray the eighteen. as in what sense these things were understood by the hearers and lookers on. in the Babylonian Gemara. that love and brotherhood dwell in our portion. over and above. 2. his most perfect to our most imperfect. to join with the church. to take notice of our reproach. and to look upon our miseries.'" &c. 1. that he say his prayers in the plural number: for thus the Gloss explains it. and it is confessed that such is the perfection of this form. Some inquire by what authority we do subjoin or superadd the Lord's Prayer to ours. sufficiently accustomed to the manners of the nation. yea. according to the usual custom and vulgar dialect of the nation. But R. feigned upon I know not what grounds. does not weaken the set forms of the church. It was very usual with the doctors of the Jews. Eliezer. should judge otherwise of this form given by our Lord. could not judge otherwise of this form." That our Saviour comprised the sum of all prayers in this form. and they not a few.' &c. it is not so much worth. to be added. that it is the epitome of all things to be prayed for. Our Saviour. as the Decalogue is the epitome of all things to be practised. Let none pray the short prayer (that is. and elsewhere. but in the plural. and to deliver them to their scholars (which is asserted also of John. when he had finished his prayers. 2. which bore so great conformity with those.' Take these examples of these prayers: "R. and others framed by themselves.of those eighteen. Not that by those forms they banished or destroyed the set and accustomed prayers of the nation. one different from the set prayers) in the singular number. But I ask. To the stated prayers. when he had finished his prayers. while he delivers this form to his disciples. when he prays. let him pray the summary of those eighteen. The apostles. was wont to say thus. Which is not strictly to be understood only of his presence in the synagogue (that is elsewhere and otherwise commanded many times over). 'Let it be thy good pleasure. nor does he forbid his disciples not to use private prayers: but he delivers this most exact summary of all prayers. O Lord. which one may not amiss call 'the concluding prayer. Jochanan. and added moreover to the set prayers and others. is known to all Christians.

and that upon very good reason." II.] I. besides our Father which is in heaven?" "Blessed are ye. Exodus 4:22. by not giving thanks: 'And I have not forgotten them'. when. While the heathen said to his idol. when they were altogether ignorant of the doctrine and mystery of adoption. in whatsoever solitude or distance we are. because he had called them into the profession of him. O Israelites. as it is in heaven. Like to this is that of Rabh to be reckoned. Where these words are also added: "Abai saith. 9. After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven. deal so with us as thou hast promised by the prophets. and instructed them. understood of the hearers? They were thoroughly instructed. hinders. 64:8. is not a prayer. and the rest of the apostles. Thy will be done in earth. In what sense was our Saviour. who is in heaven. Hallowed be thy name.' that is. wherein there is not mention of the kingdom of God. Isaiah 63:16. Did not Peter. to call God the Father in heaven: they neither hear Christ changing the phrase. when he spake these words. who cleanseth you? Your Father. For that very cause they were taught by God himself so to call him. but all Christians. does he not use it in a sense that was known to the nation also? Let them answer who would have the Lord's Prayer to be prayed and said by none but by those who are indeed believers. Nor was there any among them who not only might not do this. And what.] This obtained for an axiom in the Jewish schools. 'Thou art my father. When Christ useth this manner of speech so very well known to the nation. but to me the priest." "Ye gave not to your Father. but also who ought not to do it. Therefore let them tell me. &c. [Our Father which art in heaven. may honour God with the same compellation? There is nothing in the words of Christ that hinders. Deuteronomy 32:6. and very usual with them: "Our Father which art in heaven. nor have I forgotten them" (they are the words of him that offereth the first-fruits. as it was lawful for all Jews? They called God Father." And in another place this is thrice recited. think that it was as lawful for all Christians to say to God. obtaining the same privileges. and to pray for her happiness as well as for our own. I have not forgot to commemorate thy name. Thy kingdom come.10. yet we ought to acknowledge ourselves joined with the church. the Israelite was bound to say. besides that adoption whereby God had adopted them for a peculiar people? I answer. III. Thy kingdom come. [Hallowed be thy name. Our Father which art in heaven. That prayer.number our Saviour teacheth us also to pray in this form. I beseech you. This epithet of God was very well known among the Jews. &c. that is. Our Father which art in heaven. that it is a tradition I have not transgressed thy precepts. from their cradles. Deuteronomy 26:13). "'I have not transgressed. John. "Whom have we whereon to rely. But in what sense did the Jews call God their Father in heaven. nor curtailing any thing from the latitude of the known and used sense.' Jeremiah 2:27. because he took care of them. and there is somewhat in the very phrase that permits it. and who have partook of true adoption. and . who is in heaven.

let it be thy good pleasure to give to every man what sufficeth for food. Judah saith. 'Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and ever. from an evil man. from Satan the destroyer. provide to-morrow's bread. and give it us to-day.] I. while they were reciting the phylacteries. which. Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and ever." See the places of that tract noted in the margin. and impudence.. [Our daily bread. from . "For the tradition is. 11.' It was in his mind to reveal to them the end of days. "The necessities of thy people Israel are many. O Israel. as in heaven." or in earth. 'Hear. in which he thus concludes. Eliezer saith. the Lord our God is one Lord': but they said not. [For thine is the kingdom. 13. 'Perhaps there is something profane in my bed. &c." Hence in the tract Joma (where the rubric of the day of Expiation is). "Be ye clean before Jehovah". who saith. after various prayers recited. so that they know not how to disclose their necessities. This also they pronounced softly. "And R." See also the tract Taanith. "And the people answered. and said.thy kingdom. and these words are added. from an evil neighbour.] "Rabbi [Judah] was wont thus to pray: 'Let it be thy good pleasure to deliver us from impudent men. when they heard the name Jehovah pronounced out in its syllable. There a short prayer of the high priest is mentioned. It is disputed what this means.'" &c. What said they then? Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever. II. instead of which the people answered Amen. That they made some small pause after the reciting of this period. and the Holy Spirit departed from him: he said. but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom. adoring. from an evil affection. the high priest makes. where a reason is given of this doxology in the Gloss there. that they answered not 'Amen' in the house of the sanctuary.] "What is the short prayer? R. is added. therefore. Do thy will in heaven.] That is. Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and ever. and from a hard adversary. Amen. and falling prostrate upon their face. It is said of the men of Jericho. "But the priests and people standing in the court. from an evil companion. &c." &c. from a hard judgment. Simeon Ben Levi explains the mystery. In the public service in the Temple. and the power. and give quietness of spirit to them that fear thee beneath. they said. (which God forbid!) as it was to Abraham. 'Gather yourselves together.. And lead us not into temptation. that they folded up the Schemah." [Thy will be done. when the priests ended their prayers. that we be not solicitous for to-morrow.' But by what reason do we say so? R. Give us this day our daily bread. and the glory. and from an evil chance. Our father Jacob called his sons. and in a gentle whisper. and I will declare unto you. the commemoration of the kingdom of God was the respond. for ever. [Deliver us from evil. and their knowledge small. on that day.

and. were to be used. by every single man. as. First. the Lord our God is one Lord'. Therefore it was appointed to say it softly. And you see how great an agreement it hath with the conclusion of the Lord's prayer. not at all in the public prayers in the Temple. there is but one. in this sermon in the mount. or indeed never. to apply those things which have been said to the matter under our hands. so also he neither suggested . being an ejaculation. That the disciples also. Luke 11. the people answered Amen to the prayers made by the minister: and also at home. He commanded all." &c. And now. In the synagogue. "When ye pray. III. when he was not asked. followed a very usual rite and custom of the nation. Upon the whole matter. in exhibiting this form of prayer. At that time our father Jacob began. in our hearts. Matthew is added moreover the word Amen. and to Isaac. For. That this conclusion is added in St. Luke it is not. As. I. indeed. it was pronounced in the Temple by all with a loud voice. when the master of the family blessed or prayed. but in St." &c. 'Hear. consider the following things: 1. and how very private too. What shall we do? Shall we say this doxology? Our master Moses said it not. As they answered Amen. any one praying privately joined this to the end of his prayers. we infer. Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and ever. Secondly. when he was asked." &c. but seldom. In St. II. Israel. and were used by them all indifferently. "For thine is the kingdom. it was spoken in the phylacterical prayers. from whom proceeded Esau. there is but one.whom proceeded Ishmael. by any marks or signs more clear than those which he made use of. "After this manner pray ye". according to the ordinary custom of the nation. therefore. almost half a year after. Being a response. so. "For thine is the kingdom. in thy heart.. III. so they seldom joined it to the end of their private prayers. The Rabbins said. Luke it is wanting. could not but receive it according to the manner and sense of the nation. delivered by the masters to the scholars. Our Father. You see how very public the use of this doxology was. say. That he scarcely could signify his mind. that this prayer should be universally and constantly used. and without distinction of persons. forms of prayer. used in such cases: since he introduced no exception at all from that general rule and custom. and afterward. That Christ. without any exception or distinction. That this prayer was twice delivered by our Saviour: first. Matthew. 2. but in St.' His sons said unto him. and said. Shall we not say it? Our father Jacob said it." &c. in a very low voice. receiving this form delivered to them.

they beseech him again. It may certainly with good reason be asked. Therefore you have in the conclusion a sign of the public use. to drink. Luke 11:1: John taught his. but omits the conclusion. For finer dress. See also the Babylonian Talmud in the tract Taanith. whether it be . to put on their sandals. since this might easily be evinced. [They disfigure their faces. that he would teach them to pray privately. Why is his name called Ashur? (1 Chron 4:5). a sign of the private use was in the absence of it: a sign of both in the conformity of the whole to the custom of the nation. and in terms. concerning other fasts. because they might reckon that first for a public form of prayer.] That is.any thing concerning this his prayer. They have their reward. The form itself carries along with it certain characters. Because his face was black by fastings. 1 Kings 20:38: "In the public fasts every one took ashes. by yielding them a form to be used by all theirs daily. Joshua Ben Ananiah. namely. they disguised their faces with ashes. anoint thine head. verbatim. as John had taught his. and so to be used? But his seems rather the cause why they desired a second time a form of prayer. as he heretofore upon another cause. Verily I say unto you. when thou fastest. and put upon his head. by the agreement of it to the response in the Temple. that. that they may appear unto men to fast. They say of R. A sign of the public use was in the addition of Amen." 17. and Amen. and the fasts of private men. be not. as the masters among the Jews had theirs. of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces. since Christ had delivered this prayer in such plain words in his sermon upon the mount. "This is against nature. which savoured of public use. by the agreement of it to the ejaculation in the phylacterical prayers.] For those that fasted neither anointed themselves nor washed. as the hypocrites. both by the addition of the conclusion so like the public response in the Temple. this command moreover being added. to hate easy cleanliness. "After this manner pray ye. all the days of his life. &c. Moreover when ye fast." Here let that of Seneca come in." See the Babylonian Gemara here. But the king and the bride may wash their faces. and of the private. either besides the common custom. and especially by the addition of Amen used only in public assemblies: therefore. and he repeats the same form. anoint thine head." it was desired again. Thirdly. and a midwife may put on her sandals. and wash thy face. Why. that he would teach them to pray? What! had they forgotten that prayer that was given them there? Were they ignorant that it was given them for a form of prayer. They were wont to anoint their bodies and heads upon a threefold reason: I. But thou. when thou fastest. [But thou. Christ taught his disciples to pray. to lie with their wives. both of its public and private and constant use. or contrary to it. "On the day of Expiation it was forbidden to eat. his face was black by reason of is fastings. "Anointing is permitted to be used on the sabbath. and to affect nastiness. 16. to wash. to anoint themselves.

they used an ordinary medicine. or if a scab arise on his head. and he was healed. They used sometimes a superstitious anointing of the head." Hence." And a little after. or on whom scabs arise. or else . 'It is customary for the unbelieving Jews to use anointing of the sick joined with a magical and enchanting muttering. and let him not be troubled. or some place of the body that feels pain. See Acts 19:13. On the day of Expiation both are forbidden." II. and where thieves do not break through nor steal: For where your treasure is. He that is troubled with the head-ache. and mutter. as well as the whole body: but if a man be sick. But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven. They anointed themselves often. namely. Ismael permitted him not. thy whole body shall be full of darkness.for ornament. this muttering is to be understood concerning the manner of saying a charm upon the wound. It is forbidden [in fasts] to wash a part of the body. and in the public fasts. not for excess. they may well sound to this sense. The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single. let him anoint himself with oil. thy whole body shall be full of light. anointing for dress is forbid. Hence that of St. how great is that darkness! No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one. but how infinitely better is it to join the pious prayers of the elders of the church to the anointing of the sick!' 20-24. muttering over the wound. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness. let him put oil upon his head. anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord": that is. let him anoint himself according to the custom. James of Capharsam came to heal him in the name of Jesus: but R. "A tradition of the Rabbins. and love the other. as well as the whole body. and let them pray over him. But if it be defiled with dirt or dung. to that ordinary medicine. Mention also is made in the tract Schabbath now alleged." Mark 6:13. let the prayers of the ministers of the church be used. or for the health of the body. where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt. a certain person came to him. or bravery. anointing for recovery of health. anointing not for dress is allowed. and obtained an extraordinary and infallible effect. On the ninth day of the month Ab. and to heal them. and muttered upon him in the name of Jesus of Pandira. when the apostles are said "to anoint the sick with oil. Eliezer Ben Damah was bitten by a serpent. III. there will your heart be also. or not for ornament. James. But if thine eye be evil. If the words of James before alleged be compared with this cursed custom. let him wash according to the custom. but for the healing of some disease. or delight. chapter 5:14: "Let the sick man call for the elders of the church. and nothing differing from magical anointing: He that mutters. "R. that some used this enchanting muttering in the name of Jesus: "One being sick." &c. of which mention is made in the tract Sanhedrim. It is also forbidden to anoint a part of the body.

a phrase very frequent in the Talmudists. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.7 Bible:Matt. verse 24. And an evil eye. and despise the other.] There is enough of trouble in the very moment. behold. "This is the measure of the Truma" (or. verse 20.he will hold to the one. O ye of little faith? [O ye of little faith. A good eye yieldeth one out of forty. which today is. or a not covetous mind." See Matthew 20:15. to the Jews. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. 30.|Matt|9|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. From a very usual manner of speech of the nation. of the oblation yielded to the priests). and. Hence covetousness is called the lust of the eyes. Eliezer saith. &c.] Small of faith. 'Whosoever hath but a small morsel in his basket. shall he not much more clothe you. The Israelites in the wilderness were of little faith. is the same with a bountiful mind. [If thine eye be single. "The school of Shammai saith. For a good eye. and too much care of worldly things. R.8.| Matt|8|0|0|0. One out of thirty. they sow not.'" 34. that is.] That the business here is about a covetous.9" /> . II.8 Bible:Matt. let him dedicate it with a good eye. concerning serving either God or Mammon. Abuhabh in the preface to Menorath hammaor. one out of fifty. he is to be reckoned among those of little faith. 21. Therefore our Saviour shows here with how great darkness the mind is clouded and dimmed by covetousness." &c. Chapters 7. and saith. neither do they reap. A middling eye. He that gives a gift. Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not. What have I to eat to-morrow. From the context on either hand: for. Are you not much better than they? [The fowls of the air. Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. and an evil eye is the same with a covetous mind. 1 John 2:16. yet your heavenly Father feedeth them.] "Have you ever seen beasts or fowls that had a workshop? And yet they are fed without trouble of mind. the discourse is concerning treasures either earthly or heavenly. He that prayed with a loud voice. 8. let him give with a good eye: and he that dedicates any thing. the fortieth part. I. may be gathered. 9" parsed="|Matt|7|0|0|0. If thine eye be evil. one out of sixty. 26. Wherefore.9 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 7. nor gather into barns. "R. and tomorrow is cast into the oven. if God so clothe the grass of the field. is to be numbered among those that are little of faith. See also Midras Tillin. [Sufficient to the day is the evil thereof.

and few there be that find it.] This is a very common proverb among the Jews: In the measure that a man measureth. our Saviour seems to allude to the rules of the Jews among their lawyers concerning the public and private ways. [Gate. and said. that leadeth to destruction. Cast out the mote out of thine eye.] In these words. standing upon one foot': Shammai beat him with the staff that was in his hand. [Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you. it shall be measured to you again. and many there be which go in thereat: [Broad is the way. When any [judge] said to another. 'stony bread. 'Make me a proselyte. the small sin that is in thine hand. For with what judgment ye judge. whom if his son ask bread. Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you." &c. "Cast out the mote. 4. that is. and. he may answer. Or what man is there of you. Because strait is the gate. which leadeth unto life. in the generation which judged their judges. that I may learn the whole law. "Verrucosus called a benefit roughly given from a hard man. because all were sinners.'" 12. "a private way was four cubits in breadth. Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye. He went to Hillel.] Under this phrase are very many things in religion expressed in the Holy . Cast out the mote out of thine eye. will he give him a stone? [Will he give him a stone?] Here that of Seneca comes into my mind." 9. and he made him a proselyte. that is. and narrow is the way. &c. concerning the broad and narrow way.] A certain Gentile came to Shammai." See the Gloss in Peah. So that they could not reprove. he answered.] And this also was a known proverb among them: "It is written in the days when they judged the judges.2. Or how wilt thou say to thy brother. and broad is the way. 'I wonder whether there be any in this age that will receive reproof: but if one saith to another. others measure to him. where it is illustrated by various examples. do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets. ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete. a public way was sixteen cubits. Cast you out the beam out of your own eye. "R. &c. he will be ready to answer. behold. With whom. Cast out the beam out of thine own eye. See also the tract Sotah.'" Where the Gloss writes thus. panem lapidosum. and said. But cast you out the great sin that is in yours. 14. Tarphon said. Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate. 13. do it not to thy neighbour: for this is the whole law. That which is odious to thyself. [With what measure ye mete. a beam is in thine own eye? [Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye.

] It is said with good reason. or The wise men say. depth. which come to you in sheep's clothing." Chapter 8 2. that "he that takes a . but inwardly they are ravening wolves. and the fathers of them: and no sermon of any scribe had any authority or value. The scribes borrowed credit to their doctrine from traditions.] Not so much in woolen garments as in the very skins of sheep: so that outwardly they might seem sheep. behold.. until he said at last. beside man? That is often repeated in the Talmudists. [As one having authority. and out of Bethmokad" (the place of the fire-hearth) "he entereth into the court. if thou wilt. Lord. is a little door in the midst of a great door. Do men gather grapes of thorns.20. they had not before heard any discoursing with that authority. or some traditional oracle of that nature. that no creature is so unclean by a touch as man. For he taught them as one having authority. besides his divine truth. or figs of thistles? [By their fruits ye shall know them. and also in the Jewish writers. a word very usual among the Talmudists: "With a key he opened the little door. it may with good reason be asked. A gourd. "But. thou canst make me clean. but the gates of tears were not shut. Ye shall know them by their fruits. there came a leper and worshipped him.' "Since the Temple was laid waste." Pishpesh.Scripture. saith the Aruch. [Thou canst make me clean. and convincing power. Psalm 118:19. [In sheep's clothing. "The elders proclaimed a fast in their cities upon this occasion. because the wolves had devoured two little children beyond Jordan. 29." Of the ravenousness of wolves among the Jews. Matthew 16:18. was unclean to the touch. Beware of false prophets. the gates of prayer were shut. although he discoursed of that matter all day long. is known by its branch. and not as the scribes. whether any creature.] That is a proverb not unlike it. but "inwardly they were ravening wolves." 16. seems to be the Greek rendering of Pishpesh. &c. and as the tradition was concerning a certain thing. while it lived. 'The gate of repentance' is mentioned by the Chaldee paraphrast upon Jeremiah 33:6. in the verse going before. a gourd. And. Genesis 28:17. and not as the scribes.] The doctrine in the law concerning leprosy paints out very well the doctrine of sin. that "the multitude were astonished at Christ's doctrine": for. that he did. More than three hundred sheep of the sons of Judah Ben Shamoe were torn by wolves. and 'the gate of prayers. So I heard from Shemaia and Abtalion. Yea. they received not his doctrine. Hillel the Great taught truly. without The Rabbins have a tradition.' and 'the gate of tears. take these two examples besides others. I. 15. It teacheth. saying." Strait gate.

while he remains wholly untouched by it. the servant of Elisha. for a day. heals him that hath the infection. See Leviticus 11:31: "Whosoever shall touch them when they be dead. that was to judge of the leprosy. Gehazi. that Aaron. speaketh only of those things that died of themselves. till the whole body be infected and covered with the leprosy? Nor shalt thou. a week's uncleanness followed. uncleanness followed by the touch of it for that day only: for "he shall be unclean (saith the law) until the evening": but the carcase of a man being touched. And Jesus put forth his hand. 3. And also that Uzziah should be confuted concerning his encroaching upon the priesthood no other way than by the plague of leprosy. See Numbers 19. or rendered him unclean." &c.worm in his hand. when they are dead. not without cause. leprosy was the greatest. But whether he speaks of a living worm. It can scarcely be denied. all the waters of Jordan cannot wash him from his uncleanness". or thou shalt not be cleansed. Thus under justification and sanctification there remain still the seeds and filth of sin. This is a noble doctrine of our High Priest. and touched him. Either acknowledge thyself all over leprous. A law certainly to be wondered at! Is he not clean. the priest. he. I will. when he judged of it.: and verse 32. and yet he was cleansed. . bore not the same punishment: for she was touched with leprosy. or the worm being cast away. shall fall. by his being touched with the leprosy. but certainly they catched not the contagion while they were doing their office in judging of it. IV. or a month. being bound under the same guilt with Miriam. He that was full of the leprosy was pronounced clean." &c. and he would shew the other was no priest. But whether it is to be understood of a living or dead worm. and conversed with the king (2 Kings 8:5). the leprosy was not healed: but the poison of the disease being evaporated. thou shalt pronounce him clean. When the leper was purified. since the law. while the worm is as yet in his hand. cleanse. for ever. inasmuch as other uncleannesses separated the unclean person. Among all the uncleannesses of men.] It was indeed a wonder. the leper was restored to the public congregation. "If the leprosy shall cover the whole body from head to foot. II. or a week. "Upon whatsoever any of them. And immediately his leprosy was cleansed. that is. In him God would magnify the priesthood. but the leprosy. indeed. the Judge and Physician of our leprosy. be thou clean. he not. that the priests sometimes might be touched with that plague. was adjudged to perpetual leprosy. How much does he surpass that miracle of the Levitical priesthood! They were not touched by the contagion when they touched the leprous person. be made clean without the like condition. O sinner. that when the leprosy was a creeping infection. Leviticus 13:12. perhaps. saying. was not hurt with the infection. it is doubted. It cannot be passed over without observation. by his touch. was not." &c. III. and the danger of the contagion gone. or a dead. Numbers 12. not until the time appointed for such purification be expired. he that was otherwise. treating of this matter. [Jesus touched him. not healed.

And surely it deserves no slight consideration. &c. to which the blood was to be applied. that the leper that was to be cleansed should stand without the court. The cure was done in Galilee. He who receives the blood in his hand goes to the leper in the chamber of the lepers": this was in the corner of the Court of the Women. according to the Rubric. shew thyself to the priest. Christ makes trial of the obedience and gratitude of him that was cured. and thence he is sent away to Jerusalem. after the wonted and instituted manner. Secondly. He would have him restored to the communion of the church (from which his leprosy had separated him). But a poor man brought a sacrifice for sin of birds. II. "he stretcheth forth his head within the court. silence and sacrifice are enjoined him: See thou tell no man. whence it may be observed what things they were that our Saviour sent back this healed person to do. &c. "He placeth him in the gate of Nicanor. a sacrifice for transgression. Our Saviour would not have the extraordinary manner whereby he was healed discovered to the priest. but extinguishes it not. See thou tell no man. you may learn from the Glosser: "The gate of Nicanor (saith he) was between the Court of the Women and the Court of Israel: but now it was not lawful for any to enter into the Court of Israel for whom there was not a perfect expiation: and. defiles a divine institution. and the person healed make no schism: and however both his words and gestures sufficiently argue that he believed in Christ. his thumbs. [Go. He stands by the sacrifice for transgression. laying upon him the charge of a sacrifice and the labour of a journey." Hence was that invention.: and offer the gift. indeed. on the contrary. he so thrust forth his head and ears into the court. while he would reserve the priesthood itself. and lays both his hands upon it. with his neck held out. but offer a gift for a testimony to them": that is. and he puts blood also upon his great toe. And why all these things? First. were within the court. that he sends him to the priest. "See thou tell no man. And Jesus saith unto him." the east gate of the Court of Israel. Those things which at that time were to be done in cleansing of the leprosy. and offer the gift that Moses commanded. We omit saying more. it was not lawful to carry the blood of the sacrifice for transgression out of the court. but restore him to it. looking north-west. and his toes. the other in his hand.4. And the other adds oil to the same members in the same place. 'Do not boast the extraordinary manner . and he puts blood upon his thumb and his foot.] I. show thyself to the priest. The reason why. yet Christ will by no means draw him from the communion of the church." &c. and puts blood upon the lowest part of his ear: he stretcheth out his hand also within the court. and yet his ears. for a testimony unto them. it is enough to have produced these things. yet he would reserve to it its privileges. were these: "Let him bring three beasts: that is. Hence is that command of his to him. However now the priesthood was too degenerate both from its institution and its office. the one in a vessel. but go thy way. Corruption. &c. and a burnt-offering of birds. that he might pay the ordinary duty of his cleansing. He provides that he himself give no scandal. and a burnt-offering. &c. a sacrifice for sin. and slays it: and two priests receive the blood.

and the sabbath was now gone. "What is Bin Hashmashuth? R. And saying." The entrance of the sabbath was at sun-set. in order to his being carried out.] Mark adds. The weak person lieth so. that he is moved only by others. let him light it while it is yet day. In which they used a candle (as they did upon the entrance of the sabbath). they brought unto him many that were possessed with devils: and he cast out the spirits with his word. he cannot move himself. washes his hands. and afterward over that cup he useth the form of prayer in the separation of the sabbath from a common day: if he be now drinking when the sabbath goes out. The power and dominion of the disease is so expressed. and then returns to his drinking. because of it. The proper limits of the sabbath were from sun-set to sun-set. Josi saith. Mark. So. III. and offer the gift that is due. and spices. next door to carrying out. The Talmudic canons give a caution of some works. It is like a drop of blood put upon the very edge of a sword. "That we be not an offence to them. in case of a leper. while it is yet day: that is (as they explain it). when the sun was now set. that they be not begun on the day before the sabbath. R. when he saith. they brought the sick to be healed: which they held unlawful to do while the sun was yet going down. and recites the form of separation. and sick of a fever. This is sufficiently intimated by St. Lord. grievously tormented. go to the priest nevertheless. before sun-set. whilst one may walk half a mile. Thus. and the form of a blessing over a cup of wine. and healed all that were sick: [When the even was come. and wine. of Peter's mother-in-law. was laid. and the sabbath yet present. Matthew 17:27. Bin Hashmashuth is like a . The sabbath was ended by the Jews at the supper. [Lieth] Laid forth. 6. After the setting of sun. my servant lieth at home sick of the palsy." &c. and then over the candle.of thy healing. or the feast. a certain space was called Bin Hashmashuth: concerning which these things are disputed. When the even was come. 16. and over a cup of wine he gives thanks for his food." II. He that lights a [sabbath] candle. as it were. I.' This caution of our Saviour hath the same tendency with that. Tanchuma saith. but is. "On the sabbath-eve it is permitted to work until sun-set. however you have no business with the priest in reference to the purification and cleansing. A dead man laid forth. he ceaseth from drinking. thrust not thyself into the communion of the church before the rites of admission be duly performed: but. and so was the end of it. if they may not be ended and finished. and then over the spices: "Does the sabbath end when he is now in the middle of his feast? He puts an end to his eating. verse 14. What is Bin Hashmashuth? It is from that time when the sun sets. which divides itself every where. that when the sun was now set. think not thyself freed from the bond of the law. while the sun is not yet set. for a testimony that you are again restored into communion with them.

Judah. he is bound to a sacrifice for sin. And a little after. However. in the going out of the sabbath. which is not to be doubted of. That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet. but not excluding that which we have mentioned. is bound to offer a sacrifice for sin. if he do any work after one star is seen. he is clear." So also the Jerusalem Talmudists in the place last cited: "Does one star appear? Certainly. read the Glosser upon Maimonides. Do two? It is doubted whether it be day. Certainly he bare our infirmities. among others "The Rabbins say. namely." &c. as yet it is day. you have the story in the Talmud.' underwent very many sicknesses (of whom. if so be they took care of the canonical hour of the nation. R. In this sense. that there are said to be two sun-sets. Do three? It is night without doubt. and bare our sicknesses. is Matthew to be understood. That Messias himself shall be a man of sorrows. as being one that carries infirmities. namely. and he was able to manage that business: his part was to carry and bear them. and in him was strength and power to carry and bear them. he is bound to a sacrifice for a transgression. if any work after one star seen. The sense of Isaiah reacheth indeed further. [Himself took our infirmities. it is called between the suns: and it is a doubt whether that time be part of the day or of the night. if after two.. Messias should be 'a man of sorrows': and yet they look for him coming in pomp." Hence you may see at what time they brought persons here to Christ to be healed. he is clear: if after two. Likewise. to a sacrifice for transgression: if after three. that that of Isaiah might be fulfilled. Therefore. "thirteen years Rabbi laboured under the pain of the teeth. but Matthew speaks concerning him healing them in others: Isaiah of the diseases of the soul (see 1 Peter 2:24). because of which there were some who were pleased to account him for the Messias." &c. Where thus also Maimonides himself: "From the time that the sun sets till the three middle stars appear. This allegation of Matthew may seem somewhat unsuitable and different from the sense of the prophet: for Isaiah speaks of the Messias carrying our infirmities in himself. and in the going out of the sabbath. He it is who is able to bear and carry our sorrows and sicknesses. certainly our holy Rabbi is he. But in this sense both agree very well.] Divers names of the Messias are produced by the Talmudists. in the going out of the sabbath. a plain sense by an equal easiness does arise. Himself took our infirmities. whether you apply the words to the diseases of the mind or the body. that Christ's business was with our infirmities and sorrows. .). and of his sicknesses." The Gloss is. between the suns: and the manner of speech seems to be drawn thence." &c. if after three. Matthew of the diseases of the body. between that time they do not light the sabbatical candle: and whosoever shall do any servile work on the sabbath-eve. they every where judge of it to render the office heavy. according to the prophets. "Rabh saith. Rabbenu Haccodesh is he. &c. 'The leper of the house of Rabbi': as it is said.wink of the eye." &c. therefore. he healed the demoniacs and all diseased persons with his word. he is bound to a sacrifice for sin. If Messias be among the living. And so. His name is. whom they called 'the Holy. "If Messias be of them that are now alive. because. "On the sabbath-eve. 17. saying. Concerning which. Bin Hashmashuth properly signifies." And a line after.

and tramples upon whatsoever is given him. and teareth his garments. He that goes out in the night is condriacus. It was forbidden by the canon: "The wise men forbade to keep hogs anywhere. The besieged sent money in a box let down by a rope. And there was a good way off from them an herd of many swine feeding. whence the country had its name: there was also Gergasa. The feeding of hogs is more particularly forbidden for their uncleanness. "the keeping smaller cattle was forbid in the land of Israel". or a keeper of hogs. either you are a winebibber." 2. we leave to the more learned to discuss. or a usurer. of the Gadarenes. both very properly: for it was the city Gadara. as excellently well suiting with his case. 30. Lutetia. He goes out in the night. Seignior. he is to be esteemed for one that is his own man in all respects. a city or a town within that country. But is he only mad in whom all these signs are? I say. it was forbid under a curse: "The wise men say. and Aristobulus was without. which a certain woman seeing said thus. so that no man might pass by that way. and lodges among the sepulchres. among which you may very well reckon hogs even in the first place: and the reason is given by the Gemarists. . "That they break not into other men's grounds. Cursed is he that keeps dogs and swine. Not." See what we say at chapter 17:15.which Matthew very fitly retains. It is forbidden to trade in any thing that is unclean. unless he were chained. &c. a word of such a nature. It was a matter of infamy for a Jew to keep swine: "R. or heathens? I. hypochondriacal. Generally. [A herd of many swine feeding. and they which were without bought with it the daily sacrifices. [Paris]. or from the word Gargushta. The Rabbins deliver: When the Asmonean family were in hostility among themselves. troubled in mind." And a little after. because from them ariseth much harm.] Were these Gadarenes Jews. [Into the country of the Gergesenes. Houna saith. And when he was come to the other side into the country of the Gergesenes. another while he is well: while he is mad. He that lodgeth a night among the tombs burns incense to devils. He that tears his garments is melancholic. coming out of the tombs." Hogs upon a twofold account: 1. Jonah had a very red face.] In Mark and Luke it is. R. there met him two possessed with devils. exceeding fierce. "one while he is mad. 28. Seignior. Hyrcanus was besieged within Jerusalem. he is to be esteemed for a madman in respect of all his actions: while he is well." "Let no man keep hogs anywhere. Yea. which whether it bare its name from the ancient Canaanite stock of the Gergashites. and a dog. By reason of the hurt and damage that they would bring to other men's fields. [Two possessed with devils coming out of the tombs. And he that tramples under his feet whatsoever is given him is cardiacus.] "These are the signs of a madman. III. which signifies clay or dirt." II. may be brought for an example.

Peter. that these hogs belonged not to the Jews. and these sent them back a hog. who said. their manners will make that opinion probable. because five of the disciples were chiefly employed among the Jews in Judea: namely. Or if you grant that they were Jews. they will not be delivered into your hands. but to the heathen dwelling among the Gadarene Jews. Since brawn and swine's flesh were of so great account with the Romans and other heathens. he saw a man. and he that produceth a publican's note. Therefore you will wonder. is guilty. there is no reason to believe that a Jew was held so straitly by his canons. Which we observe elsewhere of the town Susitha or Hippo. There were five disciples of Jesus. Nezer. When the hog was drawing up." You may not. therefore. and Judas. for such a mixture was very usual in the cities and countries of the land of Israel. &c. 'Cursed be he who keeps hogs. named Matthew. Nakai. From that time they said." See also the Gemara there. And he arose. or when he excuses him his tribute. See the place. Follow me. and followed him. sitting at the receipt of custom: and he saith unto him. He therefore appointed a fast. and came to the middle of the wall.which were drawn up by those that were within. John. were led out and killed. Among the besiegers there was one skilled in the Greek learning. to gather some certain toll or rate of those that sailed over. and cursed be he who teacheth his son the wisdom of the Greeks. and not without cause. at that which is related in their Talmud: "They said sometimes to Rabh Judah. and the land of Israel was shaken. And as Jesus passed forth from thence." What! is a Jew concerned for a plague among swine? But the reason is added: "For Rabh Judah thought that a stroke laid upon one kind of cattle would invade all. Matthew seems to have sat in the custom-house of Capernaum near the sea. called Matthew. James. [He saw a man sitting at the receipt of custom.] Five disciples of Christ are mentioned by the Talmudists. and Boni. Mathai.' The next day." The Gloss is. that he hath remitted him his duty: and it was customary in it to write two letters greater than ours. he fixed his hoofs to the wall. Chapter 9 9. 'As long as they thus perform the service of the Temple. therefore. Matthew who wrote his Gospel there. 14.'" This story is cited in Menachoth. and Thodah. "He that produceth paper [on the Sabbath] in which a publican's note is writ. as being persons whose highest law the purse and profit was wont to be. . There is a plague among the swine. improperly guess. but some small distance from Gadara. they let down their money. among whom Matthew seems to be named: "The Rabbins deliver. See Chapter 2:13. he certifies the publican by a note [or some bill of free commerce]. "When any pays tribute to the lord of the river. when there was hope of gain. they relate." These. as to value them before his own profit. Perhaps five are only mentioned by them.

rather than stories. or to attain the interpretation of some dream. as fire is for flax. And Jesus said unto them.] Monsters. A fast for a dream. that they might see R. that he went up into the mount to receive the second tables on the fifth day of the week. Ishai. for this end. we must answer. Can the children of the bridechamber mourn. from the time when the gates of the Temple opened of their own accord (a sign of the destruction coming). from that which is said in Midras concerning Moses. He instituted the session of the judges in cities on the second and fifth days of the week. who on the sabbath was splendidly received by R. A fast is as fit for a dream. It is known to all.14. When. as long as the bridegroom is with them? but the days will come. Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft. are related of the Pharisees' fasts:-I. through too much abstinence. 15. therefore. he used the physicians of Titus to restore his health. or to turn away the ill import of a dream. in the tract Schabbath: where also we meet with the story of R. God being now appeased. There is no need to relate their mirth in the time of the nuptials: I will relate that only. and came down. that he was commonly called Chalsha. but would not eat because he was under a fast for a dream. did so mortify himself with fastings. Simeon Ben Lachish three hundred for this end. namely. an ordinary phrase. and R. that is. that ascent and descent was a time of grace. III. of R. For this cause it was allowed to fast on the sabbath. had been wasted. of which fasts the tract Taanith does largely treat. See the Babylonian Talmud. but thy disciples fast not? [We and the Pharisees fast oft. &c. And when the city was now destroyed. and he saw it was in vain to fast any longer. The rise of which custom you may fetch from this tradition: "Ezra decreed ten decrees." And often to avert threatening evils. Chaijah Rubbah. Of this matter discourse is had elsewhere: "If you ask the reason why the decree was made concerning the second and fifth days. saith the Gloss. that they were wont to fast twice every week. They were wont to break glass vessels in weddings And that for this reason. Josi fasted eighty fasts. which." II. Zadok. He appointed the public reading of the law the second and fifth days of the week: and again on the sabbath at the Mincha [or evening service]. Joshua Bar Rabh Idai. and it is enough. that is. which is spoke by the Glosser. to have lucky dreams. who for forty years. [The children of the bridechamber. lest they should run out into too much excess. they so determined of the second and fifth days. which otherwise was forbidden. And therefore they were wont to fast also on the second and fifth days. when the bridegroom shall be taken from them. the second day. Then came to him the disciples of John. and then shall they fast.] The sons of the bridechamber. from Luke 18:12. that they might by this action set bounds to their mirth. The Gemara produceth one or two stories there: "Mar the son of Rabbena made . and that is. They fasted often to obtain their desires: "R. and it was a common proverb. saying. Let one example be enough instead of many. The weak." &c. It was not seldom that they enjoined themselves fasts. Hence was that expression very usual..

and there Jairus also: and in his passage from the house of the one to the house of the other. whereupon they became sad. While he spake these things unto them. Where the Gloss thus. My daughter is even now dead: but come and lay thy hand upon her. how the disciples.] Zeba. being understood in this sense. near the court [which is worthy to be marked]: The Chazan [or bishop. namely. And. or a certain. behold. It is forbidden to eat. which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years. wash or anoint oneself on the day of Expiation: But it is allowed a king and a bride to wash their faces "For the bride is to be made handsome (saith the Gloss upon the place). set up at Paneas. all manner of persecution overtook them. and invited the Rabbins: and when he saw that their mirth exceeded its bounds. and you will easily judge what is to be thought of that story concerning the statues of this woman and Christ. and gives it to the ruler of the synagogue. the ruler of that synagogue. admits of little obscurity. [Behold. And all the thirty days of her bridechamber she is called The Bride. the days of the bridechamber were thirty. and brake it before them. that she may be lovely to her husband.. For while the discourse is there of the high priest reading a certain portion of the law on the day of Expiation agreeable to the day. to the sons of the bridechamber. and the head of the congregation. came behind him. Because it is forbidden a man to fill his mouth with laughter in this world. a woman. in the synagogue of Capernaum: so that the word ruler. The Talmudic tract may serve for a commentary here. 20. who shall pass before the ark. behold. and she shall live. who shall read the prophet. or Caesarea Philippi: of which Eusebius speaks. in Talmudic language. The bishop of the synagogue takes the book of the law. that is. Weigh the story well. "The synagogue was in the mount of the Temple. and touched the hem of his garment: [Diseased with an issue of blood. and worshipped him. ." Of this order and function was Jairus. he brought forth a glass cup worth four hundred zuzees. . thus it is said. although one.'" &c. this diseased woman met him.. who shall recite the phylacteries. And the reason of this action is given.the days of the bridechamber. 18." It is worth meditation. 'Behold. saying.wedding feasts for his son.] Distinction is made between the bishop of the congregation. a ruler. were seven: hence there is frequent mention of "the seven days of the marriage-feast": but to the bride." The like story is also related of Rabh Ishai. These things were acted in the streets of Capernaum: for there Matthew lived. be not there: "he speaking these words. when Christ was with them. but when he was absent. suffered no persecution at all. there came a certain ruler. to the friends and acquaintance. or overseer] of the synagogue is the minister: and the ruler of the synagogue is he by whose command the affairs of the synagogue are appointed. drink.

an Israelite shall not lament at those pipes. let all things be done according to his quality. as we may guess. "But a certain publican died.. And also the very poorest among the Israelites will afford her not less than two pipes and one lamenting woman: but if he be rich. in a peculiar sense. to take care of the funeral. and to make lamentations and mournings for her. for civility's sake. will afford her not less than two pipes. and to contribute other things needful for that solemnity with all diligence. Hence they appropriated The rendering [or bestowing] of mercies to this duty. in such cases.. afforded an occasion to much company to assemble themselves to the house of mourning: First." "If an idolater bring pipes on the sabbath to the house where anyone is dead. to prepare things for the burial. and three after meat. they made a decree against this. they added three more. "A tradition.. and the whole city left off work to yield him mercy. or a waggoner. There were two things which." Mourning for the dead is distinguished by the Jewish schools into Aninuth. to bring pipes. but they used not a minstrel. together with Jairus. She died. either for a wedding. five while they are eating. as it is very probable. and one woman to make lamentation. and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise. was going forward to the house (Mark 5:35). to put themselves under the bier. and Ebluth.] Dion Cassius concerning the funeral of Augustus: "Tiberius. above all other demonstrations of charity. "The husband is bound to bury his dead wife. and then began Ebluth. some. either for a bride. by how much the parents of the deceased maid were of more eminent quality. And when Jesus came into the ruler's house. "One of the disciples of the wise men died. They drink ten cups in the house of mourning. resorted thither to eat and drink: for at such a time some banqueting was used. or a funeral. Aninuth was on the day of the funeral only. and Drusus his son. [Seeing the minstrels. both the more officious in this business. or until the corpse was carried out. and yet. Of these mournings take . when Christ. minstrels. Even the poorest among the Israelites [his wife being dead]. "He that hireth an ass-keeper." This multitude was got together on a sudden: neighbours." Secondly. others came to perform their duty of charity and neighbourhood: for they accounted it the highest instance of respect to lament the dead. according to the custom of all countries. no care was taken of his funeral. perhaps for the sake of gain. But when the Sanhedrim saw that hence they became drunk.23.sacrificed frankincense themselves. behold what a solemn meeting and concourse there was to lament her. or for a dead person": that is. and lasted for thirty days." And a little after: "When Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel died. and mercy was not yielded him": that is. two before meat.

24. but sleepeth." From thence he is free from the foregoing prohibitions. that is. or. Therefore it is worthy considering what form of speech Christ here used. When N. namely. you may observe from those things which are spoken in the tract Beracoth: "Whence is the bending of the beds? R. as the grave-stone is stopped up": for so it is commonly rendered. both out of duty and friendship. Give place: for the maid is not dead. and now is subject to others. and in care of the funeral. 33. when he died: a phrase to be met with hundreds of times in the Talmudists. Jochanan saith. and so his sons. 1. And this whole company would say. then presently begins the mourning called Ebluth. He said unto them.' &c. Hence. or upon whom the care of his burial lies. "Whosoever sees a dead corpse (say they). And they sat with him to the earth (Job 2:13). [The maid is not dead. For example: If any die in prison. now art). 'upon the earth. both in mourning. is forbidden to eat flesh. Jairus. because it is said. employing themselves in that affair by an officious diligence. From thence.' but 'to the earth': it denotes a thing not far from the earth. [It was never so seen in Israel. and his daughters. and he was free from reciting his phylacteries. useth not Aninuth [that kind of mourning]." &c. that is. thou. The Syriac hath. and from prayer. and it is not in his power to bury him. as R. His friends and neighbours did their parts also." 2.] These words seem to refer. The bending down of the beds. The daughter of Jairus sleeps. What this bending of the beds should mean. is guilty of that which is said. saying. to eat with others. to drink wine. Hence it is that they sat upon beds bended down. to eat in the same house (under which prohibition. Josua. but sleepeth. "He that laments all the thirty days is forbidden to do his work. not to that peculiar . But now (say they) no man is so poor as the dead man. or the uppermost board of the bier. and servants. It was never so seen in Israel. And the reason is given a little after. From such time.] It was very ordinary among them to express the death of any one by the word which properly signifies to sleep. 'He that mocketh the poor reproacheth his Maker." &c. the dumb spake: and the multitudes marvelled. It is not said. in the name of R. he that is near of kin to him is not bound to that mourning which is called Aninuth. And when the devil was cast out. she is dead.these few passages: "He that hath his dead laid out before him. "But when the funeral is carried out of the door of the house. and cattle. but the Gloss somewhere. Crispa. but asleep. and the magistrate [or governor of the place]. and does not accommodate [or accompany] him to his burial. She is not dead. of which the Talmudists speak very much: "From what time (say they) are the beds bended? from that time the dead body is carried out of the gate of the court of the house. and from all such-like precepts of the law." &c. slept. because he who hath his dead laid out before him. and maids. permits not his burial. These things concerned him to whom the dead person did belong. And they laughed him to scorn. the cover.

but they sat a long while at the feet of their Master.11" /> 1. follow him home. "Never had any such thing appeared in Israel. These were called the twelve apostles. two blind men meet him in the streets. but to all his miracles. with very good reason. And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples. and students of his doctrine." 34.. a dumb demoniac enters.10 Bible:Matt. the woman with the issue of blood meets him.' Micah 5:5. that the gift of miracles. The 'seven shepherds. the importunity of Jairus calls him away: going with Jairus. nor from the time they were first chosen. see Luke 22:30. Chapters 10. according to Kimchi.|Matt|11|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease. no. But the Pharisees said. could not but cry out.miracle only that was then done. perhaps you will not repent your labour.. As they were going out of the house. he gave them power against unclean spirits.11 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 10. therefore. eyewitnesses of his works. and is healed: coming to Jarius' house. and they are cured. Consider how many were done in that one day. Christ dines at Capernaum with Matthew: having dined. are the disciples of the Messias. in the afternoon. If you read over the tract of Maimonides here. and is healed. corresponding to the tribes of Israel. See the fortieth verse of this chapter. For these ends were these twelve chosen. For they did not presently betake themselves to preach. and eight principal men. Jeremiah 2:1: a word that does not barely speak a messenger. which of a long time had ceased.] Concerning the number of twelve. from the time they were first admitted disciples. That they might be with him. Revelation 21:12. yea. to cast them out. as the evangelists relate: I. [Power of unclean spirits. The multitude. both to preach and to do miracles. Thence it comes to pass. cry out Messias after him. [And when he had called to him the twelve disciples. entitled messengers and companions.] See the notes at chapter 12:24. That they might be his prophets. 11" parsed="|Matt|10|0|0| 0. he raiseth his dead daughter: returning to his own house (for he had a dwelling at Capernaum). &c. or upon unclean spirits': which therefore . 'over. He casteth out devils through the prince of the devils. [Through the prince of the devils. II. is now restored to them.] That is. and imbibed from his mouth that doctrine which they were to preach. but such a messenger as represents the person of him that sends him. For The 'apostle' of any one is as he himself from whom he is deputed.14.under which title Moses and Aaron are marked by the Chaldee paraphrast.

[Simon." [Peter. come upon him that fasts for that very end. deceiving Pythons. who is called Peter. the like to which no history affords. [Andrew. Joshua Ben Levi. he opened the door of faith to Cornelius. when our sins have brought that on us which is said. and may help him in his enchantments. "R. Revelation 16:13. Secondly. that is. and he answered. I cannot but suspect these two things especially for the cause of it:-First. James the son of Zebedee. By which name our apostle is also called. R. and unclean spirits. and Andrew his brother. now also arrived to the very top of those curses which are recited. Simon.] this also was no strange name among the Talmudists. but the very first assistance.14. that the demon of the burial-place may love him. James. did even affect devils and invited them to dwell with them. saith he. He is a necromancer who mortifies himself with hunger. Eliezer inquired of R. 2. When R. The first. By a more particular name yet. Let these words be taken notice of. Deuteronomy 18:11. are diabolical spirits in false prophets. That the Jewish people. Does the unclean spirit. but he answered him not. the Spirit of purity.] Christ changed the names of three disciples with whom he held more inward familiarity. or Petrosus. and goes and lodges a-nights among the burying-places for that end. according to the Talmudists concerning this business: "There shall not be with thee a necromancer. Zechariah 13:2. and John. referring to a rock." When I consider with myself that numberless number of demoniacs which the evangelists mention. and the Old Testament produceth hardly one or two examples.are called unclean spirits that by a clearer antithesis they might be opposed to the Holy Spirit. 'Your sins separate between you and your God?'" Where the Gloss thus. now arriving to the very top of impiety. Now the names of the twelve apostles are these. Simon was called by him Peter. Acts 15:14. because he should contribute not only very much assistance to the church that was to be built on a rock. Andrew Bar . Simon concerning a certain thing. that the unclean spirit may come upon him? Much more would the Holy Spirit come upon him that fasts for that end. and so first let in the gospel among the Gentiles. Eliezer was enraged that R. that the Holy Spirit might come upon him. Leviticus 26 and Deuteronomy 28. More particularly the unclean spirit. and John his brother. Akibah read that verse he wept. Simeon answered him not. That the nation. But what shall I do. beyond measure addicted to magical arts. Of which matter afterward. He inquired of R. "That the unclean spirit dwell upon him: that is. Simon. the keys being committed to him. when. that the unclean spirit may dwell upon him.] Simon is a name very usual among the Talmudists for Simeon.

"What is Iskortja? Bar Bar Channah answered. Jose the son of Thaddeus. and Matthew the publican. and Judas Iscariot. and some of a certain kind of clothing. who also betrayed him.. [Lebbeus.] It may be inquired whether this name was given him while he was alive. Or what if he used the art of a tanner before he was chose into discipleship? Certainly we read of one Simon a tanner.] Thaddai was a name known also to the Talmudists: R. But now in such aprons they had purses sewn. See who are called Zealots in Josephus."These are garments. "A leathern apron that tanners put on over their clothes. which sufficiently appears from hence..] In Luke it is Zealot. Acts 9:43. whose surname was Thaddaeus: [Bartholomew. some. either to sound Alphai. And hence.] Compare the order wherein the disciples are called (John 1) with the order wherein they are for the most part reckoned. Luke 24. who was the father of four apostles.which we shall also observe presently. a sea-coast town of Galilee: of which Pliny speaks. by John is called. "Mary the wife of Cleopas. that is. A Tanner's garment" The Gloss is. as you may see in Aruch. which is written also Iskortja: where. Philip. [Iscariot. whose surname was Thaddeus. heretofore called Ecbatana: near by Getta Lebba. [Simon the Canaanite. Tolmi. perhaps you would do him no more wrong than you would do his brother Matthew. we are taught these things.Chinna. and Bartholomew." Mark 15:40." &c.] The name occurs also in the Talmudists: a word that may admit a doubt pronunciation.. Judas had that title of the purse-bearer. while the discourse is of a man vowing that he would not use this or that garment. and Lebbaeus. Hence that Alpheus. and in the mountain a town of the same name. if you should say this Simon was before his conversion. Thomas. Eliezer Ben Thaddeus. that she who is called "Mary. If while he was alive. or not till after his death." John 19:25. And Tholomaeus occurs in Josephus." The Gemara asketh. the mother of James the Less. it may be. Simon the Canaanite. I suppose. namely. [Of Alpheus. from the town Lebba. as he was called Judas with the apron. 3. "The promontory Carmel. 4. the son of Talmai: for the Greek interpreters render Talmai. It is a warping of the name Judas.. in which they were wont to carry their money. . is also called Cleopas. or Cleophi. that this apostle might be the better distinguished from Iscariot. John 12:4. James the son of Alphaeus. and Joses.. of leather." So that Judas Iscariot may perhaps signify as much as Judas with the apron. and that this Judas was the son of Simon. and you will find Bartholomew falling in at the same place with Nathanael: so that one may think he was the same with him: called Nathanael by his own name. and Bartholomew by his father's. Of whose sect. one may not improperly derive it from Skortja. when you should say that he was a publican. 2 Samuel 13:37. He was called Lebbeus.

and the alliance of the nations.' [Who also betrayed him. Go not into the way of the Gentiles.. enter ye not. See the Gemara there. either as to his person. the quinsy. Very many among them were sprung. The Samaritans vaunted themselves sons of the patriarch Jacob. I should suppose it derived from Iscara: which word what it signifies. they embraced also the law of Moses. expected the Messias as well as the Jews: nevertheless. when. Psalm 68:21." Where the Gloss is. to be commonly styled Judas Iscariot. and make the same language not the same. let the Gemarists speak: "Nine hundred and three kinds of death were created in the world. or 'that Judas that perished by strangling. no wonder if this infamous death be branded upon his name. Which also. as if they scorned to speak the same words that they did. Nor does he grant the preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles or Samaritans. and the issues of death." Peter spake agreeably to the opinion of the nation. by reason of the nearness of the places. and commanded them.' Numbers 24:25. and ends in the throat. was not altogether distant from the truth). which if a man shake violently behind. Christ acknowledges them for his sheep no more than the heathen themselves." Acts 1:25. may perhaps be observed in their very language. but. and being taught thence. being strangled by the devil (which we observe in its place). saying. I. he went down to hell. and. if I mistake not. as it is said. they could not but make use of the language of the Jews. and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: [Into any city of the Samaritans. "The Iscara is like to branches of thorns in a fleece of wool. II. of the seed of Jacob. For read the Samaritan version of the Pentateuch. until they alienated and lost them by their own perverseness and sins. and hating them more than if they were heathens.. or as to his goods." &c. before it was offered to the Jewish nation. yet used such a variation and change of the dialect. "He went unto his own place. John 4:12 (which. And so doth Baal Turim concerning Balaam." It is thus defined in the Gloss. you will observe that the Samaritans. The word issues arithmetically ariseth to that number. that is (saith he). By learned men for the most part it is rendered angina.] Our Saviour would have the Jews' privileges reserved to them. in so different a writing of the words. among other things. "And whosoever shall so betray an Israelite shall have no part in the world to come. In like manner they received the Mosaic law.] Let that of Maimonides be observed: "It is forbidden to betray an Israelite into the hands of the heathen. Iscara is the roughest death.But if he were not branded with this title till after his death. indeed. and more than they would do heathens. when he said concerning Judas. that they seem plainly to have propounded this to . The Gemara sets out the roughness of it by this simile. 'Iscara' in the mother-tongue is estrangulament. indeed. Among all those kinds. though now become renegades and apostates from the Jewish faith and nation." 5. "'Balaam went to his place. for the most part. 'The Iscara' begins in the bowels. it is impossible but the wool will be pulled off by them. When Judas therefore perished by a most miserable strangling. These twelve Jesus sent forth.

but the conclusion. Compare Acts 8:9 with John 4:41. Ismael Ben R. which is asserted by Rabbi. Coming back. in truth. to which the more religious added also the book of the law.. [In your purses. Josi went to Neapolis [that is. and that they might not otherwise prove an offence to that nation. the city of palm-trees: and when one of them fell sick by the way. there was little or no difference between them and idolaters. so that they kept something to the sense. but the idols which are under it: for it is written.' said she. Sychem]: the Samaritans came to him. but set themselves against it with the greatest hatred. Let no man enter into the mount of the Temple with his staff. which is near Sychem. Which words are thus rendered by the Gemara: "Let no man enter into the mount of the . &c. The metropolis of the Samaritans laboured under a second apostasy. which are forbidden the disciples by our Saviour.Let the Samaritan text at Deuteronomy 11:30 be looked upon. is sufficiently for the affirmative. and to preserve the privileges of the Jews safe. with pockets to hold money and necessaries. "Some Levites travelled to Zoar.an inner garment. 'I said to the scribes of the Samaritans. Simeon said. nor with his shoes. or for a people more execrable than the heathens themselves. which was in his hand. "R. when they knew not what they worshipped. However they pretended to study the religion of Moses. John 4:22: and had not only revolved as apostates from the true religion of Moses. That also is worthy mention.'" And a little after. Ye have falsified your law without any manner of profit accruing to you thereby. Jacob hid the strange gods under the wood. nor with dust on his feet. 9. they would hold it under as much difference from the Mosaic text of the Jews as ever they could. For ye have written in your law. nor silver. near the oaken groves of Moreh. yet.themselves. the Samaritans are made parallel to the heathen.] these things.'" It is disputed whether a Cuthite ought to be reckoned for a heathen.. in the Gemara is. indeed. IV. after the receiving of the gospel from the mouth of our Saviour himself. and with good reason for the thing itself. and his purse.. So the Babylonian Misna: but the Jerusalem adds also shoes: and instead of that which in the Misna is his purse. they brought him to an inn. Eliezer Ben R. 'and I have buried him.. From all these particulars..'" &c. nor brass in your purses. she brought forth to them his staff. Hence the Jewish nation held them for heathens. being brought to it by the deceit and witchcraft of Simon Magus. which is Sychem. 'I see that you adore not this mountain. nor with his purse. III. 'He is dead. they inquired of the hostess concerning their companion. were the ordinary provision of travellers. and the book of the law. that retaining indeed the law of Moses. which our Saviour objects against them. A certain Rabbin thus reproaches their idolatry: "R. Provide neither gold. denied by Simeon. to whom he spake thus. and as distant as they from partaking of the gospel.

a sandal of harder. is right." [Neither shoes.. nor with his shoes upon his feet. There were sandals also. how far it is lawful to wash garments on the common days of a festival-week. in the place just now cited: "In . and I saw there a certain elder." Where the Gloss thus: 'Ponditho' is a hollow girdle [or a hollow belt]. and more for service. and these were fastened together by nails. A proselyte is brought in thus speaking. "It is lawful for him that hath one coat only." It is disputed by the Babylonian Talmudists. it appears that the evangelists put no difference between shoes and sandals as Erasmus hath rightly observed. "If an Israelite approaching to the holy things shall die. neither two coats. Meir say. 'Are you well acquainted with R.Temple. it is not right. [Nor scrip for your journey. and I said to him. I went to Nisibin. Rabh Judah say.' let them not hearken to him.' I said. as also from Acts 12:8. a more plentiful. 'O Rabbi.] The Syriac version reads." Let the Jewish schools be heard in this matter: "The pulling off of the shoe [of the husband's brother. A shoe was of softer leather. and should say." "R. 10. nor with money bound up in his linen. and Ponda. If Elias should come. sufficiently appears from these very places. neither with his staff in his hand. There were some sandals also made of rushes. let them hearken to him': if he should say. &c. who comes with his staff and his pouch!" [Nor two coats. say I. They do not put off the shoe? Rabbi Ba. nor yet staves: for the workman is worthy of his meat. Shoes were of more delicate use. 'They pull off the shoe of the husband's brother. the upper of leather. in which they put up their money. Deuteronomy 25:9] is right: and of the sandal if it hath a heel. Josi saith. neither shoes. Nor scrip for your journey. 'They pull off the sandal. Another difference also between shoes and sandals is illustrated by a notable story in the tract Schabbath. shoe or sandal?' He answered.] That shoes are here to be understood. the custom is to pull off the sandal: and custom prevails against tradition. let him impart to him that hath none. and not sandals. whose sole. and the conclusion is.. Luke 3:11. sandals were more ordinary. 'Did you ever see him putting off the shoe? What did he put off. No purse. not without wonder: "But then from this place (saith he). "He that hath two coats. Judah Ben Betira?' And he answered.] A single coat bespake a meaner condition. but if not. The contrary to which I read in Beza. and he came to my table very often. did R. And yet. was of wood." See more there. or lower part. and in the Babylonian tract Jevamoth. to wash it. Hence is that counsel of the Baptist. how much more a stranger. or of the bark of palm-trees. &c. appears from Mark 6:9: and that there was a difference between these. a double. are there sandals among us?' Whence therefore. 'I am a money changer in my city. in the name of Rabh. for the most part. nor with a purse hanging on his back. See the Aruch in Aponda.

and provision in the scrip.a certain time of persecution. "The dust of Syria defiles. which part was without the bounds of the land of Israel: he said to him." The Gloss is. inquire who in it is worthy." &c. let him enter. which he hints in the last clause of this verse. [Who in it is worthy. they said among themselves. lest. Two coats and shoes are forbidden them. who deserves. 14. Jeremiah saith. clothing. together with the herbs." "Rabbi saw a certain priest standing in a part of the city Aco. "Freely ye have received.] In the Talmudic language. so that one might put in his foot either before or behind: but he putting on his the wrong way. "They take care. and so their hiding-place was discovered to the enemies. "Because it may be doubted of all the dust of a heathen land. that they might not at all affect pride or worldly pomp. that the enemies see him not: but let none go out. something of the dust of the heathen land be brought." "A tradition-writer saith. for perhaps the enemies will be near. therefore." "By reason of six doubts. Money therefore in the girdle. they burn the truma: the doubt of a field. for he will look about him before he enters. were forbidden the disciples by Christ.' What difference is there between these? R.' One of them by chance put on his sandals the wrong way: for sandals were open both ways. when some were hidden in a cave. shake off the dust of your feet. that they might not be careful for temporal things. the doubt of dust brought from a heathen land. and other necessaries for the preaching of the gospel. his footsteps. freely give." &c. in which heretofore might be a sepulchre. 'Is not that heathen land .] The schools of the scribes taught that the dust of the heathen land defiled by the touch. [Shake off the dust of your feet. or to make themselves fine. but rather." That. The care of their dust is among them." forbade them to preach the gospel for gain: but he forbade not to take food. 'They bring not herbs into the land of Israel out of a heathen land: but our Rabbins have permitted it. when he went out. which defiles in the tent. whom he sees not when he goes out. that their habit and guise might bespeak the greatest humility. whether it were not from the sepulchre of the dead. nor hear your words. and defiles the purity of the land of Israel. 11. first. secondly. they ought to live of the gospel. and so all will be discovered. And whosoever shall not receive you. as well as the dust of other heathen countries. "The workman is worthy of his hire. And into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter. but resign themselves wholly to the care of Christ. seemed as if he went in. 'He that will enter. Where the Gloss is this. and there abide till ye go thence. which he had said before. when ye depart out of that house or city.

But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the councils. the men of the house of judgment &c. "and he may send Jesus Christ first preached to you. as men in these forms of speech. In every synagogue there was a civil triumvirate. speaks thus much. "When I neither find synagogues elsewhere to have their names from houses of judgment. for a heathen." &c.] See chapter 12:24.. "Repent ye therefore. So that fivefold scourging of St. such as was in every synagogue. Paul (2 Cor 11:24) was in the synagogue. profane.20. that is. 23. It is something obscure that is said. impure city. &c. as he does very often when he cannot explain a case.. By that bench of three magistrates. and. that ye esteem that city." But without any cause. II.concerning which they have determined that it is as unclean as a burying-place?'" Therefore that rite of shaking the dust off the feet. "To you first God. nor that civil punishments were taken in synagogues. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub.] "Ye shall not have travelled through the cities of Israel preaching the gospel. who judged of matters in contest arising within that synagogue. But when they persecute you in this city. sent him to bless you. "Wheresoever a city of Israel shall not receive you. Of whom else should they beware? But perhaps the word men may occur in that sense." 17. that the times of refreshment may come" (for ye expect refreshment and consolation under the Messias). . [Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel. that your sins may be blotted out. for. till the Son of man be come. and they will scourge you in their synagogues. I suspect this place. abhor it. It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master. how much more shall they call them of his household? [Beelzebub. before the Son of man is revealed by his resurrection. and be converted. suspects it: for thus he writes. The epoch of the Messias is dated from the resurrection of Christ." (Romans 1:4." And verse 26. Lay to this Acts 3:19. raising up his Son. flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you. when ye depart. Scourging was by that bench of three. that is.. which we have noted before. I.] Beza here. [They shall scourge you in their synagogues. But beware of men. as the Hebrews speak. But we will not contend about it. as such. by shaking off the dust from your feet. and the servant as his lord. commanded the disciples. 25. shew. however a city of Israel. and. Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel.the men of the great assembly. three magistrates.

that speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear. Go whisper her that it is the day of Expiation. &c. "Therefore Rabbis said. In that generation. and the inhabitants of the earth [the Gloss is 'the Sanhedrim'] shall wander from city to city. [Preach ye upon the housetops. namely. and you will wonder to observe the nation conspiring to its own destruction. under their feet. "They said to Judah Bar Nachmani. that they should cease from their works in the fields. 'Forty years was I provoked by this generation. and they that fear to sin shall be despised. when the Son of David shall come.] Although these words may be understood truly of the difference between believers and unbelievers by reason of the gospel. The days of the Messias are forty years. "R. which all interpreters observe. yet they do properly and primarily point out. What I tell you in darkness. "R. and even to a miracle. And secondly. and the faces of that generation shall be like the faces of dogs. Judah saith.] We have observed before. Eliezer saith. they are deservedly become mad who trod the wisdom of God. where the doctor whispered." The Gloss is. she was satisfied and at quiet. "To tell out the exposition to the synagogue. The doctor whispered him in the ear in Hebrew. Gablan shall be destroyed. &c. They whispered to her. which longed for the perfumed flesh. the third. and he with a loud voice repeated to the whole school that which was spoken in the ear. such as no other age ever saw. This phrensy certainly was sent upon them from heaven.] Perhaps allusion is made to that custom when the minister of the synagogue on the sabbath-eve sounded with a trumpet six times upon the roof of an exceeding high house. that they should cease from theirs in the city. [Think not that I am come to send peace." We cannot here but repeat that which we produced before. as it is said. to a certain woman with child. and truth shall fail. nor story heard. but a sword. And first. out of the chair.27. Run over the history of these forty years. &c. and shall not obtain pity. that preach ye upon the housetops. and rejoicing in the slaughters and spoils of one another beyond all example. of speaking in the synagogue in an unknown tongue. that they should light the sabbath candle.'" And again. Galilee shall be laid waste. from the death of Christ to the destruction of Jerusalem (as they are vulgarly computed). The first sound was. 34. that allusion is here made to the manner of the schools. could not . the schools shall be harlots. Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace. that thence all might have notice of the coming in of the sabbath. bringing the good tidings of peace. and she was whispered": that is. as much as they could. into the ear of the interpreter. those horrid slaughters and civil wars of the Jews among themselves. We read of whispering in the ear done in another sense. the wisdom of the scribes shall stink. And we cannot but suspect that that custom in the church of Corinth which the apostle reproves. [What ye hear in the ear. which he shall whisper to you. the second. were some footsteps of this custom. Do you stand for his expositor. the blood of the prophets and of Christ. the interpreter of Resh Lachish. as it were with the finger.

'By your life. from the affinity of the word Shammatha. to be a word framed by the scholars of Hillel. used for a scholar of Shammai: which I almost suspect. whence is that rage of your nation towards the destruction of one another. to visit him: that was a woeful day. I went aside to recite the phylacteries. and kicked against him: when he saw himself in danger. but the certain decision of the matter is according to the decrees of the school of Hillel. He that reckons up the difference. like the day wherein the golden calf was made. The enemies saw him.'" Thus. O Jew. according to the rite of the school of Shammai. in the Jerusalem Gemarists. the doctors of the nation . but the hatreds and spites were not so ended.' saith he. whosoever shall transgress the decrees of the school of Hillel is guilty of death." They dream they were determined by a voice from heaven. contentions. unto their own ruin? Acknowledge the Divine vengeance in thy madness. are the words of the living God. and the rest stood there present with swords and spears. and spake thus. The scholars of Shammai stood below.' They said to him. I cannot but suspect snares were daily laid by one another. Tarphon went down to eat figs of his own. At last the Bath Kol came forth. but certainly the quarrels and bitternesses were not at all decided.be expiated by a less vengeance. 'carry word unto the house of Tarphon. and slew some of the scholars of Hillel. Tarphon's being in danger by robbers. "Before the Bath Kol [in Jabneh] went forth. will meet with no less between the scholars of Shammai and Hillel. because in some things he followed the custom and manner of the school of Shammai. according to the school of Shammai. 'The words.' And from thenceforth. That six of them went up. The tradition is. as if they were struck with a phrensy from heaven. or those of the school of Shammai. which increased to that degree. "The scholars of Shammai and Hillel came to the chamber of Chananiah Ben Ezekiah Ben Garon.'" This is wanting in the Jerusalem Misna. in hate. it was lawful equally to embrace either the decrees of the school of Hillel. and deservedly too. 'Because thou hast transgressed the words of the school of Hillel. ignominy. more than that which befell thee from men. And when I read more than once of R. the word Shamothi. "R. both of the one party and the other. that "Elias the Tishbite himself could not decide the controversies between the scholars of Hillel and the scholars of Shammai. "R. and broils of the nation. and hostile treacheries continually watching to do each other mischief. after the dissension betwixt the Pharisees and the Sadducees." And thus the controversy was decided. Tell me. I observe. and I was in danger of thieves." It passed into a common proverb. which signifies Anathema. 'As I was travelling on the way. Tarphon saith. and reproach of those of Shammai. and those monsters of madness beyond all examples? Does the nation rave for nothing. that at last it came to slaughter and blood. that graveclothes be made ready for him.

To these may be added those fearful outrages." And the words of our Saviour. zealots. John therefore seems in this matter to respect his own imprisonment." &c. is greater than he. tends to that." The Vulgar version renders well the word less. concerning whose triumphing the prophets declare so much. what ever did? Chapter 11 3. And why. stuck with the good man. devastations of robbers. and amazing cruelties. "As to the present case of John. who expects somebody to come to deliver him out of bonds. indeed. He had heard that miracles of all sorts were done by him. as it seems. 'The blind receive their sight. whosoever shall not be offended in me. and triumphs: from which how distant (alas!) was this. Let him (saith he) acquiesce in my divine dispensation. and butcheries. therefore. Secondly. and when he had again and again most evidently borne witness to him. That it was not because he knew not Christ. And if these things do not savour of the divine wrath and vengeance. the disciples were most unworthy of such a master. which he hath expected to fall out. the dead were raised. is not John set at liberty? This scruple.' however all things are not according to his mind. that his forerunner and the chief minister should lie in chains! 'If thou art he. or do we look for another? [Art thou he that should come. verse 11. "He that is less in the kingdom of heaven. these things which I do bear witness. among all the rest." &c. Art thou he that should come. cut-throats. for his present and bodily advantage. and that his question. Nor was that message certainly. and to free the people from the yoke of men.'" &c. or do we look for another?] The reason of the message of John to Christ is something obscure: First. when he had been fully instructed from heaven concerning his person. but only I?' Perhaps he laboured under that dim-sightedness which the disciples of Christ and the whole nation did concerning his earthly kingdom. victories. as animosities. spoils. "Art thou he which should come. murders. Thirdly. "When ye went out into the desert to John. and. is without all controversy. why am I so long detained in prison? Art thou he. 'Why do all receive benefit and comfort from Christ.rage one against another. Secondly. in those words. or is another to be expected. and from their very schools and chairs flow not so much doctrines. when he taught them concerning him. when he was baptized. seem to express some secret reproof of this error in John. &c. slaughters. from whom these things are to be looked for?' First. beyond all example. jarrings. that the disciples of John might receive satisfaction about the person of Christ: for. "That I am he that should come. 'Blessed is he. if they should not believe him without further argument. not least: as if he should say. ye neither looked for trifles nor earthly pomp. the lame walk. "This is the Lamb of God. And said unto him. that the blind received their sight. devils were cast out. .

That he was a very eminent prophet. which was for to come. 14. according to the universal conceit of the nation. had not hardened themselves to such a degree of madness and obstinacy as you have done: but had turned from their heathenism and Canaanitism unto the knowledge . I pray. See the notes on chapter 17:10.] He compares the cities of the Jews with the cities of the Canaanites. And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence. [The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence. honoured in this above all others.] If ye will receive it. or in any of them? but in respect of clear and distinct knowledge. in respect of office. of men.neither 'a reed shaken with the wind. Upon what ground some Christians are of the same opinion. nay. but ye looked in good earnest for a prophet: and in that ye did very well. of a cursed seed and name. that conversed a long time with him. in judging of the nature and quality of the kingdom of heaven. witnesseth also. and what our Saviour saith of both. or in respect of eternal salvation. this is Elias. when you shall have observed how the disciples of Christ themselves. 12. [If ye will receive it. they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. the kingdom of heaven took its beginning. or in respect of dignity. howbeit. and of no ordinary mission or authority. in this very thing. which were done in you. as if they would take and seize upon the kingdom by violence. these things evince. The words hint some suspicion. [In Tyre and Sidon. indeed. as to his office. exceeded the Baptist in all these. "but yet these cities. The divine warmth of the people in betaking themselves thither by such numberless crowds. that they would not receive his doctrine. let themselves look to it. Let the austerity of John's life. Bethsaida! for if the mighty works. be well considered. for he was the greatest of prophets. that Elias is personally to come. there are some. And you will the more easily give credit to this. and the violent take it by force." A comparison certainly is not here made. which the obstinate expectation of that nation unto this very day. that he is the forerunner of the Messias. And if ye will receive it. either in respect of office.] And these words also make for the praise of John. and with so exceeding a zeal. or in respect of holiness. if they had been partakers of the miracles done among you. likewise. are much less than he in the kingdom of heaven. that from his preaching. 21. who yet are greater than he in respect of the knowledge of the state and condition of his kingdom. had been done in Tyre and Sidon. not so clearly distinguishing concerning the nature of the kingdom and redemption of Christ. and it was so crowded into by infinite multitudes. Woe unto thee. which. this is Elias. expected temporal redemption by the Messias. who were of a cursed original.' nor 'a man clothed in soft raiment'. for who. or in the commonwealth of Christ. and the very frequent fasts which he enjoined his disciples. and you will easily believe that John also. Chorazin! woe unto thee. sufficiently argued the divine worth both of the teacher and of his doctrine. were dim-sighted.

12 Bible:Matt. Hence the Seventy. beseeching a blessing upon the new corn. had betook themselves to such a repentance as would have prevented vengeance.] The time is determined by Luke in these words. The most horrid stiffness of the Jews is here intimated. yet it was such as preserved them.13 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 12. I. Leviticus 23:10. [At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn. the offering of the sheaf was supplicatory. the morrow of the first day. and leave to eat it. that the sheaf of firstfruits should be offered on the second day of the Passover-week. and was numbered seven weeks after it.] In the day of judgment: and In the day of the great judgment: a form of speech very usual among the Jews. of all cursed wretches the most cursed. Not on the morrow after the ordinary sabbath of the week. wherein the sheaf was offered. 22.11: On the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall shake [orwave] it. Take my yoke upon you. II. For the day of the sheaf and the day of Pentecost did mutually respect each other. the harvest ended: this depended on that. the harvest beginning." So the repentance of the Ninevites. 29. these two solemnities were linked together. [My yoke. on the morrow after the first day of the Passover-feast: of which mention had been made in the verses foregoing. But I say unto you. and freed their city from the wrath and scourge that hung over them. Now the offering of the first fruit loaves on the day of Pentecost (Lev 23:15-17) did respect the giving of thanks for the finishing and inning of barley harvest. Leviticus 23:7.|Matt|13|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. For on this second day of the Passover. and by way of prayer. But now. the computation of the time coming between could . and his disciples were a hungered. The Rabbins Solomon and Menachem. and learn of me.13" /> 1. for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. from that second day of the Passover-solemnity. this. on the sabbath from the second-first. of all impious men the most impious. that both might respect the harvest: that. and to eat. Therefore. Exodus 12:16. Chapters 12. after the holy-day. at least. 13" parsed="|Matt|12|0|0| 0. and began to pluck the ears of corn. than for you. [At the day of judgment. in regard of this relation. were numbered seven weeks to Pentecost. At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn. Provision was made by the divine law. and to put in the sickle into the standing corn. or.of the gospel. but the morrow after the first day of the Passover week. the Chaldee. Therefore.] So The yoke of the law: The yoke of the precept: The yoke of the kingdom of heaven. It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment. however it were not to salvation. which was a sabbatic day.

"The first rain was the seventeenth day of the month Marchesvan. and so. was not broken. but. I. Luke. Secondly. Therefore by this word the second-first. but that which was sown at the second rain. the three-and-twentieth day of the same month. And even the poor themselves who live on alms. This is the second sabbath after that second day. and from the war of Gog and Magog." III. In the Jerusalem Talmud. savouring of the kitchen and the dish. therefore. alas! from those dainties wherewith the Jews are wont to junket. For we must live more delicately on the sabbath than on other days: and he is highly to be commended who provides the most delicious junkets against that day." 'Whose god is their belly. it became ripe: so that from that time (the sheaf being then offered) barley-harvest took its beginning.' Philippians 3:19. and all men are to be admonished of it. The seed-time of barley was presently after the middle of the month Marchesvan. When. that which was sown at the first rain was now become somewhat stiff.: and when the seed of all others perished with the hail. that is. added by St. he went and sowed at the second rain. and hence Pentecost is called the 'Feast of weeks' (Deut 16:10). &c. the rain came down. that these ears of corn plucked by the disciples were of barley: how far." At the end of the Midrash of Samuel which I have. the calculation began on the day of the sheaf: "A great number of certain scholars died between the Passover and Pentecost. from the judgment of hell. in winter. men are bound to delight themselves with meat and drink." Upon which words the Gloss writes thus. and so it was broken by the hail. is shown. But was the standing corn ripe at the feast of the Passover? I answer. not out of custom only. IV. When they numbered by days. but out of religion also! Hear their Gloss. "to fast on the sabbath. and growing by the mildness of the weather. Therefore the barley was sown at the coming in of the winter. is a composition not very unlike. his seed perished not. . when the Passover came in. let them eat thrice on the sabbath.not but carry with it the memory of that second day of the Passover-week. first. or the sabbath next after it. the second rain. by reason of mutual respect not given to one another. about the beginning of our November: "He heard that the seed sown at the first rain was destroyed by hail. the word the sabbath of the first marriage. according to the order of evangelic history. For he that feasts thrice on the sabbath shall be delivered from the calamities of the Messias. chapter 58:13: "'Thou shalt call the sabbath a delight':--It is forbidden. it is thus concluded. and the third was in the beginning of the month Chisleu. by reason of its tenderness. thirty-three days after the sheaf. There is a place where it is said that they died fifteen days before Pentecost. and not by weeks. upon that of the prophet Isaiah. We must eat thrice on the sabbath. John 5. either that very sabbath wherein the paralytic man was healed at the pool of Bethesda. &c. that this first sabbath was after the second day of the Passover. "This work was finished the three-and-thirtieth day after the sheaf. And so of the rest. that is." say they. The true calculation of the time between could not otherwise be retained as to sabbaths. on the contrary. but by numbering thus: This is the first sabbath after the second day of the Passover.

and they make that Nisan the second Adar. which suffered none. to reap. at the beginning of chapter 7. or beyond that. before he had said his prayers in the synagogue. hunger compelling them." &c. and that in the afternoon. returning home from his work in the evening. 2. "He that reaps on the sabbath. he is bound to bring a sacrifice for sin. because it was lawful. and they waited until it ripened: "For." But under what guilt were they held? He had said this before. to thrash. For the elders of the Sanhedrim do compute and observe if the vernal equinox will fall out on the sixteenth day of the month Nisan. and plucking the ears of corn is of the same nature with reaping. let him that is at leisure read Peah. then they intercalate that year. our brethren in Judea and Galilee. to taste any thing on the sabbath before the morning prayers of the synagogue were done. so that the Passover might happen at the time of new corn. under the name of a reaper. to sift.] They do not contend about the thing itself. [They do that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath day. Deuteronomy 23:25. Concerning which the Fathers of the Traditions write thus. And on common days also. Our Saviour. the barley were not ripe. is guilty. And to pluck the ears of corn is a kind of reaping. or the particulars of those generals. if so be it could be proved that they had done it presumptuously. are such as are of the same rank and likeness with them. thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day. though never so little. chopping of herbs is of the same rank with grinding. "That none. and that the trees sprouted not when they were wont to sprout. to gather the sheaves. From hence. are either primitive or derivative" Of 'primitive. not out of any contempt of the laws. either eat. . therefore. and there is no young corn. &c. to dye wool. for the equinox." &c. then they intercalate the year. or drink.] The custom of the nation.' or of the general kinds of works. provision was made by the canons. and for the fruit of the trees. to sow. are nine-andthirty reckoned.2." Of the public or private ways that lay by the corn-fields. because now their lives were in danger. You have an example of this thing: "Rabban Gamaliel to the elders of the great Sanhedrim. [And his disciples were an hungered. he begins their defence. chapter 2. for the new corn. they said unto him. and the doves are not fledged. unless he were sick. to shear sheep. &c. if he do them presumptuously. that this was done by the disciples out of necessity. "To plough.. but if ignorantly. the intercalary month was added to that year. therefore. to grind. For example. for three things they intercalated the year. had held them fasting. and whosoever plucks any thing from the springing of his own fruit is guilty. or sleep.. in these words: "The works whereby a man is guilty of stoning and cutting off. Be it known unto you. But when the Pharisees saw it." &c. as yet. for the canons of the scribes adjudged them to stoning for what they had done. but about the thing done on the sabbath. digging is of the same kind with ploughing. when the just time of the Passover was come. pleaded the cause of the disciples so much the more eagerly. Behold. that since the lambs are too young. to bake. But if. The derivative works. we have thought good to add thirty days to this year. Or if they observe that there is no new corn. health.

5. therefore. I should." These words do excellently agree with the force of our Saviour's arguments. that he had brought but a very few of his most trusty servants along with him. even in the common way." And a little after. or when the sabbath was but newly gone. and murder. when another loaf is not present with you to give us. It is a small thing to say. David. that is. on the sabbath and the going-out of the sabbath. say. render it otherwise. that it is no improbable conjecture that David came to Nob either on the sabbath itself. but as one that came to inquire at the oracle concerning the event of war. and as yet had detained him there." And to this sense perhaps does that come: "But there was there one of the servants of Saul detained that day before the Lord. but with the genuine sense of that clause. not as one that fled. comparatively to that noble train wherewith thou wast wont to go attended. "and the vessels of the young men were holy. while we travelled in the common manner and journey]. when he was a hungered. Or have ye not read in the law. of blessed memory. and which becomes the captain-general of Israel. unto which he pretended to come by the king's command. "For the show-bread was not to be eaten unless for one day and one night. The reverence of the sabbath had brought him to worship." [so that there is no uncleanness with us from the touch of a menstruous woman]. and that he had turned aside thither to worship God.3." And now I render David's words thus. "therefore. for it would be lawful to eat this very loaf which is now set on. "Women have been kept from us these three days. yea. though it were sanctified this day in the vessel [v 6] is this.] "The servile work which is done in the holy things is not servile. [David. The same works which were done in the Temple on the other days were done also on the sabbath. only prefacing this beforehand. he asketh a few loaves. and they that were with him. that he hastened to the war. producing the opinion of the ancients concerning this story in these words: "Our Rabbins. and we are so hungerbitten. and are guiltless. Dissembling. how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath. "Wherefore art thou alone. [When he was an hungered. The interpretation also of the clause. and to inquire of the vent.] For those words of Ahimelech are to be understood comparatively. it would be lawful to eat even this. therefore." [that is." [v 8]. much more are they holy as to their vessels this [sabbath] day. for whom. came thither in the going-out of the sabbath. and are blameless? [The priests in the Temple profane the sabbath. that he gave him the show-bread. Have ye not read what David did. being an hungered. But he said unto them. that it is lawful for us to eat these loaves taken from before the Lord when we are hungry. and those that were with him. &c." And There is no sabbatism at all in the Temple. "There is nothing which may hinder taking care of life.] Here hearken to Kimchi. adultery. and no man with thee?" (1 Sam 21:1) that is. which is also sanctified in the vessel (for the table sanctifieth). methinks they do not well agree. . under correction. beside idolatry. David came to Nob. he dissembles likewise that he sent his army to a certain place. or to expedite some warlike design.

and to the fall of man. After his fall. What the seventh? The sabbath. [For the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath. that is. but according as the condition of Adam was changed. for his own honour and the benefit of man. "Adam was created on the sabbath-eve. the Son. a new and positive law concerning the keeping the sabbath was superinduced upon him. when Adam's sin was forgiven: and when the sabbath entered. Since. and was his advocate with God. and more backwards yet." III.8. and as the condition of the sabbath was not a little changed also. therefore. and that by a law and condition which had a regard to Christ now promised. that although the seventh day was not come before his fall. "and the sabbath. according to his double condition: 1. Before his fall. What the second? The firmament. under a positive law. that he. John 5. yet the institution of the sabbath is mentioned before the history of his fall. among other things. the sabbath could not but come under the power and dominion of the Son of man. For when he had sinned on the sixth day. And here it is not unworthy to be observed. thus Midrash Tillin: "What did God create the first day? Heaven and earth. to be ordered and disposed by him as he thought good. that he might immediately be put under the command." saith R. "Adam was created on the eve of the sabbath: the sabbath entered when he had now sinned. of the promised seed. . and as he should make provision." Yea." Yea. because they observed circumcision and the sabbath-day. Judah. he opened his mouth and uttered the psalm of the sabbath. And since God had not created the sabbath for servile works. if he had remained innocent.'" And a little after. power. and dignity." So also the Targum upon the title of Psalm 92: "The psalm or song which Adam composed concerning the sabbathday.] I. under the law of nature written in his heart: under which he had kept the sabbath. the sabbath was so instituted after the fall. or on the sabbath next before. and further backward still: "The inheritance of Jacob is promised to those that sanctify the sabbath. he shews his dominion over the sabbath from this very thing. because he sanctified the sabbath himself. even to the beginning of the world: "The first psalm in the world was. The care of the sabbath lay upon the first Adam under a double law. was invested and honoured with the same authority. It will not be unpleasant to produce a few passages from the Jewish masters of that first sabbath:-"Circumcision. therefore it is not said of that as of the other days." Upon which psalm. &c. When he was summoned into the court concerning his healing the paralytic man on this very sabbath. 2. for which he had created the other days of the week. as the Father was in regard of the Old. For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day. 'And the evening and the morning was the seventh day. were before the law. He opposed this very argument against their cavils before the Sanhedrim. in respect of the administration of the New Testament." But how much backward before the law? Hear Baal Turim: "The Israelites were redeemed (saith he) out of Egypt. and the seventh came. II. he was not now bound under the bare law of nature to celebrate it." &c.

yet they afforded them an occasion of cavilling: who. so it be not oil of roses. but if he do this to make his mouth sweet. Joshua saith. and lift it out? [If a sheep fall into a ditch on the sabbath days. Matthew 13:13. nor only to shun popular applause. were sworn together thus to quarrel him. not that he refused to heal the sick. He that hath a sore throat. "Let not those that are in health use physic on the sabbath day. &c. what diseases they judge dangerous. let [the owner] bring him food in that place if he can." To which sense he speaks. And they asked him." &c. 'Let him lift up the former.' R. What man shall there be among you. but with oil he may. Hence.] It was a canon. &c. Let no man chew mastich. [Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days?] These are not so much the words of inquirers. with the intention of killing him. lest he die in that place. "This certainly obtains. or his foal. as deniers. They do not put wine into a sore eye." He would not be known by them who would not know him. We must take a tender care of the goods of an Israelite. Lazar saith. or into a pool of waters. R." &c. that whatsoever was possible to be done on the sabbath eve driveth not away the sabbath. fall into a ditch on a holy-day.'" 16. They do not apply fomentations or oils to the place affected. let him not swallow vinegar to spit it out again. or rub his teeth with spice for a cure. but he may swallow it. and let him kill him: but let him give fodder to the other. although it be not in his mind to kill him. saying. "I speak to them by parables. This prohibition tends the same way as his preaching by parables did. behold. let him come up. Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him. And charged them that they should not make him known: [That they should not make him known. if he be at leisure. there was a man which had his hand withered.] But this. however they were not applicable to the cure wrought by Christ (with a word only). if he can come up. All which things. that canon affording them a further pretence. And he saith unto them. but because he would keep himself hid from those who would not acknowledge him. "If a beast. "If a beast fall into a ditch.10. and what physic is to be used on the sabbath. He that hath the toothache. . let him bring clothes and litter. 11. because seeing they see not. For these were their decisions in that case. let him not gargle it with oil: but he may swallow down the oil. and bear up the beast. anoint the place affected with oil and vinegar. whence. that shall have one sheep. so he swallow it down. 'Let him lift up the former to kill him. Let the reader see. although he kill him not: let him lift up the other also. whence if he receive a cure it is well. but if he cannot. it is allowed. and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day. Let not him that labours under a pain in his loins. indeed. will he not lay hold on it. And. Luke 13:14.

as a menstruous woman pollutes: as it is said. as appears by those that went before. to our Saviour's silent transaction of his own affairs. from whom both he and his suffered such things: and then. and to give them odious names. presently follows. by avenging his cause upon his enemies. and patience. Get thee hence' (Isa 30:22). avenger. silence. in a manner so conspicuous and so dreadful. This fellow doth not cast out devils.] These words are to be applied. poverty. and the Son of God. &c. spake of the Messias. after his ascension. 'Thou shalt cast away the [idol] as something that is menstruous. Akibah saith. poverty." See also the tract Schabbath. without hunting after applause. or the loud reports of fame. R. Lazar saith. That town which sometimes was called Beth-el. and the Jews confess it. Among the Jews it was held. and shewed himself a conqueror before the eyes of all.20. and conqueror. let them call a stink. He shall not make so great a noise as is made from the breaking of a reed now already bruised and half broken. after the mention of that judgment and victory (against the Jews). and smoking flax shall he not quench. against that most wicked nation of the Jews. they said. that that sending forth and execution of judgment against that nation is almost always called in the New Testament "his coming in glory. that he should break forth and show himself a judge. at last he brake forth a revenger. and cut off that persecuting nation. Get thee hence: that which they call the face of God. that is. [By Beelzebub. both while he himself was on earth. for a matter of religion." 24. these things are worthy observing: I. but should manage his affairs in humility. to reproach idols. [Till he send forth judgment unto victory. A bruised reed shall he not break. let them call the face of a dog: that which they call the fountain of a cup. and the cloud of persecution. also. the noise of boasting. and by his apostles. . Thou shalt say to it. Idolatry pollutes." When Christ and his kingdom had so long laid hid under the veil of humility. "He shall bring forth judgment unto truth. how. "and in his name shall the Gentiles trust. or from the hissing of smoking flax only when water is thrown upon it. and thou shalt say to it. Let it be observed in the text before us." and asserted himself the true Messias. "he sent forth judgment unto truth. But when the Pharisees heard it. or noise of pomp.] For the searching out the sense of this horrid blasphemy. let them call the fountain of toil [or of flails]: that which they call fortune. or applause. "R. the prince of the devils." The words in both places mean thus much. or state. both Jews and Gentiles. till he send forth judgment unto victory. and confirmed the truth of the gospel. but at last "he should bring forth judgment to victory".] The Hebrew and LXX in Isaiah read it thus. And hence it is. labouring under contempt. That Christ should make no sound in the world. and persecution. was afterward called Beth-aven. before the eyes of all. but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils. [A bruised reed shall he not break. in a manner. from the Messias of the expectation of the Jews! And yet it appears sufficiently that Isaiah. from whom these words are taken. How far different is the Messias thus described.

the prince of spirits. when the said Joshua fled from the anger and sword of Janneus the king. Cursed be he that sacrifices to a strange god. This demon they called Baal-zebul. We meet with a story. All jeering is forbidden. III. let him say. the foulest. or in idolatry]. horribly blaspheming. except the jeering of idolatry. reproach him and his mother together. in an idol-temple. sounds as much as an adulterous wife. Take your idol. They feign that Jesus travelled with Joshua Ben Perachiah into Egypt. and put it under your buttocks. IV. because they have repented. the demon Asmodeus. there is hope. which we have mentioned at the second chapter. because they have stretched forth their hands in a dunghill: but yet you cannot reject them. and that Matthew so wrote it." II." By Ben Satda. do give out. that they might. or Stada. who dare. as we have said before. 'sacrificing'] to an idol. Among the ignominious names bestowed upon idols. and the worst thing: and they called him the "prince of devils. whom they dishonour by that name. by one word and in one breath. Among all the devils. or a dunghill. Also in the Aruch we meet with these words. by cuttings which he had made in his flesh. that he might not be taken by the Egyptian magicians. because they held idolatry above all other things chiefly wicked and abominable. the prince of the rest. the general and common one was Zebul." Let them therefore. as by one more general and common." And a little after. which the Gemara shews after a few lines. the lord of idolatry: the worst devil. to beget his worship the greater belief and honour. Very many names of evil spirits or devils occur in the Talmudists. "Even to them who have stretched out their hands in a dunghill [that is. and to be the prince and head of evil. and that he brought thence magical witchcrafts with him. they understand Jesus of Nazareth. "Ben Satda brought magic out of Egypt. and. not so much by a proper name. dung. but under the cutting of his flesh. and one that did miracles by the power of the devil. let the reader consult and judge. being taught by these their fathers. Whether it be in this sense. as much as to say. a broacher of strange and wicked worship. For Satda. The Talmudists. Thou canst not bring them [into the church]. "It is lawful for a Jew to say to a Cuthite. that Jesus of Nazareth our Lord was a magician. as it were. "He that sees them 'dunging' [that is.where these same words are. they esteemed that devil the worst." because idolatry is the prince (or chief) of wickedness. who strictly examined all that . form this word in Matthew into Beelzebub. She went aside from her husband. who ruled over the idols. And they were of this opinion for this reason. and by whom oracles and miracles were given forth among the heathens and idolaters. I am so far from doubting that the Pharisees pronounced the word Beelzebul. This also is repeated in the tract Megillah: where this is added. where mention is made of the prince of spirits. that I doubt not but the sense fails if it be writ otherwise. which it is needless here to mention.

Acts 19:13. than that Christ was the first who should cast out devils? which was an undoubted sign to them that the kingdom of heaven was now come. of Christ's words comes to this: "That your disciples cast out devils. the lord of idols. . that none should transport their magic art into another land. But that which was performed by them by exorcisms was not so much a casting out of devils. O Pharisee. And Jesus knew their thoughts. therefore. "If I by the Spirit of God cast out devils. but by compact with himself and with his company he seemed to be cast out. The sense. [ By whom do your children cast them out?] By your children. who favours him and helps him. some of the Jews. as it is said. then the kingdom of God is come among you. and yet they said not to them. Those whelps bark. and shall make him smell in the fear of the Lord." For what else does this speak. that you pronounce these words of my actions out of the rankness and venom of your minds. as if they should say." In the Gloss mention is made of a devil cast out by a Jew at Rome. &c. since Satan would not cast out Satan. and said unto them. And in that place they add these horrid words. does this blasphemy of the Pharisees come. And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils. that is the worst of all devils. he shall smell and judge. who using exorcisms seemed to cast out devils such as they. by him. for a sign you would have: he smells out a wicked man. Rabba said. therefore. Christ seems to understand some disciples of the Pharisees. I am the Messias: they said to him." It is worthy marking. that Christ presently saith." 27.went out of that land." 25. and said to the Rabbins. because it is his ambition to drive the people from the worship of the true God to strange worship. and deceived. "It is written of Messias. but ye applaud the work when it is done by them: they. therefore. they slew him. no nor to magic. and shall judge and know whether he be guilty). that he might the more deceive. "Ye cast out devils by Beelzebul. To this. Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation. Let us see whether thou canst smell and judge. as they were taught by these dogs. It is written of Messias that he shall smell and judge (the Gloss is. ye attribute not to Beelzebul. a sign of the true Messias. "He casts out devils indeed. he shall smell out the man. And when they saw that he could not smell and judge. he shall not judge by the sight of his eyes. by whom do your children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges. The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him. Jesus practised magic. and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand: [But Jesus knowing their thoughts. as a delusion of the people. may in this matter be your judges. and drove Israel to idolatry.] Behold. but he doth this by the help of the devil. that is. that dwells in him. Ben Cozba reigned two years and a half.

And of such it is said. and your iniquities shall not be expiated to you until ye die. 'There was no age but one.) neither in this world. repentance. nor. "At the end of all the prayers in the Temple" (as we observed before) "they said for ever. O backsliding children. neither before death. &c. 'Be ye converted." Thus the Babylonian Gemara writes: but the Jerusalem thus. The times of the Messias: "Be mindful of the day wherein thou camest out of Egypt. hints two things especially (of which see Rambam): 1. as it is said. Behold.] They that endeavour hence to prove the remission of some sins after death. "It shall not be forgiven. neither in the world to come. who denied immortality. seem little to understand to what Christ had respect when he spake these words. as you dream. neither in this world. which Christ contradicts.' But he by whom the name of God is profaned [or blasphemed]. is not moved until the Lord pardon him.] or to death by the Sanhedrim." Note this. [It shall not be forgiven him. repentance is of no avail to him to suspend judgment. But when the heretics brake in and said. and I will heal your backslidings. and the day of expiation expiates him. nor in the world to come". we learn that death wipes off. all . Weigh well this common and most known doctrine of the Jewish schools. 'This day shall all your uncleannesses be expiated to you. this world and a world to come. and the strokes that are laid upon him wipe off sin. and the day of expiation do suspend judgment. The world to come. and corrections as to the third part. nor the day of expiation to expiate it. and of the world to come. nor scourges [or corrections inflicted] to wipe it off.32. his repentance suspends judgment.' He that transgresses a negative precept and repents. "The Lord recompense thee a good reward for this thy good word in this world. neither in this world. and death wipes it off. it shall not be forgiven him. concerning blasphemy against the Holy Ghost. as it is said." II." "It [that is.' He that transgressed to cutting off [by the stroke of God. nor in that which is to come. and judge: "He that transgresses an affirmative precept. that is. and their iniquity with scourges. by which in common speech they opposed the heresy of the Sadducees. because two worlds were created." This distinction of this world. and repents.] I. for ever and ever. 'And I will visit their transgression with a rod. it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost. the history of the creation and of the Bible] begins therefore with the letter Beth [in the word Bereshith].' it was appointed to be said. if he presently repent. [In the world to come. you may find almost in every page of the Rabbins. And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man. but all suspend judgment. and death wipes it off: as it is said. by death. (saith he. Of that sort were the world to come: paradise: hell. and let thy reward be perfected in the world to come. "Repentance and the day of expiation expiate as to the third part. Some phrases were received into common use.

under an ill report for their great wickedness above all other. 40. for so Kimchi upon that place: "According to more exact interpretation. An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign. was their irreligious polygamy than continual adultery? And what else was their ordinary practice of divorcing their wives. when a man is departed out of this world.] I. Than which doctrine scarce anything bit that nation more sharply. "Who shall declare his generation?" Isaiah 53:2." II. and there shall no sign be given to it. For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly. There is one among you who is fit to have the Holy Spirit dwell upon him. The wise men say. after Jonah was restored out of the belly of the whale. The world to come is.] Here and elsewhere. and that deservedly. that generation in which he should live) should proceed to that degree of impiety and wickedness. so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. how the Talmudists themselves confess. Hebrews 2:5 and 6:5. for what else. That generation by which and in which the Lord of life was crucified lay. he does not barely speak of the miracle done upon him which was to be equalled in the Son of man. the sun and moon stood still for six-and-thirty hours: for when the fight was on the eve of the sabbath. according to every man's foolish or naughty will? [But the sign of Jonah the prophet. but girds them with a silent check. that the Gentiles were to be converted by him. 39. 2. his generation (viz. that signs and miracles were not to be expected but by a fit generation. while he gives them the sign of Jonah. instructing them thus much. III. They fix their eyes upon Hillel the Elder.' the days of the Messias are superinduced. the Bath Kol went forth and said. They cast their eyes upon Samuel the Little. that that generation in which the Messias should come should exceed all other ages in all kinds of amazing wickedness. That nation and generation might be called adulterous literally. There is one among you who is fit to have the Holy Ghost dwell upon him. Their schools also confessed. but the sign of the prophet Jonas: [An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign. from the beginning of the world until that day. "The elders being once assembled at Jericho. Whence that of the prophet. Bath Kol came forth and said.the days of thy life. no less irreligious. [The Son of man shall be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. but that the generation is not fit. We have observed before. I beseech you. The elders being assembled again in an upper room in Jabneh. The state after death. that is.] 1. as heathen Nineveh was converted. that it should surpass all expression and history. The Jewish writers extend that memorable station of the unmoving sun at Joshua's prayer to six-and-thirty hours. but that [this] generation is not fit. Joshua feared lest the Israelites might ." In sense the apostle seems to speak. But he answered and said unto them. By 'the days of thy life. after his return out of the bowels of the earth.' is intimated 'this world': by 'all the days of thy life.

while he speaks these words. and only one complete day. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation. and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first." II. that diminutive part of the third day upon which Christ arose may be computed for the whole day. Eliezar Ben Azariah said. may be accounted for three days: and that they also are so numbered that one part or the other of those halves may be accounted for a whole. according to the measure of the night of the sabbath.break the sabbath: therefore he spread abroad his hands. and a night for an Onah: but the tradition is. that R. concerning the uncleanness of a woman for three days. You can hardly understand it of unclean spirits cast out of men by Christ. . Sometimes it contains four Onoth sometimes five.] These words foretell a dreadful apostasy in that nation and generation. If you number the hours that passed from our Saviour's giving up the ghost upon the cross to his resurrection. that they may agree with one another: 1. R. Weigh well that which is disputed in the tract Schabbath. or halves of a natural day. Jochanan saith either a day or a night. Ismael saith. Akiba fixed a day for an Onah. and the night altogether. I. "R. or three natural days (when yet the greatest part of the first day was wanting. "the least part of the Onah concluded the whole. For. as the Jews were well instructed in. Therefore our Saviour seems to allude to the casting out of devils by exorcisms: which art. A day and a night make an Onah. where many things are discussed by the Gemarists concerning the computation of this space of three days. Among other things these words occur. he is not without the consent both of the Jewish schools. when through the whole evangelic history there is not the least shadow of probability that any devil cast out by him did return again into him out of whom he had been cast. Then goeth he. It is not easy to translate the word Onah into good Latin: for to some it is the same with the half of a natural day. that sometimes four Onoth. which are now before us: "A day and a night (saith the tradition) make an Onah. sometimes six. to some it is all one with a whole natural day. you shall find almost the same number of hours. Ismael computeth a part of the Onah for the whole. According to the first sense we may observe. the consent of the schools and dialect of the nation agreeing thereunto. from the words of R. 45. and yet that space is called by him "three days and three nights. and the moon. It is something difficult so to suit all things in the parable aforegoing. according to the measure of the day of the sabbath. which amounts to six-and-thirty hours. and a part of an Onah is as the whole." Therefore Christ may truly be said to have been in his grave three Onoth. and the night following it. Ismael. and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself." And a little after. "R. 2. But how much is the space of an Onah? R. Compare the latter sense with the words of our Saviour." And so also the Jerusalem Talmud. [So shall it be to this evil generation. and of the going-out of the sabbath. that the sun might stand still on the sixth day. and their computation. Nevertheless." So that according to this idiom." when as two nights only came between. and the greatest part by far of the third day also). and a part of an Onah is as the whole.

whether those things were true indeed. or rather. that he could not. that the scholars sat when their masters sat. Therefore these words seem to have been spoken by our Saviour according to the capacity of the common people. and not disturb the man: but the demoniacal heats came back again at last. and the whole multitude stood on the shore. Hence is that passage: "From that time that old Rabban Gamaliel died. and sat. writes us. and the former outrages returned. that he might express the thing which he propounded more plainly and familiarly. with a compact with the devil. For it is scarcely credible that the devil in truth finds less rest in dry places than in wet: but it is credible that those diabolical artists have found out such kind of figments for the honour and fame of their art. For. and they learned the law standing. came back into the Jewish nation again." . procure some lucid intervals to the possessed.so in practising it there was need of dexterous deceits and collusions. alone by himself. the honour of the law perished. seeking for a seat and rest among the Gentiles. that the masters when they read their lectures sat. that the devil. which he had formerly found so well fitted and prepared for him. and not finding it. and most wickedly revolted from it afterward. taking a parable from something commonly believed and entertained. that he would not always wander about here and there. And great multitudes were gathered together unto him. 4. and then. It would be ridiculous to think that they could by their exorcisms cast a devil out of a man into whom he had been sent by God. that so provision might the better be made for the honour of the exorcistical art. as. or only believed and conceived so. from Megillah. the gospel everywhere vexing him." Where the Gloss. The truth of this thing appears in that fearful apostasy of an infinite multitude of Jews. and they were compelled to learn the law sitting. and purity and Pharisaism died. who received the gospel. but when he was dead sickness came down into the world. according to the deceit put upon them. II. and the scholars stood: which honorary custom continued to the death of Gamaliel the Elder. They might. fixed his seat there. and possessed it much more than he had done before. [So that he sat. so that the inhabiting demon might deal gently with him for some time. more than according to the reality or truth of the thing itself. by a most apt and open comparison is shown that the devil was first cast out of the Jewish nation by the gospel. and then so far ceased. Therefore. "Before his death health was in the world.] So was the manner of the nation. so that he went into a ship. here there was need of deceits well put together. could not find any rest. 3. and the whole multitude stood. without rest. But however it was. indeed. concerning which the New Testament speaks in abundance of places. &c. that he therefore returned into his old mansion. Chapter 13 2. being sent away into dry and waste places.

of the seeds of different kinds). and of the seventh year: where. and the fowls came and devoured them up: [Some fell by the way side. saying. No figure of Jewish rhetoric was more familiarly used than that of parables: which perhaps. a private way. But it is a wonder indeed. and a private path. "These things divide: a river.] I. who speaks darkly to them that despise the light. and so dextrous in unfolding them.] Concerning the husbandry of the Jews. From the time that R. that they who were so given to and delighted in parables. creeping in from thence. The Jewish books abound everywhere with these figures. Demai. one may both acknowledge the Divine justice. neither should he be able to fetch them out." These words are spoken according to the reason and nature of the land of Israel. as the Gloss there from the tract Sanhedrim speaks. because they had no deepness of earth: [Some fell among stony places. "R. a sower went forth to sow. but because he surpassed all others in these flowers. upon rocks.] Discourse is had concerning some laws of the Kilaim (or. 5. Kilaim. &c. among other things. It is said. we meet with various passages in the tracts Peah. and very often the same preface. One might not amiss call their religion Parabolical. Behold. Meir died. as they did in their parables. the nation inclining by a kind of natural genius to this kind of rhetoric. II. should stick in the outward shell of ceremonies. who so speaks to them that see." &c. thus speaking.3. which was very rocky. those that spake in parables ceased: not that that figure of rhetoric perished in the nation from that time. where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up. [In parables. and his Divine wisdom likewise. an aqueduct. we meet with these words. some seeds fell by the way side. where they dispute what those things are which divide a field so that it owes a double corner to the poor. Hence in the tract Peah. Some fell upon stony places. A third part [of his discourses or sermons] was tradition. . There were ways and paths as well common as more private along the sown fields. that they may see the shell and not see the kernel. a third part allegory. in the place of the Talmud just now cited. and their manner of sowing. Sheviith: we shall only touch upon those things which the words of the text under our hands do readily remind us of. and rocky places. See the place and the Gloss. among the heathen ended in fables. thus it is determined. shelves. But in him. and yet those places that were so were not altogether unfit for tillage. And he spake many things unto them in parables. and their oratory in their sermons was like to it. and should not have fetched out the parabolical and spiritual sense of them. And when he sowed. 4. To what is it likened. Our Saviour (who always and everywhere spake with the vulgar) useth the same kind of speech. a common way. and a third part parable. Simeon Ben Lachish saith that he is freed [from those laws] who sows his seed by the sea. &c. folded up within the coverings of ceremonies. and yet see not. a common path. see chapter 12:1.

some sixtyfold. which is all sown. 25. &c. and some places lying between are. and of a woody field. But while men slept. If you there state aright the rejection of that people. the Lord had his gleanings among them. "Is a kind of wheat." "R. Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not. but are dim-sighted as to the true cause of it. and went his way. that is. and hearing they hear not. in which trees and bushes grow here and there: concerning which see the tract Sheviith. and brought forth fruit. when some places are left not sown. [Tares. which is changed in the earth. Pharisaism and the sottishness of traditions had. neither do they understand. a bushel of meal. They treat of this matter.. concerning which the Talmudists speak much. Chaijah Bar Ba said The Arbelite bushel formerly yielded a bushel of flour. So there is very frequent mention in the Talmudists of beds. stupidity. [And brought forth fruit. some thirtyfold. which is there handled. And of baldness in a field: that is. which speaks the same thing. both as to its form. and choked them: [Others fell among thorns. and hardness of heart. Jochanan said. now a great while before the death of Christ. and a bushel of coarser bran yet. 8. But other fell into good ground. Where the Gloss is this. which we have observed before at chapter 3:7. some an hundredfold. and a bushel of coarse bran. where these very words are repeated.] Zunin. and a spirit of deep sleep. the sense of the apostle will more easily appear." 13." &c. At this present time there is a remnant according to election.] These words are spoken according to the fruitfulness of the land of Israel. and that for some ages before Christ was born: but when the gospel came.7. Romans 11:8.] Here the distinction comes into my mind of a white field. you will understand more clearly the apostle concerning their call. a bushel of bran. some a hundred. and there were some that believed. his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat.] Here you may observe this people to have been given up to a reprobate mind. and to its nature. and unto whom the participation of the promises was granted: concerning them the apostle speaks in that chapter: see verse 5. in fields and vineyards. and the thorns sprung up. Wheat and 'Zunin' are not seeds of different kinds. [They seeing see not." By the best Lexicographers it is rendered . and a bushel of the coarsest bran also: but now one bushel scarcely comes from one bushel. and various stories are produced. now a good while ago. thrown them into blindness. which you may see: we will only mention these two:-"R. that is. And some fell among thorns. and hyperbolically enough: which nevertheless they confess to be turned long since into miserable barrenness. The worst fruit which we eat in our youth excelled the best which we now eat in our old age: for in his days the world was changed. Which being observed. in Talmudic language.

"A seah contains a double hin. What wine. into which I was wont to climb. new or more old. "It was as an ephah of barley. prepared for either. provident of his own affairs. one was broke off. as wheat is distinguished from other seeds: but they are distinguished also among themselves. which should be required. is the least of all seeds. in an ephah of meal." 52. one or the other. so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof. a hundred and fortyfour eggs. it is the greatest among herbs. and covered the tent of a potter. Exodus 16:36. both distinguished from other men. 32. of the place. These words do not so barely mean good and bad men. But now. to bring forth according to the condition and nature of the thing. [Which. but are distinguished into wise and foolish. all those ten women. till the whole was leavened. So that that field. with bad and degenerate wheat. "Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah. namely. According to the quantity of a grain of mustard: and According to the quantity of a little drop of mustard. and in some rites. when they would express the smallest thing. a thrifty man. from which sprang out three boughs: of which. Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder. six cabes. R. The tenth part of three sata. and of the hearers. was sown by the lord with good wheat. or fruits were to be used in the holy things. by the enemy. &c. as good and bad Christians. twenty-four login.] These words are spoken according to the dialect of the schools. A stalk of mustard was in my field. in Latin. "Do ye understand all these things . and produced three cabes of mustard.] Hence it is passed into a common proverb.zizania. of the present year." 33. as men are wont to climb into a fig-tree. but all of it was sown with wheat. as good wheat is distinguished from that which is degenerate.] "There was a stalk of mustard in Sichin. from heathens. very frequently used by the Rabbins. The LXX reads." Where the Targum reads. So it becomes a scribe of the gospel to have all things in readiness. expecting the bridegroom." The Chaldee reads. Another parable spake he unto them. or the years past. namely. indeed. As it were three sata of barley. [In three (sata) measures of meal] That is. [Is the greatest among herbs. which a woman took. which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old. And Ruth 2:17. The tenth part of three measures. or the most diminutive quantity. [Bringeth forth out of his treasury things new and old. and hid in three measures of meal. was stored both with the one and the other. The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven. in this parable. Which indeed is the least of all seeds [mustard]: but when it is grown. and becometh a tree. Then said he unto them. Simeon Ben Chalaphta said. what corn. are virgins. where the question was not seldom started. So chapter 25.

Herod embraced the doctrine of the Sadducees.15 Bible:Matt. This is John the Baptist. believes. "Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees.16 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 14. the daughter of Herodias danced before them. whether he will or no. and of the leaven of Herod. to have proceeded from a conscience touched from above." chapter 8:15. It is not lawful for thee to have her. [This is John. 15. Or let it be supposed. [Herod has taken his brother's wife. And among the rest. And said unto his servants. he is risen from the dead. 16" parsed="|Matt|14|0| 0|0. and seems. sinners who deserve cutting off. "Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees. and suspects. pricked with the sting of horror and guilt. For John said unto him. Chapters 14. indeed. and pleased Herod. 4.] [It is not lawful for thee to have her.|Matt|15|0|0|0. the Saturnalia. is rendered by Mark. Philip was now alive. &c.. groaning and trembling." seem to be extorted from his conscience. 'of their doctrine. is a great way distant from that doctrine. The .16" /> 2.|Matt|16|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. because thine. were before his eyes: so that his mind is under horror. and therefore mighty works do show forth themselves in him.. that with the Pharisees he owned the resurrection of the dead. [And when Herod's birthday was kept. These are the times of idolaters: the Kalends. as according to the custom of the nation. which Herod speaks. and forgetting his Sadduceism.] The Jewish schools esteem the keeping of birthdays a part of idolatrous worship: perhaps they would pronounce more favourably and flatteringly of thine. his words.] "There are thirty-six cuttings off in the law": that is.. and why I have said them? So a scribe of the gospel ought to bring forth. and lived to the twentieth year of Tiberius. to express joy and to celebrate the day. But when Herod's birthday was kept.. and the day of a man's birth.15. O tetrarch. that is. he that lies with his brother's wife. "This is John the Baptist. [The daughter of Herodias danced. he is risen from the dead.the birthday of the kingdom. but newly butchered by him. he acknowledgeth the resurrection of the dead." &c.. therefore.] Not so much out of lightness.14 Bible:Matt.(saith Christ)." chapter 16:6. both the things which I have said. 6. yet certainly it was unusual for them that confessed it to dream of the resurrection of one that was but newly dead: they expected there should be a resurrection of the dead hereafter: but this.' If. namely.] Was not Herod of the Sadducean faith? For that which is said by Matthew. as though the image and ghost of the Baptist.

Therefore we suppose the beheading of the Baptist was a little before the Passover. [He beheaded John. when the Passover was now at hand. So that that horrid dish. Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask. when he had now been in durance half a year. the request of the maid very fitly. 'You swore by your head that you would give me whatsoever I shall ask.' 10. But now if John lay prisoner there. though very unjustly. give me. The time of his beheading we find out by those words of the evangelist John. or motion of the girl that danced took not so much with Herod. The gesture. Omitting the examples which occur in the holy Bible. and beheaded John in the prison. to express their cheerfulness by leaping and dancing. the executioner must have gone a long journey.] This kind of oath is called by the Talmudists a rash oath: concerning which see Maimonides. And he sent. relating his slaughter. the head of the venerable prophet. to execute that bloody command. He hearing of it passeth over into the desert of Bethsaida. the aged. and defiled her mother with unlawful wedlock and continual incest. as her mind and affection: namely. and also in some of their holy festivals. it is reported by the Fathers of the Traditions. as John relates. and buried him." by reasoning after this manner: It may be concluded. then. Herod had little deserved such things.Jews were wont in their public and more than ordinary rejoicings. so much the more commendable it was.] Josephus relates that John was imprisoned by Herod in Machaerus: Through the suspicion of Herod he was sent prisoner to Machaerus. &c. as soon as they heard of the death of their master. because hereby she shewed honour towards his birthday. and giving him caution by that example to take care of his own safety. and joy for his life and health: from whom. that the chief part of the mirth in the feast of Tabernacles consisted in such kind of dancing: the chief men. Now Machaerus was the utmost bounds of Perea: and Perea was within Herod's jurisdiction. as if she should say. . "but now the Passover was nigh. and love and respect towards him. the head of John Baptist. answered to the promise of the king. since he had deprived her father Philip of his wife. dancing in the Court of the Women. and the Talmudic tract under that title. without all controversy. could not be presented to the maid but some days after the celebration of his birthday. and which could scarcely be performed in two days from Tiberias. and by how much the more vehemently they did it. indeed. where the tyrant's court was. when the decree went out against his life. mentioning that story with the rest of the evangelists. and the most religious. 7. If the form of the oath were "by his head. as he had freely preached by the space of half a year before his imprisonment. betook themselves to Christ. therefore." which was very usual. that the disciples. [He promised her with an oath. and there he miraculously feeds five thousand men.

he commands his disciples to get into a ship. from Capernaum into the desert of Bethsaida. 17. [They followed him on foot. we may gather from Chapter 6:9. We have here but five loaves. Let it be granted that the multitude travelled out of these cities after Christ. and omits [the blessing] over the morsel. Rabh saith. and. When Jesus heard of it. saith he. which is rendered by John. and were filled: and they took up of the fragments that remained twelve baskets full. it were a ridiculous matter to attempt to determine. could the multitude follow him afoot? Very well. "Do they set before him first something salt. and to go to Bethsaida.] What kind of fish they were we do not determine. And they did all eat. namely.) on the east coast of the sea of Gennesaret in Perea. they went along by the coast of Magdala. and would sail with them thence to Capernaum. at the east shore of the sea. The chorographical maps have placed Bethsaida in Galilee. he departed thence by ship into a desert place apart: and when the people had heard thereof. because the morsel is. they followed him on foot out of the cities.] That is. &c. They followed him afoot from the cities. the way by which they went afoot was at the bridge of Jordan in Chammath: that place was distant a mile or something less from Tiberias. saith our evangelist: now there were cities of some note very near Capernaum. (which we observe elsewhere. [Two fishes.] From hence interpreters argue that Capernaum and Bethsaida lay not on different shores of the sea. He went over the sea Which is to be understood properly. but if they were. an appendix to it. the manner of blessing which Christ used is worthy to be compared with that which the tradition now alleged commands. from Galilee into Perea. therefore. The salt meat. or a repast after food. 20. say they. upon the credit of the Aruch: he citing this tradition out of Beracoth. Tiberias on the other. namely. Hippo two. say I. but on the same: for how else. Passing Jordan. through the country of Hippo: now Magdala was distant one mile from Jordan. together with the five loaves. which was our opinion once also with them: but at last we learned of Josephus. And they say unto him. that he that vows abstinence from salt things is restrained from nothing but from salt fish. [He departed thence by ship into a desert place. I render the word salt fish. is to be understood of fish. All eating. whose situation I have elsewhere shewn to be at the efflux of Jordan out of the sea of Galilee. while he sent the multitude away. and two fishes. [And they did all eat. they returned back from thence. thrusting out itself somewhat into the land.] So eating. and from Capernaum three miles or thereabouts. is defined by the Talmudists. Tarichea on one side. That they were brought hither by a boy to be sold. and were filled. whence he would afterward follow them on foot. and after Bethsaida was a bay of the sea. as the tradition teacheth. after that. and after Hippo was Bethsaida. as it were. The Talmudists discourse very much of salt fish. When.13. on the same coast on which Capernaum is also: so also commentators feign to themselves a bay of the sea only coming between these two cities. that Bethsaida was in the upper Gaulanitis. and with it a morsel? He blesseth over the salt meat. and from thence was the desert of Bethsaida. "When they eat their fill. where ." Whether these were salt fish. passing Jordan near Tiberias.

Eliezer saith. but in another sense: for that denotes the lateness of the day. Thus the Gloss upon the place now cited. that space after cockcrowing is called the morning. And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them. in the Talmudists. [And immediately he compelled his disciples. So Mark 13:35. for this with them was the third. therefore. because they are not filled. this. in the evening. reads something seasoned. we will produce one place only. even to the end of the first watch. [In the fourth watch of the night. who as yet dreamed too much of the temporal and earthly kingdom of the Messias. And when he had sent the multitudes away. When. but the words of the scribes are all weighty. Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread. "It is no eating.] The reason of this compulsion is given by St. and adds. but. appears sufficiently from this very place. but only three of deep night. he was there alone. unto midnight. [When the evening was come. 23. he went up into a mountain apart to pray: and when the evening was come. or the watch. after cock crowing: the Jews acknowledge only three watches of the night. as R. signifies not only the declining part of the day. walking on the sea. it is to be understood of that watch which was indeed the second of the whole night. and to go before him unto the other side. in truth. as Rabban Gamaliel saith. [Why do they transgress the tradition of the elders?] How great a value they set upon their traditions. So evening. but that they esteemed the fourth part.] So verse 15. is not eating. Out of infinite examples which we meet with in their writings. There were." 22.salt is not. the lateness of the night. not so much for the night as for the morning. it is said that Gideon set upon the Midianites in the "middle watch of the night. Chapter 15 2. because the people seeing the miracle were ambitious to make him a king: perhaps that the disciples might not conspire to do the same. but the night also: "from what time do they recite the phylacteries in the evening? From the time when the priests go in to eat their Truma. four watches of the night. verse 6. even to the rising of the pillar of the morning. while he sent the multitudes away. &c. for salt. therefore. See also the Hebrew commentators upon Judges 7:19." . Not that they divided not the night into four parts. in the night. The watch is the third part of the night." Where the Gloss is. See also Exodus 14:24. that is. from the ending of the first watch to midnight. as the wise men say. John. namely." Judges 7:19. And straightway Jesus constrained his disciples to get into a ship. but the middle watch of the deep night: namely.] That is. "The words of the scribes are lovely above the words of the law: for the words of the law are weighty and light. yea." The Aruch citing these words. 25. even above the word of God.

Hence that definition of a Pharisee which we have produced before. others carry it back to ages before them: "Hillel and Shammai decreed concerning the washing of hands. and recites his phylacteries morning and evening. R. Of one he writes thus. Some ascribe the institution of this rite to Hillel and Shammai. 'That tradition was given before.' Thus it is written of the prophet. [For they wash not their hands. blood. Forbidden meats. 'There are five Totaphoth.'" &c. The washing of hands and the plunging of them is appointed by the words of the scribes: but by whom. and eateth his common food in cleanness." "The words of the elders are weightier than the words of the prophets. and the way of the highest religion. believe him not': of the other thus. and that he neither touch them. 'According to the law which they shall teach thee." II. let him be confident that he shall obtain the life of the world to come. were by no means to be eaten: but . it is doubted. and go aside from the vulgar. Josi Ben Rabbi Bon. to what are they likened? To a king sending two of his servants into a province. that a man separate himself. &c. and they were called Pharisees." &c. such as fat. yet the ancient religious eat their common food in cleanness." It would require a just volume. but of the elders thus. adding to the words of the scribes. to lay open this mystery of Pharisaism concerning washing of hands. but he that shall say.' he is guilty. and appoint according to the mind of the former."He that shall say. 'Although he shews you not my seal. and not a short commentary. 'He shall shew thee a sign or a miracle'. in the name of R." III. The Pharisees eat their common food in cleanness: and the Pharisaical ladder of heaven. and speaks the holy language. and that when he was dead.] The undervaluing of the washing of hands is said to be among those things for which the Sanhedrim excommunicates: and therefore that R. "Whosoever hath his seat in the land of Israel. Here that distinction is to be observed between forbidden meats. a great stone was laid upon his bier. 'There are no phylacteries. yet believe him. or a running pen. 'Unless he shew you my seal. saith. Levi. And this is a matter of the highest sanctity. But enough of blasphemies. but they had forgotten it': these second stand forth. because he undervalued the washing of hands. transgressing the words of the law. and to discover it in all its niceties: let us gather these few passages out of infinite numbers: I. and unclean meats." "A prophet and an elder. and when. by the command of the Sanhedrim. Eleazar Ben Hazar was excommunicated by it. "Whence you may learn (say they) that the Sanhedrim stones the very coffin of every excommunicate person that dies in his excommunication. and took care to avoid uncleanness all their days. "Although it was permitted to eat unclean meats. and to drink unclean drinks.' is not guilty. creatures unlawful to be eaten (Lev 2). Of both Maimonides wrote a proper tract. nor eat nor drink with them: for such separation conduceth to the purity of the body from evil works. namely.

they might eat them by the law of God.meats. as much as might be. which renders them unclean. And hence it is said of every one that eats unclean meats. that it does not pollute another beside itself. Hence were the washings of them not only when they knew them to be unclean. hath these words. yet he is bound to wash his hands in order to eating his common food. declares it. "The body of the eater is polluted by unclean meats. the Lord that sanctify you. and profane or polluted. if he handle them with both hands. in his preface to Toharoth. that meats should be set on free. one hand only is defiled. laid upon the Pharisee sect. were lawful indeed to be eaten. You would wonder at this tradition: "Unclean meats and unclean drinks do not defile a man if he touch them not. IV. To these most rigid canons they added also bugbears and ghosts to affright them. &c. then his hands become unclean. This care. to speak as the thing indeed is." The Aruch writes thus. the sanctity of the soul conduces unto likeness to God. Rambam in the preface to the tract of hands. from all uncleanness: but especially since they could not always be secure of this." VI. It was the business of Shibta. therefore. which we have verses 17-20." To which you may add that which follows in the same Maimonides. The distinction also between unclean.. that his body is polluted: but he pollutes not another. if he touch them with one hand only. or. unclean in themselves. 'And ye shall be sanctified. For every thing which uncleanness invades so that it becomes unclean.'" Hence you may more clearly perceive the force of Christ's confutation. but contracted some uncleanness elsewhere: it was lawful to eat them. and he knows not that he is polluted. VII. is to be observed. "If the hands are unclean by any uncleanness. conduces to the purity of the body from evil works. Rambam. and that the hands were polluted by unclean meats. "Shibta was one of the demons who hurt them that wash not their hands before meat. both hands are defiled. and ye shall be holy." . am holy. They thought that clean food was polluted by unclean hands. V. Where the Gloss is. Note that. but by the canons of Pharisaism they might not. as it is said. and there is danger from it. is called profane." &c. that spirit sits upon that food. but renders not another thing unclean. and it was not lawful. but if he touch them with his hands. or drinks unclean drinks. in the place before alleged: "Separation from the common people. or if it be hid from a man. the purity of the body conduceth to the sanctity of the soul from evil affections. that they might be secure that the meats were not rendered unclean by their hands. Profane or polluted denotes this. but also when they knew it not. "Shibta is an evil spirit which sits upon men's hands in the night: and if any touch his food with unwashen hands. because I.

these are epithets of a thing devoted unto sacred uses. as to show how wicked their traditions were. let a man walk as far as four miles. to beg for him. All epithets of vows are as the vows themselves. It is a gift. of the manner of washing. and for the washing of hands." &c. A vow of consecration was when any thing was devoted to holy uses. and into what ungodly consequences they oftentimes fell. Of the quantity of water sufficient for this washing. "If one should say to his neighbour. they acknowledge this also for law. &c. that goes higher. if you have leisure. Yea. vows of consecration. namely. behold. of the order. they exhorted to it. &c. wine. and the phrase which is before us speaks a vow or a form of swearing. &c. to wash his face. They denied not directly the nourishment of their parents. "For a cake. and of the plunging of them. This went for a noted axiom among them. A vow of obligation or prohibition was. "It is a gift" (or. or to buy wood. of the time. or did not exceed. [It is a gift by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me. Let this discourse be ended with this canon. yea. and Babylonian Beracoth: and this article. as if the thing were spoken out in a larger periphrasis: as for example. "A son is bound to nourish his father. as Mark. or of prohibition. where the discourse is of vows and oaths. as. Maimonides upon the tract lavers. when a man bound himself by a vow from this or that thing. would dedicate this or that for sacrifice. the Talmudic tract of hands. which was lawful in itself. of the washing of the hands. They added certain short forms. Konah. if we have read the Talmudic tracts Nedarim and Nazir.] I. that he would not put on. is inserted through the whole volume entitled cleanness." Therefore it is no wonder if these things which are spoken by our Saviour are not found verbatim in the Jewish pandect. of the first and second water. One might readily comment upon this clause. A son is bound to provide his father meat and drink. "it is Corban") by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me. for the altar: or for the reparation of the Temple. hands and feet. they command it. salt. to the use of the altar or the Temple: as when a man. and vows of obligation. but they by no means openly asserted that parents were to be neglected: yet openly enough they did by consequence drawn from this foolish and impious tradition. by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me. by which they signified a vow. to lead him in and out. Beside the law alleged by Christ. when the number of those that sat down to meat exceeded five. But ye say. that he would not eat. to cover him.Let these things suffice as we pass along: it would be infinite to pursue all that is said of this rite and superstition. and other such like niceties: read. indeed.." . Vows were distinguished into two ranks. II. but consequently by this tradition they made all void. and which carried with it the force of a vow. by a vow. 1. nay. for they are not so much alleged by him to shew that it was their direct design to banish away all reverence and love towards parents. &c." 5. Kones. indeed. to clothe him. 2. Konem. They taught openly. that he would not do this or that. Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother. and if the toil and nauseousness of it do not offend you. that a father was to be made no account of in comparison of a Rabbin that taught them the law. "Honour thy father and thy mother.

"To which others answered. than It is a gift. Therefore. that he who thus spake devoted his goods to sacred uses. But now there was no cursing here at all. Thirdly. unless I am very much mistaken. at chapter 5:33. He might help others with his wealth.The word Konem. are words of devoting. But above all such like forms of vowing. This form of speech A gift. So also R. Let it be 'Corban. which were only Assertive: these under our hands are Votive also. nor obliged him (according to the doctrine of the scribes) to devote them. and He. Nissim. but only restrained him by an obligation from that thing.meant not. We produced before.. does neither argue. one saith. wrathfully. by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me. signified not 'It is' as something devoted. towards his father. In the place from Beracoth just now alleged.' whereby I am profitable to thee. but Let whatsoever wine I shall taste be as something devoted: that is. that all his estate was devoted before.' but adds this also. Let it be as a thing devoted. things that were devoted were not to be laid out upon common uses. of whom we had mention before. but 'Let it be' as something devoted.' which I shall taste. and as the thing was. Let it be a gift. the word Corban. Let it be 'Konem. And the reader of those tracts which we have mentioned shall observe these forms frequently to occur. and inhumanly. he should answer in anger and with contempt. But now. namely. to whom he thus spake. Rambam thus explains.. For Konem and Corban. The wine which I shall taste is as something devoted. yet such was the folly. for wine is hard to the bowels: that is. was plainest of all. The words are brought in as though they were pronounced with indignation. if the son spoke truly and modestly. when the needy father required food from his son. and. let these things be considered: First. Let it be upon me as a thing devoted. or a gift. although these words should have been spoken by the son irreverently. for the denying of which he used such a form. as if. and that the plain and full sense of the place may be discovered. 'Honour thy father and mother. Fifthly. "Let it be Corban. Konem." Which words that they may be more clearly understood. Let the wine be 'Konem. Which words sound the very same thing. Is not old wine good for the bowels? Then he held his peace." III. from helping him by his goods. .' whereby I am profitable to thee. Fourthly. Christ not only cites the law. Let the wine which I taste be as devoted wine: as though he had said. some forms of oaths. That the word a gift is rather to be rendered. whatsoever of mine may profit thee. by which whatsoever thou mayest be profited by me. Secondly. with the words before us. He that curseth father or mother. I vow that I will not taste wine. which openly speaks a thing devoted and dedicated to sacred use. and not to be tasted. that is. as we have noted. but him he might not. Koneh. To me let all wine be devoted.

indeed. my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil. The words of the verse. which seem to be called by the Talmudists impure hands. but not to help his father he was inviolably bound.. chapter 7:26. but that which cometh out of the mouth. Hence Jabin. . behold. Joshua 9:1. although they were not conscious that their hands were unclean. and that country was peculiarly called by the name of 'Canaan. Mark 7:2. thou son of David. which many interpreters do: Whosoever shall say to his father or mother. if I mistake not.' distinctly from all the rest of the land of Canaan. but unwashen. It is worthy observing. that Canaan himself inhabited a peculiar part of that (northern) country. Have mercy on me. In Mark it is with common or defiled hands. Sidon and Heth: and thence the name of Canaanites was put upon that particular progeny. when all the seven.' 1 Kings 10:29. O Lord. may thus be rendered. that the Holy Bible. which were to be destroyed by the Israelites. a religious man among them is a singular man. which pronounced the son so obliged by these his words. I. are called 'the kings of the Hittites.] He saith not with unclean hands. [Defileth the man. as we said before. saying. He was not at all bound by these words to dedicate his estate to sacred uses. 11. &c. Judge from that which is said in the tract Challah: "A cake is owing out of that dough which they knead with the juice of fruits: and it is eaten with unclean hands. Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man. Genesis 10. a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts..] Or. because. this defileth a man. and cried unto him. and the Canaanites as a particular nation. that it was lawful by no means to succour his needy father. 11:3. O excellent doctrine and charity! Sixthly. Judges 3:5. distinguished from all his other sons..' Judges 4:2. reckoning up the seven nations. in whatsoever thou mayest be helped by me: then let him not honour his father and mother at all. of the traditional doctrine in this case. [A woman of Canaan.together with the impiety. the king of Hazor.. they were bound to wash." 22.] In Mark it is. The reason of the latter (with which our business is) is to be fetched thence. who were not at all recited among the sons of Canaan. A Greek woman. Let it be a [devoted] gift. and the kings of Tyre and Sidon. [With unwashen hands. names the Perizzites. merely because not washed. See Deuteronomy 7:1. a Syrophoenician by nation. maketh him common.because they esteemed defiled men for common and vulgar men: on the contrary. therefore. with his firstborn sons. These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man. is called the 'king of Canaan. And. 20. Of Canaan. without any addition put between.. were Canaanites.

Revelation 22:15. rather than from his own sense. who reckon the Roman for the fourth monarchy in Daniel. and the disciples to the multitude. [To the dogs. And that is worthy to be noted. A Greek woman. and almost the whole world." So when there were ten. and the Christians with them. to whom 'the Gentiles' were not so hateful. our Saviour uses this expression. O ye hypocrites. and to curse. and brake them. and that by the hand and justice of God directing it: for although they out of pride and contempt fixed that disgraceful name upon the Gentiles. See Psalm 59:6.II. the heathen] are likened to dogs. "That the Romans. &c.] See here the tract Beracoth. where it is discoursed of the manner of giving thanks when many ate together: Three who eat together ought to give thanks together: that is. one gave thanks for all. It will be foul weather today: for the sky is red and lowering. and the name of the nation. and whose custom was to speak with the vulgar. according to their very just desert. disgraced the Gentiles. and they answered after him Amen. and gave thanks. Therefore that woman that is here spoken of (to reduce all into a short conclusion) was a Syro-Grecian by nation. Chapter 16 3. The nations of the world [that is. out of spite and contempt. It is not meet to take the children's bread. This ignominious name. and gave to his disciples. was not yet vanished. ruled over the Jews before the destruction of the Temple". And he took the seven loaves and the fishes. they compute the years only from the kingdom of the Greeks. but can ye not discern the signs of the times? [Can ye not discern the signs of the times?] The Jews were very curious in observing the seasons of the heavens. to mock. And in the morning. a Phoenician in respect of her habitation. a Syrophoenician Although Judea. at length fell upon their own heads. had now a long while stooped under the yoke of the Romans. all beside themselves. for a hundred and fourscore years. and the temper of the air. In the captivity. Let us give thanks. and yet they do not compute the times to that destruction by the years of the Romans. and from thence called a woman of Canaan. 36. But he answered and said. ye can discern the face of the sky. 26. but by the years of the Greeks. one gave thanks for the rest (as the Gloss writes) "in the plural number. Philippians 3:2. and cast it to dogs. From the common speech of the nation. yet the memory of the Syro-Grecian kingdom. or some words which he had recited. the Holy Spirit recoiled it upon themselves. saying. or a hundred. "In the going out of the last day of the feast of Tabernacles. [He gave thanks and brake.] By this title the Jews. They said before. like a stone cast at the heathen. all observed the rising . whose first care it was to hate. Let the Jews themselves well consider this. or a thousand or more.

" "R. If the smoke bended northward. As if he had said. as with the finger and by a visible mark. "The 'leaven which is in the lump. what leaven was . but the rich were troubled. at those eminent signs. and the fruits would be corrupted: if it bended southward. the poor rejoiced. by those signs which plainly declare it? Do ye not observe Daniel's weeks now expiring? Are ye not under a yoke. especially. if any at all." &c. which leavens us in our hearts. indeed. and the tyranny of [heathen] kingdoms." 6. Then Jesus said unto them. but do thou subdue that which hinders: namely. even to a miracle. Blessed is that judge who leaveneth his judgment. the decree of their judgment concerning the rains of that year was signed. because there would be much rain the following year. it is revealed and known before thy face that we would do thy will. was frequent among them in an ill sense. because the day before. even the days of the Messias. so that they understood them of leaven properly so called. If any wise man had been at Zippor when the first rain fell. [Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees." The Gloss is. he might foretell the moistness of the year by the very smell of the dust. "They observed this the last day of the feast of Tabernacles. for then there would be fewer rains that year.] There were two things.' are evil affections. were at hand. Thus one prays: "Lord of ages. all rejoiced: if westward. to the profession of the gospel? and that the minds of all men are raised into a present expectation of the Messias? Strange blindness. That they had more seldom heard leaven used for doctrine. "Can ye not distinguish that the times of the Messias are come. the shaking off of which ye have neither any hope at all nor expectation to do? Do ye not see how the nation is sunk into all manner of wickedness? Are not miracles done by me." Cyrus was leavened." But this is not to be understood concerning doctrine.of the smoke. Acha said. but they will not see. the poor grieved. such as were neither seen nor heard before? Do ye not consider an infinite multitude flowing in. and the rich rejoiced. namely." Where the Gloss is thus. Because very exact care was taken by the Pharisaical canons. for evil affections. But they were dim-sighted at the signs of times. In the feast of Tabernacles they judged concerning the rains. and the fruit would be sound: if eastward. which plainly pointed. but concerning deliberation in judgment. which seem to have driven the disciples into a mistaken interpretation of these words. that now those times that were so much foretold and expected. as the tradition is. and yet sent upon you from heaven: your sin and your punishment too! They see all things which may demonstrate and declare a Messias. I. and the naughtiness of the heart. all were troubled. Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees. The metaphorical use of it. &c. II. that is. for evil doctrine. voluntary. that is. Sometimes it is used in a better sense. "The Rabbins say. but the use of it was more rare. grew worse. the leaven which is in the lump.

because he is the Son of man"). acknowledged him the Messias: yea. rather than from the living: among other things. which Christ very often gives himself. When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi. You observe that recourse is here made to the memory of the dead.to be used and what not. or one of the prophets. from whom the Messias should spring. those blind men. With which caution the disciples thought that Christ armed them. what kind of person they conceived him to be. That phrase or title. he asked his disciples. They knew not what to resolve upon concerning the original of the Messias. John 5:27. &c. saying. perhaps. Jeremias. the manner of his rise being unknown to them. whether he should be of the living. denotes not only his humanity. but this title.' I say. II. recalls their minds to the first promise. as acknowledging the Messias. as concerning the quality of the person. not so much whether they acknowledged him the Messias. that he.'" See what we note at chapter 17:54. 1 Samuel 17:55. Elias. Christ asketh. 2. should arise and be born from the seed of the women. Jeremias. And they said. not the subduing of kingdoms by some warlike and earthly triumph." is this youth? 14. therefore. and others. the second Adam': and it carried with it a silent confutation of a double ignorance and error among the Jews: 1. In which sense also is the word who. the opinion of the Jews concerning the person of the Messias. the Son of the living God": as if he should say. when he spake concerning the leaven of the Pharisees: but withal they suspected some silent reproof for not bringing bread along with them. 'Thou art the Son of the living God. had confessed this also: therefore that question had been needless as to them. "He hath given him authority of executing judgment. and how he should rise. in those words. disputations occur here and there. not "The son of whom. They dreamed of the earthly victories of the Messias. 'What kind of person thou art. was uncertain and wavering. The apostles and the other disciples whom he had gathered. the Son of man. we give at chapter 27:9. 13. When. what he should be. and of nations to be subdued by him. or whether of the dead. nor his humility (for see that passage. "Do they think me to be the Messias?" but that was needful. Therefore the word whom asks not so much concerning the person. but it bespeaks the 'seed promised to Adam. being a seed promised to the first man. and whether Cuthite leaven. Whom do men say that I the Son of man am? [Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?] I. The Son of man. the Messias?" and to this the answer of Peter has regard. that . and were very many. whether heathen leaven is to be used. where the victory of the promised seed is the bruising of the serpent's head. "We knew well enough a good while ago that thou art the Messias: but as to the question. [But others. as we noted before. chapter 9:27. "Thou art Christ." but the son "of what kind of man. this reason might persuade them so to do. This phrase unties this knot and teaches openly. Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some.] The reason why they name Jeremiah only of all the prophets. "What do they conceive of me.

When therefore Peter. and that he rising again should bring others with him. &c. and upon this rock I will build my church? It is readily answered by the Papists. There is nothing.that piety could not in those days be expected in any one living. either in the dialect of the nation." This phrase occurs five times in that one column: "the Holy Blessed God doth not. after the Greek manner. That thou art Peter. "If they were about to lead me before a king of flesh and blood.. yet I deny that he used that very word Cepha. (One of the Babylonian Gemarists suspects that Daniel.] I. and upon thee I will build my church. which. with good reason. And Jesus answered and said unto him. and he was promoted by dreams. but they are leading me before the King of kings. For how. &c. And I say also unto thee. the first of all the disciples (from the very first beginning of the preaching of the gospel). and had declared the mystery of the incarnation. should be the Messias. 17. The words concerning the rock upon which the church was to be built are evidently taken out of Isaiah. Blessed art thou. forbids us to think that our Saviour used this very same Greek word. Flesh and blood wound with one thing and heal with another: but the Holy Blessed One wounds and heals with one and the same thing. it had been plainer and more agreeable to be the vulgar idiom to have said.) And this perhaps persuaded them further. the minds of the disciples are. and upon this rock I will build my church. which he did presently after: but he pronounced it Cephas. "Thou art Peter. If he had intimated that the church should be built upon Peter. [Flesh and blood. if in both places he had retained the same word Thou art a rock." 18. or in reason. called back to those words of Isaiah. that "Peter was the rock. &c. and by it oppose men to God. as flesh and blood doth." II. since such Graecizings were not unusual in that nation. in very many places do most plainly speak Christ. as had shined out in those deceased persons.] The Jewish writers use this form of speech infinite times. in the adjective sense. [Thou art Peter. raised from the dead. and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. that they . Joseph was sold for his dreams. or he spoke it Cephai. &c. according to the Syriac formation. could he be understood by the disciples." But let them tell me why Matthew used not the same word in Greek. Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee. his. But be it granted (which is asserted more without controversy) that he used the Syriac word. and confessed the deity of Christ. because they thought that the kingdom of the Messias should arise after the resurrection: and they that were of this opinion might be led to think that the Messias himself was some eminent person among the saints departed. the Holy Blessed One. had pronounced most clearly of the person of Christ. but my Father which is in heaven. or by Peter himself." "A king of flesh and blood forms his picture in a table. the New Testament being interpreter. I pray. if our Saviour used the same word in Syriac.. &c. chapter 28:16.

III.. the first." . But now to bind and loose. Thence. thence.might learn to acknowledge who that stone was that was set in Sion for a foundation never to be shaken. not of persons. And I make no doubt that those words of Peter respect these words of Christ. unto which he made the first entrance by the gospel. or he could not be understood without a particular commentary. of which he was the chief minister. 'Why have ye brought this elder to me? Whatsoever I loose. but God himself. but because he was so much to be employed in building a church upon a rock: whether it were that church that was to be gathered out of the Jews. [And I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Acts 10. Peter took his surname. Jochanan concerning a certain matter. And whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth. and whence it came to pass that that foundation remained so unshaken. against which "the gates of hell should not prevail". I will give the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Acts 15:7. O Peter (saith he).. "Nachum. To whom he answered. &c. chapter 18. "and to thee. III. therefore. but the power of binding and loosing to the other apostles also. a very usual phrase in the Jewish schools. whatsoever I bind. It is necessary to suppose that Christ here spake according to the common people.] I. One might produce thousands of examples out of their writings: we will only offer a double decad.] That is. [And whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth &c. which is nowhere to be found. He had said that he would build his church to endure for ever. he binds. Thou shalt first open the door of faith to the Gentiles. or that of the Gentiles (concerning which the discourse here is principally of).'" 2. We believe the keys were committed to Peter alone. Thou shalt neither bind nor loose. was spoken of things. Jochanan said [to those of Tiberias]. II. asked R. and believe. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. not that he should be argued to be that rock. the Son of God. A good while ago God made choice among us. Thou shalt neither bind nor loose. he looseth. that he was not a creature. the brother of R. which is here also to be observed in the articles what and whatsoever. that thou mayest open a door for the bringing in the gospel to that church. whence the frequent use of this word may appear." Which was performed by Peter in that remarkable story concerning Cornelius. that the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel by my mouth. "R. namely. 3. 19. the second. Illa. chapter 18:18. whence the sense may: 1.

" 6. nor on the fifth day of the week. and he bound: Do not ask another wise man. but in Galilee not. on the day going before the Passover)." 2. who neither bindeth nor looseth." killing and boiling. 7. Whatsoever I have bound to you elsewhere. in which they loosed by the notion of a [servile] work. but the school of Hillel looseth it.4. no. the school of Hillel looseth until the rising of the sun. but the other looseth." 7.. the school of Shammai binds it. The same also is in Maimonides. 8." 9. He asked one wise man. Whether it is lawful to go into the necessary-house with the phylacteries only to piss? Rabbena looseth. 5." 4." 6. but the wise men bound it. of the filling of . nor on the fifth day of the week. "To them that bathe in the hot-baths in the sabbath-day. "Concerning the moving of empty vessels [on the sabbath-day].' 3. and they loose sweating. and those of Hillel. "Although of the disciples of Shammai. he declares defiled or clean]. the one bound. and the other loosed. 'The bringing in some food from without the limits of the sabbath. The mystical doctor. &c. But that which the school of Shammai binds until the night. as the Gloss notes. 10. The other decad shall show the phrase applied to things: 1. Yea. This man binds. Rabbi loosed it. "In Judea they did [servile] works on the Passover-eve" (that is. no. Chaija said. he looseth and bindeth. "They do not begin a voyage in the great sea on the eve of the sabbath. even on the fourth day of the week. But in which they bound by the notion of a sabbatism: that is. "They do not send letters by the hand of a heathen on the eve of a sabbath. as the same Gloss speaks. The mouth that bindeth is the mouth that looseth. "A festival-day may teach us this." 5. lest perhaps he loose. yet they forbade not but that these might make purifications according to the others. Yea. "R. they bind washing. I will loose to you here. but the school of Hillel looses it. if it be fixed to a wall. even on the fourth day of the week. "until noon. A wise man that judgeth judgment. defileth and cleanseth [that is. the school of Shammai binds it. "Women may not look into a looking-glass on the sabbath-day. and Rabh Ada bindeth.

Abhu saith." 9. Let a third decad also be added (that nothing may be left unsaid in this matter). and in judgments. But from these allegations. concerning things allowed or not allowed in the law. the reader sees abundantly enough both the frequency and the common use of this phrase. or to declare forbidden.which there is no intention." 8. and the sense of it also. the school of Hillel looseth it. They neither punished nor bound. They never loosed to us a crow. when he used the common phrase. nor bound to us a pigeon. 5. "unless they be steeped before the day be ended: but the school of Hillel looseth it. The wise men loose all oils. The Sanhedrim. "The wise men bound the eating of leaven from the beginning of the sixth hour. colours." There are infinite examples of this nature. Meir loosed the mixing of wine and oil. 4. or all fat things. if need were. "Doth a seah of unclean Truma fall into a hundred seahs of clean Truma? The school of Shammai binds it. the school of Shammai binds it. shall I call it a matter of laughter or of madness? . "Concerning gathering wood on a feast-day scattered about a field. 2. which we meet with thousands of times over. that they might have a hedge to the law." 1. first." of the day of the Passover. That to bind is the same with to forbid. They necessarily loose saluting on the sabbath. 4. the frequent (shall I say?) or infinite use of the phrases. the school of Hillel looseth it. "R. "The things which they bound not. was not understood by his hearers in the common and vulgar sense. which looseth two things. namely. "R. the school of Shammai binds it. What if I should go into the market? and I bound it him. 10. giving examples of the parts of the phrase distinctly and by themselves: 1. To think that Christ. R." 2. 5. "The school of Shammai saith. to anoint a sick man on the sabbath." 3." Many more such like instances occur there. the school of Hillel looseth it. Gamaliel Ben Rabbi asked me. Jochanan saith. Secondly. "R. that it is used in doctrine." To these may be added. unless concerning the leaven itself. "The scribes bound the leaven. and vetches" on the eve of the sabbath. bound and loosed. let it not hasten to loose three. They do not steep ink." 3.

if they would retain and punish the sins of any. shall be lawful and permitted." Hence they bound." Hence in that instant. forbid. They loosed. being taught this and led by the Holy Spirit: as if he should say. they were to determine concerning the legal doctrine and practice. they had imbibed the evangelical doctrine. 2. John 20:23. Let the words be applied. Paul to . which before had been bound. death itself. which before had been bound. of punishing with diseases. the Divine authority confirming it. therefore. they are remitted to them. that is. chapter 18:18. for the shunning of scandal. that is. and the eating of any creature convenient for food was now loosed. the Holy Spirit directing that they should make decrees concerning religion. in like manner. as to some part of it. O Peter. it shall be forbidden. was to be continued. when they carry quite another sense. when he was now ready to open the gate of the gospel to the Gentiles. there of persons." for the most part are forced to the same sense with these before us. and that either for a time or for ever. that is. forbade. which Peter did to Ananias and Sapphira. allowed purification to Paul. but if thou askest. whatsoever thou grantest them shall be granted. that whatsoever of the law of Moses thou shalt forbid them shall be forbidden. circumcision to the believers. thou shalt be so guided by the Holy Spirit. wherein the Mosaic law. that it is permitted and lawful. and whatsoever ye shall loose. by these words of Christ it was committed to them. not of persons. as to the use or rejection of Mosaic rite and judgments. and as to another part of it. the apostles were doubly instructed: 1. they were endowed with a peculiar gift. and to thee. was now loosed. not of doctrine: here of things lawful or unlawful in religion to be determined by the apostles. and that under a sanction made in heaven. Those words of our Saviour. Acts 10:28. a power was delivered into their hands of delivering to Satan. and to the rest of the apostles. plagues. and of blood for a time to the Gentiles. eating of things offered to idols. by way of paraphrase. and to last for ever: he granted Peter here. permit. and that which they bound on earth was confirmed in heaven. so that the same Spirit directing them. As to doctrine.To this. "Whose sins ye remit. there of persons obstinate or not obstinate. that is. or shall teach. to the matter that was transacted at present with Peter: "I am about to build a Gentile church (saith Christ). that thou mayest first open the door of faith to them. to be punished by them. Here the business is of doctrine only. do these words amount: When the time was come. Acts 21:24: and in a word. that the consorting of the Jew with the Gentile. yea. and to four other brethren. a power to abolish or confirm what they thought good. So long sitting at the feet of their Master. when the Mosaic rule may seem so improper for it. and he. looses both these. being completely instructed and enabled in both by the Holy Spirit descending upon them. that is. or not to be punished. he was taught from heaven. when he should use his keys. by what rule that church is to be governed. The Holy Spirit directing them. do I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven. "Whatsoever ye shall bind in the law of Moses. was to be abolished and left off. and as they thought good. of things strangled. As to their persons.

is added that clause." &c. that great prophet. and said unto Jesus. it is in vain to seek. so such a cloud was now present at the sealing of the greatest Prophet. [Let us make here three tabernacles.17 Bible:Matt. Whence he should know them to be prophets. and this both for the honour of his person and for the honour of his doctrine.18 Bible:Matt. &c. When they awaked. How two of the greatest prophets. Moses and Elias." which also were heard from heaven at his baptism. Lord. resort to him. Peter would detain. he is sealed by a heavenly voice for the High Priest. shining with so great lustre when he talked with Moses and Elias. "Let us make here three tabernacles. and one for Moses. he is sealed for the high priest: for mark. Deuteronomy 18:19. Then answered Peter. 18. Hymeneus. 3. the conductor of Israel. Chapters 17. made this proposition.|Matt|18|0|0|0. concerning a prophet to be raised up by God. Here that is worthy observing. 19" parsed="|Matt|17|0| 0|0. Compare Luke 9:37. namely. which some Jews note. In this transfiguration. "This is my beloved Son. and being loath that so noble a scene should be dispersed. being now ready to enter upon his evangelical priesthood. but when he was dead. and one for Elias. both which surpassed by infinite degrees the persons and the doctrines of both of them. when at his baptism no such cloud appeared. for while he lived. 4. the ark of the covenant led them.|Matt|19|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. as the high priests were wont to be with holy oil. with a greater than Moses and Elias now glorified. Therefore. When you recollect the face of Christ transfigured. let us make here three tabernacles. that cloud was the people's guide in the wilderness. and his raiment was white as the light. while as yet the disciples that were present were overcharged with sleep.18. and is anointed with the Holy Spirit. &c." &c. now departing. O what a spectacle had they! being afraid. and Moses and Elias come and discourse with him concerning his death (it is uncertain how long). and reason dictates.] When Christ was baptized. "hear ye him": which compare with the words of Moses. 1. one for thee. in whom I am well pleased. which I shall put into his mouth. because it is . And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun. [And was transfigured. How the heavenly voice went out of the cloud that overshadowed them. The form of his face and garments is changed while he prays.19 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 17. acknowledge the brightness of the gospel above the cloudy obscurity of the law and of the prophets. as that cloud departed at the death of Moses. nay. they observe and contemplate. How to those words. Christ here shines with such a brightness. they discover the prophets: whom. 2.] The transfiguration of Christ was by night.Elymas. it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt. 4. That the cloud of glory. departed at the death of Moses. and Philetus. "Whosoever shall not hearken to my words.19" /> 2.

a cloud. I send you Elias the prophet": "God (saith he) shall restore the soul of Elias. and as he speaks them when the prophets were now gone. that there should be a resurrection at the coming of the Messias." &c. a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud. and the heavenly voice seals him for the true Messias. He knew well enough that he said these words. and the ends also of his expected coming. but being known. saying. being ravished with the sweetness of such society. It would be an infinite task to produce all the passages out of the Jewish writings which one might concerning the expected coming of Elias: we will mention a few things in passing which sufficiently speak out that expectation. until the Son of man be risen from the dead. "not to know what he should say". and going out of the scene. Christ had commanded in the verse before. which ascended of old into heaven. and they that turn shall be delivered from the day of judgment. would abide and dwell there together in earthly tabernacles. behold. Peter speaks his words. 10. a cloud.) yet they roundly retort. [While he yet spake. And his disciples asked him. than of the sense of the words. in the question under our hands." But now. I. inquired of Elisha the prophet. While he yet spake. (which Mark intimates. however astonished at the terror of the glory. 2. he preaches his deity to his disciples. Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come? [Why therefore say the scribes that Elias must first come?] I." &c. he was loath they should depart thence. he shall send him to Israel before the day of judgment. But when God shall bring him to life in the body. which is 'the great and terrible day of the Lord': and he shall admonish both the fathers and the children together to turn to God. Moses. before there be a resurrection and a day of judgment: for as yet they were altogether ignorant that Christ should rise. and he knew as well for what reason he said them. and by Mark. hear ye him. This is my beloved Son. Let David Kimchi first be heard upon those words of Malachi. They had foretold Christ of his death (such is the cry of the Law and of the Prophets. with the whole nation. Consider whither the eye of the disciples looks. while he believed that Christ. 5." Luke 24:44). "Why therefore say the scribes that Elias shall first come?" that is. They believed. although they understood not what the resurrection from the dead meant. but yet "he knew not what he said". he was much mistaken when he spake these words.] Moses and Elias now turning their backs. which said. and there it is written [2 Kings . like to his former body: for his first body returned to earth when he went up to heaven. "Tell the vision" of the transfiguration "to no man. in whom I am well pleased. and Elias. which are rather to be understood of the misapplication of his words. that "Christ should suffer. See 2 Peter 1:16. each element to its own element. Let Aben Ezra be heard in the second place: "We find (saith he) that Elias lived in the days of Ahaziah the son of Ahab: we find also. "Behold. which when he spake he is said by Luke "not to know what he said".nowhere to be found. "Behold. that is. that Joram the son of Ahab and Jehoshaphat. into a created body. behold.17. and hence those words. &c.

it would be said. and shall not lie hid to day. on the day wherein the Son of David comes. or the eves of the feast days. coming yesterday. and on what day. by reason of labour". Thus speak the scholars of Hillel: "We are sure Elias will not come on the sabbath. "Not on the sabbath eves. which Elias had left behind him. and knows not what it means. And yet we find that. lest they should leave the necessaries for the sabbath unfinished. before the day of the Lord come': you may argue. Elias cometh not on the sabbath day." 5." 4. he is bound to declare it by a public outcry. I send you Elias the prophet. namely. that he was seen in the days of our holy wise men. The Gloss thus: "If thou sayest. The Talmudists do suppose Elias keeping the sabbath in mount Carmel: "Let not the Trumah (saith one). Behold. keeping the sabbath in mount Carmel. in the days of Ahaziah his son it was written. The Talmudical books abound with these and the like trifles: "If a man finds any thing that is lost. neither on the sabbath eves. by reason of labour. by reason of labour" in the banquets." So he upon Malachi 4. whiles they went out to meet Elias. 3.' And this is a sign that Elias was first gone up into heaven in a whirlwind: because it is not said 'who poureth water. let him lay it up until Elias shall come. who poured water upon the hands of Elijah. to go to meet him: "Nor on the sabbaths. lest Elias.' And this proves that he then writ and sent it: for if it had been written before his ascension." "The Israelites are certain that Elias shall come. among other things. I am a Nazarite." And again. let him lay it up by him until Elias shall come. Let these three observations out of the Glossers upon the page cited serve for a conclusion:-- . "If any find a bill of contract between his countrymen.' Moreover. it shall be enough to produce a few passages out of Babylonian Erubhin: where. it is permitted to drink wine on the sabbaths and feast-days. that is." The Glossers give the reason. God of his mercy hasten his prophecy. after the death of Jehoshaphat. nor on the eves of the feast days. Elias: where. 'Behold.' but 'who poured. the same day wherein he comes he shall appear in public. these words occur. upon this subject. "If any say. by reason of the preparation for the sabbath. that he shall preach on that very day in which he shall come. Elias came not yesterday: that is. that they omit not those feastings and eatings which were esteemed so necessary to the sabbath. be burnt. That we be not tedious. and the times of his coming. a letter was found or brought to him. and shall preach the gospel on the sabbath. 'And a letter came to him from Elijah the prophet.3:11]. 'This is Elisha the son of Shaphat. you may answer with that text. And it is without controversy. Elisha departed not from Elijah from the time that he first waited upon him until Elias went up. of which it is doubted whether it be clean or unclean." And. nor on a feast day. come and testify of it on the sabbath that it is clean. perhaps he shall come on the eve of the sabbath." it is disputed what day of the week Messias shall come. but if the owners come not to ask for it.

Lord. indeed. not into the former state. until the times determined and prefixed for the perfecting of this restitution shall come. the vial of water. Him. when here and there. to the fathers the Jews: which work was begun by the Baptist. the Gentiles. Before the coming of the Son of David. or make up. "However. because Elias shall not come on the sabbath. his forerunner Elias appeared. wherein all things were to be framed into a gospel-state. and the hearts of the sons. We meet with numberless stories in the Talmudists concerning the apparitions of Elias: according to that which was said before by Aben Ezra. expect not. the Jews." 15. and so necessary to it. the Gentiles." There is no need of examples. until all these things be perfected. as to his person the heavens do contain. For thus the devil craftily deluded this nation. the vial of holy oil. There were times of restitution of all things determined by God. have mercy on my son: for he is a lunatic." He shall restore. to be united to the sons. and there are some who say. [And he shall restore all things. 2. and shall contain. Elias shall come to preach of him. and restore all things. and even the capacity of observing that the coming of the Messias was now past was obliterated. "Messias cometh not on the first day of the sabbath. He shall render to Israel the pot of manna. therefore. and sore vexed: for ofttimes he falleth into the fire. Which term of the restitution of all these expiring. a spirit taketh him. ye have crucified Christ. and finished by Christ and the apostles. 11." Whence it appears that Elias is expected the day before the Messias' appearing. and the appearances of ghosts. Is not Messias Ben Joseph to come first? II. For my part I cannot esteem all those stories for mere fables. hath a dumb spirit. and the doctrine of the gospel dispersed. and a state worthy of the Messias: a church was to be founded. 3. with the erring nation. and oft into the water. failed. [He is lunatic. and the gifts of revelation and miracles granted for this purpose. the commonwealth of the Jews expired also. therefore.] The Jews feign many things which Elias shall restore: "He shall purify the bastards. his personal presence always on earth: but he shall make up and constitute all things by us his ministers.] Luke 9:39. willing to be deceived. "yet God shall still send you Jesus Christ in the preaching of the gospel to fulfil these things. but into a better. And Jesus answered and said unto them. but in very many of them I cannot but suspect witchcrafts. . "It is without controversy that Elias was seen in the days of our wise men. as who saw him not.1." saith Peter in that place of the Acts now cited. and restore them to the congregation. in this age and in the other. when it may not be so much doubted who of these wise men saw Elias. as if he intended hence to let them know that he was yet to come. the hearts of the fathers. Acts 3:21. which we also said before concerning the Bath Kol. Mark 9:17. Elias truly shall first come. the rod of Aaron.

say. "Any one is fit to sacrifice a beast. this child is brought to the rest to be healed: they cannot heal him. He that is skilled in the Talmudic writings will here remember what things are said concerning a deaf and mad man. concerning whom there is so much mention in their writings. to that misery was added a phrensy. saying of him he is lunatic.] The edge of these words is levelled especially against the scribes (see Mark 9:14). specially those wherein either the body was distorted. how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him hither to me. dries up and contracts their nerves. a devil was present. and it is a kind of falling-sickness. It was very usual to the Jews to attribute some of the more grievous diseases to evil spirits. &c. who. whom Kordicus vexeth. another." From this vulgar opinion of the nation. and yet the disciples escaped not altogether untouched. Write a bill of divorce for my wife. that devils are the authors of such kind of diseases." II. [O faithless and perverse generation. in truth. "If any one. or a lycanthropy. one evangelist brings in the father of this child. is punished by the devils. "concerning which the wise men speak. generated from the repletion of the vessels of the brain. according to the sense of the masters. upon the place. namely. hath these words. except a dumb and deaf. in the first place cited. their Trumah is no Trumah: the deaf and dumb. ." Rambam. and here." "He that drinks up double cups. "Kordicus. Jochanan Ben Gudgoda were deaf and dumb.I. 17. When new wine out of the press hath caught any one. is he who neither heareth nor speaketh." &c. He had been dumb and deaf from his birth. say the Glossers. Christ and his three prime disciples being absent. "Shibta is an evil spirit. do thus interpret the word. is a demon. "Kordicus is a disease. or the mind disturbed and tossed with a phrensy. when the disease did first invade him. which kind of disease it was not unusual with the nation to attribute to the devil." &c. whereby the understanding is confounded. &c. O faithless and perverse generation. a lunatic. but if they do. the lunatic. What is 'Kordicus?' Samuel saith. "There are five who do not pay the Trumah. vexed with an evil spirit. which rules over those that drink too much new wine. where. I have rendered deaf and dumb. taking hold on the necks of infants." &c." See there the Jerusalem Gemara. "If any. who. partly." Behold the same a demon and a disease! to which the Gemarists applied exorcisms and a diet. among other things. he hath a spirit. partly. Then Jesus answered and said. this occurs not unworthy our noting. Write a bill of divorce for my wife. because the devil was really in him. shall say. and a child": and very many passages of this nature. "That all the sons of R.

[This kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting. However. two drachms: commanding every one. the whole shekel was the holy didrachm: then let the half shekel be. in the vulgar dialect. under the second Temple. which is according to the holy didrachm. the reason of which see. they that receive the didrachm. three hundred eighty-four middling grains of barley. "The shekel (saith he) concerning which the Law speaks. which is said. [Ye shall say to this mountain. upon Exodus 30:13." And Dion Cassius of the same thus. the Talmudists express they that demand or collect the shekels. as before they had paid it into the Temple at Jerusalem. that is. and it shall remove. A faithless and perverse generation. which seemed impossible to be overcome. the common didrachm. when they are not done! The faith of the disciples (v 20) wavered by the plain difficulty of the thing. and that which is here said by Matthew. to bring it into the Capitol. The Targumists render that place. and vilify. If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed.] It is not much unlike this. the half of the shekel. The word itself whereby this tribute is called. "He commanded all to bring the didrachm yearly to Jupiter Capitolinus." See the place and the Gloss. . See chapter 13:23. thus Josephus writes: "He laid a tax upon all the Jews wheresoever they were. Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you. 21. he that paid the half-shekel." The Seventy Interpreters. Doth not your master pay tribute? [They that receive the (didrachma) tribute-money. indeed. when so many evils were digested into one. of whatever age. Concerning this. ye shall say unto this mountain. if you please. in Maimonides. and nothing shall be impossible unto you. did weigh three hundred and twenty grains of barley. but the wise men sometime added to that weight. phrensy. when they are done. he that paid the shekels. and possession of the devil: and all these from the cradle. they that received tribute money came to Peter. And when they were come to Capernaum. the thing is. Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting. but adding this moreover.because this evil had adhered to him from his very birth. dumbness. 20. Remove hence to yonder place. &c. [Faith as a grain of mustard seed. was called. And Jesus said unto them. in Talmudic language.] As a seed of mustard. By reason of an evil spirit a singular or religious man may afflict himself with fastings.] See what we note at chapter 21:21. 24. namely. or as a drop of mustard. and said. Exodus 3 [13]. and made it to be of the same value with the money Sela. which is neither overcome by miracles.] Two things persuade me that this is to be understood of the half-shekel. Upon this the scribes insult and scoff at them and their master. to be yearly paid into the treasury of the Temple: 1. Be it so. deafness. &c. render it half a didrachm.

But here this objection occurs." 2. it is answered. "from thence were bought the daily and additional sacrifices. It may be answered. in the other of the year past. 2. because the Jews sought to kill him. 1." &c. when they sat to collect and receive this tribute. who recites this story. Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven? [Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?] It cannot be passed over without observation. whensoever they had him there present. of their collection. when. The answer of Christ sufficiently argues that the discourse is concerning this tax. observed not the course and order of time. when the feast of Tabernacles was near. saying. in every city. 1. and chapter 7:1. for he would not walk any more in Jewry. as being he among all the evangelists that most disjoints the times of the stories. The time of the payment of the half shekel was about the feast of the Passover. the two loaves (Lev 23:17). but now that time was far gone. the sheaf. which was not unusual with him. and. a feast of the Jews. But if any list to understand this of the tax paid the Romans. that the ambitious dispute of the disciples concerning primacy.2. and their drink offerings. and the feast of Tabernacles at hand. But let it be granted that the order of the history in him is right and proper here. "The fifteenth day of the month Adar. Either Christ was scarcely present at the Passover last past. the shewbread. he could not perform this payment in that manner as it ought to have been. to carry it to Jerusalem. moneychangers to collect it. At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus. all the sacrifices of the congregation. Why did the collectors of Capernaum require the payment at that time. the red cow. by reason of the danger he was in by the snares of the Jews. in one of which they put the tax of the present year. Hence it was. at this time especially. "Is your master of the sect of Judas of Galilee?" Chapter 18 1. by reason of some urgent necessity. It was not unusual to defer the payment of the half shekels of this year to the year following. Consider those words which John speaks of the Passover last past. was near". and they about to go to Jerusalem. "After these things Jesus walked in Galilee. "and the five-and-twentieth they sit in the Temple. to render an account. which was between his horns. And then the words of those that collected the tribute. "The Passover. they began not to demand it before the fifteenth day of the month Adar? I answer. chapter 6:4. or if he were present. The uncertain abode of Christ at Capernaum gave these collectors no unjust cause of demanding this due. being collected. we do not contend. It is certain there were. perhaps. the collectors had before them two chests placed. "Does not your master pay the didrachm?" seem to sound to this effect." 3. He is son of that king for whose use that tribute was demanded: for. when he saith. according to custom. the scapegoat. Hence is that in the tract cited." to demand the half shekel. which is not so easy to answer. the collectors sit in the cities. That Matthew. for the most part followed the mention of the death of Christ and his resurrection. and the crimson tongue. But it may be objected. See this .

" That Christ here speaks of a kind of death. 6. &c. The image of earthly pomp was fixed at the bottom of their hearts. or in allusion to drowning in the Dead sea. that the resurrection should go before the kingdom of the Messias. hatred. or to be added to the delights of the sabbath. However. that the mention of the most vile death of the Messias.story in Mark 9:31-33." The dream of the earthly kingdom of the Messias did so possess their minds (for they had sucked in this doctrine with their first milk). after Christ had oftentimes foretold his death and resurrection. and there arose a contention among them. no. and execration. in Talmudic language. by a common manner of speech.. and the Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests. we go up to Jerusalem. Hence the Gloss of R. "The sound of mills and the light of the candle": "The sound of mills (saith he). and there arose a contest between them. &c. who among them should be greatest. it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck. he does it either to aggravate the thing. which we have observed elsewhere. And Luke 22:22-24. one on thy right hand.. [It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck. in which one cannot be drowned without some weight hung to him: and in which to drown any thing. it always follows in the evangelists that "they understood not what was spoken". "Wilt thou at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?" Acts 1:6. Solomon upon Jeremiah 25:10. certainly never used among the Jews. But they knew not that saying. . and there it stuck. perhaps nowhere." Also Matthew 20:18-20: "He said to them. not when they saw the death of Christ. &c. nor by any words of Christ could it as yet be rooted out. But whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me. See more at chapter 24:3. Then came to him the mother of Zebedee's children with her sons. that they lost not an ace of the opinion of a future earthly kingdom.] It is good for him. Grant that these my two sons may sit. implied to devote to rejection. Behold. did not at all drive it thence. A millstone seems to be said in distinction from those very small mills wherewith they were wont to grind the spices that were either to be applied to the wound of circumcision. and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea. Lay up these discourses in your ears: for the time is coming that the Son of man is delivered into the hands of men. yet the opinion formed in their minds by their doctors. saying." &c. when together with that they saw his resurrection: for then they also asked. and Luke 9:44-46: "He said to his disciples. wherewith spices were ground and bruised for the healing of circumcision. who of them should seem to be the greater. &c. supplied them with such an interpretation of this matter. repeated over and over again. "The Son of man indeed goeth as it is determined.

that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 'Whosoever sins against his brother. but thou shalt surely reprove him.] The Hebrew lawyers require the same thing of him that sins against his brother: "Samuel saith. sent to minister for them who shall be heirs of the salvation to come": as if he should say. &c. [Their angels in heaven do always behold. Hebrews 1:14. and shalt not suffer sin in him." that is. I have sinned against thee. that is. and only one." Here the Talmudists speak not amiss: "The Rabbins deliver. he does not curse him: the text saith. Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee.' Perhaps he does not beat him.] This one may very well expound by laying to it that which is said. If perhaps he die. 'In reproving. then take with thee one or two more. How think ye? if a man have an hundred sheep. he does not pull off his hair.'" See also Maimonides. &c.] A very common form of speech:--"In distributing some grapes and dates to the poor. for I say unto you. But if he will not hear thee. If he hear. 16. 'in thy heart. and one of them be gone astray. 'Divide them': they hearken to him. because he speaks according to the tradition. from him who is the . "The angels are ministering spirits. Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones. 'Until he is angry. [Tell him his fault between thee and him alone. by bewitchings. I have sinned against thee. "See that ye do not despise one of these little ones. it is well: if not. but he heareth not: whence is it proved he is bound to a second reproof? The text saith. &c. "Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart. He reproves. &c. thou shalt reprove. namely." that is. that after that manner as the angels minister to adult believers. 'Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart. "How long must we reprove? Rabh saith. let him bring others. go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee." &c. 'Even to blows'". doth he not leave the ninety and nine.'" And a little after. and seeketh that which is gone astray? [If one of them be gone astray. In reproving. 15. and say. doth he not leave the ninety-and-nine. and goeth into the mountains. and let him appease him before them. 'Scatter them'. by the stroke of God." 12. But whence is it proved that he that sees his brother doing some foul action is bound to reprove him? Because it is said.' speaking of hatred in the heart. "and but one by the hand of Heaven. That in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven. thou hast gained thy brother. thou shalt reprove.'" But our Saviour here requires a higher charity. who have been received with their believing parents into the gospel-church: for I say unto you.10. "If ninety-nine die by reason of cold.] The reason of the precept is founded in that charitable law. let him appease him at his sepulchre. he must say to him. although ninety-nine say. until he that is reproved strikes him that reproves him: "Samuel saith. they minister to them also." "If ninety-nine die by an evil eye. [Take with thee one or two more. Leviticus 19:17. but one by the hand of God.

'Do not talk with N. 'Be it known unto you. if you persist in your perverseness. It was very customary among the Jews to note those that were obstinate in this or that crime after public admonition given them in the synagogue." In like manner also. and publicans. all Israel waged war against it.] He saith. collectors. and to set a mark of infamy upon them.'" &c. This was the reason that he had need of witnesses. However you take it. and by not suffering sin in him. and. let him be unto thee as a heathen man and a publican. and freed his soul. Let him be to 'thee'. they make proclamation against him in the synagogue. and it is declared how incapable they are of giving evidence in any judiciary matter. well: if not.' And moreover they set forth a public proclamation against her in the synagogues. "The jealous husband warned his wife before two witnesses. but not before public admonition is gone out against them in the consistory. 'N. saying." [Let him be to thee as a heathen and a publican. All these have need of public admonition in the consistory. bring him back into the right way. "If any deny to feed his children. for this. "The great Sanhedrim admonished a city lapsed to idols. not. they shame him. And if he shall neglect to hear them. certainly the business here is not so much concerning the censure of the person sinning. that he should deliver his soul by reproving his brother. they were altogether ignorant of: but they might testify this. perhaps. that it might be known to all that he discharged his duty. you have lost it all. If they repented. they reprove him. In like manner. [Tell it unto the church. "A provoking wife who saith. because he hath done thus or thus to me. and will not nourish his children: more cruel than the unclean birds themselves. is a cruel man. and omitted nothing which was commanded by the law in that case. or because he hath chid me. as concerning the vindication of the person reproving. The business there is about some shepherds. tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church.] That which was incumbent upon him against whom the sin was committed was this. and in the divinity schools every day for four sabbaths.offended party. "let it be told the church. for they feed their young ones." We do not here enter upon that long dispute concerning the sense of the word church in this place.'" 17. The witnesses also added their friendly admonition: whom if the offender hearkened not unto. for what else could they testify? They could not testify that the brother had sinned against him that reproved him.' &c. if possible. that he against whom the sin was committed used due reproof. 'I will create vexation to my husband. by two disciples of the wise men. whereby he might admonish his brother. although your dowry be a hundred pounds. The consistory by messengers send these words to her. they urge him: if he still refuse. Let him be to 'the church': because the discourse is of peculiar and private scandal . or because he hath miscalled me.

" &c. They reputed publicans to be by no means within religious society: A religious man. "Let him be to thee as a heathen. thou hast delivered thine own soul. Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. just as the Jews reckon themselves freed from friendly offices towards heathens and publicans. why he should be loosed from the obligation of the office of a brother towards him. and he does particularly teach what is to be done to that brother. but of him that particularly offends against his brother. "If. nor." is the same with what is spoke here. &c. They reckoned not heathens for brethren or neighbours: "If any one's ox shall gore his neighbour's ox: his neighbour's. "It is forbidden a Jew to be alone with a heathen.] These words depend upon the former. he excludes heathens. doth repent. who. had a just cause.against a single man. he that sinned against thee still remains untractable. Although he. and they to no purpose." "It is lawful for publicans to swear that is an oblation which is not. is altogether like a heathen. 1 Corinthians 5:11. not a heathen's: when he saith neighbour's." 1. being admonished. and neither will give thee satisfaction for the injury. 2. "With such an one no not to eat. Leviticus 19:17. and that by oath. They denied also brotherly offices to heathens and publicans: "It is forbidden to bring home any thing of a heathen's that is lost. is freed from the law of brotherly obligation. nor be admonished of it. publicans may deceive. 3. He had been speaking concerning being loosed from the office of a brother in a particular case: now he speaks of the authority and power of the apostles of loosing and binding "any thing" whatsoever seemed them good. against whom the offence is committed. being guided in all things by the Holy Ghost. That of Maimonides is not much different: "A Jew that apostatizes. that is. who becomes a publican. is to be driven out of the society of religion." A quotation which we produced before. that you are of the king's retinue when you are not. We have explained the sense of this phrase at chapter . 4. III. 18. yet to others in the church there is not the same reason. Hence they ate neither with heathens nor with publicans: concerning which thing they often quarrel [with] our Saviour. after a threefold and just reproof." &c. [Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth. &c. The words plainly mean this. according to the full latitude of that law. is not to be esteemed so much for a brother to him. Christ does not here prescribe concerning every offender. II. and he who being admonished does not repent. as for a heathen. or breaks the sabbath presumptuously. I. to travel with a heathen. who neither would make satisfaction for the wrong done. and art free from brotherly offices towards him". Hence that of the apostle. Verily I say unto you." &c. after three admonitions given.

unto the world's end. Then came Peter to him. to all the apostles here. 3. is led into all truth necessary to him for salvation: but the apostles were led into all truth necessary both for themselves and the whole church. or to be led. "How far shall I forgive my brother before I proceed to the extremity? What! seven times?" He thought that he had measured out. and he gives the same authority in respect of this. touching any thing that they shall ask: suppose. Hence. II. into all truth. &c. and they act jointly among the Samaritans. Again I say unto you.] The like do the Rabbins speak of two or three sitting in judgment. which appears also from the following words. whatsoever they should abolish was to be abolished: since they were endowed. as to all things. That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask. concerning conferring the Spirit by the imposition of hands. &c. by these words. guiding them by the hand into all truth. 21. there am I in the midst of them.16. Lord. because they were to deliver a rule of faith and manners to the whole church throughout all ages. This bond being broke by Barnabas. [That if two of you shall agree upon earth.] And these words do closely agree with those that went before: there the speech was concerning the apostles' determination in all things respecting men. For where two or three are gathered together in my name. at any time. with a spirit of infallibility. John 16:13.] That is. a large charity. that the divine presence is in the midst of them. certainly. [Agree together.. verse 15. and Paul and Barnabas among the Gentiles. how oft shall my brother sin against me. Acts 8:14. in a manner. who were all to be partakers of the same Spirit and of the same gifts. any where. it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. here. beside the apostles.] Hence Peter and John act jointly together among the Jews. I. and I forgive him? till seven times? [Shall I forgive him? till seven times?] This question of Peter respects the words of our Saviour. and said. "The Spirit of truth shall lead you into all truth. as he did to Peter there. Acts 13:2. of doing this or that miracle. double to that which was prescribed by the schools: "He that is wronged (say they) is forbidden to be difficult to pardon. there am I in the midst of them. was led. Every holy man. to obtain something from God. for that is not the manner of the seed of Israel." There lies an emphasis in those words. [For where two or three are gathered together in my name. 20. This power was built upon that noble and most self-sufficient foundation. &c. concerning their grace and power of obtaining things from God. being. from the ascension of Christ. 19." I deny that any one. [Two of you. But when the offender implores him . whatsoever they should confirm in the law was to be confirmed. the Spirit is doubled as it were upon Paul. Acts 2. "into all truth.

He saith unto them. &c. otherwise. "Is there any woman who will be my wife while I tarry in this place?" The question here propounded by the Pharisees was disputed in the schools. Nor does this sense want its fitness in this place: not to exclude the other. What woman will have me for a day? Rabh Nachman. between Arabia and Judea. and it appears he repents of his deed. he made a public proclamation.] If it were barely said. What woman will have me for a day?" The Gloss is.] Interpreters ordinarily understand this of the unkindness of men towards their wives. that is. [He came unto the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan. 3. that sins against another. Acts 7:42: God turned. thirdly. and come into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan. the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan. (taking a journey from Galilee. Nor does such a construction want its parallel in Josephus. The Pharisees also came unto him. the school of Hillel." But see Mark here. made a public proclamation. but there lies a snake under it. That God delivered that rebellious people for the hardness of their hearts to spiritual fornication. he departed from Galilee. for which they put away their wives. Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? [Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause?] Of the causes. saith he.once and again. they pardon him." &c. "For (say they) they pardon a man once. Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so. to idolatry. but only in the case of adultery. tempting him. we have spoke at chapter 5:31. and particularly from these words of the first martyr Stephen. chapter 10:1. when he went to Sacnezib. into the coasts of Judea. by the coasts of Judea one might understand the bounds of the Jews beyond Jordan. and gave them up to worship the host of heaven. and they divided into parties concerning it. beyond Jordan. they pardon him. sufficiently appears out of sacred story. &c. We will produce only one example here. for "Hyrcanus (saith he) built a fortification. as we have noted before. And it came to pass. I. And they seem not less given . fourthly.' as the Gloss saith. let him pardon him: and whosoever is most ready to pardon is most praiseworthy. they do not pardon him. and that not illy: but at first sight hardness of heart for the most part in Scripture denotes rather obduration against God than against men." It is well. "When Rabh went to Darsis ('whither. and saying unto him. 'he often went'). not far from Essebonitis. relating the same story with this our evangelist: He came. secondly. the name of which was Tyre. but to be joined with it here. For the school of Shammai permitted not divorces. 8. [Because Moses for the hardness of your hearts suffered.) along the country beyond Jordan. ridiculous (shall I call them?) or wicked. Chapter 19 1. that when Jesus had finished these sayings. Examples occur everywhere.

something that savours of punishment in itself. Let us search into the divine laws in case of adultery a little more largely. if he would.." &c. but the former was partly taken off by the latter. both to the disgrace of wedlock and to the scandal of religion! Therefore the most prudent. to prosecute their wives with all manner of severity. whether the husband was bound in this case by duty to prosecute his wife to extremity. "Does a man find something foul in his wife? he cannot put her away. both shall die. if she were guilty. rightly and upon good ground. from their fierceness and cruelty towards their wives. simply and generally men were severe and unkind towards their wives. Deuteronomy 22:21-23: "If a man shall be found lying with a married woman. and their not less horrid allowances of divorces and polygamies in the books of the Talmudists: so that the particle. to kill them. But now. There was a law made upon the suspicion of adultery. might not go without her punishment. or whether it were lawful for him to connive at and pardon her. and withal merciful lawgiver. But you may interpret it more clearly and aptly of the inhumanity of husbands towards their wives: but this is to be understood also under restriction: for Moses permitted not divorces. adultery. 2. if you interpret it to. according to its most usual signification. 1. because he hath not found foul nakedness in her". it plainly appears from our Saviour's gloss. however you esteem it for a privilege. but the word shall be found is opposed to suspicion. poor woman. that is. A law of divorce also was given in case of adultery discovered. if he were weary of her. say they in the place last cited. because. how do the law of death and that of divorce consist together? It is answered. And there are some who say he was bound by duty. "Moses to the hardness of your hearts added this. that he permitted divorces. for in that case only. to oppress her under that law of death! And if she were taken under guilt. how cruelly and insolently would he triumph over her. and means the same as if it were said. Numbers 5: but it is disputed by the Jewish schools. made provision that the woman. for then. 3. and if she were not guilty. There was a law of death made in case of the discovery of adultery.. might go without danger. and when it is discovered. and from the concession of some Rabbins also. Deuteronomy 24:1. to oppress them. The Divine Wisdom knew that inhuman husbands would use that law of death unto all manner of cruelty towards their wives: for how ready was it for a wicked and unkind husband to lay snares even for his innocent wife. why should he restrain divorces to the cause of adultery? but because. They do not so consist together that both retain their force." &c. that divorces took place: for. "When it shall be found that a man hath lain. they might take hold of and seek occasions from that law which punished adultery with death. Not that this law was not in force unless they were taken in the very act.carries with it a very proper sense. and there are others who say that it was left to his pleasure. and partly not. and that the wicked husband .up to carnal fornication. that the wife should undergo a trial by the bitter waters." II. if you observe the horrid records of their adulteries in the Holy Scripture.

] Not for the healing of some disease. as in this place. which permitted divorces without the case of adultery. the husband might. There is mention of the daughter of a certain priest committing fornication in her father's house. "That there was no place for divorce where matrimony was broke off by capital punishment". Thou shalt not steal. because the law of divorce was given for that very end. 18. the weaker vessel. and mark them for his by his blessing. and the thing not discovered. despising the doctrine and person of Christ. when it is scarcely probable that they. and favours again that doctrine which he had laid down. but it argued the hardness of his heart towards his wife. or that they would be too troublesome to their Master. when mention is made of the whole law. He saith unto him. that he should put his hands on them. Thou shalt not commit adultery. In case of the discovery of adultery. Let this story serve for a conclusion. because she was not found guilty of discovered adultery. Some therefore of those that believe brought their infants to Christ. That which is said by one does not please me. &c.9. have brought her to trial by the bitter waters. Thou shalt not bear false witness. "Shemaiah and Abtalion compelled Carchemith. but he scarce might put her to death. that he might take particular notice of them. for there was place for divorce for that end. Thou shalt do no murder. so also Romans 13:8. but she was not married. and pray: and the disciples rebuked them. chapter 18:3. would desire his blessing. namely. for if this had been the end propounded. 13.11. and James 2:8. He might put her away by the traditional law. why did the disciples keep them back above all others. a libertine woman-servant. that there might not be place for capital punishment. only the second table is exemplified. I do not remember that I have anywhere in the Jewish pandect read any example of a wife punished with death for adultery. and so the law made sufficient provision for terror: but it consulted more gently for the woman.] It is worthy marking. in the suspicion of adultery. or if he would he might connive at her. that provision might be made for the woman against the hardheartedness of her husband. and admit them into his discipleship. That law indeed of death held the adulterer in a snare. &c. the husband might put away his wife. . Perhaps the disciples thought this an excess of officious religion. if he had pleased. or burning jealousy. lest the cruelty of her husband might unmercifully triumph over her. that was burnt alive. if he would. or chide any for their access? Nor can we believe that they were the children of unbelieving Jews. Which? Jesus said. that the infants of believers were as much disciples and partakers of the kingdom of heaven as their parents. to drink the bitter waters. how again and again in the New Testament. and exacted capital punishment upon him. [Then were little children brought unto him. that he brought her. try his wife by the bitter waters.that was impatient of wedlock might not satiate his cruelty. [Thou shalt do no murder. Therefore. he might not." The husband of this woman could not put her away by the law of Moses. Then were there brought unto him little children. and hence they opposed them: but Christ countenanceth the same thing.

which thought so: and he tries this rich man. [Ye that have followed me. but in a grosser sense. which we observe at chapter 24. he speaks according to the idiom of the nation. calls back the mind of the disciples to . when he pretended to aspire to eternal life. If thou wilt be perfect. Ishbab is produced. with thy bodily labour. for the corner of the field" to be left for the poor. he would aspire to that perfection which his countrymen so praised. but lifting up his mind to the renouncing of worldly things. "who speak things that are impossible. or how great an oblation is to be brought. he provokes him to it by the very doctrine of the Pharisees which he professed. and a most undoubted sign of love towards God. distributing all his goods to the poor. Sheshith answered R. and give to the poor. boasting of his exact performance of the law. [A camel to go through the eye of a needle. namely. in the regeneration.] That the world is to be renewed at the coming of the Messias. and the preaching of the gospel. in these words." The casuists. nor an elephant going through the eye of a needle. judging the twelve tribes of Israel. "For these things the measure is not stated. the Scriptures assert." 28. "Perhaps thou art one of those of Pombeditha. &c. [Sell that thou hast. or that he exhorted this man to rest ultimately in a Pharisaical perfection. There. go and sell that thou hast.17. "A thing which he was not wont to see. "for the firstfruits for the appearance in the Temple" (according to the law. and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me. nor is any bound to give the poor above the fifth part of his estate. The Gloss is. "but as to money there is a stated measure. these words are added. and give to the poor. where the discourse is concerning dreams and their interpretation. And Jesus said unto them. It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle. Our Saviour.Charity towards our neighbour is the top of religion. than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.] When Christ calls it perfection to sell all and give to the poor. therefore. who can make an elephant pass through the eye of a needle": that is. 24. discussing that point of 'shewing mercy. is not appointed). unless he does it out of extraordinary devotion. Exodus 23:15. ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones. what. and the Jews believe. in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory. nor concerning which he ever thought. 21.] A phrase used in the schools.' do thus determine concerning it: "A stated measure is not indeed prescribed to the shewing of mercy. Verily I say unto you. and the Jerusalem Gemara: where the example of R." In like manner R. They do not shew a man a palm tree of gold. "for the shewing mercy. whether." See Rambam upon the place. Amram. by the word regeneration. Not that hence he either devoted Christians to voluntary poverty. Jesus said unto him. as to the affording poor men help with thy body. as the Aruch interprets it. And again I say unto you. That ye which have followed me. and for the study of the law. the fifth part of thy wealth." that is. where. intimating a thing very unusual and very difficult. disputing with him and asserting something that was incongruous.

That the sitting of the apostles upon thrones with Christ is not to be understood of their persons. and others. and those thrones Revelation 20:1. "He saith thrones in the plural number. John 5:27. &c. sitting upon thrones. it is sufficiently proved. but of his judgment in his entrance upon his evangelical government. does always represent as well the saints as the wicked standing before the tribunal of Christ. "The kingdom of heaven is at hand. king." The sense. thrones were cast down. that the scene of the last judgment. is not of the body or substance of the world. ye also shall sit. regenerated. shall judge and condemn them. That those thrones set up in Daniel are not to be understood of the last judgment of Christ. doctrine. R. painted out in the Scripture.] These words are fetched out of Daniel. Solomon the Vulgar. Those words. For observe the scope and series of the prophet. when he was made by his Father chief ruler. 1. the Grecian. because not only Christ shall judge." that judiciary scene set up Revelation 4 and 5." See Romans 2:16. implying that renovation. and a dispensation conducing thereunto: men are to be renewed. namely. after the four monarchies. but that it consists in the renewing of the manners. &c. John 3:3. 2. thrones were set up: where Lyranus thus. and perfect men. but the apostles. But. "When I shall bring judgment upon this most unjust nation. chapter 7:9. namely. . we have mention here only of "twelve thrones." And. which you have preached in my name.--not the fabric of the world. rebellious.10. Saadia. and others. the kingdom of Christ should rise. [When the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of his glory. Aben Ezra. II. therefore. The throne of glory. that the saints shall at the day of judgment sit with Christ. This very thing he teaches Nicodemus. of the place may very well be found out by weighing these things following: I. which monarchies had vexed the world and the church by their tyranny. were destroyed. R. shall assist him in judgment. that. 2 Corinthians 5:10. read it righter. Hence it appears that the gospel was preached to all the twelve tribes of Israel before the destruction of Jerusalem. we have mention only of judging the "twelve tribes of Israel. because Judas was now one of the number: but it is meant of their doctrine: as if he had said.. besides. concerning which the Scripture speaks. concerning which the words before us are. and the Syro-Grecian. We meet with very frequent mention of the coming of Christ in his glory in this sense. as well Jews as Christians. is to be understood of the judgment of Christ to be brought upon the treacherous. and approve and applaud his judgment. which words I wonder should be translated by the interpreters. wicked people." The same way very many interpreters bend the words under our hands. &c.a right apprehension of the thing. and judge of all things: Psalm 2:6. then our doctrine. Matthew 28:18. the Babylonian. Matthew 25:32. III. treating concerning the nature of the kingdom of heaven. the Medo-Persian. which we shall discourse more largely of at chapter 24. do interpret Daniel to this sense.

which begins thus. and not from break of day: and this is proved from the chapter the president of the priests saith to them. which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard.20 Bible:Matt. as reason requires. beginning from the last unto the first. saying. that they might receive their hire." [Early in the morning. 7.] Read here. the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward. for A penny of gold is worth five-and-twenty of silver. among which there was one hired. 'It is light all in the east. 'The sun shall not go down upon him. and men go out to hire labourers': whence it is argued that they do not begin their work before the sun riseth. where it is said that it is prohibited on the day of the Passover to do any servile work after the sun is up. but madly applied. [Who went out early in the morning to hire labourers.22" /> 1.21 Bible:Matt. who performed his work extraordinary well.'" &c. where they say. cap. 21.] For "it is one of the affirmative precepts of the law. 'We have laboured hard all the day.|Matt|21|0|0|0. intimating this. and give them their hire. He that hireth labourers: and Maimonides.22 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 20. 8. When even was come. and walked with him to and fro.' So R. 'He hath laboured more in those two hours than you in the whole day. but afterward for certain hours. and for a penny.Chapters 20. and being hired (only) for some hours: which may be observed also in this parable: for in the morning they are hired for all the day. a tract entitled Hiring. And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day. as it is said. that that was the time when labourers should begin their work.] You have such a parable as this.] A penny of silver. those labourers came. 22" parsed="|Matt|20|0| 0|0. And the labourers murmured. [Call the labourers. Call the labourers. as it is said.] "The time of working is from sunrising to the appearing of the stars. in the Talmud: we will produce it here for the sake of some phrases: "To what was R. and this man only two hours. [To hire labourers. [Agreed for a penny a day. For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder. which one of gold exceeded twentyfour times. . What did the king? He took him aside. the tract Bava Mazia. 2. if you please. yet he hath received as much wages as we': the king saith to them." &c. it is a breach of a negative precept. 'You shall pay him his wages in his day': and if they be detained longer. So when even was come. in proportion to the time they wrought. that a hired labourer should have his wages paid him when they are due. Bon Bar Chaija like? To a king who hired many labourers. and he gave him a complete hire with the rest. between being hired by the day. he sent them into his vineyard.21. and have a part of a penny allotted them. The canons of the Hebrews concerning hiring of labourers distinguish. It is also proved from the tract Pesachin.|Matt|22|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. Bon plied the law more in eight-and-twenty years than another in a hundred years.

By the by also we may observe that which is said by the Babylonians in the place cited. because they are supposed to have come together from several places. and their complaint is against the servant. hence came that axiom. Note here the canon. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of. and let them not bless over their cup of vengeance. Friend. let him not bless over the third. I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a penny? [Didst not thou agree with me for a penny?] In hiring of labourers. for at some places they go to work sooner. when their wages were to be paid them. as with those that were hired early in the morning." &c.13. being a plunging of the whole body into water." But to the matter before us. There is also an example.. hire me labourers for fourpence': he goes and hires them for threepence. 'Go. You may think that the cup of vengeance. and when these last murmured. and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him. You agreed with me. which we noted before at the sixth . The Jerusalem Talmudists relate. 2. But he answered one of them. and partly by reason of the cold. "He that drinks off double cups is punished by devils. Observe the custom of the city. Nachman Bar Isaac. because they bound themselves by agreement. "Those of Tiberias that went up to Bethmeon to be hired for labourers. of which there is mention in Bab. speaking of this very thing. were hired according to the custom of Bethmeon. not without cause. Beracoth. supposing that they would submit to the custom of the place. partly. the custom of the place most prevailed." Hence two things may be cleared in the parable before us: 1. But.] The phrase that goes before this. Why they are said to be hired at such different hours. and those that were hired for the whole day. there is. because the women of Galilee grew barren by reason of the coldness of the waters". So cruel a thing was the baptism of the Jews. We are able. indeed. when it was never so much chilled with ice and snow. but that he should only say. some endeavoured quite to take away the washings [baptisms] of women. Why there was no certain agreement made with those that were hired at the third. concerning the cup. although their labour deserves fourpence. and said. [The baptism that I am baptized with. sixth. by the favour of the lord of the vineyard. and ninth hours. saith R. What is the cup of vengeance? The second cup. namely. therefore. and at some later. but it is far otherwise: give me leave to quote it. Ye know not what ye ask. that "in the days of Joshua Ben Levi. they shall not receive but three. means the same thing.as the Gloss renders it. "The master of the family saith to his servant. where sad and grievous things are compared to draughts of a bitter cup. "Notice must be taken whether they come from several places. that. an equality made between those that were hired for some hours.. by reason of the burying as I may call it under water. is taken from divers places of Scripture." Rabbena Asher and Piske are more clear: "If he shall drink off two cups. it used to signify the most cruel kind of death. though it be somewhat out of our bounds: "Let them not talk (say they) over their cup of blessing." The Gloss." 22. "Whatsoever is right I will give you": that is. But Jesus answered and said. they are answered from their own agreement.

then he shall come with the clouds of heaven. [Meek. Hence this of our Saviour appears to be a miracle. Saying unto them. [Strewed branches in the way." In the greatest humility of the Messias they dream of grandeur.] This triumph of Christ completes a double prophecy: 1. they shall take to them every man a lamb. "In the tenth day of this month.] Mons Olivarum. then riding upon an ass. 'You say your Messias will come upon an ass. &c." are consistent with these words of Zechariah. unto the mount of Olives. Whosoever transgresses against the will of the owner is called a robber. 2." as judge and revenger. and strowed them in the way. according to the custom of the feast of Tabernacles. 'You have not a horse with a hundred spots as is his ass. that "he comes with the clouds of heaven. this perhaps might have thrown down the rider. Exodus 12:3. that without any agreement or terms this ass should be led away. John also adds. the Babylon Gemara hath these words. "The Lord hath need of him. This prophecy of Zechariah here mentioned. 8.verse of the third chapter." "If (say they) the Israelites be good. not a robbery. Zechariah 14:4. and a colt the foal of an ass. and sitting upon an ass.] Not that they strewed garments and boughs just in the way under the feet of the ass to be trod on. good. For instance. . and were come to Bethphage. how those words of Daniel concerning the Messias. but by the wayside they made little tents and tabernacles of clothes and boughs. and straightway ye shall find an ass tied. they speak concerning a hired ass. [An ass and her foal. but because he is. In that treatise Mezia. and that the owner and those that stood by should be satisfied with these bare words. if any one hires an ass for a journey on the plains. And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem." It scarce appears to the Talmudists. even in his very ass. and sitting upon an ass. Go into the village over against you. not because you are. I will send him a brave horse. but sitting upon an ass." 5. The taking to themselves the Paschal lamb. but if not good. and turns up to the mountains. 2. Among other things there. And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way. "King Sapores said to Samuel. and bring them unto me. and a colt with her: loose them. meek. Tell ye the daughter of Sion.] In the Talmudists we have the like phrase." Thou art much mistaken. and the terms that the hired is obliged to. thy King cometh unto thee. [To the mount of Olives. others cut down branches from the trees. Chapter 21 1. that "he comes sitting upon an ass.' He answers him. O Jew: for he comes "in the clouds of heaven. according to the command of the law. Behold. for this was the very day on which it was to be taken. then sent Jesus two disciples. an ass and a little colt.

send now prosperity. as they call it. what do those words mean. In the feast of Tabernacles. they used once to go round the altar with bundles in their hands. the boughs of myrtle and willow. R. "At that clause Give thanks unto the Lord. We now sing Hosanna to the Messias. used to be sung. "The tossing or shaking of the bundles was on the right hand. &c.] Some are at a loss why it is said to the Son. O Lord. singing this. Save now.? it is absurd. That book of Maimonides entitled Tabernacles and palm branches. indeed. O Lord. it is approved. who tells us. as seems in these clauses. that a branch of palm is called Lulab. and to make them up into a small bundle. And the multitudes that went before. if Hosanna to the Son of David signifies boughs to the Son of David." Again. I saw R. I beseech thee." &c. Hosanna in the highest. O our God. of which the law.' (Psa 106:1). because it is written. I beseech thee. and that these words. because he is good.' (Psa 96:12). We will not deny that bundles are sometimes so called. but only at that clause. "It is a notable precept. not unsuitable to the present story: "Doth any one spread his garment on his tabernacle against the heat of the sun. And afterward. and boughs of myrtle and willow bound together are called Hosanna: but. Hosanna to the Son of David. "But when were the bundles shaken?" The rubric of the Talmud saith. the great Hallel. Save now. they went forth to meet him. signify no more than boughs to the Son of David." "The reason of the bundles was this. 'Then let all the trees of the wood sing. that those very bundles of boughs are called Hosanna.. [Hosanna to the Son of David. And afterward it is written. I beseech thee. 'Give thanks unto the Lord. will be an excellent comment on this place.where it is plain. upwards and downwards. Succah. But on the seventh day of the feast they went seven times round the altar. Halleluia. Save now.that taking branches of palm trees in their hands. Leviticus 23:40.' &c. and so will the Talmudic treatise. O Lord. the whole company used sometimes to answer at certain clauses. We will pick out these few things. Joshuah. And at that clause. saying. . 'Save us." And a little after. to gather young branches of palms. Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. send now prosperity. O Lord. Psalm 113-118. &c. Hosanna in the highest? The words therefore here sung import as much as if it were said. and not O Son: wherefore they fly to Caninius as to an oracle. I beseech thee. And while the words of the Psalms were sung or said by one.. on the left hand. Akibah said. and these are called young branches of palms. I beseech thee. Gamaliel and R. before their leaves shoot out on all sides. O Lord. cried. O Lord. (Psa 118:25) as saith the school of Hillel: but the school of Shammai saith also. 9." On every day of the feast. Sometimes the same clauses that had been sung or said were again repeated by the company: sometimes the bundles of boughs were brandished or shaken. but when they are like small staves. and that followed. but if he spread his garment for comeliness and ornament. "The boughs of palm trees. when all the company shook their bundles they did not shake theirs. and to carry them in their hands. at that clause. that is. speaks. are the young growing sprouts of palms. and at the end. in the beginning of Psalm 118.

as if it were said. therefore. they expect great things from him. as also oxen and sheep. Behold. according to the custom. the holy and blessed God commanded Israel that they should rejoice with these bundles. another while. They have the Messias before their eyes. The mirth of that feast above all others. they had no way to express a more ardent zeal and joy at his coming.(Psa 106:47). And Jesus went into the temple of God. That prophecy of Zechariah. [For more information on feast days.] These things being premised concerning the rites and customs of that feast. Hosanna in the highest. as it were. where every day was sold wine." 12. for innumerable . First. it is plain they took him for the Messias). oil. by reason of the suddenness of the present action." &c. and other requisites to sacrifices. For what hath this to do with the time of the Passover? If one search into the reason of the thing more accurately. 'Let the trees of the wood sing'. yet from thence may sufficiently be gathered the singular solemnity and joy of that feast above all others. however it be not to be understood according to the letter. [He cast out all them that sold and bought in the Temple. and. as if they had said. and the seats of them that sold doves. the occasion of this present action was taken. was not now sung. and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple. It is very much worth our observation. from that same prophecy. Secondly. triumph. these things occur. in the spacious Court of the Gentiles. salt. and are therefore transported with excess of joy at his coming. which. when they go out justified from the presence of the Lord. II. as a man rejoiceth who goeth out of the presence of his judge acquitted. For being willing to receive the Messias with all joyfulness. Israel and the nations of the world go forth to judgment. And the reason is mystical. concerning which there needs not much to be said. please see "The Temple: Its Ministry and Services" by Alfred Edersheim. O thou [who dwellest] in the highest. as they used to do in the Temple. since the very name of the feast (for by way of emphasis it was called Festivity or Mirth) sufficiently proves it. save us. But whereas the Great Hallel. than by the solemn procession of that feast. save us by the Messias. and being ignorant who are to be cleared and who guilty. And one while they sing Hosanna to the Son of David. Let them sing with the trees of the wood. while they went round the altar. In the beginning of the year. "Now we sing Hosanna to the Son of David. the whole solemnity of that song was. There was always a constant market in the Temple in that place which was called the shops. we now return to our story:-I. what is written. perhaps. The nearness of the Passover had made the market greater. and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers. II. that the company receives Christ coming now to the Passover with the solemnity of the feast of Tabernacles. we beseech thee.] I. and affection of mind (for by calling him the Son of David. swallowed up in the frequent crying out and echoing back of Hosanna.

brought them into the Mountain of the House". You see that Christ did not overturn the chests in which the holy money was laid up. a kolbon [or the fee that was paid to the moneychanger] was half a mea. and then compelled them to give. may be learned very well from the Talmud. 'be laid waste. the exchangers sat in every city. Therefore. and Maimonides in the treatise Shekalim:-"It is an affirmative precept of the law. and from him that did not give they forced a pledge. Whereupon Rabban . See the Talmudic treatise of that title. are obliged to this. and the poor shall give no less. [Of those that sold doves] Sellers of doves." &c. in one of which they laid up the money of the present year. that is. "Doves were at one time sold at Jerusalem for pence of gold. that every Israelite should give half a shekel yearly: even the poor. the first was for the money of the present year. Therefore. even his very coat. who live by alms. 'Let their houses. "It is necessary that every one should have half a shekel to pay for himself. they were brought hither to be sold.'" "In the first day of the month Adar. They called these chests trumpets. and in the other the money of the year past. and whence they had their name.beasts being requisite to this solemnity. They sat in the Temple with thirteen chests before them. because. and must either beg the money of others. and a wide belly. into the Court of the Gentiles. that every one should provide his half shekel.' He sent for three thousand of the sheep of Kedar. when he comes to the exchanger to change a shekel for two half shekels. which is called kolbon." You see what these moneychangers were." And not much after." "They sat in the cities. on the fifteenth day of the same month. and be ready to pay it. the twelfth part of a penny. or sell their clothes to pay half a shekel. and having examined whether they were without spot. On the five-and-twentieth day of the same month they sat in the Temple. This brings to mind a story of Bava Ben Buta: "He coming one day into the court found it quite empty of beasts. he is obliged to allow him some gain. civilly requiring this money: they received it of those that gave it. And when two pay one shekel [between them]. 'The rich shall give no more. they made a public proclamation concerning these shekels. and never less. with two chests before them. the third. "How much is that gain? At that time when they paid pence for the half shekel.' said he. each of them is obliged to allow the same gain or fee.] Who those moneychangers were. the second. for the money that was offered to buy pigeons. they had a narrow mouth. like trumpets. for the year past. but the exchangers laid them by themselves till the holy treasury were paid out of them. and compelled those that did not. who have laid waste the house of our God. [Overthrew the tables of the moneychangers. that is. as it is said. but the tables on which they trafficked for this unholy gain. But the kolbons were not like the half shekel.

did he curse the tree. or in common fields. as to tithing. he thus decreed. [Found nothing thereon but leaves only. because the time of figs was not yet a great while. let his father teach him the law. and saying. and in shaking. to sing Hosanna. "The Rabbins teach. Hosanna. and found nothing thereon.] Children. We will first consider the situation of this tree. Our evangelist saith. he must put on the borders: as soon as he knows how to keep his father's phylacteries. and saying.Simeon Ben Gamaliel said. that therefore figs were not found on this tree. that so soon as a little child can be taught to manage a bundle. and as to eating. And when he saw a fig tree in the way. whereby doves were sold that very day for two farthings. He found nothing thereon but leaves. and the fruits of trees which grew in gardens. How much difference was made between these fruits by the canonists. for their purification. they were sore displeased. This fig-tree seems to have been of the former kind: a wild fig-tree. but common to all. that had a proper owner. that it could not be said of it. So that our Saviour did not injure any particular person. unless they be sold for pence of silver. But now. By this temple I will not lie down this night. to shake them. 19. &c. Why then did our Saviour expect figs. and fluxes.] This place is not a little obscure. or of five undoubted fluxes. Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. orchards. and to say the phylacteries. he is bound to carry one: so soon as he knows how to veil himself. . and the children crying in the temple. between the fruits of trees of common right. 15. A child. is bound to carry a bundle Where the Gemara saith thus. there was at that time a greater number of beasts. And presently the fig tree withered away. growing in a place or field. who seems to say." &c. were pigeons. which did not belong to any peculiar master. when they went up to Jerusalem with their offerings at the feasts only. that it was in the way." The offering for women after childbirth. being innocent and agreeable to its own nature? I. that it was mine or thine. And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that he did. he must put on his own: as soon as he can speak. so soon as he knows how to wave the bundle. This minds me of a distinction used very often by the Talmudists. or fields. but leaves only and said unto it. when he caused this tree to wither. were taught to manage the bundles. because it was not yet the time of figs. requisite. [The children crying in the temple. and turtles. from their first infancy. he came to it. shall be bound only to make one offering. A woman of five undoubted labours. Hosanna to the son of David. not belonging to any one in particular. being compared with Mark 11:13. when he might certainly know that it was not yet the time of figs? And why. entitled Seeds. pigeons. is in many places to be met with through the whole classes. but grew in woody places. Mark 11:13. but it was such a tree. and the three-andtwentieth verse. See what we have said at the fifth chapter. &c. Going into the council-house. &c. not finding them. II.

but that before Pentecost it was not lawful to bring any. unless I mistake. they were memorable which were called a kind of fig. Shithin. he would be obliged to make another journey. therefore. nor could be expected. "The firstfruits are not to be brought before Pentecost. nay (according to the Talmudists)." Among these the fig-tree can by no means be reckoned: for since. which grew in gardens and paradises: 1..'" II.a fig mixed with a plane-tree." But now this is not to be understood of all trees. the firstfruit of thy labours which thou hast sown in thy field. 2. namely. it is plain enough that the figs of that year coming on were not expected by our Saviour. in these words. which were called white figs. "If the fruit be not ripened till Pentecost is past. which. our Saviour being witness.white figs. and from that time till the figs be ripe are fifty days. That we may pursue the matter somewhat home. "At what time in the seventh year do they forbear to lop their trees? The school of Shammai saith All trees from that time. till there be green figs. from the green figs. "The beginning of leaves is in the days of Nisan. There is mention also in the same place of. but of some only.1. for the green year. fifty days." The Gloss. it must not be so understood as if the firstfruits of all trees were then to be brought. which put forth their fruit about the time of the Passover. for the fruit of the tree. There are several kinds of figs mentioned in the Talmudists besides these common ones. 'And the feast of harvest. But among all those kinds of figs. and have them ripe at the feast of Pentecost.. and among those things which were doubtful as to tithing were shithin: which the Glosser tells us were wild figs. you could not expect any ripe figs. the Gloss answers. whom see. for the time of figs was not yet. as it is commonly read. because it is said in the law. but their manner of bearing fruit was more unusual. For thus Maimonides in the place cited: "If the council sees that there is not yet any green ear. we will render the words in the paraphrase of the Glossers: ". and make it appear that the text of Mark. There is mention of these in Sheviith. We must first observe what is said about the intercalation of the year: "They intercalate the year upon three accounts." Maimonides is more large. they bring forth [leaves]. figs of a better sort. and they yet more. till the buds fall off. among those things which were accounted to deserve lesser care.. and for Tekupha. not so much as the putting out of leaves. before the Passover. the putting forth of its leaves is a sign that summer is at hand. When it is before said that Pentecost was the time of bringing the firstfruits. moved by these two causes. they intercalate the year. "Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel saith. but they did not receive them of them. make to our purpose: not that they were more noble than the rest." If." 2.. they intercalate the year. I. From the putting forth of leaves. and that was five months' time before the figs came to be ripe. because Pentecost is the time of bringing the firstfruits: and if at that time one should not bring them along with him when he comes to the feast. for thus it is provided for by a plain canon. The inhabitants of mount Zeboim brought theirs before Pentecost. and that the fruit of the trees which used to bud at the feast of the Passover is not yet budded [mark that. is uncorrupted. the first putting out of the leaves was in the month Nisan. Concerning which the tract Demai. Now if you ask what means the intercalation for the fruit of the tree. is fifty days. and a kind of fig: the . 3. 'used to bud'].

then for the year following. then it must be tithed for the year coming on. IV. Judan Bar Philia answered before R.seventh year" (that is.'" Hence that axiom in Rosh Hashanah.' Samuel Bar Abba saith. what we meet with in the Jerusalem Gemara. before the beginning of the month Tisri. the gong out of the seventh. it may be objected about them.'" Concerning common fig-trees. "The first day of the month Shebat is the beginning of the year for trees. out of the Talmudists. of the past. but if after. namely. the fifteenth day. and knows not at what time they were put forth" (and thereby is at a loss for what year to tithe them). for. with you at Zippor there are trees that bear fruit in two years. Jonah saith.' R.' R. of the present year. 'Behold the tree Charob puts forth its fruits before the beginning of the world. III. 'If it puts forth the third part of its fruit before the fifteenth day of the month Shebat. and yet they must be tithed for the year before. Yet." However. and of the year before that.' The tradition of Samuel. but. for you have seen before. their ordinary time of putting out green figs was sufficiently known. according to that of Hillel. The fruit of very many trees hung upon them all the winter. 'Let him reckon a hundred days backwards. But how may one know which is the fruit of each year? R. although the ordinary time . that they used to put forth their leaves in the month Nisan: and that their fruit used to be ripe in thrice fifty days after this. Thus the kind of fig bring forth ripe fruit in two years. Jona saith. it is no wonder if they were at a loss in both. "they say to him. fig-trees were not among those trees that put forth their fruit after the beginning of Tisri. but it is ripe only every third year: so that on that tree every year one might see three sorts of fruit. it must be tithed for the year past. it is to be tithed for the year past. Jissa 'Sometimes palm-trees do not bring forth part of their fruit till after the beginning of the year of the world. 'With you at Tiberias there are figtrees that bear fruit in one year': to which he answers. and if the fifteenth day of the month Shebat falls within that number. Jonah. Concerning white figs thus the Jerusalem Gemara: "Do they bear fruit every year. therefore. "R. R. Zeira answers before R. or once in three years? They bear fruit every year. in which month the world was created]. "to these. but the fruit is not ripe till the third year. which do not grow after the usual manner. Christ. which is plain also from that which follows. at the place before cited: "One gathers figs (say they)." &c. if after the fifteenth day of the month Shebat.'" &c. White figs put forth fruit every year. then he may know when they were put forth. they ripened in winter. which had ripe fruit only in two or three years. Jissa saith. 'By the threads that hang to them. 'If it puts forth a third part before the year of the world. 'Behold. by the mildness of the weather. 'He makes little strings hang to it. and yet it is tithed for the year following.'" But this must be understood of figs of a particular sort. as also the year of tithing them: but concerning those trees of another sort. Hence came those cautions about tithing: "The tree which puts forth its fruit before the beginning of the year of the world" [that is. for the year to come. according to the school of Shammai. came to the tree seeking fruit on it. if they were not gathered or shaken off by the wind: nay. the year of release) "is to those the second" (viz of the seven years following). perhaps. "must be tithed for the year past: but if after the beginning of the world.

had not such leaves as promised figs. which hung upon the boughs all the following winter. It was now the month Nisan. "Because it was not the usual time of figs": for had it been so. The reason. and those. and being at a great distance when he saw it. Mark. "For when he saw (saith he) a fig tree afar off having leaves. should suffer a just punishment from our Lord." From the leaves he had hopes of figs: these. therefore. St. because it was very probable that some fruit might be found there. both summer and winter. and those of the present year were not as yet come out.of figs was not yet. doth not strictly and only give the reason why he found no figs. so that if the buds of the leaves had just peeped forth. to be wondered at. Mark seems to give the reason why he came rather to that tree than to any other. It is less. This tree. if that which promised so much fruitfulness by its looks. he went to it. in appearance. indeed. or else this tree was of that kind which had figs and leaves together hanging on it for two or three years before the fruit grew ripe. so that it was no time to be found without fruit of several years. . therefore. was this. in that clause. it seems. did so far deceive the hopes it had raised. as if the other trees thereabout had been without leaves. I say. namely. For to take an instance in the tree: That tree (suppose) bore figs such a summer. whom it had so much. and so onwards continually. at least. Of the present year. therefore. had they all been of the same kind. for those were hardly so much as in being yet: but they were either the leaves of the year past. that to expect figs of the same year with those leaves had not been only in vain. disappointed: an emblem of the punishment that was to be inflicted upon the Jews for their spiritual barrenness and hypocrisy. Those words seem to denote something peculiar. certainly were not the leaves of the present spring. which seemed to be the kind of fig or white fig. expecting figs only from it. and others had not so. he might have gathered figs from the trees about him. this kept its leaves. and better solves the difficulties that arise from the words of Mark. they were so tender. or. for the time of figs was not yet. which never wanted leaves or figs. that had hung upon the tree all winter. which both renders the matter itself more clear. namely. as not to afford one fig. hung on the boughs all this winter too: the third summer it bore a third degree. whereas. and scarce worth the name of leaves (for it was but the eleventh day of the month). saith he. why on that mountain which abounded with fig trees he saw but one that had such leaves. when it was so far from being the time of figs. he neither expected nor could expect any fruit. if haply he might find any thing thereon. together with the former. but gives the reason of the whole action. he came. if that. and that month was the time of the first putting out of leaves. that it was almost five months off: and it may be doubted whether it had yet so much as any leaves of the present year. and this summer brought those of the first bearing to ripeness. because he saw leaves on it. and thereby hoped to find figs. small. it bore others also next summer. but since it was not. but ridiculous. had leaves which promised fruit. it is likely they would all have had leaves after the same manner. And I rather approve of this latter sense. that one might have expected from it at least the fruit of two years. having leaves. all his expectation was from this. according to its nature and kind. which chiefly perplexes interpreters. But when others had lost all their leaves of the former year by winds and the winter.

[This is the heir. I am like Ben Azzai in the streets of Tiberias. it shall be done. "Like Ben Azzai. of the trenches. and let it out to husbandmen. the orders of the vines. and went into a far country: [Planted a vineyard. that the rulers of the Jews acknowledged among themselves that Christ was the . Verily I say unto you.] Concerning vines and their husbandry see Kilaim. and built a tower. let us kill him. He is a rooter up (or a remover) of mountains. of the hedge. Jesus answered and said unto them. is not amiss rendered by interpreters beat. and the word seems to related to whipping where forty stripes save one did miserably flay off the skin of the poor man. by such expressions as this.. and be thou cast into the sea. And the husbandmen took his servants. nor was there in his days such another rooter up of mountains as he.21. and stoned another. which planted a vineyard. and beat one. because he was very skilful in clearing of difficulties.] this is a hyperbolical way of speaking.. If ye have faith. and doubt not. come. but also if ye shall say unto this mountain." "He saw Resh Lachish in the school. Such a hyperbole concerning this very mountain you have Zechariah 14:4. of the places within the hedge which were free from vines." The Gloss. Killed.] Compare this verse with John 11:48. &c. 38. Be thou removed. [Beat. The Jews used to set out those teachers among them. [But if ye shall say unto this mountain. of the void space.. as able to do all things. whether they were to be sown or not to be sown. &c.." "Rabba said." The same expression with which they sillily and flatteringly extolled the learning and virtue of their men. Mark 9:23. and be thou cast into the sea. But when the husbandmen saw the son. stoning. ye shall not only do this which is done to the fig tree. and Rabbah is a rooter up of mountains. and digged a winepress in it. This is the heir. taken from the common language of the schools of the Jews. burning. it shall be done. they said among themselves. 35. as if he were plucking up mountains and grinding them one upon another. and hedged it round about.Four kinds of death are delivered to the Sanhedrim. "They called Rabh Joseph Sinai. that were more eminent for the profoundness of their learning. killed. of the measure of the winepress. signifies a death by the sword. and it seems to hint. and killed another. "Rabh Joseph is Sinai. A rooter up of mountains.] There seems to be an allusion to the punishments and manners of death in the council: 1." The Gloss. which properly signifies the flaying off of the skin. because he had a piercing judgment. and let us seize on his inheritance.2. and strangling. killing. and Rabbah Bar Nachmani. or the splendour of their virtues. Be thou removed. 33. stoned. Beat. who taught profoundly in the streets of Tiberias. where there is a large discourse of the beds of a vineyard. Christ deservedly useth to set forth the power of faith. and designed after a manner for their refutation. Hear another parable: There was a certain householder.

] Many things are conjectured concerning the Herodians. Go ye therefore into the highways. but being strangely transported beside their senses. Master. it readily brings to my mind the name and story before mentioned of Menahem. [With the Herodians." Chapter 22 9. is in Mark 'the leaven of Herod. 20. From the top of this. were of the Sadducean faith and doctrine. I make a judgment of them from that history which is produced by the author Juchasin. and he to their doctrine. if not. And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall.' "What is the order of sitting down to meat? The travellers come in and sit down upon benches or chairs. Whose is this image and superscription? [Whose is this image and superscription?] They endeavour by a pernicious subtilty . he should either destroy or suppress their worship and themselves. And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians. When I read of Manaem or Menahem. lest. they put him to death. they to his kingdom. concerning which thus Sanhedrim: "The place of stoning was twice as high as a man.] Here is a plain allusion to the manner of stoning. and as many as ye shall find. [Go ye into the highways. the other witness threw a stone upon his heart. and such as these. together with eighty men bravely clad. and teachest the way of God in truth.] That is. who partly got into the court. And he saith unto them. With how great opposition of the generality of the Jewish people Herod ascended and kept the throne. [And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken. and partly were of the faction both of the father and son. as endeavouring with all their might to settle the kingdom in his family: and they. There were some that obstinately resisted him. others that as much defended him: to these was deservedly given the title of Herodians." The Gloss. neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. the foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch. 44." &c. bid to the marriage.' And it was craftily contrived on both sides that they might be a mutual establishment to one another. For (as we noted before) 'the leaven of the Sadducees' in Matthew. There was a stone there as much as two could carry: this they threw upon his heart." 16. one of the witnesses striking him on his loins felled him to the ground: if he died of this. "R. 'Bring in hither the travellers. "Heretofore (saith he) Hillel and Menahem were (heads of the council). it will grind him to powder. well. &c. but Menahem withdrew into the family of Herod." These. I suppose were called Herodians. bringing in another worship and another people. who was now tetrarch. "It was a custom among rich men to invite poor travellers to feasts. and it is likely had leavened Herod. &c. saying. speaking of Hillel and Shammai. it seems. till all are come that were invited. we have observed before. with the same principles.Messias. we know that thou art true. Simeon Ben Eleazar saith. who carried over with him so many eminent persons to the court of Herod.

and it is nothing which you carry about in your hands. had taken up. that they have corrupted their . and the God of Isaac. 32. 'Your husband vilifies my kingdom. When. That the resurrection of the dead is not in the law. 'Is not Saul to be accounted king. when it saith.to find out whether Christ were of the same opinion with Judas of Galilee. when. if you please. there the inhabitants acknowledge that king for their lord. they remain sad monuments to all ages of the divine vengeance and their own madness. 'The money of our lord Saul as yet is current'": that is. 'What evil have I done." and "they exalt themselves against every thing that is called God. "Wheresoever the money of any king is current. who say that there is no resurrection. because they seem here to tax the Samaritan text of corruption. I am the God of Abraham. They chose Caesar before Christ. stiffly denying obedience and tribute to a Roman prince. 'Did not Samuel anoint me for a king?' She replied. in this world. while they say. by a manner of arguing not unlike this of our Saviour's. "R. and yet because they would neither have Caesar nor Christ. Eliezer Ben R. therefore. out of the very determinations of the schools. as may easily be observed. while his money is still received commonly by all?' 23. namely. where you will observe with what arguments and inferences the Talmudists maintain the resurrection of the dead out of the law. or my cattle?' He answered.] Read. the Rabbin saith. 'That soul shall be utterly cut off. Josi said. both Josephus and the ruins of Jerusalem at this day testify. What great calamities the outrageous fury of this conceit brought upon the people. That the resurrection of the dead cannot be proved out of the law. "they contemn dominations." And the characters of these madmen. 'His iniquity is upon him': when? Is it not in the world to come?" I have quoted this. courtiers: but these here mentioned were of a more inferior sort. we suspected that the Sadducees were Herodians. I told them. but of the living.' 'Shall be utterly cut off'. the beginning of the chapter Chelek. and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead. and say. [The Sadducees.' said she. forsooth. [God is not the God of the dead. so he that goeth down to the grave doth not return." Christ answers the treachery of the question propounded. and asked him. The cloud faileth and passeth away. You corrupt your law. We will produce only this one. "That every one should submit himself to the higher powers. for you say. To this fury those frequent warnings of the apostles do relate. agree very well with the Hebrew. because they persuaded themselves and their followers that it was a sin to submit to a heathen government. whom Josephus brands everywhere under the name of zealots.' 'Are you then. indeed." Hence is that of the Jerusalem Sanhedrim: "Abigail said to David. because.] "The Sadducees cavil. The same day came to him the Sadducees. that is to say. namely." Just after the same rate of arguing as they use that deny infant baptism. in the law there is no express mention of the resurrection. or my sons. his iniquity is upon him. where this was taught. Which opinion those lewd disturbers of all things. both the text and the version. which say that there is no resurrection. 'a king?' To which he. rather than the others which are to be found in the same place. Above. In this matter I accused the scribes of the Samaritans of falsehood.

"You interpret your law falsely. because he is not sure but that some evil affection may lead them astray: but when they are dead. 'To the saints that are in the earth. "The living know that they shall die.law. that is already here called dead? And whence is it proved that the righteous. But we find that God joined his name to Isaac while he was living: 'I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac. and to Jacob'. even in life. God doth not join his name to them.' [The son of a valiant man. are said to live. . they render it also in a sense very usual. doth not join his name to holy men while they live. whatsoever I promised to you. but only after their death." With the present argument of our Saviour compare. as it is said. then he joins his name to them.' The Rabbins answer. in their death. than of the merely doctrinal: and Christ here asserts the authority of the magistrate. And thou. and the wicked. the son of Jehoiada. even in their life.23" /> 2. and that some have spoke after death. Saying. &c. Go and tell the fathers.] this is to be understood rather of the legislative seat (or chair). &c. Is he already dead. are said to be dead? From that place where it is said. those things which are said by R. dead wicked prince of Israel. 2 Samuel 23:20] " &c.. divers stories alleged. Compare also those words of the Jerusalem Gemara: "The righteous. are called dead. God. are said to live? From that passage. to Isaac. 'And he said to him. by which they prove that the dead so far live. concerning which I sware to Abraham.. as reprove the vanity of the interpretation: as if he had said. Tanchum: "R. Menahem on the Law. he doth not so much deny the purity of the text. as it is said. and persuadeth to obey him in lawful things. further." The opinion of the Babylonians is the same. are said to live: as it is said. But how is it proved that the wicked. the son of a living man. Berachiah said. first.V. There are." The word which is commonly rendered profane in this place. 'And Benaiah. They are righteous who. I have no delight in the death of the dead. when you do not infer the resurrection from those words which speak it so plainly. he was in a manner dead. namely.' When are they saints? When they are laid in the earth. He looked on his dust as if it were gathered upon the altar. Since he became blind. even in death. The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: [In Moses' seat. for while they live. Chapter 23 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 23" parsed="|Matt|23|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. are said to be dead. for one wounded or dead." See also R. that they understand many things which are done here.He saith to him. even in life. I have performed to your children. even in death. R. And a little after. holy and blessed. This is the land. "The dead know nothing: They are the wicked who. Simeon Ben Jochai saith. A.

"Let nobody pass by the synagogue while prayers are saying there. and the voluntary dashing of the Pharisees. but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers [Heavy burdens.' Whosoever. we ought to obey them. Succah: "There were at Alexandria seventy-one golden chairs. To the forehead. believes Moses our master and his law. being writ upon two parchment labels (which they called tephillin). we might very well transfer it to this sense rather: "The scribes and Pharisees.. a she-pharisee. 4. in that place where the pulse of an infant's brain is. that their power was then ceased. because."--"It is not lawful to walk through burying-places with phylacteries on one's . and made broad: hence came that." But if we would be so curious to gather any thing from this aorist.] . have long usurped Moses' seat. thus Maimonides: "The great council of Jerusalem was the ground (the pillar and ground) of the traditional law. saying. This of the forehead was most conspicuous.' Behold seventy-one!" What is here observed by Galatinus from the signification of the aorist sat is too light and airy: "He saith. were carried about with them constantly with great devotion..--But if he hath phylacteries upon his head. and heavy to others. who is that crafty wicked man: and it is answered by some. 'Choose me out seventy men of the elders of Israel: and Moses was president over them. They sat and not. But whence was this number derived? From that place where it is said. There are reckoned up four-and-twenty things of the weighty things of the school of Hillel. he may pass by. A foolish religious man." Concerning the authority of Moses and his vicegerent in the council. that he might plainly demonstrate." 5. because they show that he is studious of the law. the worst of men. For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne.a heavy prohibition. is bound to rely upon them for the things of the law. And concerning them the law asserts this very thing. there is also mention in Sanhedrim: "The great council consisted of seventy-one elders. by the dispensation of the divine providence. therefore. according to the number of the seventy-one elders of the great council." Concerning their authority. being fastened to their forehead and their left arm. they bear the chief magistracy. a crafty wicked man. But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries. 'According to the sentence of the law which they shall teach thee. Deuteronomy 6:5-9. but as magistrates.Concerning the chairs of the Sanhedrim there is mention made in Bab. and the light things of that of Shammai. that they were not to be esteemed as oracles. Joshua saith. destroy the world. "R. Exodus 13:310. Let him follow him that imposeth heavy things.] These four places of the law." Christ teacheth. nevertheless. Deuteronomy 11:13-21. and lay them on men's shoulders. "He that prescribes light things to himself. Exodus 13:11-16." It is disputed by the Gemarists. They sit. [They make broad their phylacteries. and the pillar of doctrine: whence proceeded statutes and judgments for all Israel. and enlarge the borders of their garments.

because they were supposed to have some virtue in them to drive away devils: "It is necessary that the phylacteries should be repeated at home a-nights. &c." Concerning the curious writing of the phylacteries. Deuteronomy 22:12--"He that takes care of the candle of the sabbath. And we have heard that this had its beginning only in the presidents [of the council] from Rabban Gamaliel the old man. and perhaps they were also called preservatories. that is. And greetings in the markets. and to be called of men. that they might obtain a proportional fame and esteem for their devotion with the people. and Rabban Simeon his son. marked with certain small letters. for he saith.] See Numbers 15:38. shall obtain a good coat." They are called in Greek phylacteries. Rabbi. It is not unlikely that he wore them himself. who perished in the destruction of the second Temple: and from Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai. Our Saviour does not so much condemn the bare wearing of them. and Rabban is greater than Rabbi. Ezra did not come up out of Babylon. Concerning the original of this title. and the title of Rabbi is not added to his name: and thus it was with those who were noble among the prophets. according to the custom of the country: for the children of the Jews were to be brought up from their infancy in saying the phylacteries.head. who were all presidents. [Enlarge the borders of their garments. Haggai the prophet [not Rabbi Haggai]. The scribes and Pharisees made theirs very broad and visible. these things being looked upon as arguments of the study of the law. which were more worthy. and signs of devotion. Concerning the repeating of them. How the Jews did swear touching their phylacteries. see both the Talmuds in Beracoth. [not Rabbi Ezra]. to drive away devils. Rabbi." . and R. because they were to put them in mind of the law. Rabbi. And the title also of Rabbi began from those that were promoted [to be elders] from that time. and the book of the law hanging at one's arm. or Rabbi. as soon as they were capable of being catechised. behold. see Maimonides on Tephellin. is this: Rabbi is greater than Rabh. Now the order. that is. observatories. see Maimonides in Shevuoth: and how God is brought in swearing by the phylacteries." 7. [And to be called Rabbi. to adorn either the wise men of Babylon or the wise men of the land of Israel: for. Hillel comes up out of Babylon. his children shall be the disciples of wise men. or Rabh. and he is greater who is called by his own (single) name. He that takes care to stick up labels against the posts shall obtain a glorious house. and onwards. had not need of the title either of Rabban.] I. Eliezer Ben Jacob: and the thing went forth from the disciples of Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai. see Aruch: "The elder times. see Tanchum. whom they did not honour with the titles of Rabbi when they spoke their names. as the doing it out of pride and hypocrisy. see Tosaphoth on Megillah. than he who is called Rabban. as all men use it. Concerning their strings. and he that takes care of making borders to his garment. Rabbi Zadok.

Rabbi. Save you. Father. "R. or returns a salute to his master. and tell him. hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses. sometimes officiously honoured by the writers of their nation with this title. his fellow citizens came out to meet him and said. "when that deformed man was come to his own town. Love the work. but go you to the workman that made me. [Ye devour widows' houses. notwithstanding the dissembled axiom among them. and called him O Father. God save you. how deformed is that man! perhaps all your townsmen are as deformed as you. and many others. He [R." It is reported also.' thus comment. that is. Eleazar] saith to them. for the honour of master." And Joshua Ben Perachia is called Rabbi Joshua.. to be saluted with this honourable title. and knew nothing of this title.--and he that makes himself a separatist from the school of his master. of Magdal Gedor. Rabbi: he did not salute him again. master.. 'Raca. 'I know nothing of that.That this haughty title of Rabbi was not in use before the times of Hillel sufficiently appears from thence. 'Make me an ark of shittim wood. There meets him a very deformed man. Rabbi. and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation. but on the contrary said thus. which he hath not heard from his master. O Rabbi. that the council excommunicated certain persons four and twenty times. Admon and Hanan.--or returns a salute to his master. for not having given due honour to the Rabbins. Woe unto you. and he that salutes his master. came from the house of his master. 'To him that followeth thee. he rose up out of his throne and embraced him. Antigonus Socheus. let there not be many such in Israel. 2. forged upon the anvil of their covetousness. and kissed him.] The scribes and Pharisees were ingenious enough for their own advantage. Lord. but gainful enough: "The Lord saith. Rabbi. a little rudely drawn.' Hence it is decided (say they) in behalf of a disciple of . which they themselves were strangers to. Lord. Gebihah Ben Pesisa. It was customary. but hate the title. 'If this be a Rabbi. Eleazar. Akibah said to R. 'He that salutes. that the doctors before that were called by their plain names. 1. and doth not say to him. Disciples were thus taught to salute their masters: "R. whose names we meet with in the Jewish story. master. II. Calba Savua."--"R. he that prayeth behind the back of his master. Rabbi. Rabbi. because he had learned so much of the law.' He replied. And a little after." The Glossers on these words. "he that salutes his master in the same form of words that he salutes other men. Hear one argument among many. They feign that king Jehoshaphat thus called the learned men: "When he saw (say they) a disciple of the wise men. 'To whom do you say Rabbi. sitting upon an ass: he went forward along the bank of the river rejoicing greatly. how deformed is this vessel which thou hast made!'" &c. Shemaiah and Abtalion. Eleazar Ben Simeon. The masters saluted one another so. and they loved it. Rabbi?' They answer. that were more ancient.-he provokes the Divine Majesty to depart from Israel. Eliezer saith. Rabbi. and said Save you. Hillel and Shammai.'" 14. scribes and Pharisees.' He answered.--and he that teaches any thing. Yet you shall find these. and being very much pleased with himself.

first and above all things. Blessed are they who sit in thy house. they so drew over the minds of devout persons to them. a president of the courses of the head of a family. therefore. it may suffice to produce the words of the Babylon Gemara in Beracoth: "The religious anciently used to tarry an hour [meditating before they began their prayers]: whence was this? R.the wise men. and by respect for gain. Under a pretence of mighty devotion. A wise man is to be preferred before a king: for if a wise man die. Behold the rank and order of benches according to these judges! "A wise man is to take place of a king. saith he. 'It was because the Scripture saith. instilled into their disciples and the common people. thou mistress of art and mother of wit! So he that was preferred to be president of the council. indeed. if indeed they are his. one anointed for war of a president of the courses. but if a king die. As doctors of the law: where they. and assumed to themselves the power of determining concerning those things. Chetuboth. Concerning the length of their prayers. a treasurer of a private priest. as it is perplexed with infinite difficulties and quirks. that his fellow citizens are bound to perform his servile work for him. and Gittin. according to their pleasures. a high priest of a prophet.' II. Nor did they want nets of counterfeit authority. Since. a private priest of a Levite. The just shall praise thy name. that by subtle attractives they either drew out or wrested away their goods and estates. of the dowry and estate befalling a widow. in his tenth epistle: My son. and. and the high priest be unlearned. an Israelite of a bastard. after him. he hath not left his equal. when from the chair they pronounced. and among them of the richer widows. you may read. a Levite of an Israelite. they spent nine hours eery day about their prayers. a proselyte of a freed slave. in respect of his priestly office. the bastard is to take place of him. Christ's. an hour they prayed. Joshua Ben Levi saith also. we ought to honour the king also. and an hour they stayed after prayers. but especially under the goodly show of long prayers. But when is this to be? namely. a Nethinim of a proselyte. the upright shall sit before thy face': it is necessary. was to be respected above all mortal men whatsoever. any Israelite is fit for a kingdom. 'Honour God as the cause and Lord of all: the bishop as the chief priest. honour God and the king: but I say. and an hour after. that a wise man. was to be maintained and enriched by the council! See the Gloss on Babylonian Taanith."--O money. bearing the image of God. a counsellor of a treasurer. and the religious anciently used to stay an hour before prayers. how did they perform the rest of the . I. They angled with a double hook among the people for respect. a prophet of one anointed for war. if a bastard be a disciple." This last brings to my mind those words of Ignatius the martyr. the treatises Jevamoth. a bastard of a Nethinim. 'He that prays ought to tarry an hour after prayers: as it is said. in respect of his rule bearing God's image. or a wise man. that he should stay [meditating] an hour before prayers. Joshua Ben Levi saith. the head of a family of a counsellor. if you have leisure.' R. or a master. when they are alike as to other things: but. therefore. especially of women. a king of a high priest. Of which matter.

having got their prey. my money. to suffer them to be profited by these: but if he should swear thus. for the swearer. in devouring widows' houses. For example: if any one should swear thus. ye blind guides. Woe unto you. they supposed they were bound by an indispensable tie." &c. and moreover. superstition.' this could noways be dispensed with. and their own business well provided for. which the scribes and Pharisees were at all kind of pains to bring over to them. and the more purses to fish in. therefore.] These words agree in the same sense with those of the Corban. so they got some benefit by them. ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves. he is a debtor. 16. and esteemed as nothing. if he pleased." 15. under a veil of hypocrisy. chapter 15:5. that they brought in revenge. Not that they cared for proselytes. my cattle are for the altar. that they might lord it over their consciences and purses. "Long prayers make a long life. that they might some way or other drain their purses. which we have observed at the 31st verse of the fifth chapter: and therefore they thought themselves not much obliged by it. and when he is made. Whosoever shall swear by the temple. but if they swore Corban." For when they had drawn them into their net. it was lawful. Corban. or. "they made doubly more the children of hell than themselves. . after they had drawn them in under the show of religion. they were no further concerned what became of them.] The Talmudists truly speak very ill of proselytes: "Our Rabbins teach. 'By the Temple. only let them remain in Judaism. We must not understand the gold of the Temple here. which say. It was a common thing with them." The Gloss. in being religious. By the altar. and by the altar. but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple. but the gold here meant is that which was offered up in the Corban. [To make one proselyte. both the law was performed. but that the more they could draw over to their religion. 'Corban. "For this reason. my gold is for the Temple. These. nevertheless. scribes and Pharisees. he is a debtor! [Whosoever shall swear by the gold of the Temple. my goods shall not profit you'.law? and how did they take care of their worldly affairs? Why herein. atheism. the greater draught they should have for gain. being so proselyted. hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte. whom they accounted as "a scab and plague". or make some use or benefit to themselves by them. and all kind of wickedness: this was no matter of concern to the scribes and Pharisees. that proselytes and Sodomites hinder the coming of the Messias. he here also condemns in hunting after proselytes. of that gold which shined all about in the walls and ceilings. my cattle. that the Israelites perchance may imitate their works. Woe unto you. They might perish in ignorance." And in the same place. Yet in making of these they used their utmost endeavours for the sake of their own gain. it is nothing. which our Saviour had condemned in the former clause. that they were not skilled in the commandments. to swear by the Temple. The same covetousness. therefore. Proselytes are as a scab to Israel.

"This is the general rule about tithes. which is not of common right]. was this: "Of bread-corn that is thrashed and winnowed. Solomon writes. and a painted sepulchre. The tithing of herbs was only of ecclesiastical institution. mercy. Maaseroth. [Mint. it comes under the law of tithing.. scribes and Pharisees. and whatsoever grows out of the earth. graves that appear not [Luke 11:44]. and to be seen.R. this was called the first tenth. and was to be eaten at Jerusalem. This tithing was added by the scribes. hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres. A tenth part of the remainer belong to the Levite. and is tithed. "anise is a kind of herb. scribes and Pharisees. "In the Aruch it is minta. and the agreeableness of it to law and reason. and fruit were to be tithed: the way and measure of which.] . or tithe. III. and yet it hath the authority of our Saviour to confirm it. shall be tithed." Rambam writes thus: "It is eaten raw after meat. corn." II. therefore. as it is. and have omitted the weightier matters of the law. as the scribes teach. &c.is reckoned among those things which come under the law of the seventh year. both as to the seed and herb itself. in the place before us.. which indeed appear beautiful outward. According to the law." It is called sometimes mintha: where R.23. and is tithed. 2. cattle. ." The Gloss "in the Roman language is anethum [anise]. [Ye pay tithe of mint. "In the Aruch it is minta in the mother tongue. 27. each upon a different reason. whatsoever serves for food.. A tenth part again was to be taken out of the remainder. [Ye are like whited sepulchres. Solomon. such as were all those that were known.. this was called the second tithe. but are within full of dead men's bones. 1. while. this was called the great offering. and is not to be boiled. whether it be gathered green or ripe. or else redeemed.. Our Saviour compares the Scribes and Pharisees to both." [Anise." Hear this. whatsoever is kept [that is. Where Rambam saith. IV.It is reckoned among things that are to be tithed. O thou who opposest tithes." These are handled at large in Peah.. A fifth part is taken out for the priest.] I. verse 2. judgment. 4. this was called the tithe of the tithe. hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin. and faith: these ought ye to have done. The Levite gives a tenth part out of his to the priest.] . in the place of Luke last mentioned. 3. which cannot be known to be a sepulchre. to these. "Ye ought not to have left these things undone": and that partly on account of the justice of the thing itself. and yet approved of by our Saviour. Woe unto you. The tithing of herbs is from the Rabbins. and it hath a sweet smell. Woe unto you. and of all uncleanness. "Ye ought not to have left these undone.] . it is not boiled. and not to leave the other undone." [Cummin. therefore they strew it in synagogues for the sake of its scent. partly that it was commanded by the council sitting in Moses' chair. Demai.] Sepulchres are distinguished by the masters of the Jews into a deep sepulchre. to those. when he saith.

For what cause do they paint them so? That this matter may be like the case of the leper. and secret iniquity"." . "Idolatry. A disciple of the wise. but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. but their inward part doth not answer to their outward. in the name of R. "They made marks like bones on the sepulchres with white chalk. and the streets. and add these words." The Glossers deliver both the reason and the manner of it thus: "From the fifteenth day of the month Adar they began their search. [But within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. They paint the sepulchres with chalk.] The masters themselves acknowledged this to their own shame. he shall set up a burial sign by it. and yet they expect the reward of Phineas. Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men." The Gloss. who is not the same within that he is without. they are coloured without. and the common sewers. fornication. and again on Maasar Sheni: "They marked the sepulchres with chalk in the likeness of bones. pretending to be Pharisees. and perform those things that concern the public. Jannai the king. and wheresoever they found a sepulchre whose whiting was washed off with the rain.'" R. because their iniquity was revealed: but to those that were under the second their end was not revealed. The Gloss is "Those painted men are those whose outward show doth not answer to their nature. "If one passing through the land seeth a man's bone. "Hate without cause. and bloodshed. but it is supposed that the colours are wiped off. "To those that were under the first Temple their end was revealed. the Gloss speaks. like the works of Zimri." Concerning this matter also. saying to men. they washed the sepulchre all about with it. and the priests who were to eat the Trumah might avoid it." Gloss on Shekalim. allegeth that of Ezekiel. The leprous man crieth out. or coloured. uncleanness cries out to you and saith. See the place. that the unclean place might be discerned. they renewed it." They inquire. 'Come not near. what were the sins under the second. and answer. unclean'. therefore their end was revealed to them: as it is said. what were those sins under the first Temple for which it was destroyed. whose works are as the works of Zimri.Concerning the whiting of sepulchres. 'Unclean. because their iniquity was not revealed. [Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men. but they require the reward of Phineas. and here. and their works are evil. Samuel Bar Nachman." &c. and therefore to be avoided. that thereby all might know that the place was unclean." The manner is described in Maasar Sheni. 'After seventy years I will visit you in Babylon': but their iniquity under the second Temple was not revealed: those under the second Temple were secretly wicked.] Such kind of hypocrites are called distained. in like manner. and it is answered. and mixing it with water. They inquire. "They that were under the first Temple did not hide their iniquity. warned his wife that she should take heed of painted men. and they paint (or mark) the sepulchres." They had forgotten their own axiom. The Jerusalem Gemarists give the reason of it in abundance of places: "Do they not mark the sepulchres (say they) before the month Adar? Yes. there are these traditions: "In the fifteenth day of the month Adar they mend the ways. when he was dying. 28. tempered and infused in water. is not a disciple of the wise. That they should honour them as much as Phineas. Illa.

how can ye escape the damnation of hell? [The damnation of hell. the answer is. if you bestow some cost in adorning their sepulchres. [Unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias. Whence those buildings or ornaments that were set on their sepulchres seem to have been sacred to their memory. These things being considered. their own acts and sayings are a sufficient memorial for them. we make appear by these arguments: I. whose words indeed you despise. who do not allow the ministers of the word to have a distinct calling.] The judgment of Gehenna. Wherefore. Because no other Zacharias is said to have been slain before these words were .] That the discourse here is concerning Zacharias the son of Jehoiada. because they preserved the life and soul of their memory. The Jews knew not any that was called a wise man. whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. ye of vipers. Woe unto you. behold. killed by king Joash. O ye scribes and Pharisees. some of the whiting or marking of a sepulchre above spoken of. and persecute them from city to city: [Wise men and scribes. or remaining from the man now dead. for their own sayings are their memorial.] Let them raise some pillar upon his sepulchre. if there be any thing of them due. I send unto you prophets. and imitate these? But neglecting and trampling upon these. Why do ye not respect. 34. and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues. Ye serpents. scribes and Pharisees. or a scribe." Which that it was done for the sake of adorning the sepulchres is proved from the words of the Jerusalem Gemara upon the place. and separated from the common people by a distinct order and office. The Glossers are divided about the rendering of the word pillar. and thence called as much as souls. Some understand it of a kind of building or pillar. 35. "Let it be laid up till Elias come: but R. Nathan saith. and wise men. and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous. from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias.] Let them observe this.29. Baal Turim on Genesis 1:1. you persuade yourselves that you have performed piety enough to them. Let them raise some pillar [or building] upon his sepulchre. and Midras Tillin. to adorn the sepulchres of the prophets and righteous men? Was not this rather an act of piety than a crime? But according to their own doctrine. That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth. The place referred to speaks concerning the remains of the didrachms paid for the redemption of the soul: and the question is. follow. Doth it deserve so severe a curse. [Ye garnish the sepulchres of the righteous. and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify. the sense of the words before us doth more clearly appear. See the Chaldee paraphrast on Ruth 2:12. 33. They do not adorn the sepulchres of the righteous. but who was both learned. hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets. what shall be done with it.

are not much better. 'Her blood is in the midst of her. the father of the Baptist.spoken by Christ. but in the Court of the Priests. and slew him. but their blood did not bubble. and of any other Zacharias slain in the Temple there was a profound silence.' said he.' They committed seven wickednesses in that day. next to impossible. and we rose up against him.' They brought them and slew them. 'of calves. The truth of this story we leave to the relators: that which makes to our present purpose we observe: that it was very improbable.' say they.' said he. and a judge. and a judge: they shed the blood of an innocent man: they polluted the court: and that day was the sabbath day.' He brought the Rabbins.' And why this? 'That it might cause fury to come up to take vengeance. 'This was a priest. and yet it was not quiet. 'will appease him. The Jews observe. In Josephus.' But here it is written. Jochanan said. 'Whereabouts they killed Zacharias. concerning whom and whose blood they had such famous and signal memory. Judah asked R. ye slew. when Christ expressly speaks of time past. she set it upon the top of a rock. a prophet. and the day of Expiation. a prophet. He drew near to it himself. and rams. and slew them upon that blood. lambs.' 'Bring then.' And that was not done to his blood which useth to be done to the blood of a ram or a kid. and yet it was not quiet: he brought the young priests. should we seek for another. are dreams. he saw the blood bubbling: so he said to them. . 'calves. 'And he shall pour out his blood. 'O Zacharias. and that blood still bubbled. and yet it was not pacified: he brought the children out of the school. who foretold to Israel all these evils which we have suffered from you. 'Discover the matter to me.' saith he. and rams. So that he slew upon it ninety-four thousand.' Then they said to him. that those that heard the words of Christ (concerning Zacharias slain before the Temple and the altar) could understand it of any other but of this. 'Neither in the Court of Israel nor in the Court of the women. Eighty thousand priests were killed for the blood of Zacharias. she poured it not upon the ground. and cover it with dust. Those things that are spoke of Zacharias. and did not bubble any more. which we have offered on the altar. and slew them upon it. one of the twelve prophets. 'What meaneth this?' 'It is the blood. we meet with the mention of one Zacharias. When therefore Nebuzar-adan went up thither. I have set her blood upon a rock. and when. not long before the destruction of it: whom some conjecture to be prophetically marked out here by our Saviour: but this is somewhat hard. the son of Jehoiada. The killing of our Zacharias in the Temple is related in express words: and why. or in the Court of Israel?' He answered. was made memorable by a signal character [nota] and revenge: of the martyrdom of the other Zacharias they say nothing at all.) killed in the Temple. which in truth we shall nowhere find in any author of good credit? II. whether in the Court of the Women. they have been killed for your sake]. and slew them upon it. and those of Zacharias. and said. and yet it was not quiet. lambs. neglecting this. They killed a priest. 'or I will tear your flesh with iron rakes. (which is the same thing with Barachias. indeed. Zacharias! thou hast destroyed the best of thy people' [that is. nay. Hear both the Talmuds: "R. that I may try whether this be their blood. 'would you have me destroy all?' Then it was quiet. the son of Baruch.' 'But I. R." &c. that the death of this Zacharias. that it should not be covered. Acha. Concerning these it is written.

but this is called by Christ "the son of Barachias. had flowed together upon that generation. these two things out of the writings of the Jews. as ye slew Zacharias and the son of Iddo. wickedness. before the funeral of the world itself. before we come to determine the thing itself: 1. that even these remote examples of guilt relate. namely. it can be proved that this Zacharias ought to be reckoned into the number of prophets and martyrs.. this generation hath arrived to that degree of impiety. by the way. 1. and the following martyrs doth nothing concern you. in whose death. There are two things here that stick with interpreters. I say unto you. saith Christ. Because by your wickedness you so much kindle the anger of God. the people that hath been of a long time in covenant with him. on the day of Expiation?'" &c. that he is driven to cut off his old church. that Zacharias is here called the son of Barachias. as of their guilt for the killing of Christ. and are to be applied to it: and while you think that the blood of Abel. return only thus much: I. than which no former ages have ever seen any more woeful or amazing. &c. For thus saith he on Lamentations 3:20: "'Is it fit that the daughters of Israel should eat the fruit of their womb?' &c. which was expiated by cruel plagues and calamities many ages since?" Nay. the high priest and faithful prophet. after others who have discoursed at large upon this matter. 'Is it also fit that they should slay a priest and prophet in the Temple of the Lord. II. in the house of the Sanctuary.by no art nor arguments. killed almost two thousand years before Abraham the father of the Jews was born? And what hath this generation to do with the blood of Zacharias. when he was the son of Jehoiada. Because you kill him who is of more value than they all. "What hath a Jew to do with the blood of Abel. which has more difficulty. so much heavier the guilt is if they do derive it. 2. shall be required of this generation. the guilt of the murder of all those his types and members is in some measure included: and it is to be understood of the horrible destruction of that generation. That on you may come all the righteous blood. that had been shed from the beginning of the world. For a Jew would argue. that the blood both of the one and the other. and believe that the blood of Zacharias hath been long ago expiated with a signal punishment. For when Christ saith. and of all the righteous men killed in the interval of time between them. That he was plainly and notoriously the son of Jehoiada. As if all the guilt of the blood of righteous men. namely. and that now near expiring. and he brought two. nor shall any future. To the second. we will observe. The rule of justice answered and said. That that very Zacharias of whom we speak is by the Chaldee paraphrast called the son of Iddo. when the example would have seemed more home and proper to be taken under the second Temple. That Christ plainly intended to bring examples out of the Old Testament. . which how much the further off they seemed to be from deriving any guilt to this generation. 2. That he lived and died long before the first Temple was destroyed." To which we. it is not so much to be understood of their personal guilt as to that blood. so that they cannot so freely subscribe to our Zacharias: 1. and guilt.

But since our Saviour took examples from the Old Testament. 'For your sakes Sion shall be ploughed as a field." (or witnesses. and that truly. Uriah the priest. and Zechariah the son of Barachiah. the prophecy of Zechariah shall also be fulfilled. Uriah the priest. or Jehoiada.' By Zechariah it is written. the last. It is plain that the Jews looked upon those words of Isaiah as the words of God speaking to Isaiah. For if it had been to be construed in the preter tense. Samaria. but did only pronounce the same things concerning the father of the martyr Zacharias. For a confirmation of the truth of this prophecy. (as I confess it hath not been by me heretofore. this. in a great volume. who is lately already crowned: he. in the prophecy of Uriah the priest. And I caused to witness. Which being well observed. which God himself had pronounced before them by the prophet Isaiah. from the beginning to the end.' The curses which I foretold I would bring. he commands the prophet Isaiah to write.) who shall testify and seal the same thing with their words and with their blood. 'I took unto me faithful witnesses to record. that God would certainly bring on and hasten the forementioned spoiling and destruction. as the Chaldee paraphrast had to call him Iddo? 2. that Uriah the priest is to be understood by that Uriah who was killed by Jehoiakim. Jeremiah 26:20. If Iddo did not signify the same thing with Jehoiada to the Jewish nation. very clearly: and I suppose that Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah in Isaiah is the very same with our Zacharias the son of Jehoiada. he hastened the prey": and this volume should be an undoubted testimony to them. We also assert. and Zechariah the son of Barachiah. God makes use of a double testimony: first. "from the blood of Abel to the blood of Uriah the priest?" that is. in the prophecy of Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah..) the difficulty under our hand is resolved. as I imagine. I will bring to pass. Hear. namely. thou Jew. But what is the reason that Uriah is joined with Zechariah? for Uriah was under the first Temple. 'As yet old men and ancient women shall sit in the streets of Jerusalem. I will raise up to myself two faithful martyrs. over and over again. the Jews have these things: "It is written. who shall hereafter be crowned with martyrdom for this very thing. and that the sense of Isaiah comes to this: in that and the foregoing chapter there is a discourse of the future destruction of Damascus. why might not our Saviour have the same liberty to call Barachias the father of Zacharias." To the same sense also speaks the Chaldee paraphrast upon the place: "'And I took unto me faithful witnesses. it should have been pointed by Kamets. the first martyr under the first Temple. "And moreover (saith God). from the beginning of the world to the end of the first Temple? I answer. who taxest Matthew in this place: your own authors assert. that Zechariah the son of Jehoiadah is to be understood by Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah. By Urias it is written. not of Isaiah relating a matter of fact historically.' Isaiah 8:1. In the place of Isaiah. why did he not rather say.23.2. Zechariah under the second: but the Scripture joineth the prophecy of Zechariah to the prophecy of Uriah. and that Matthew and Christ do not at all innovate in this name of Barachias. concerning Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah. and Judea. From both these we observe two things: 1. behold they are come to pass: likewise all the blessings which I foretold I would bring. "To hasten the spoil.' When the prophecy of Uriah is fulfilled. Jarchi and Kimchi.." See also there RR. . Objection.

"But now murderers": "They have killed (saith he) Uriah." 37. in which it was written. He was a more proper and apparent type of Christ." Also on these words. how often would I have gathered thy children together. 3." And. [To shew him the buildings of the Temple. Solomon on those words. for it is very beautiful to behold: for it is like the waves of the sea': and Bava Ben Buta made it so. even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings. What was it built of? Rabba saith. that killest the prophets. thou that killest the prophets.24 Bible:Matt. yet they gave themselves their death's wound in wounding Christ. O Jerusalem. but from that time began to sink. and when "the people became contentious and rebellious against the priest. and ye would not! [Jerusalem.|Matt|25|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt." "Simeon Ben Azzai said. "Your sword hath devoured your prophets".'" &c. although the city and nation of the Jews did not perish till about forty years after the death of Christ. or indented after the manner of waves). Consult the story narrowly. that. "Ye have slain (saith he) Zechariah and Isaiah. 'I have found a book of genealogies at Jerusalem. the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me.] "He that never saw the Temple of Herod never saw a fine building.] R. Of white. green." (the blood of the sacrificer mingled with the blood of the sacrifice). But some say.25 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 24. . Manasseh slew Isaiah. and stonest them which are sent unto thee. Chapters 24.25" /> 1. Of white and green marble. 2. the walls were built winding in and out. and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to show him the buildings of the temple. The consent of the whole people as more universal to his death. and you will plainly find. and draw towards ruin. but the Rabbins said to him. and require it. 4. In this the death of Christ agrees exactly with the death of Zechariah. from that time when "blood touched blood. which he intended to lay on." 5. 25" parsed="|Matt|24|0|0| 0. they have killed Zechariah. and as the place wherein he was killed was more holy. See there the story of Bava Ben Buta and Herod consulting about the rebuilding of the temple.1. "being thus fitted to receive the plaster. that all the affairs of the Jews began to decline and grow worse and worse. He made the laver to sink and to rise" (that is. Jerusalem. The killing of Zechariah was more horrible. 'O let it continue. as he was more high in dignity. "Let the Lord look upon it. And Jesus went out. The requiring of vengeance is mentioned only concerning Abel and Zechariah: "Behold." &c. So it was also in the case of Zechariah: Jerusalem and the people of the Jews stood indeed many years after the death of Zechariah. and spotted marble.

and as the Jews suppose. There shall not be left here one stone upon another. And Jesus said unto them. the exaltation of Israel. that shall not be thrown down. thus again Josephus in the place before quoted." Where the Gloss says thus. the wicked Turnus Rufus. [There shall not be left one stone upon another. to be a witness to such as should come thither. And as he sat upon the mount of Olives. fatal for vengeance. as it is said. 'In . "Saith the Holy Blessed God to Israel. which Maimonides delivereth more at large: "On that ninth day of the month Ab. 'The Lord only shall be exalted in that day?' the answer is. in the days of Messiah. 'After this the children of Israel shall return. with commission. nor in the following age: but their flesh shall remain upon them till they return and live to eternity.'" &c. every one being written in the book of life. Tell us. when God shall renew his world (or age). as it is probable. without doubt is the same with Terentius Rufus." namely. In this world you are afraid of transgressions. of the children of Edom. the world to come. and of the end of the world? [And what shall be the sign of thy coming. 'Whosoever shall be left in Zion and remain in Jerusalem shall be called holy. when they are restored to life. "Thus those that digged it up laid all level.' As the Holy (God) liveth for ever. saying.] The Talmudic Chronicles bear witness also to this saying. And in those years. to destroy the city and Temple. you shall be concerned only for the good which is laid up for you. Concerning which matter. and seek the Lord their God. as it is said. "The Holy Blessed God saith to Israel. neither in the days of the Messiah.. "The righteous. that it should never be inhabited. of great fame and infamy among the Jewish writers. What shall the righteous do in those years in which the Holy God will renew his world. "The tradition of the school of Elias: The righteous. See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you. And a little after. that is. the disciples came unto him privately. which clearly relate to the time of the Messiah. as it is said. that that saying might be fulfilled. The emperor commanded them to dig up the whole city and the Temple. shall those righteous men be in those years. and David their king. shall not return again to their dust. That God will give them wings like an eagle. and they shall swim (or float) upon the face of the waters. whereby is signified the days of the Messiah: of which we spoke a little at the thirtysecond verse of the twelfth chapter: "If he shall obtain (the favour) to see the world to come. when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming. this world shall be wasted for a thousand years. "On the ninth day of the month Ab the city of Jerusalem was ploughed up". Rufus was left general of the army by Titus. but in the world to come. when there shall be no evil affection. shall not again return to their dust.2. Again." 3. We will pick out this in a few words from Babylonian Sanhedrin. and of the end of the world?] What the apostles intended by these words is more clearly conceived by considering the opinion of that people concerning the times of the Messias. whom the Lord shall raise from the dead in the days of the Messiah. But if it be objected. then. 'Sion shall be ploughed as a field. of whom Josephus speaks. when they shall not be buried in the earth?" To this you may also lay that very common phrase. whom the Holy Blessed God will raise up from the dead.'" This Turnus Rufus. so they also shall live for ever. ploughed up the Temple. and the places about it. were.

what shall be the signs of his coming? 2. and ending this world.'" See here the doctrine of the Jews concerning the coming of the Messiah: 1.] To this relate those words of 1 Peter 4:17. and yet they ask. These words denote that persecution which the Jews. and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines. 9. now bringing forth Vespasian to the throne. [Nation shall rise against nation. Such throes the empire suffered. but that this world should end and a new one be introduced in that thousand years. in which we are to be delivered up to persecution. 3. [Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted. and the prey of the soldiers. and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake. That at that time there shall be a resurrection of the just: The Messias shall raise up those that sleep in the dust. (they are the words of Tacitus). 3. 7. But they do not ask the signs of his coming (as we believe of it) at the last day. and the Capitol itself being reduced to ashes. and he shall prepare the way before my face. and pestilences. 2. and those of Vitellius and Vespasian. raising up the dead. but Rome itself being made the scene of battle. that is. &c. From hence we easily understand the meaning of this question of the disciples:-1. They know and own the present Messiah. Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted. and introducing a new. made horridly bloody with their mutual slaughter. because my messengers (sent to spy out the land) were flesh and blood. the time foretold by our Saviour is now at hand. now near . When he will come in the evidence and demonstration of the Messiah. should last the thousand years. to judge both the quick and the dead: but. in divers places. the commotions of Otho and Vitellius are particularly memorable.this world. I decreed that they should not enter into the land: but in the world to come. "The time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God". or confusion of all things.] Besides the seditions of the Jews. and earthquakes. and other storms of war in the Roman empire from strangers. Then shall follow the desolation of this world: This world shall be wasted a thousand years. and the fortune of the empire changed with the change of the whole world. Not that they imagined that a chaos. as they had been taught in their schools concerning his coming. For nation shall rise against nation. I suddenly send to you my messenger. the scourge and vengeance of God upon the Jews. whereby not only the whole empire was shaken. After which eternity should succeed.

which these and such like places testify. should understand that dreadful wrath and severe vengeance which was poured out upon that city and nation by which he was crucified." &c. which. tribulation for ten days.their ruin. And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations. 14. stripes. And because iniquity shall abound. in bloody colours. because their time was short). and the hour of temptation. They had indeed oppressed them hitherto on all sides. Hebrews 10:33.. [The love of many shall wax cold. openly declaring himself Antichrist.] These words relate to that passage of Daniel (chapter 9:27) which I would render thus. [And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world. even until the wing or army of abomination shall make desolate. 1 Timothy 1:15. as it is probable. is to be understood of Claudius enraged at and curbing in the Jews. But there was something that put a rub in their way. by Christ. Galatians 3:1. Hence. dictating the epistles to the seven churches. When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation. with slanders. See 2 Thessalonians 2:3. and immediately under the sixth followed the ruin of the nation. stand in the holy place. &c. "And now ye know what withholdeth". In that persecution James suffered at Jerusalem.. which shall come upon all the world of Christians.. and Nero. whippings. &c. Peter in Babylon. stirred up almost everywhere against the professors of the gospel. I suppose. 1 Thessalonians 2:14. the enemy of Christ. "he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease.. &c. and then shall the end come. even by the wing of abominations making desolate. in not a few other places. 15. &c. Revelation 6:11. suffering all things to be turned topsy turvy. might have at length an eminent and undeniable testimony of Christ presented to it. who were to be slain for the testimony of the gospel under the fifth seal.] Jerusalem was not to be destroyed before the gospel was spread over all the world: God so ordering and designing it that the world. being first a catechumen in the doctrine of Christ. the last of the seventy. rapines. 12. spoken of by Daniel the prophet.12 (where the state of the Jewish nation is delivered under the type of six seals). as many as ever heard the history of Christ. that." namely. they could not proceed to the utmost cruelty. (whoso readeth. "In the middle of that week. they broke out into slaughter beyond measure. and into a most bloody persecution: which I wonder is not set in the front of the ten persecutions by ecclesiastical writers. now in lively. the love of many shall wax cold. let him understand): [The abomination of desolation. or. as far as they could.] These words relate to that horrid apostasy which prevailed everywhere in the Jewish churches that had received the gospel. they are slain. . after his first five years. and Antipas at Pergamus.. and others. the Jews now breathing their last (and Satan therefore breathing his last effects in them. Paul speaks of. that is. This is called by Peter (who himself also at last suffered in it) a fiery trial. Who being taken out of the way. as yet. when all men. And this is "the revelation of that wicked one" St.15.

and he that is in Judea. before the destruction of the city. 'the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city. and in the destruction. And it was also hard enough with those elect who fled to the mountains. and the sanctuary. they shall deceive the very elect. shortening the time of their misery. Compare with these words before us 2 Peter 3:9. then most certain destruction hangs over it. and the famine was so great. as he saith. lest.] This is not spoken so much for the obscurity as for the certainty of the prophecy: as if he should say. "He that reads those words in Daniel. there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.. who underwent all kinds of misery with the besieged. let him fly to the hills and places of most difficult access. whether the Jewish nation were more mad with superstition in matters of religion. lest he should have been honoured with mourning. that army of abominations. Tanchum observes a favour of God in the destruction of the first Temple. [Those days shall be shortened. 20. if their stroke had been longer continued. It was certainly very hard with the elect that were inhabitants of the city. but provide for yourselves. that a mother ate her son (perhaps the wife of Doeg Ben Joseph. and shall show great signs and wonders. for their sakes he shortened it.' Flatter not yourselves. What then did the Lord. 'And the army of abominations shall make desolate even until the consummation. shall compass round Jerusalem with a siege. mark this day.' &c.[Let him that readeth understand. living in the open air. insomuch that. The Rabbins dream that God shortened the day on which wicked king Ahab died. and cutting off the reprobates with a speedier destruction. neither on the sabbath day: [That your flight be not in the winter. for on this very day. 'they will all die': therefore he prolonged the time to them. either of future victory. being driven out of house. 24. "The Lord is not slack concerning his promise. and that which is determined shall be poured out upon the desolate. for." &c. and carried them away in summer. or with superstition in .] R. saith Daniel. But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter. that it happened in the summer. For there shall arise false Christs. if it were possible.' saith he. let him mind well that when the army of the prince which is to come. or of the retreating of that army." 22. where the plague and sword raged so violently that there were not living enough to bury the dead. [Shall shew great signs and wonders. the elect should too far have partaken of their misery. and that ten hours. and wanting necessaries for food: their merciful God and Father. 'Son of man. For thus he: "God vouch-safed a great favour to Israel. and false prophets. of whom see such a story in Babyl. holy and blessed? 'If they shall now go out in the winter. And except those days should be shortened. Joma).] It is a disputable case. with vain hopes. not into the city. verse 26. therefore.' &c. took care of them. for they ought to have gone out of the land on the tenth day of the month Tebeth. therefore." See how Luke clearly speaks out this sense in the twentieth verse of the one-and-twentieth chapter. not in winter.] God lengthened the time for the sake of the elect.

Hence many took upon them the public profession of interpreting dreams. R. after the example of Joseph: "If you go to bed merry. such as these.1. or were more fond of. 84. a handful shall serve us out of the harvest: "Let not any one go abroad with his amulet on the sabbath day. Joses.' to the ninth verse." &c. "They used to say the psalm of meetings (that is. And. even in the name of Jesus. that they might obtain happy dreams. charms. what was more common. it is forbid": that is. and the like: Let one observe a good dream two-and-twenty years. We might here produce innumerable examples. 2. to make him sleep. Zarah. R. or. fol. 'Lord. unless with a caution: "They do not say a charm over a wound on the sabbath. 12. which it would be too much here to transcribe. Ismael Ben R. Hieros. "If any one say. They often imposed fastings upon themselves to this end. that while they avoid the enchantments of the Amorites. 40. There were hardly any people in the whole world that more used. you shall have good dreams. I. Joses Ben Chelpatha. mutterings and enchantments. but were forbid to wear on the sabbath. Nay. went to them all: every one gave a different interpretation. Bab. having dreamed a dream. fol. See also the .4. Judah saith. as remedies against certain ailments. how are my foes increased!' even all the psalm: and the ninety-first psalm. mutterings. But what is the Psalm of Meetings? The third psalm. see the Gemara)." &c. See there also many stories about this business. Beracoth) relates this story. Lazar. and of mutterings over wounds: and there you may see. You have. II. bits of paper with words written on them whereby they supposed that diseases were either driven away or cured: which they wore all the week. amulets. Now these amulets were either little roots hung about the necks of sick persons. fol 13. and Avod. Lazar in his absence practising this art.curious arts. and R. A certain old man (Babyl. the form of an enchantment against a mad dog. 3. There was not a people upon earth that studied or attributed more to dreams than they. the form of enchantment against the devil of blindness. Sometimes after such a meeting. exorcisms.4. and this was reckoned among the nobler arts. "There were four-and-twenty interpreters of dreams in Jerusalem: and I. that also which is said over a mandrake is forbid" on the sabbath. on the sabbath. and sometimes when no such meeting had happened. and all kinds of enchantments. You have R. "unless it be an approved amulet". Hence their nice rules for handling of dreams. and yet they all came to pass. and many coming to them for interpretation of their dreams. Akiba interpreting divers dreams. but on other days is usual. they have and allow their own. Hence 1. Joma.2. unless that amulet be prescribed by an approved physician" (or. fol. Avodah Zarah. or lay the book" of the law "upon him. You have. R. against unlucky meetings) at Jerusalem. which they used to carry about with them. Come and say this versicle over my son. you see there the disciples of R. or to get the interpretation of a dream. Schab. 'He that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High." There is a discourse of many things. or to divert the ill omen of a dream: which we have observed at the fourteenth verse of the ninth chapter.

so much the frequenter and more impudent. we will only produce examples out of the Talmud. So skilful were they in conjurings. and R. and thence you will conjecture at the very common practice of these evil arts among that people: 1. You will wonder. jugglers. diviners.Babyl. &c. what can we say of the fasting Rabbis causing it to rain in effect when they pleased? of which there are abundance of stories in Taanith." 2. False Christs broke out. We pass by those things which the sacred story relates of Simon Magus. whose name was Parvah. Elymas. R. the sons of Sceva. Sanhedr.1. It is related of abundance of Rabbis. enchantments." the doctors concluded. What can we say of the Bath Kol very frequently applauding the Rabbins out of heaven? of which we have spoken before. I rather suspect some magic art in most of these. and more wonders. &c. and drowns him in the sea. who were hanged in one day by Simeon Ben Shetah: "and the women of Israel (saith the gloss) had generally fallen to the practice of sorceries": as we have mentioned before. Chanina Ben Dusa there is almost an infinite number of stories concerning the miracles he wrought. many villanies. "that the Messias should be manifested before the destruction of the city. 'Therefore will he give them up. of others. and appeared in public with their witchcrafts. at these two things. that they wrought great signs. sorcerers. III. were killed by an evil eye": that is. in the entrance. than fiction in all. Chanina Ben Dusa. And. several miracles are related that the Rabbins had wrought. of which R. until the time that she which travaileth hath brought forth. In Babyl. and each of them pretended to be the Messias by these signs. From the words of Isaiah. concerning these kind of mutterings. a few out of many. she was delivered of a man child. Elsewhere. as the city and people drew nearer to its ruin. Taanith.'" .. and Chanin. with sorceries. that they were skilful in working miracles: thus Abba Chelchia. That "the senior who is chosen into the council ought to be skilled in the arts of astrologers. "Before her pain came. because the people believed the Messias should be manifested before the destruction of the city. fol. IV." Mark that also.. Joshua outdoes a magician in magic. and Josephus. and her king shall be revealed before her pains of childbirth. as it is said." "Four-and-twenty of the school Rabbi. and sorceries. in order to the speaking of their magical exploits. by art-magic. that he may be able to judge of those who are guilty of the same. that a certain chamber was built by a magician in the temple itself: "The chamber of Happarva was built by a certain magician. What can we say of the death or plagues foretold by the Rabbins to befall this or that man? which came to pass just according as they were foretold. "She shall be saved before her utmost extremity." Thus the Chaldee paraphrast upon the place. The Masters tell us. 101. which savour enough and too much of magic. that we may not be tedious in producing examples. intercalating the year at Lydda. till the wicked empire [of the Romans] shall have spread itself over all the world nine months. there is a story told of eighty women-sorceresses at Ascalon. "The Son of David will not come.

" Daniel 7. It is also called. for when God shall cast off the city and people. The meaning. the Roman soldiers. Christ speaks in this place. shall straight fly to it with their eagles (ensigns) to tear and devour it. Revelation 1:7. . Luke 17:37. &c. like a carcase thrown out. "A fire is kindled in mine anger.] To discover clearly the sense of this and the following clauses. and set on fire the foundations of the mountains. I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered. Joel 2:31. "the day of the Lord. [For wheresoever the carcase is. it was without form and void. and they had no light.27. in the sixth of the Revelation. so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For as the lightning cometh out of the east. another. to which the greedy and devouring eagles would fly to prey upon it. [For as the lightning. see verses 20.' one shall say. therefore.2. would be the carcase.. like lightning. like eagles. and Paul. And more passages of this sort among the prophets. after the same words that are spoke here in this chapter. with sudden and altogether unexpected vengeance: they shall meet him whom they could not find. third chapter.. when. &c. that Christ is to be seen here or there: 'Behold. 2. and shineth even unto the west. and lo. and Peter speaks in his Second Epistle. &c. there will the eagles be gathered together. "and shall consume the earth with her increase. "Behold. and the heavens. 2 Corinthians 5:17. and shall burn unto the lowest hell" (the discourse there is about the wrath of God consuming that people." 28. That the destruction of Jerusalem is very frequently expressed in Scripture as if it were the destruction of the whole world." &c." &c. That Christ's taking vengeance of that exceeding wicked nation is called Christ's "coming in glory. he is in the secret chambers': he himself shall come. he is in the desert.21). when the discourse here is of quite a different thing: they are thus connected to the foregoing: Christ shall be revealed with a sudden vengeance. those two things must be observed which we have formerly given notice of:-1. Isaiah 65:17. it was inquired. See what we have said on chapter 12:20. Deuteronomy 32:22. 19:28.] I wonder any can understand these words of pious men flying to Christ. 'Behold. For wheresoever the carcase is. Matthew 16:28. Malachi 3:1. Lord?" he answered. and that wicked nation which he described through the whole chapter. but quite another than what they looked for. silently hinting thus much. "Wheresoever the body is. And to this also agrees the answer of Christ. "Where. "I beheld the earth. The discourse there also is concerning the destruction of that nation." See Psalm 1:4. and John. &c. According to this sense. &c." Jeremiah 4:23. of the words before us is this: "While they shall falsely say. they shall find him whom they sought." and his "coming in the clouds. grown ripe for destruction." &c. that Jerusalem.

With Matthew 16:28.] Then shall the Son of man give a proof of himself. Compare Isaiah 13:10. no. such as never any nation felt from the first foundations of the world. 30. whether they will or no. 31. &c. and sealed up among my treasures?" . [No man knoweth. The Jews would not know him: now they shall now him. whom they would not before acknowledge: as proof. of the destruction of Jerusalem. not the angels. R. This generation shall not pass. not in any visible figure. the Jewish heaven shall perish. &c. &c.. Isaiah 26:11. and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: [The sun shall be darkened. 34. Jochanan Ben Zaccai. from one end of heaven to the other. and Ezekiel 32:7. Zadoch. [This generation shall not pass. &c. his signal vengeance and fury. and the stars shall fall from heaven. viz. then shall the Son of man send his ministers with the trumpet of the gospel.] This is taken from Deuteronomy 32:34: "Is not this laid up in store with me. and the moon shall not give her light. R. and that wicked nation cut off and rejected. but my Father only. who perished with the city. whom they despised. and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds. The sun is the religion of the church. and they shall gather together his elect of the several nations from the four corners of heaven: so that God shall not want a church. and the sun and moon of its glory and happiness shall be darkened. R. that he is the true Messias. and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. Rabban Simeon. Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened. who outlived it. that the foregoing verses are not to be understood of the last judgment. not the angels of heaven.] When Jerusalem shall be reduced to ashes. [And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man. till all these things be fulfilled. indeed. derided. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet. Many times they asked of him a sign: now a sign shall appear. namely. and the stars are the judges and doctors of both. And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn. no.. Verily I say unto you. and brought to nothing. 36. that lived till the city was destroyed.29.] That is. and others. [And he shall send his angels. There were some among the disciples (particularly John). but in vengeance and judgment so visible. Ismael. but. And there were some Rabbins alive at the time when Christ spoke these things. that all the tribes of the earth shall be forced to acknowledge him the avenger. compare John 21:22. But of that day and hour knoweth no man.8. who lived to see these things come to pass.] Hence it appears plain enough. as we said. and crucified. the moon is the government of the state.

] Thus Peter placeth as parallels. which took their lamps. and went forth to meet the bridegroom. So. That one should assist an Israelite with one's wealth. by comforting the mourners.] To go to a wedding was reckoned among the works of mercy. [To meet the bridegroom. 1 Peter 3:19-21. The text is speaking of a company to comfort mourners: which the Gloss thus describes. to wit. and by being present at the chambers of bridegrooms. That one should assist him in one's own person. did not come till midnight. The age or generation of the flood hath no portion in the world to come: thus Peter saith. in his Second Epistle. The introducing of the bride. the ruin of the old world. and comforted them: but now such an order or ring consisted of ten at the least. chapter 3:6. namely. . or some accident happening to delay her. and. There were no marriages but of such as had been before betrothed. the bridegroom might not lie with the bride in his father-in-law's house before he had brought her to his own. being either fetched a great way. by attending the dead to burial. "The shewing of mercy implies two things: 1. But as the days of Noe were. This parable supposeth that the bride was thus fetched to the house of her husband." To this commonly received number there seems to be an alluding in this place: not but that they very frequently exceeded that number of virgins in weddings of greater note. "When the company was returned from burying a dead body. see how he skips from the mention of the death of Christ to the times before the flood. also. namely." The presence of virgins also adorned the pomp and festivity of the thing. so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. [Ten virgins. That 'bringing' of her was the consummation of the marriage. by alms and redeeming of captives. into the house of her husband. when we spoke about synagogues. and that their ruin should be like also. Chapter 25 1. &c. [But as the days of Noe were.7. Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins. they set themselves in order about the mourners. &c. who yet. and shew that the present state of the Jews was like theirs in the times of Noah. but rarely came short of it. after the betrothing.] The nation of the Jews delighted mightily in the number ten. This also was current among them. and the ruin of Jerusalem.37. and by such a comparison his words will be best understood. that "they were shut up in prison": and here our Saviour intimates that "they were buried in security. An order or ring of men consisted not but of ten at the least. Marriages are called by the Rabbins receivings. passing over all the time between." and so were surprised by the flood. 2. and that the virgins were ready against her coming. both in sacred and civil matters: A synagogue consisted not but of ten at the least: which we have observed before. Did not the Spirit of Christ preach all along in the times under the law? Why then doth he take an example only from the times before the flood? that he might fit the matter to his case. For. in the eighteenth and nineteenth verses.

yet. This thing is like a king. While the bridegroom tarried. These things are also mentioned by R. [Five wise. as he was sitting on Mount Olivet." Luke 19:11. undressed. besides that there is mention there of pounds being given. and sat at the gate of the palace. not the very same.] "If some sleep" [while they celebrate the paschal supper]. "because he was nigh to Jerusalem. and straightway took his journey. but if you ask any thing that hath need of thinking. Ishi saith. [Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers. Solomon. is produced by Kimchi: "Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai saith (as he hath it)." 2. for instance. that they should receive . That. he wakes and is not awake.] The lord did not deliver the talents to his servants with that intent." 5. "let them eat. in which there is a piece of cloth with oil and pitch: these. and to carry before her about ten wooden staves. He sleeps and doth not sleep.--that parable was spoken by Christ. Josi saith. that he might warn all to be watchful. this. R.] The form of lamps is described by Rambam and R. these. they carry before her for torches. not unlike this. if all. indeed. as. and five were foolish. The king on a sudden called for his servants: those went in adorned. to every man according to his several ability. Solomon: "It is the fashion in the country of the Ismaelites to carry the bride from the house of her father to the house of the bridegroom before she is put to bed. Five foolish. upon this account. or no. Luke 19. The king was pleased with the wise. being lighted. and to another one. he answers. but did not appoint them any set time. &c. to another two." The Gloss. and angry at the foolish." The Gemarists inquire. and provide with their utmost care concerning giving up their accounts at the last judgment. 27. who invited his servants. he will answer yes. they all slumbered and slept. and that he might shew that it would not be long before Jerusalem should be called to an account for all the privileges and benefits conferred upon it by God (see verses the fourteenth and seventeenth). but he cannot answer to the purpose. going up from Jericho to Jerusalem. and because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear. And unto one he gave five talents. Do they slumber? let them eat. and then at my coming I should have received mine own with usury. those that were foolish were about their own business. before the raising up of Lazarus. having each of them on the top a vessel like a dish. [And unto one he gave five talents. If you call him. "If you speak to him. Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers. three days before the Passover. "Whence a man is to be reputed as a slumberer? R. Those of them that were wise adorned themselves. where such a vessel is laid up? he cannot answer you. but this." 15. And five of them were wise. [They all slumbered and slept.] A parable. Do they sleep? let them not eat. here of talents. whom see. for.[Took lamps.] You have a like and almost the same parable. let them not eat. &c.

therefore he is called mensarius. the western candle" (that is. signifies the same thing with the tradition before us. Open. judgment in capital causes was taken away from Israel. [Assembled together unto the palace of the high priest." "Forty years before the Temple was destroyed. He only returns this answer to the slothful servant. And the gates of the Temple. the council removed and sat in the sheds. Exchangers. And the crimson tongue" (that was fastened to the horns of the scapegoat. which are related by the Talmudists to have happened forty years before the destruction of the Temple. 3. Chapter 26 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 26" parsed="|Matt|26|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. Forty years before the Temple was destroyed. as fitted to what he had alleged. unto the palace of the high priest." With these two last traditions lies our present business.26" /> Of the present Authority of the Council. What the Jews said. who was called Caiaphas. but that. the tract Bava Mezia. and sordid man: why then did you not make use of a manner of gain agreeable to these qualities. as upbraid the folly and sloth of his servant. as the other in money: for in these two especially consisted usury: of which you may see. 'Therefore. "You take me for a covetous. "A tradition. Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai said. And the lot of the Lord" (for the goat that was to be offered up on the day of Expiation) "came out on the left hand. were found open in the morning. in these words. Then assembled together the chief priests. griping. thy gates. they should increase them." one that stands at a table. interest or usury (since you would not apply yourself to any honest traffic). by merchandise and some honest way of trade. wherefore dost thou trouble us? we know thy fate. namely. Of the same employment was the shopkeeper of whom is as frequent mention among them. O Temple. if you please. and because a table is always before him. and the elders of the people. He exercised the employment of a usurer in buying and changing of fruits. It is not lawful for us to put any man to death. and the scribes. or the doors of the Temple) "kept its redness. "Judgments in capital causes are taken away from Israel. O Lebanon. doth not so much approve of usury." . Forty years before the Temple was destroyed.'" "A tradition. that the flame may consume thy cedars. John 18:31. that thou art to be destroyed: for it is said. and of its Place. the middlemost in the holy candlestick) "was put out. answering to the word trapezita very usual among the Talmudists: "An exchanger (trapezita) sells money. upon which he buys and sells. that you might have returned me some increase of my money. rather than nothing at all?" So that our Lord. namely.the increase and profit of them by usury.] Those ominous prodigies are very memorable. which were shut over night.

'If we had been in the council' (when it judged of capital matters). the authority of the council grew weak. and this is gathered from those words of the Jews. by the quality of the place. or. Lazar Ben Azariah said. but lost by themselves. "Dat veniam corvis.' R. than that. Hear it justly upbraided in this matter: "The council which puts but one to death in seven years is called Destruction. the number and boldness of thieves and murderers growing so great that. they will deliver you up to the councils? 2. by sitting still here. and put to death poor men and . they dared not call into their judgment. the words of the Jews imply so much. 'It is fit that we should remove from place to place. Simeon Ben Gamaliel said. indeed. torture. by a most fond estimation of an Israelite as an Israelite. ("For they did not judge of capital matters in the inferior councils in any city. murderers." Hence it is that neither in the highest nor in the inferior councils any one was punished with death. 'Which puts one to death in seventy years. and not judging them. 1. 'It signifieth thus much. till wickedness grew so untractable that the authority of the council trembled for fear of it. that he chose rather to appeal to Caesar? The Talmudists excellently well clear the matter: "What signifieth that tradition (say they) of the removal of the council forty years before the ruin of the Temple? Rabh Isaac Bar Abdimi saith. Thieves.) The authority of them was not taken away by the Romans.' R. How did they put Stephen to death? 3. O Simeon! for by this means the power of the council came to be weakened in capital matters. because they saw murderers so much increase that they could not judge them. What do then those words of our Saviour mean. condemn. as indeed the truth was. 'there had none ever been put to death by it. but that it did not judge in capital causes. that it was not allowed by them to punish any with death.'" Most certainly true. Nachman Bar Isaac saith. be true. and despised by their people. that they did not judge of fines. but vexeth pigeons. because they.'" And a little after. either by mere slothfulness. we are obliged to judge them. R. In this sense their saying must be understood.'" That is. but that sometimes they exercised it. and neither could nor dared put them to death. they were afraid of so desperate a crew: but to judge. Why was Paul so much afraid to commit himself to the council." saith the Gloss. "It is not lawful for us to put any man to death. "But R. we should render ourselves guilty. when they observed they might do it safely and without danger. and other crimes. It is not lawful for us to put any man to death: their authority of judging not being taken from them by the Romans. but rather relinquished by themselves.' And the reason was this. that so we may avoid the guilt. they so far neglected to punish bloodshed and murder. and dared not kill the killers. namely. "It is better (say they) for us to remove from hence. where. but only when the great council sat in the chamber Gazith. and wicked men armed with force.When were they first taken away? "Forty years before the destruction of the Temple. out of this chamber Gazith." But if this. by reason thereof. or by a foolish tenderness. Tarphon and R. But how were they taken away? It is generally received by all that the Romans did so far divest the council of its authority. They said therefore. Notwithstanding it was not so lost. Akiba said. The slothfulness of the council destroyed its own authority. 'These men have increased the number of murderers in Israel." &c spares crows. 'Do not say that it did not judge of fines." say the Talmudists: no doubt before the death of Christ.

'" The council no doubt judging and condemning her. Perhaps in both places. if they dared do it to the criminals. from Jerusalem to Jafne. as you see. and they brought him before the council. long after the destruction of the city. half a year. as occasion served. "R. We conjecture that the great bench was driven from its seat. it must needs be that deceits. and yet then. and this after Judea had then groaned many years under the Roman yoke. for that same R. The other you have in the same tract. judgments of pecuniary matters were taken away from Israel. Those things that are mentioned in chapter 27:4-6. from Osha to Shepharaama. these before us. the chamber Gazith. we will produce two stories. from Tsippor to Tiberias. and stoned him. oppressions. from whom they feared no such danger. But now. only to the chamber Gazith they never went back. They placed two disciples of the wise in ambush for him. does not clearly appear. from Jafne to Osha. for it was not unusual with them to return thither. in the inner part of the house. Lazar son of R. from the sheds into Jerusalem. and if Providence had not otherwise determined of his death. That we may yet further confirm our opinion. Zadok said. but whether they sat then in the sheds [a place in the Court of the Gentiles] or in the city. when they debated about the death of Christ. seem to argue that they sat in the Temple. They had been ready enough at condemning our Saviour himself to death if they had not feared the people. In the day of Simeon Ben Jochai. where they are speaking of the manner of pumping out evidence against a heretic and seducer of the people: "They place (say they) two witnesses in ambush. from Bethshaarim to Tsippor. The Babylonian Gemarists allege another reason. But so much thus far concerning its authority: let us now speak of its present seat. or thereabout. Thus they dealt with Ben Satda in Lydda. add that also which follows after the place above cited. and mutual injuries were grown so common and daring that they were let alone. before the death of Christ." long before Christ was born: but this is an error of the transcribers. They might do it for all the Romans. "The council removed from the chamber Gazith to the sheds. I saw a priest's daughter that had played the harlot compassed round with fagots and burnt.Christians. as being above all punishment. from whence they came. as clear examples of the thing we assert: one is this. since no authors make mention how long it sat either here or there. Whence the Gloss upon the ." The Jews openly profess that this was done to him in the days of R. Akiba. and him in the outward. they dreaded it not. but whether it be only in favour of their nation. this is no fit place to examine. that they sat in the city. if the Jewish council lost their power of judging in pecuniary causes by the same means as they lost it in capital. that the authority of that council in capital matters was not taken away by the Romans. the council still retained its authority in judging of capital causes. they did not avoid it. 'When I was a little boy. by the way. Lazar saw the destruction of the city. from Shepharaama to Bethshaarim. In the same tract this is said to have been in "the days of Simeon Ben Shetah." &c. We may also. with a candle burning by him that they may see and hear him. sitting on my father's shoulders.

Had the priests a council and judgment seat of their own? or might they in the chief council. It is more material to inquire concerning the bench itself. and Rabban Jochanan his vice-president was very near it. and eleven of Eleazar Ben Harsum. and who sat president in judging. that it might be called by his own name. ten of Ismael Ben Phabi. "They sat in Jafne in the days of Rabban Jochanan.) and the vice-president." Behold the chamber of the counsellors. Juda. Thus the council.Concerning which thus the Babyl. that the priests had a bench and council of their own. with the rest of the bench. and sat as before. or Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai (which we do not dispute now). eighty of Jochanan. Whether the hall of the high priest were the ordinary receptacle for the council.. indeed. and there were more than three hundred under it. and that enough perplexed. next the court. in Osha. for observation of the Passover. Rabban Simeon his son. and there were not above eighteen priests under it. when the president was absent. here and in other places. and that only of things belonging to the Temple! Here they consulted. (Paul's master. we reply these few things: I." Hear also the Gemara: "The first Temple stood four hundred and ten years. returned thither at the feast. which was removed from Jerusalem to Jafne before the destruction of the city. but to consult. Whence therefore had the chief priest. from that time forward it was called the chamber of the presidents. and he that succeeded the other changed this building and adorned it. in the days of Rabban Gamaliel. and did not fulfil their whole year. hear causes of life and death? To this long question. The second stood four hundred and twenty years. The president of the council at this time was Rabban Gamaliel. What. and there doth not remain one whole year to each of the rest. properly so called. yet denying that there was a double council. the precedence and the chief voice in judging? For thus in Stephen's case the high priest is the chief of the inquisition. was it the chamber of? Was it not the chamber of the counsellors? At first it was called the chamber of the counsellors: but when the high priesthood came to be bought with money. We confess. the other for civil affairs. Take out forty years of Simeon the Just. We meet often with mention of the chamber of the counsellors. we do not here inquire. for they returned from Osha to Jafne. Acts 23:2. Hence Paul is brought before the council at Jerusalem when Jafne at that time was its proper seat. because the priests did meet and sit there not to judge. Joma: "The tradition of R." Hear the Glosser on this place: "The high priests were wicked. Acts 7:1. or only in the present occasion. And hence Rabban Simeon." &c. was taken and killed in the siege of the city. president of the council. see also Acts 9:1. that the buildings of the Temple and the courts should be kept in repair. also in Paul's case.place lately cited. and that the public Liturgy should be duly performed: but in the meantime they wanted all power of . one for ecclesiastical. and changed yearly as the king's presidents are changed every year.. as some would have it. and took care that all persons and things belonging and necessary to the worship of God should be in readiness. both of them being drawn from Jafne to the city.

and is therefore to be put to death: Deuteronomy 22:13. you may find these words. and in a word. "The high priests made a decree. The council of the priests did not permit this. verse 18: "And the elders of that city shall lay hold of that man and scourge him. Thirdly. "If any noble family in Israel (say they) would do what the priests do. his servant they rejected: but when they came before the bench. The priests admitted him and his son for witnesses. That it belonged to the council to determine of the new moon. he must be whipped. The words of the place quoted are these: "R. when it relates to the bench: "That (say they) signifies the triumvirate bench: this the bench or council of the high priest": that is. What if the father [of the virgin] should produce witnesses which invalidate the testimony of the husband's witnesses? if the father's witnesses are proved false. and entered and ministered with his brethren the priests. but . That which was decreed by them concerning the carrying away of the scapegoat belonged merely to the service of the Temple. 4. which was lawful for all the Israelites to do for their virgins if they pleased." But in the Gloss. 3. Secondly. and rejected his son. they had not authority to fine. and did not permit an Israelite to carry the scapegoat into the wilderness. and his servant whom he had freed. "The council of the priests exacted for the portion of a virgin four hundred zuzees. for by their own examination and authority they could not admit a candidate into the priesthood. scourge. every council of twenty-three." The Gemarists take occasion from thence to define what the phrase there and in other places means. Bon Bar Chaija inquired before R. 3. &c. unless I be very much mistaken. that not less than such a portion should be required for them. not decree. or put to death." 2. There is an example brought of "Tobias a physician. The matter there in debate is about a married woman. to exercise any judgment. among other things. but he was admitted by the authority of the council: "In the chamber Gazith sat the council of Israel. they admitted him and his servant. Zeira." The priests set a price upon their virgins. This was that council of which we spoke before in the chamber of the counsellors." Observe. and that about the portion of a virgin was nothing else but what any Israelite might do: and so the Gemarists confess. who saw the new moon at Jerusalem. yea. whosoever was found fit was clothed in white. 1. they may. which is clear enough both from the place mentioned and from reason itself: 1. That the council is here opposed to the priests. 2. and held the examinations of priests: whosoever was not found fit was sent away in black clothes. who is found by her husband to have lost her virginity. because on that depended the set times of the feasts: this is plain enough in the chapter cited. and pay a hundred selaim in the triumvirate court. and a black veil. We meet also with mention of the council house of the priests. and decreed by common consent. "The elders of the city (Deut 22:18) are the triumvirate bench": 'at the gate' (v 24) means the bench of the chief priest.judging and punishing. and had a white veil. as being a caution about the right performance of the office in the day of atonement. In that passage. "The elders of the city": and what is the meaning of the word gate." First. he and his son. and the wise men did not hinder it. That what the priests did was matter of examination only.

have you received any tradition. they could not tell whether the Passover should take place of the sabbath or no. II. in the name of R. from the equality of it. verse 5. and the place in the law cited by the Talmudists. much less is it to be thought that that council sat only on life and death. from . who was brought up under Shemaiah and Abtalion." It is plain. In the chief council. the continual sacrifice. which had power of judging in capital causes. He was (a phrase very much used by the author of Juchasin. They sent therefore for him. that it was but a single one: but the tradition contradicts R. from Shemaiah and Abtalion. "at the gate. alluding to the words of the lawgiver. and judge the chief council. for To the elders of the city. he can resolve us whether the Passover should take place of the sabbath or no. good Rabbi Abhu. when the fourteenth day falls on the sabbath. keeper. but at the gate.the witnesses are to be stoned by the bench of the twenty-three. for the chief council never at in the gate. or the council of the twenty-three. &c. who was fittest for these things. There is here a certain Babylonian. 'Have you ever heard in your life. (being at this time. because the place cited in the Talmudists. Hillel by name. by consequence. Zeira thought. when Christ was under examination. being preferred to the chair for this only thing. but Rabbi Abhu thinks it is to be referred to the judgment of one bench only. Zeira thought that this was a double judgment: but R. is. R. and the phrase.' He proved this by arguments a pari. Let us illustrate the Talmudical words with a paraphrase: R. applied to presidents). Memorable is the story of Hillel's coming to the presidentship. But you are mistaken. and said to him. of the triumvirate. which certainly ought to be supposed from the place quoted. 2. and he was chosen to this office. as he saith himself. But they that suppose the ecclesiastical council among the Jews to have been distinct from the civil. that is.' which adjudged to death. Deuteronomy 17:9. But they said. plainly speak of such a council. means the bench of the high priest. because he solved some doubts about the Passover. To the triumvirate-bench. and of the 'twenty-three. as we said). Abhu. which inflicted whipping and pecuniary mulcts. the president sat in the highest seat." signifies the bench of twenty-three. Abhu. Now the council of twenty-three is called by the Talmudists the bench. that it is either the chief council. and. for the expression which is brought in. or passed sentence of death. [that is. and deliver of traditions. if the council of the high priest did strictly signify such a council of priests. that the bench of the high priest is put in opposition to the triumvirate bench. We will not think it much to transcribe the story: "The sons of Betira once forgot a tradition: for when the fourteenth day [on which the Passover was to be celebrated] fell out on the sabbath. namely. "To the elders of the city. or the council of the chief priest. where the word priests denotes the inferior councils. father. having learned it. 'Have we but one Passover that takes place of the sabbath yearly? or are there not many Passovers that put by the sabbath yearly? namely. distinct from all these. scarce suppose that that council sat on capital causes.] whether. as for his learning and skill in traditions. Jeremias. and the very phrase made use of in this case refutes you. Rabban Gamaliel. that that cause of a husband accusing his wife for the loss of her virginity belonged to the judgment of two benches." signifies the triumviral bench. or some other council of the priests. but the high priest excelled him in dignity everywhere: for the president of the council was chosen not so much for his quality. the Passover should take place of the sabbath or no?' He answered. But it cannot be this third.

I pray. and in the examples alleged of Paul and Stephen. however that be taken by very many for the paschal supper. if this were the very night on which they had . The council. not seldom signifies the lamb itself. in case such could not be found fit: "Thus it is commanded that in the great council there should be Levites and priests. verse 1. if we consider these things: 1. Nothing therefore hindered but that the high priest and the other priests (while he excelled in quality. 2. "What thou doest.' When they hear this they immediately submitted. &c. if I did not hear this of Shemaiah and Abtalion. Now when Jesus was in Bethany. was either now vice-president of the council.] That this supper in Bethany was the same with that mentioned John 13. so was that: that this was. It belonged to the president chiefly to sum up the votes of the elders. and the principal part in that great assembly. in the house of Simon the leper." some thought he meant this. For the remaining part of the feast of that solemnity? Alas. and the council consists of other Israelites only. Let us examine the matter a little home: I." But such a scarcity of priests and Levites is only supposed. the priest. without either Levites or priests. then to be bought. you will scarce observe any thing peculiar to him in judging which was not common to all the rest. It is said by John in express words. before the feast of the Passover. according to the interpreters which we here oppose. Passover. [Now when Jesus was in Bethany. sometimes the very time of eating the lamb. but especially when the business before them was about the sum of religion. how unseasonable! Where were those things. that they might provide for their fame among men. But the feast of the Passover. of the council. that it is no wonder if you find him and them always the chief actors. and promoted him to the presidentship. none need doubt. they were always a great part. 'May it thus and thus happen to me. these things excepted. as John 18:28. but if such are not to be found. I pray? for the paschal supper? That. to whose office it peculiarly belonged to take care of scared things. to preserve it. indeed." at the twenty-ninth verse." &c. both in the language of the Scripture and of the Talmudists: a Jew would laugh at one that should interpret it otherways. it is lawful. and pursue them with the greatest vigour. 6. sometimes the sacrifice of the day following. &c. and transmit it to posterity. and. "Buy those things that we have need of against the feast. was just past. was never found. to determine of a tradition. indeed. Rabban Jochanan Ben Zacchai. might consist of Israelites only. When Christ said to Judas going out.the less to the greater. It was lawful for them. no more may they of the other. and they in number) might promote acts in the council above the rest. This supper was before the Passover. For what feast. I dare venture to affirm. if not the greatest. and the dignity and veneration of the high priest was so great. till he said. Priests were everywhere in such esteem with the people and with the council. or next to him. do quickly. alway signifies the whole seven days' paschal feast. and the good of their places. But they did not admit of this from him. to show more officious diligence in matters where these were concerned than other men. as it was here.

3. Observe that also of Luke 22:3. Now. if it be direct. then it is plain that the devil entered into Judas before the Passover: but he entered into him at that supper in John 13:27. he bargained with the priests before the Passover. and "with all the council.11. It would argue some negligence. "Then came the day of unleavened bread. Observe the method and order of the story in the evangelists. tell me how this is possible. in the mean time. therefore that supper was before the Passover. from the first verse. while. Mark 14:10-12: "Then went Judas to the priests. and get his blades together ready to apprehend our Saviour." Hence I inquire." &c. It is certainly very harsh. that that supper. they knew not how. 'What will ye give me." &c. Matthew 26:14. and communed with the chief priests. he appointed the time and place of his betraying our Saviour. which way was it possible that he could bargain with all these in so small a space as there was between the going out of Judas from supper and the betraying of our Lord in the garden? What! were these all together at supper that night? This is a matter to be laughed at rather than credited. And after. and he went his way. in the seventh verse. if those things that were necessary for the feast were not yet provided. It is required by the law that every master of a family should be with his family that night.' &c. therefore. Matthew 26:14-17. and assemble all the council. Every one supped this night at home. Is the method of Luke direct or no? If not. thought that our Saviour had given order to Judas to provide all those things that were necessary to the paschal solemnity against it came. &c. was before the Passover. Did he visit all these from door to door? And this is as little to be thought. The evangelists say that he made an agreement with the chief priests. John 13." Mark 14:10. their families sat down at home without their head. but was near at hand: the disciples. But now. These were. that Judas after the paschal supper (at which they do not deny that he was present with the rest of the disciples) could make his agreement with the priests. before the feast of the Passover.just eaten the lamb? The night of a feast day was festival: where were there any such markets to be found then? It was an unusual thing indeed. but that they must be to run. to understand these things thus. the master of a family with his family. when. and with the captains. the sense is very plain. And from that time he sought opportunity to betray him. therefore. the disciples came. and unheard of. if that were the first time of his treating with them about this matter: and let reason answer whether that little time he had were sufficient for this? We affirm. Luke 22:4. the first day of the feast of unleavened bread. and all things were by them made ready for this wicked deed before the Passover came. and performing sacred rites with and for them. with the authority of the evangelists. The Passover was not yet come. instructing them. verse 57. now late at night. and contrary to reason. at which. therefore. to rise from the paschal supper to go to market: a market on a festival-night was unusual and unheard of. Satan entering into Judas. to be sought from house to house by Judas. Let them who take that supper in John 13 for the paschal supper. For. and a little good husbandry. It would be ridiculous to suppose that these chief priests supped together. and said. 4. let there be some reason given of the transposition. to buy those things they knew not where. When was it that Judas came to the priests to treat about .: "Satan entered into Judas. since he had scarce time to discourse with any one of them.

to be far sought for. then how." Do not these speak of two plainly different departures? Did not Christ rise up and depart when he said. he did not then seek for an opportunity. that Christ sent him so hastily away form supper to give something to the poor tomorrow. John 13. whom we quoted before. then and there. 7. indeed. as some think. "Buy quickly those things that are necessary. truly. was at that very moment in the dish. could not but understand it of a thing that was presently to be done." If then first he went to and agreed with the priests when he rose up from the paschal supper. but before the feast. For it had been ridiculous to conceive. before the festival day. And to what poor. "What thou doest. and the hand of Judas. as they say who maintain that opinion: then with what reason. John 18:1. since so great a multitude of men followed Christ everywhere. in most express words. if it be granted that the matter was transacted at Bethany. that that supper of which he speaks was not on the feast of the Passover. . The manner of speaking used by the evangelists most plainly intimates some space of deliberation. nor were poor people. I pray. I profess seriously. when there is not only no mention at all in it of the paschal supper. but of a paschal supper there is not one syllable. but had found one. I pray? It was unseasonable. do quickly?" In the paschal supper he said. proceeds in the very same method: "From that time (say they). "Thou hast said": and besides. and compared with the words. Arise. "When Jesus had spoken these words. plain mention of a supper before the feast of the Passover. "He that dips with me in the dish is he". which we assert. who were now dispersed all about in several families eating the passover: for the poorest Israelite was obliged to that duty as well as the richest. Luke also. I cannot wonder enough how interpreters could apply that chapter to the paschal supper. or give something to the poor?" 8. of the sop given to Judas. let us go hence. "Is it I?" he plainly answered. after so clear a discovery of the thing and person. he gave him a sop for a token. They who supposed that Christ commanded him to give something to the poor. If those things which we meet with. as many suppose. then it is neither necessary you should suppose that supper to have been so late at night. or with what ignorance.betraying Christ? surely before the first day of unleavened bread. was it possible for the disciples to mistake the meaning of those words. to go to seek for poor people here and there. he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron. and that two days before the Passover. chapter 18:1. In that thirteenth chapter of John there is not the least mention nor syllable of the paschal supper. 6. if we are not to understand by them that Christ immediately changed his place: and certainly this change of place is different from that which followed the paschal supper. late at night. 5. There is. chapter 14:31. could the disciples imagine that Christ said. "Arise. not sudden execution. To Judas asking. &c. let us go hence?" Those words are brought in by the evangelist without any end or design. that is. but the evangelist hath also pronounced. Let those words of John be considered. and than which nothing can be more plain. were acted in the paschal supper. he sought for an opportunity to betray him. But.

6). The day after (three days before the Passover). or suffer some violence from them on the feast day. Mark 13:1. and concludes a bargain with them. John asking privately about him. that was now two days off. "Now when Jesus was in Bethany. Matthew 26:14. as Jesus was supping in Bethany. and comforts them at large. and hurried him forward to accomplish his villainy. Luke 21:37." &c. though it were night. and at evening he returned the same way to Bethany. He riseth up immediately after he had the sop. From that supper both the evangelists begin their story of Judas' contriving to betray our Lord." verse 2. partly. Judas. Before supper was done Christ riseth from the table. Mark 11:11. as is probable. there being a great deal to be done. and washeth his disciples' feet. do quickly": which some understood of buying necessaries for the feast. and gives a sop to Judas. in providing necessaries . With this the devil entered into him. Jesus said to him. and goes out. Now where did he sup this night? at Bethany. Our Saviour himself becomes both her advocate and encomiast. For so Matthew and Mark. Mark 14:10: and very fitly. lest they should be either hindered by the people. Mark 11:27. and the care of providing things that were necessary). out of his diligence (having the purse. Matthew 21:17. The next day (five days before the Passover) he came to Jerusalem riding on an ass. and that. he privately also gives him a token by a sop. both as to the place and time. provided they would let him have soldiers and company ready at the time appointed. We therefore thus draw up the series of the history out of the holy writers: Before the feast of the Passover (John 13:1). "What thou doest. by the carrying on of the story to that time. a woman anoints his head: and some of the disciples murmur at it. "After two days was the Passover. partly. John 12:1. to Bethany.. The day following (four days before the Passover) he went to Jerusalem." And from this time forward there is no account either of his supping or going to Jerusalem till the evening of the Passover. It was natural and easy for them to suppose. two days (Matt 26:2. and is supposed by the disciples. that he. Our Saviour lodges at Bethany that night. In the evening. namely. to get all things ready against the feast. He frees them from this fear. now he is impatient till he hath done it. and set his nets in readiness. returns. to have performed his office exceeding diligently. was now gone to Jerusalem. John 12:12: and in the evening he returned to Bethany. and now he grows ripe for his wickedness: "The devil had before put it into his heart to betray him. and.II. sitting down again. This supper was at Bethany. he teaches. As he was going out. Mark 11:19. Matthew 24:1. He goes away. he goes again to Jerusalem. being now ready to take his leave of his disciples.15. Six days before the Passover Christ sups at Bethany. instructs. by observing the sequel of that supper. and the next day treats with the priests about betraying our Lord. &c. who were ignorant of the matter. They were afraid for themselves.3. Mark 11:11. comes to Jerusalem.3. having craftily laid the design of his treachery. and spends the next day and the night after there too: and. two days before the Passover: the same we conclude of that supper. for at that supper the devil had entered into him. John 13. acquaints them with the betrayer. he went out to the mount of Olives.

9. Jesus removes from Bethany with his disciples: "Arise (saith he)." verse 7. Oil. but in the . For in that she hath poured this ointment on my body. 12." John 14:31.] That it was Judas especially who cavilled at this. how these things agree! When a complaint arose of that prodigal waste of the ointment here. and wine in his left. and poured it on his head.] Therefore. upon the poor. he anoints the wall. as he sat at meat. saying. and more fitly. and comes to Jerusalem. was very usual in feasts. I presume. which they thought it no waste to pour upon the waiter's head. and thence arose the cavil. For this ointment might have been sold for much. and it was wont to be poured upon the head of some one present. for then our Saviour's feet were anointed. There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment. notwithstanding what he had before said concerning them.] She had anointed his feet.for the approaching feast. and anoints the head of him that serves: but if the waiter be a disciple of the wise." Here the waiter anoints the head of him that sits down. John 12:4. and that it seemed unfit to some that that should be spent so unadvisedly upon our Lord which might have been bestowed much better." some thought he had meant. [And be given to the poor. how easily might the others think that Christ had spoken to him about giving somewhat to the poor. On the day itself of the Passover. "The school of Shammai saith. "Give something to the poor. I admire that any one should be able to confound these two stories. and before in John 12. He holds sweet oil in his right hand. as he sat at meat. The school of Hillel saith. and given to the poor. especially sacred. she did it for my burial. they had indignation. He says grace first over the oil. now his head. 8. we have reason to believe from what is said of him in another supper. Oil in his right hand. John 13:29. do quickly. duty. He blesseth the sweet oil. Compare this with those words. and honour to him." That supper. and that not only in the interpretation of Christ. it was not the same supper with that in John 12:1. John 12:3. [She did it for my burial. for it is a shame for a disciple of the wise to smell of perfumes. [Poured it upon his head. To what purpose is this waste? [To what purpose is this waste?] It was not without cause that it was called "precious ointment. "What thou doest. was the same with this: and see. and a cup of wine in his left. perfumed with spices. When Jesus said to Judas. and then over the wine. let us go hence. and the waste of the ointment. out of love. But when his disciples saw it. and "very costly. But this ointment was of much more value. 7." John 12:3: to shew that it was not of those common sorts of ointments used in feasts. or to daub upon the wall. but this (which is added over and above to them) is upon account of his burial. that he might show his care of the poor.

II. "The Passover" for information on the workings of the Temple during this feast. where wilt thou. [Please see "The Temple: Its Ministry and Services" by Alfred Edersheim. Exodus 21:32. since the houses at Jerusalem were not to be hired. and wasteful rather than prudent. Hence her fame shall be celebrated. to prepare and fit the room. and fit for the Passover. "The price of a slave. Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover? [Where wilt thou that we prepare. What will ye give me. after the offering of the incense. in all ages. and of killing it. The manner of bringing the Passover into the court. in the immoderate profession of her friendship and respect. and this expression of it. after the daily sacrifice.design of the woman. believes that Christ should die. approved. and they made ready the passover. but a great and weighty reason moves her to it.] For they might anywhere. And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them. I. and now takes care of my burial: what you approve of towards the dead. weighed three hundred and eighty-four barleycorns. you have in Pesachin. &c. under that notion. while the rest supposed he was preparing necessaries for the Passover." &c. as if she were now taking care of his body. and I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver. And said unto them. is thirty selaim of pure silver: if the slave be worth a hundred pounds. after having spoken with the landlord. "The Passover was to be killed only in the court where the other sacrifices were slain: and it was to be killed on the fourteenth day after noon.] The price of a slave. according as it is said." 15. in his weight.] and all the assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it (the Passover).] Peter and John were sent for this purpose. She knows I shall die. and she first. This lamb was to be brought by them into the court where the altar was. she pours the ointment upon his head. whom our Saviour pointed out to them by a sign. for this her faith. or worth only one penny. Maimon. Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus. She. [Exodus 12:6. but during the time of the feast they were of common right. &c. he or she. "You account her too officious and diligent for her doing this. . as we have noted elsewhere. This Peter and John were to do. A lamb was to be bought. They only knew that Judas was about another business. whether great or little." Now a selaa. assembly. in these words: "The Passover is killed in three companies. Luke 22:8: and perhaps they moved the question. 19. [Thirty pieces of silver. and.] [They made ready the Passover. and anointing it for burial: and it is as if Christ had said to those that took exceptions and complained. 17. saying unto him. she hath done to one ready to die.

taking the vial that was full. and the skin given to the landlord. and lying at the table: "If they sit to eat. The blood being sprinkled at the foot of the altar. one says grace for all. every one says grace for himself. The priest who stands next to the altar sprinkles the blood at one sprinkling against the bottom of the altar: that company goes out. and to be killed for the company mentioned. IV. and the second comes in." &c. and to lie on one's right side is not called lying down.congregation. in Pesachin: where the Gloss. Now when the even was come. having golden and silver vials in their hands: one row silver. who suppose that Christ ate his Passover one day sooner than the Jews did theirs. Let them tell me now. for the circumcised." But now "that lying. See what the Gemarists say of this thing in Pesachin: "If they kill it for such as are not to eat. Other things were also provided. "They used to eat lying along upon their left side. and the same called Charoseth: of which commentators speak everywhere. The schools of the Rabbins distinguish between sitting at the table. that atonement may be made for the uncircumcised. and they are not intermingled: the vials had no brims." And the same Gloss in another place. The Israelites accounted such lying down in eating a very fit posture requisite in sacred feasts. wine." &c. to bring it into the court. "And indeed to those that did eat . and ate and drank as they thus leaned. II. for circumcised and not circumcised. for such as are not circumcised or unclean." III. who. the fat taken out and thrown into the fire upon the altar. and gives it to him that stands next. he sat down with the twelve." as the Gloss on the place saith. numbered and not numbered. the body is carried back to the place where they sup: the flesh is roasted. clean and unclean. since it was looked upon as a heinous offence among the people not to kill or eat the Passover in the due time. gives him an empty one. their feet being on the ground. how these things could be performed by him or his disciples in the Temple. As also the Gemara. and the other gold. and highly requisite and most necessary in the Paschal supper: "We do not use lying down but only to a morsel. "was when they leaned on their left side upon couches. the lamb flayed. as into a public place. some usual meats. if they lie. The first company enters and fills the whole court: they lock the doors of the court: the trumpets sound: the priests stand in order. and Israel. V. or as are not numbered. for those that are numbered. and he to the next. It was to be presented in the court under the name of the Paschal lamb. &c. So the Gemarists and the Glosses. and not to eat. to lie on one's back is not called lying down. his belly cut up. and a priest receives the blood. lest the blood should stay upon them.] I. 20. [He sat down with the twelve. Berac. Bread according to God's appointment. it is right": that is. They commonly carried the lambs into the court upon their shoulders: this is called its carrying. that atonement may be made for the not numbered. it is profane: if for those that are to eat. every one on a single couch": Babyl. and be congealed or thickened: an Israelite kills it. "The carrying of it upon a man's shoulders.

"We are obliged to lie down when we eat. that it hath not need of lying down: and yet these do not contradict one another. is it I?] The very occasion. that is. for the second sat behind the head of the first. John 13:23. He sitting in the second place from Christ with his face towards him. and the next to him lay above him. and does his duty. this of the two last. even as he lay along. Simon in the name of R. R. the next above him. for as long as he sits bending he cannot speak to him. But now our sitting is a kind of leaning along. 22. Lord.24. "We are eating here friendly together. "When there were two beds. the worthiest person lay in the middle. at the coverlids of his feet. even to superstition. let it be eaten lying along." "They eat the unleavened bread the first night lying down. as seems likely. on a couch placed at the pillow of the more worthy person. They used and were fond of that custom of lying down. nor ask about the betrayer: therefore looking over Christ's head upon John. asketh him." They lie down on the left side. The canon is speaking about the Paschal supper." This affords some light to that story. where Peter. is it I? [Lord. and to eat his meat on his own table: but we eat all together at one table. the worthiest lay in the middle." See more there. the second above him.leaning. because it is a commemoration of deliverance. he gave him a sign to inquire. The bitter herbs have no need of lying down. yet it is to be eaten after the manner of liberty. partly renews the mention of the betrayer at the Paschal supper. because it carried with it a token and signification of liberty: "R. III." On which thus the Gloss: "When there were two. and began every one of them to say unto him. But when there were three beds. leaning was necessary. but the bitter herbs not: concerning wine. Although it be the bread of affliction. for then he might hear his words. and yet there is one in this number who will . "because they must necessarily use their right hand in eating. could not discourse with him. as if he had said. Joshua Ben Levi." So the Gloss there. If there were three. that we may eat after the manner of kings and nobles. the principal person lay on the first couch. If the principal person desires to speak with the second. that is." Even the poorest Israelite must not eat till he lies down. that it may be known that they are gone out of bondage to liberty. namely. on which thus the Babylonians: "It is said that the feast of unleavened bread requires leaning or lying down. though it be but as big as an olive. Levi saith. it is said in the name of Rabh Nachman that it hath need of lying down: and it is said in the name of Rabh Nachman. and the third below him. And they were exceeding sorrowful. the third below him. because they are in memory of bondage." IV. next above him. the second to him. Let that which a man eats at the Passover. not on the right. They were used to lean along every one on his own couch. he must necessarily raise himself so as to sit upright. eating together and fellowship. for that is said of the two first cups. lying behind our Saviour's head in the first place next after him. the worthiest person lay uppermost. and the face of the first was turned another away: and it would be better with the second [in respect of discourse] if he sat below him. It is the manner of slaves to eat standing: but now let them eat lying along.

&c. Luke 22:17. that the disciples might be more fully acquainted with the matter itself: for at the supper in John 13. Because the day is the cause of their having wine: that is. and then bitter herbs. but not so of the bread." Compare this cup with that. [It had been good for him if he had not been born] It were better for him that he were not created. it may not be amiss to transcribe the rubric of the paschal supper. I. and then for the day. Is it I? partly through ignorance of the thing. 1 Corinthians 11:25. as the Gloss explains it. that we may compare the things here related with the custom of the nation." Let the Glossers give the interpretation: "They do not set the table till after the consecration of the day: and upon the table they set lettuce. unless perhaps Peter understood it also." The Shammeans confirm their opinion. before he comes to those bitter herbs which he eats after the unleavened bread. and gave it to the disciples. unless when there be other herbs. [Jesus took bread. [that is.betray me": partly. for it is unusual for men to eat herbs before meat. 'Let us give thanks. having at first put him upon it by his beckoning. first for the day. "as it is written." Ye shall eat (it) with unleavened bread and bitter herbs: "First unleavened bread. with what brevity we can. 24. they set herbs. Jesus took bread. saying. he had privately discovered the person to John only. And this first dipping is used only for that reason. eat. and [the master of the family] blesseth it. out of the Talmudists. and blessed it." . A very usual way of speaking in the Talmudists. he gives thanks in the plural number for all the company. partly out of a sincere and assured profession of the contrary." saith Luke 22:20. and brake it. this is my body. when he also gives thanks for the eating of the bitter herbs. The school of Shammai saith.'] and drinks up the cup. for that is not yet brought: and this is not meant simply of lettuce. The disciples ask. but not in the sour sauce. The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born. 26. and he eats lettuce dipped. and Paul. II. upon which there is sour sauce and other herbs. and washeth. And as they were eating. And afterward he blesseth concerning the washing of hands. and then for the wine: but the school of Hillel saith. Take." His meaning is this. That we may more clearly perceive the history of this supper in the evangelists. who knew of John's question to Christ. that they have it before meat. Then the bitter herbs are set on: "They bring in a table ready covered. 'Blessed be he that created the fruit of the vine': and then he repeats the consecration of the day. He first gives thanks for the wine. the cup after supper: "After supper he took the cup. The paschal supper began with a cup of wine: "They mingle the first cup for him. that children may observe and inquire. After he hath blessed over the wine. He gives thanks. "They first mingle a cup for every one.] Bread at supper. and said.

he. out of darkness into great light. "Now they mingle the second cup for him: and the son asks the father. that we may make the second dipping'. O Lord God. on this. and the sauce. how much this night differs from all other nights. and the setting on the unleavened bread: but the Talmudic Misna notes it in these words. and lays the broken upon the whole one. "Then washing his hands.' Then he lifts up the bitter herbs in his hand and saith.III. and blesseth it. and taking two loaves. which we therefore eat. our King eternal. Hallelujah: Praise the Lord.--and blessing. because God passed over the houses of our fathers in Egypt. 'We therefore eat these bitter herbs. We ought therefore to praise. praise him. 'Why do we dip twice?' Therefore they bring back the table with unleavened bread upon it. O ye servants of the Lord.' He takes up the unleavened bread in his hand. celebrate. him. and brought us out of bondage into liberty. magnify. 'Let them bring the table again. 'On other nights (saith he) we dip but once. or if the son doth not ask him. and bitter herbs. that we may eat unleavened bread and bitter herbs': and then he drinks off the second cup. "Afterward there is set on unleavened bread. redeeming us. because our fathers had not time to sprinkle their meal to be leavened before God revealed himself and redeemed them. and redeeming our fathers out of Egypt. They set unleavened bread before him. honour. but this night twice. our eternal King. IV. then the son would ask. O Lord God. "The table is set before them again. but less than the quantity of an olive he must not eat: then they remove the table from before the master of the family. On other nights we eat either sitting or lying. &c. but if he eats the unleavened bread and bitter herbs by themselves. 'This is the passover. and hath commanded us to eat. &c. and the flesh also of the Chagigah of the fourteenth day. And the flint-stone into foundations of waters' [that is. "This is said. 'Blessed be thou." Whether this removal of the table be the same with the former is not much worth our inquiry. Where the Gloss. On other nights we eat either leavened or unleavened bread. "'Blessed be He that created the fruits of the earth': and he takes the herbs and dips them in the sauce Charoseth.. he gives thanks severally for each. he dips them in the sauce Charoseth.and the lamb. and bringing us to this night. And afterward." VII. giving thanks after the same manner over the flesh of the . all lying." Maimonides doth not take notice of any interposition between the setting on the bitter herbs.' he eats the unleavened bread and bitter herbs together. that the son might ask the father. and eats as much as an olive.'" VI. let us therefore say. And he concludes. because the Egyptians made the lives of our fathers bitter in Egypt. only unleavened." &c. and blesseth. and then he saith. and all that lie down with him. He begins. who wrought all these wonderful things for our fathers and for us. &c.. because they have moved the table from before him who performed the duty of the Passover: now that removal of the table was for this end. on this. 'Blessed be he who causeth bread to grow out of the earth': and putting some bread and bitter herbs together. to. from the beginning of Psalm 113 to the end of Psalm 114]. and saith. 'Blessed be thou. he breaks one. he who hath sanctified us by his precepts. V. he tells him himself. and the father answered him. 'We eat this unleavened bread. out of sorrow into joy.

" Exodus 24. break it before Amen be pronounced from the mouths of the answerers. or. because they took up this custom after the destruction of the Temple. "This is my blood of the new testament. who also adds." The same things are cited in the Babylonian Talmud: "The Rabbins deliver. at least as much as an olive. he eats also of it. "that a man is . One of them is divided: they are the words of Maimonides. It is necessary that a man should cheer up his wife and his children for the feast. of which opinion. for the eating was ended with those morsels. Some are of opinion. taking bread. As they were eating. Hebrews 9. and with good reason. [The cup. and instituted the sacrament. that it was the custom to taste the unleavened bread last of all. 27." VIII. when they were now ready to take those morsels. as also the Talmudists in several places in the last chapter in the tract Pesachin. or instead of them? It seems to be in their stead. into more. in which the paschal lamb hath been my body hitherto.] Bread was to be here at this supper by divine institution: but how came the wine to be here? and how much? and of what sort? I. before it was blessed. they speak according to the known and common custom of that supper. I confess. and gave about morsels of bread in their stead. as I may call them. of the lamb. in that sense. that after the eating of those morsels of the lamb it cannot be said." say they. "From thenceforward he lengthens out the supper. and gave it to them. As they were eating. except in the paschal bread. "A tradition. eating this or that as he hath a mind. because it is said by our evangelist and Mark. It seems therefore more likely that Christ. Drink ye all of it. as the blood of bulls and goats hath been my blood under the Old. And he took the cup." And in the twenty-eighth verse. "But why doth he not bless both the loaves after the same manner as in other feasts? Because this is called the bread of poverty. Jesus took bread. and gave thanks. Thus it always used to be done.] First he blessed. and here likewise are morsels. but after this he tastes not at all of any food. And now was the time when Christ. then he brake it. And it is so much the more easy to fall into this opinion." Thus far Maimonides in the place quoted. that they might be understood by their own people. he eats of it. One of the two loaves was first divided into two parts." Let not him that is to break the bread. in the same sense. changed the custom. Now poor people deal in morsels. and in like manner giving thanks over the lamb. [Blessed and brake it. saying. instituted the eucharist: but whether was it after the eating of those farewell morsels. and last of all he eats of the flesh of the passover. and to close up the supper with it. perhaps. But all Jews know well enough. without doubt. [This is my body. But how doth he cheer them up? With wine.Chagigah of the fourteenth day. I also sometimes was. because there is such a thing mentioned in some of the rubrics about the passover.] These words. Now. will be more clear: "This now is my body. being applied to the Passover now newly eaten.

we now return to observe this cup of our Saviour. 'Four cups contain an Italian quart of wine. V. as it is said. according to the number of the four cups of vengeance which God shall give to the nations to drink. 'That one ought not to bless over the cup of blessing till water be mingled with it. he hath performed his duty. and one finger and a half. So the Babylonian. and I will deliver. The Gemarists a little after: "The wise agree with R. but. It is commanded. Judah saith. at full. concerning the paschal wine. The cup of two salvations." &c. 51:7." The same words you have in the Babylonian Talmud at the place before quoted. when there is mention of wine in the rubric of the feasts. women. Judah saith. 'Blessed be he that created the fruit of the tree. and the avoiding of drunkenness. Four cups of wine were to be drunk up by every one: "All are obliged to four cups. 'And thou shalt rejoice in thy feast. there is the fifth part of a finger. which is four times. But how are they cheered up? With wine. 75:8. and I will redeem.'" II. that instead of the third part of a finger. R. and a third part of a finger deep. that it should be red. Eleazar. some. "The Rabbins have a tradition. that he should perform this office with red wine. III.' That which is agreeable to men to rejoice them is wine.'" The Gloss. by having drunk off an Italian quart of wine. in the place before quoted. "Their wine was very strong. If he drinks wine pure. And I will bring forth. These things being thus premised. in Genesis 40:11. according to the number of the four monarchies. But what is that which is agreeable to women to cheer them? Rabh Joseph saith. Over wine which hath not water mingled with it they do not say that blessing. and not mingled with water. they always use the word they mingle him a cup." The Gloss. as is before . only with this difference. some. "It is necessary that it should taste.13. according to the number of the repetition of the word cup. The measure of these cups is thus determined: "Rabbi Chaia saith. with that which is agreeable to them. and unfitness for serious business. Psalm 23:5. women. men. who found and confessed some disorder of mind.obliged to cheer up his wife and his domestics in the feast.'" The mingling of water with every cup was requisite for health. 'Men are cheered up with something agreeable to them. Psalm 11:6. Some. The Jerusalem Talmudists give the reason of the number. and children: R. according to the number of the four words made use of in the history of the redemption of Israel out of Egypt. 116:13. both Talmudists dispute in the forecited chapter of the Passover: which see. 16:5. 'Dyed garments in Babylon. Concerning that mingling. We have before taken notice of a story of Rabban Gamaliel. but commonly they mingled water with it: hence. and look like wine. Jeremiah 25:15.' (Deut 16:14). And according to the number of the four cups which God shall give Israel to drink. 'But what have children to do with wine?' But they give them wheat and nuts. and I will take: some. and linen garments in the land of Israel. IV." &c.'" And more exactly in the same place: "How much is the measure of a cup? Two fingers square. and not fit to be drunk without water. After those things which used to be performed in the paschal supper. 'Blessed be He that created the fruit of the vine'.

after having eaten the farewell morsel of the lamb. "This cup is the new testament in my blood. let the disciples stand about him in a crown or ring. He takes up the cup in both hands. a fourth cup. that cup which closed up the supper. as Luke and Paul. for the meat. In like manner. Hebrews 9. at the beginning of Psalm 115. but the sanction of the new covenant: the end of the Mosaical economy. as the Gemara. as R. "That cup was the old testament in the blood of Christ." That cup was commonly called the cup of blessing. besides. and over it he finished the Hallel. Christ having published all the articles of the new covenant. 'Finisheth the Hallel'." While he is doing this. both according to the custom. and blesseth the blessing of the meat" [that is.. he spreads a handkerchief on his head. namely. the cup certainly was the same with the "cup of blessing": namely." There.' &c. he instituted this for a cup of eucharist or thanksgiving. As it is here said of the cup. he takes the cup of wine. saith the Gloss on Babyl. and water mingled with it there. there was now an end of supper. that is. Moses sprinkled all the people with blood. to wash the inside and outside. "as Rabh Papa. and saith. gives thanks after meat]. Where also in the text many thinkings are mentioned of this cup: "Ten things are spoken of the cup of blessing. O Lord. and drinks it up. "This is the blood of the covenant which God hath made with you": and thus that old covenant or testimony was confirmed. and said. &c. "Then he mingled a fourth cup. but puts it into his right hand. fixeth his eyes upon it. "This is the new testament in my blood": and thus the new covenant is established. and thanks were to be given over the third cup after meat. moreover. "over the third cup of wine. he takes that cup. Berac. and goes on to the end of Psalm 118. There was. because. The veiling. as is probable. . The cup of blessing which we bless. The confirmation of the old covenant was by the blood of bulls and goats. that is. which is. he begins there where he left off before. Hence it is that Luke and Paul say that he took the cup "after supper". "This is my blood of the new testament. there was no further shedding of blood. and saith. according to the custom." Not only the seal of the covenant. It must not be passed by. and his office." &c. because blood was still to be shed: the confirmation of the new was by a cup of wine. and adds. he said. Washing and cleansing": [that is." Which of these rites our Saviour made use of. that is. the blessing of the hymn. that when he instituted the eucharistical cup. and the confirming of a new one." as Matthew and Mark: nay. Exodus 24. that is.related. and gives them to drink. to wit. that nothing should remain of the wine of the former cups]. and after having returned thanks. under the new testament. 'Blessed is He that created the fruit of the vine'. of which our author speaks also. these are moreover added by Maimonides: "Then he washeth his hands. "Let it be full: the crowning". when. The cup of blessing is when they give thanks after supper. he veils himself and sits down. we do not inquire. he lifts it from the table. "Let pure wine" be poured into the cup. "This cup is the new testament in my blood. 'Let all thy works praise thee. 1 Corinthians 10:16. Some say he imparts it (as a gift) to his family. and afterward he tastes of nothing more that night." so it might be said of the cup of blood (Exo 24:8). all the articles of that covenant being read over. "by the disciples. in the Talmudic dialect. Issai.

as the evangelist tells us. who had joined himself to this or that family. but in nowise necessary or fitting: for 2. seemed to them. when. that Christ should put off the washing of the disciples' feet to the paschal supper. The office of the paschal supper did not admit of such interruption. the villainous traitor stole away. we do not dispute. it is certain he used the hymn. and sent away from the paschal supper.21: nor do we doubt much of his being present at the hymn. in that manner. Mark 14:18: and. And now looking back on this paschal supper. because he went away from a common supper: but if they had seen him thus dismissed. when there were many things to be done which required despatch! II.Whether Christ made use of this cup also. was more unusual and strange than that it should be so lightly passed over by the disciples. to go to market! To go from a common supper at Bethany. What part of this time they do allot to the washing of the disciples' feet? what part to Judas' going out? and what part to his discoursing with the priests. they would not. as the disciples interpreted it. than at the paschal supper. before it was done. now begun. It seems strange. and when he had before a much more fit occasion for this action than when he was thus pressed and straitened by the time? III. and another part there: but for a person to leave the supper and go about another business. to a market or fair. when they had sung a hymn. to buy necessaries for the Passover. 22:20. as we suppose. when he was not straitened by the time. Methinks I hear the words and consultations of this bloody wretch: "Tomorrow (saith he) will be the . at the thirtieth verse. is a thing they never in the least dreamed of. it would have seemed a monstrous and wonderful thing. Matthew 26:20. this was nothing strange or unusual: but to go from the paschal supper. We meet with the very same word in Midras Tillim. when in other things he conformed himself to the custom of the nation. indeed. suppose it. from that supper before it was done! It is enough doubted by the Jewish canons whether it were lawful. therefore. and prepared for their journey to mount Olivet (in order to lie at Bethany. What! to leave the paschal supper. and take one part of the supper here. We. Judas sat at super with the rest. might leave it to go to another. they could not. That kind of action was not only unusual and unheard of at that supper.21. which Luke affirms in direct words. and how far any one. let me ask those who suppose the supper in John 13 to be the same with this. and was there when he did eat. nor was it lawful for others so to decline from the fixed rule as to introduce such a foreign matter: and why should Christ so swerve from it. 1. and that he went not away before all was done: but when they all rose up from the table. as the disciples supposed). and went to the company [cohortes]. How much more conveniently might that have been performed at a common supper before the Passover. and getting ready his accomplices for their wicked exploit? I. alas! how unusual was it for any to depart. against the time of the Passover. do not at all doubt that Judas was present both at the Passover and the eucharist. You see how light a matter Judas' going away to buy necessaries. that he had appointed the priests two days before to make ready for him at such a time and place.

" Therefore some say. where. Very right indeed. before the cock crow. "Within the time of cockcrowing" thou shalt deny me thrice. O Peter? Verily. R. if [it] ought to be rendered. and I will conduct them to seize upon him in the gardens without the city. But there is nothing of this said in that supper. and I know my Master will come to it: I know he will not lie at Jerusalem. Luke 22:34. John 13:38." &c. we shall be secure enough from the multitude. I say unto you. and thrice before the second. we may easily observe in what sense those words are to be understood. brings them prepared along with him. Whosoever begins his journey before cockcrowing. If before the second crowing: but some say. that that was the same supper with this of the Passover. the cock shall not crow once. Make ready." &c." Thus. From hence. that is. "Every day they remove the ashes from the altar about cockcrowing. and protects you from the multitude. when we shall bring him to you. thus the masters: "R." The Misna on which this Gloss is hath these words. John 13. "Are you so secure of yourself. for me armed men. all things are provided against the place and time appointed.Passover.] The same also he had said. before the cock crow. as the Gloss explains it." &c. "a cock that doth not crow too soon nor too late. therefore. or the cock shall not crow at all. At the Paschal supper it is said. which were spoken to Peter two days before the Passover. and let them come to a place appointed immediately after the paschal supper. You may wonder that a dunghill cock should be found at Jerusalem. by reason of the solitariness of the place and the silence of the night. that you may meet together at the council after supper. Josia saith. thou shalt deny me thrice. Before the third. But of what kind of cock is this spoken?" Of a middling cock. Mark 14:68. 34. Matt 26:34. "This night. upon account of the holy things. when you shall deny me thrice within the time of cockcrowing. stealing away from the company of the disciples as they were going out towards the mount of Olives and hastening to his armed confederates without delay. to examine and judge him.: not that the cock should not crow at all between that time and Peter's denying. thou shalt deny me thrice. but as if our Saviour had said. for Peter had denied him but once before the first crowing of the cock. "Even Israelites are forbid to keep cocks at Jerusalem. Shilla saith. and the thief. but will go back to Bethany. [Before the cock crow. however late at night.72. "The cock shall not crow. where he is used to lie. and sets upon his Master now in the garden. But it is not so. That this night. Concerning the cockcrowing. John 13:38. Do ye make haste to despatch your passovers. Mark 13:35. the time shall be. and I will steal out privately to them while my Master makes himself ready for his journey." At cockcrowing. his blood be upon his head. Verily I say unto thee. because of the holy things: for Israelites have eaten there peace offerings and thank offerings: but now it is the custom of dunghill . and that shortly. while the silence of the night favours you also. therefore. nor do the priests keep them throughout all the land of Israel. when it is forbid by the canons that any cocks should be kept there: "They do not keep cocks at Jerusalem. Jesus said unto him. "The cock shall not crow till thou hast denied me thrice. but on the day of atonement at midnight." The Gloss gives the reason. Mark 14:30. but it amounts to this sense.

And forthwith he came to Jesus. &c. But found none: yea. though many false witnesses came. "Because of the stink that riseth from the weeds which are thrown out: besides. and why they may not be sewed up again [Sanhedr.) but all were without the walls. [Then the high priest rent his clothes. Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane. Hail. 28" parsed="|Matt|27|0|0| 0. 7. as well as at other places. we do not dispute. then all. first ask the witnesses. which had been so from the days of the prophets. and bid him speak out plainly what he hath heard. and thence comes a stink. 60.] .] It was not unusual for a master to kiss his disciple. At the last came two false witnesses. and saith unto the disciples. cap. master. and kissed him. or out of open contempt and derision.. and said. Whether therefore Judas did this under pretence of respect. In John. He hath spoken blasphemy. [Many false witnesses came." Upon this account there were no gardens in the city. See there the Babylonian Gemara discoursing at large why they stand upon their feet. 10]. it is "a garden beyond Cedron.28 <scripCom type="Commentary" passage="Matthew 27." &c. 49. and when he speaks it. hal. but for a disciple to kiss his master was more rare. yet found they none. Then the high priest rent his clothes. especially at the foot of Olivet. 36. why they rend their garments." "They do not make gardens or paradises in Jerusalem. hearing the blasphemy. Chapters 27." By what means. The Gloss. the judges standing on their feet rend their garments. 65. it is the custom to dung gardens. and under what pretence. When the morning was come.27 Bible:Matt." "They that judge a blasphemer.] The place of the olive presses. all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: [When the morning was come.cocks to turn over dunghills.. It is certain there were cocks at Jerusalem. where perhaps they might find creeping things that might pollute those holy things that are to be eaten. are bound to rend their clothes. while I go and pray yonder. now ye have heard this blasphemy. saying. the canon was dispensed with.|Matt|28|0|0|0" osisRef="Bible:Matt. what further need have we of witnesses? behold. Sit ye here. at the foot of mount Olivet. [Kissed him. because of the stink.28" /> 1. let it be inquired.] "When witnesses speak out the blasphemy which they heard. and do not sew them up again. And memorable is the story of a cock which was stoned by the sentence of the council for having killed a little child. (some few gardens of roses excepted. [Gethsemane.] Let us trace a little the proceedings of this .

Another business that you had in hand (effectually to destroy Jesus).council:-I. which is asserted in that place. at what time they were also forbid to sit in judgment: "They do not judge on a feast day. which is expressly forbid by their own canon: They handle capital causes in the day time. The reason of the latter is thus expressed: Blessed is the judge who leaveneth his judgment: that is. and finish them by day. which we leave to them to clear. let them not taste any thing that day. seem to slight and trample under feet their own canons. or giving a definitive sentence.. Sanhedrin: in the text this is decried.. or Passover: but you will scarce find what time they allowed today for that purpose. This very canon is sufficient ground for scruple. "That when the council shall have adjudged any one to die. Judgment in capital causes is passed the same day. This was the time of saying their phylacteries. and lets it rest all night.] Let that be considered. or robbed your prayers of charity. through rancour and hatred towards Christ. but that they might eat the Chagigah. This judgment is begun in the night. it being provided by a canon. Let them not judge on the eve of the sabbath. there is need of night and darkness. as the Gloss. whom see. whether it be for fining or acquitting. lest they should be defiled. The reason of the prohibition is ." [Took counsel to put him to death. III. Judgment in cases of money is passed the same day. This night was the evening of a feast day. When it was morning. who. it is passed the day after. Capital causes are tried in the day. which is also repeated in other places. I will not trouble you now with recounting. and the entering of them by the scribes: determine signifies only the passing of judgment. either robbed you of your prayers. and may be determined in the night. II. But when and how was this performed by them today? They take heed of going into the judgment (or Praetor's) hall. but capital causes were only to be handled by day: but here. They spend the night in judging on a capital cause. the first feast day of the Passover. Money matters indeed that were begun by day might be ended in the night. and finished in the day. "Cases of money are heard in the daytime. You may better perceive the difference from the Glossary on Babyl. the examining of the plaintiff and defendant. when they used to present themselves in the Temple and offer their gifts. IV. the taking the votes of the council." How the lawyers are divided on this point. if it be for acquitting: but if it be for condemning. Exodus 23:15." The difference between hear and determine is greater than the reader may perhaps think at first sight. namely. nor on the eve of a feast day. namely. from the first daylight to the third hour. of the first day of the paschal week. in sitting upon the life and death of our Saviour. nor indeed was it lawful for them to eat any thing on that day. "who delays his judgment. By the word hear they signify the whole process of the trial. Now appears. and of the witnesses. that he may sift out the truth." The reason of this difference is given by the Gemarists. and carried on all the night through in a manner.

the price of his treason. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet. should not be finished on the sabbath or feast day. 'De consensu evagelistarum. as also Eusebius in the twentieth book of demonstration. "This was known to all that dwelt at Jerusalem. in that the testimony here is taken out of Zechariah." You see in the history of the gospel. And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple. which we suppose horrible above measure. The words of Peter. strangled him. and went and hanged himself. and the devil went out in so horrid an exit. and was now returning again to his mates. do not suffer me to understand this of hanging himself. who put in the name of Jeremiah. the price of him that was valued. and also with those that follow. and departed. who dwelt in him. the devil. or (as I rather suppose) to the unskillfulness of some person. The wickedness he had committed was above all example. Acts 1:18.' chapter the seventh. 2. And they took the thirty pieces of silver. so that it seem plainly to have been a failing of memory. [That which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet. Falling headlong he burst asunder in the midst. and his guts issued out. as he often doth in other places. saying. namely. in the Temple. But if any one had rather impute this error to the transcribers." It agrees also very well with the deserts of the wicked wretch. and not from Jeremiah.this. declare: "This knot hath hampered all the most ancient interpreters. who had now been in him three days together. and singular beyond example. by the prophet.] Strangulatus est. The trial concerning our Saviour's life. caught him up on high. was strangled: namely. he burst in the midst. for the votes of those that acquitted or condemned were written the day before. as Augustine supposes in his third book. I know the word is commonly applied to a man's hanging himself. so that dashing upon the ground. Interpreters take a great deal of pains to make these words agree with his hanging himself. and threw him down headlong. 1. when the evangelist had writ only. 9. and the punishment he suffered was beyond all precedent. See what we have said at the tenth chapter concerning the word Iscariot. "Which indeed (saith the Gloss).] How much this place hath troubled interpreters. This certainly agrees very well with the words of Peter now mentioned. that the trials which were begun on the eve of the sabbath. but not to exclude some other way of strangling. was not despatched at one and the same sitting. and care is taken that there be no writing" (for it is forbid to write so much as a letter on the sabbath): "but in capital causes it takes not place upon that account. let the famous Beza. [Hanged himself. as such a strangling and throwing down headlong. is observed in pecuniary trials. There had been many instances of persons who had hanged themselves. 5. and with the title of Iscariot. whom they of the children of Israel did value. by the devil. or a feast day. yet we must confess that this error hath long since crept into the Holy . And that too on a feast-day. instead of many others. And I cannot but take the story (with good leave of antiquity) in this sense: After Judas had thrown down the money. but indeed all will not do. this would not so much have stirred up the people of Jerusalem to take notice of it.

" &c." "In the Psalms". . Nathan Barabba. Matthew 16:14. "All things must be fulfilled.] Bar Abba. Isaiah. therefore. as we read it. as Jerome expressly affirms. but I do confidently assert that Matthew wrote Jeremy. Of which sort is that also of our Saviour. he ought to have been set before them: but since the Book of Kings ends with destruction. or crept in without the knowledge of the evangelist. Have thou nothing to do with that Jew. and since Ezekiel begins with destruction and ends with comfort. But (with the leave of so great men) I do not only deny that so much as one letter is spurious. The Son of man indeed then came in the glory of his justice and his vengeance. and comfort with comfort": that is." Abba Bar Abba. to destroy that most wicked and profligate nation. some persons sitting in the towers gave the citizens warning by a sign to take heed. 19. that is. When. [Barabbas. Samuel. 16. in which the Psalms were placed first. he only cites the words of the volume of the prophets under his name who stood first in the volume of the prophets. and that it was very readily understood and received by his countrymen. Judges. Chaijah Bar Ba. When he was set down on the judgment seat. [Have thou nothing to do with that just man. and the Psalms. In the Jerusalem dialect it is very often uttered Bar Ba: "Simeon Bar Ba. in the Book of Hagiographa. his mother sent to him." &c. 'The Son cometh. Jeremiah. and all Jeremiah is about destruction. because he stood first in the volume of the prophets. they joined destruction with destruction. and then let the reader judge: "A tradition of the Rabbins. as he had often foretold. called Barabbas. and the twelve. Have thou nothing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. When huge stones were thrown against the city by the Roman slings. Whence it is very plain that Jeremiah of old had the first place among the prophets: and hereby he comes to be mentioned above all the rest. And they had then a notable prisoner. and R. which are written of me in the Law. crying out in the vulgar dialect. We will transcribe the following monument of antiquity out of the Talmudists." And a little after: "But since Isaiah was before both Jeremiah and Ezekiel.' that is.Scriptures. Kings. saying. Samuel Barabba. a very usual name in the Talmudists: "R. and all Isaiah is about comfort. therefore he is first named." "R. they placed these books together which treat of destruction. his wife sent unto him. Bar Ba. Luke 24:44. The Book of Joshua. Ezekiel. and the Prophets.] "When king Sapores went about to afflict Rabbah. saying." This brings to my mind what Josephus relates to have been done in the besieging of the city. Matthew produceth a text of Zechariah under the name of Jeremy. You have this tradition quoted by David Kimchi in his preface to Jeremiah. and those together which treat of comfort. This is the order of the prophets.

] These things are delivered in Sanhedrim. and the people's." (namely. they lead him out to be stoned. 59. For all cities that have walls bear a resemblance to the camp of Israel. 1. and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him. for at Jerusalem there were three camps. Acts 7:58: so also him that was to be crucified: "The place of stoning was without the three camps.'" On which thus the Gemara of Babylon: "The tradition is. since he was a seducer. are two thieves judged. and execute him. And after that they had mocked him. In several things the circumstances and actions belonging to his death differed from the custom of the Jews in putting persons to death. To be whipped before the judgment seat." (namely. God's. and N. of twenty-three. They never judge two on the same day. [When he had scourged Jesus.) "the place of stoning was without the city. of one that is guilty of stoning: "If there be no defence found for him. because he dealt in sorceries. 29. and then they pass sentence. besides Christ.] See those fictions in Tanchum [fol. 'Thou shalt not spare him. 2. and led him away to crucify him. Hail. therefore they hanged him on the evening of the Passover. The witnesses against him are N. they took the robe off from him. And the . the Levites'. therefore a death is inflicted on him not usual with the Jewish council.]. neither shalt thou conceal him. And a little after. and mocked him. he crucified. King of the Jews! [A reed in his right hand." Because Jesus was judged at a heathen tribunal. They never carried one that was to be hanged to hanging till near sunset: They stay till near sunset. and that a crier went before him for forty days making this proclamation. as it was in the encamping in the wilderness:) "and in every city also where there was a council. Ulla saith. he delivered him to be crucified.: whosoever can bring any thing in his defence. crucifixion. 31. saying aloud thus. namely. they put it upon his head. let him come forth and produce it': but no defence could be found. that on the evening of the Passover Jesus was hanged.26. saying. And when they had platted a crown of thorns. They led him that was to be stoned out of the city. because he hath done so and so. [Led him away to crucify him. 'N. whosoever knows of any defence for him. concerning an angel that appeared in the shape of Solomon: In whose hand there was a reed: and whom they struck with a reed. comes out to be stoned. let him come forth and produce it. and a crier went before. and put his own raiment on him. and persuaded and seduced Israel. and to be nailed to the cross. and of such God hath said. the son of N. Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus. But here. 'This man comes forth to be stoned. 4. he delivered him to be crucified.] Such was the custom of the Romans towards those that were to be crucified: Whom after he had beaten with whips. His case seemed not to admit of any defence.'" Deuteronomy 13:8.

28. but on purpose by the scribes. "as it is said. They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof. So that we may suppose this cup not to have been prepared by those honourable women. But it makes a scruple that in Matthew it is vinegar with gall. and then to put them to death. to the thing as it was really acted. that they might lose their senses). wine and frankincense. but from the persons: They did not bewail for a person led out to execution. when yet it is found thus written in all copies. those of Matthew. 4. and at noon was nailed to the cross. They first put the condemned person to death. in the first chapter of Numbers. and then hanged him upon a tree: but the custom of the (Roman) empire is first to hang them. They gave him. lest they should neglect his burial. 33. for this did not tend to his honour. nor hang him in the morning. or myrrh. compassionating those that were to die. that their understanding might be disturbed." Those were better instructed. that cup which used to be given to those that were led to execution. 'Give strong drink to them that are ready to die. studying to heap upon him all kind of ignominy and vexation. and out of more bitter rancour. and wine to those that are of a sorrowful heart.reason is given by the Glosser." (that is. The reason of this difference is not to be sought from the kind of the death. And the tradition is." and the malefactor should hang till after sunset. and happen to forget themselves. according to the custom of the nation. [Golgotha. The words of Mark seem to relate to the custom of the nation. and the other persecutors of Christ.' &c. 3. but they sorrowed for him in their hearts. upon this account. in Mark wine mingled with myrrh. For. "but near sunsetting. who lamented for Christ both as to the thing and person. [They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall. but for Jesus they did.] "To those that were to be executed they gave a grain of myrrh infused in wine to drink." But Christ was sentenced to death before noon. but (as Matthew has it) not the usual mixture. but they lamented inwardly in their hearts. since such a leaving out of letters in many Syriac words is very usual: you have this word thus written without the second [l]. Luke 23:27. that his being vilified" [when nobody openly lamented him] "might help to atone for him. That some women of quality in Jerusalem allowed this freely of their own cost. but for the greater mockery. They did not openly lament for those that were led forth to be put to death. And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha. why gall? Ans." &c. You will wonder at the reason which the Gloss thus gives you: "They did not openly bewail him. But the good man censures amiss. In this cup they afterward dipped . a place of a skull. by the Samaritan interpreter. so that they may bury him out of hand. "They do not perfect his judgment. vinegar and gall. namely.] Beza pretends that this is written amiss for Golgoltha. If wine. that is to say. nor lessen the atonement. he would not drink. why is it called vinegar? If wine mingled with myrrh. 34. I understand Mark thus.

we have this account. while they scarce ever put any one to death. There is a rule set down. The opposition of the Zealots to the Roman yoke made them study only to mischief the Romans. Juda: but the wise say. who for twenty years had wasted the country with fire and sword. if a woman. as may be supposed: see the 48th verse. at that time. a woman not naked.] Of stoning. They parted my garments among them. burnt the palaces in Jericho. and holding the cup in his hand. by means of polygamy. which. and an offspring born only to beggary or rapine. and parted his garments. and another on the left. he is a thief. and many others with him. dissolute. [Two thieves. and the horrible slaughters committed by them. were called thieves. 3. "and if you see there a man drinking wine. straggling about with the robbers with whom he associated. And they crucified him. in Josephus. who must not by any means be touched. who slew men in the day time. next to the just vengeance of God against that most wicked nation. both before and behind. and lewd sort of young men.] See. as being an Israelite. since. lay hold on him.a sponge. "That was the hour of eating. 38. casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet. [Parted my garments. they strip him of his clothes. and the divorces of their wives at pleasure. . 35. and the art shewed. the multitude of robbers." So that it is plain enough he was crucified naked. who they were that.. sent him to Rome. of discovering and apprehending robbers: "Go to the victualling-houses at the fourth hour" (the Gloss. deservedly claim the first consideration. preceding the destruction of the city. and the nation's unspeakable addictedness to lasciviousness and whoredoms. Among the monsters of the Jewish routs. It is no wonder. one on the right hand. and in the midst of the city. and they went all to the victualling-houses to eat"). These are the words of R. as wanting both sustenance and ingenuous education. 2. "When he is now four cubits from the place of stoning. and how much trouble and pains the governors of Judea were at to restrain and root out this cursed sort of men: "One Simon. and sleeping." &c. and upon my vesture did they cast lots. &c. called sicarii. and if it be a man. though never so wicked. and do all the mischief they could to those Jews that submitted to them. A man is stoned naked. if that nation abounded beyond measure with a vagabond. they hang a cloth before him. The foolish and sinful indulgence of the council could not but nurse up all kind of broods of wicked men. you may justly ascribe to divers originals." "Another kind of robbers sprang up in Jerusalem." &c. there could not but continually spring up bastards. 1. Then were there two thieves crucified with him." "[Felix] having caught the chief robber Eleazar.

is not so properly Syriac: and hence arose the error and misconstruction of the standers by. with the Rabbins.] That Christ here used the Syriac dialect. with their own clubs. and he did in effect proclaim. without either bridle or chain: he calls it himself. Eli. Eli. men conspiring together in villainy and cruelty. My God. Eli. let us see whether Elias will come to save him. supposed that Christ was tainted with the same folly and mistake. and called out to Elias for help.4. wagging their heads. the power of darkness. God who had foretold of old. Thus Josephus concerning Florus: "He spoiled all the people. The rest said. and which was continually subject to insurrections. that he might receive a share in the spoils. which it was no strange thing for that deluded people to expect. Let us see whether Elias will come to save him. Eli. indulge a licentiousness to such kind of rapines. my God. R. In Syriac he should have said. summed up and gathered together into one head. when they heard that. All the rout indeed and force of hell was let loose at that time against Christ. and sometimes getting a share in the booty. could pour out upon him. Some of them that stood there.49. in regard of men. [This man calleth for Elias. so that all the power and all the rancour of hell might." And thus a sword. And they that passed by reviled him. was sheathed in them.] I. Mari: but Eli was strange to a Syrian ear: this deceived the standers-by. lama sabachthani.] To shake the head. and being deceived by the double meaning of the word. had slackened the devil's chain. that all might go out in the country to rob. Eli. or the instruments of hell. cries out. which is also cited in the Gloss on Joma: "Esther stood in the inner court of the palace. . feeling such torments as either hell itself. that they might humble that people they so much hated. under the sharpness of the present providence. which. and now that time is come. and that all that malice that was in the devil against the whole elect of God. Levi saith. might at one stroke and onset be brandished against Christ without measure. is plain from the word sabachthani: but the word Eli. by beating them. as it were. lama sabachthani? that is to say. such bitternesses. "My God! my God! why hast thou delivered me up and left me to such assaults." 47. that first came out of their own bowels. and such merciless hands?" The Talmudists bring in Esther using such an ejaculation. having heard more than enough of the apparitions of Elias from the Jewish fables. When she was now just come up to the idol-temple. the divine glory departed from her: therefore she said. 39. Mari. Our most blessed Saviour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice. assault Christ. Luke 22:53. The governors of Judea did often. that the serpent should bruise the heel of the promised seed. therefore. the Divine Providence used to hold in his hand. who. Let be. Eli. This man calleth for Elias. saying. 46. said. II. why hast thou forsaken me? [Eli. [Wagging their heads. lamma azabhtani. freely and without restraint. signifies irreverence and lightness. out of policy.

but they did not build any wall there in the second Temple: only they made two hangings. but contented to have declared the thing itself. and the Rabbins to thee: for he speaks of the tabernacle. between which there was a void cubit. This is it they mean. whereupon they made two hangings. as Aruch plainly affirms. there was some doubt made of its holiness. therefore. in which there was but one catapetasm [or veil] only. and the other to the Holy. and the entrance. or perhaps you will think that only one of these two veils was rent." While. The taraxis one cubit. but when they built the second Temple. and the earth did quake. &c. There was but one hanging there. and they hung up two veils. [The veil of the Temple was rent in twain. who offered the incense that evening. not being solicitous in explaining particulars. Compare Hebrews 10:19. 'And the hanging shall separate [to. Perhaps the priest. one contiguous to the Holy of Holies. The wall of the Temple was six. according to the thickness of the wall that was in the first Temple. their minds were troubled about this affair. Josi saith rightly to the Rabbins. Wherefore they made the Holy of Holies twenty cubits complete. twenty. and the rocks rent. not knowing whether they should hang the veil at the Temple. Maimonides will tell you. You will wonder.'" On which words thus the Gemara of Babylon: "R. which hindered seeing into the Holy of Holies. the Temple forty. and they left a void cubit between the Holy and the Holy of Holies. But it was enough for the evangelists Matthew and Mark. or] between the Holy and the Holy of Holies." What taraxis means. When the high priest went into the inmost recess of the Temple on the day of . that is. therefore. was cleft and broken.51. "In the first Temple there was a wall one cubit thick. till he comes to the two hangings that divide the Holy from the Holy of Holies. as there was in the first Temple. the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom. it was doubted whether the thickness of that wall should be accounted to belong to the measure of the Holy. whether it should belong to the outward part of the Temple or to the inward. they called the place itself by the Greek word taraxis. who speak of this miracle. trouble. between which there was a cubit. namely. in the plural. or at the inmost recess of it. that they might be sure to offend neither against this part nor that. R. not both. And. that Matthew doth not say veils. Josi saith. The veil of the Temple is rent it would easily be understood of a passage broken into the Holy of Holies by some astonishing and miraculous rending of the hangings." "The high priest [on the day of atonement] goes forward in the Temple. separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies. in which since there was not a partition-wall. and whether the void space between of a cubit thick should belong to this or that. the pronaon itself eleven. and they.20. and going into it. and the Holy forty cubits complete. as it is said. of the second Temple. behold. and should tell them. was in the Temple at the very moment when this miracle happened: and when he went out amazed to the people. or to the measure of the Holy of Holies.] Let us hear what the Fathers of the Traditions say concerning this catapetasm or veil: "The wall of the pronaon was five cubits. to have shewed that that fence between.

John 1:49. the firstfruits.atonement. "Thou art the Son of God. Psalm 2:12. but that both they and these were spoken by him. And the graves were opened. I suppose. that is. and to rend rocks rather than curtains. from those places. and the north side of the inner. but it must be ascribed rather to another peculiar miracle. put shoes on my feet. that when the Messias comes I may be ready. and that from the top to the bottom. they feared greatly.'" 54. 1 Chronicles 17:13. Now when the centurion. as the second Person in the Holy Trinity. when he declared that "Christ was the Son of the living God. What they thought of the resurrection that was to be in the days of Messias. but not without some truth. and they that were with him. you may see and smile at in this one example: "R. "Certainly this was a righteous man": which. The centurion had learned this from the people by conversing among them. as to their sense of it.] That is. was raised. [Truly this was the Son of God. for their rising again when Christ. yet they acknowledge the Messias for the Son of God (not indeed by nature. but by adoption and deputation. The Jews had a fancy that the kingdom of the Messias would begin with the resurrection of the dead. 'When you bury me." Howsoever the Jews deny the Son of God in that sense in which we own it. [And many bodies of saints which slept arose. thou art the King of Israel. and many bodies of the saints which slept arose. not a few others arose with him.27. 52. acknowledged him to be the Messias of whom he had heard so many and great things spoken by the Jews. besides those things which we have already mentioned. But now both are rent in the very middle. were not the same with these words before us. so that now the gates of the resurrection were thrown open. saw the earthquake. and the bodies of dead men were made ready. 89:26.] You can hardly impute the rending of the hangings to the earthquake. and when he arose." Such are the words of Nathanael. "This was indeed the Messias. In Luke we have these words spoken by him. . the bonds of the grave were unloosed. "Certainly this was a righteous man: truly this was the Messias. vainly indeed. spoke this in a more sublime sense than the Jews either owned or knew. and those things that were done. and such-like." Peter. and give me a staff in my hand. as we have noted before. seeing the miracles which accompanied the death of Christ. as it were. saying. see Matthew 26:63). the Son of God. as to the thing itself: for from the resurrection of Christ the glorious epoch of the kingdom of God took its beginning." Matthew 16:16. as we have said at that place. and. Jeremiah commanded. Truly this was the Son of God. he went in by the south side of the outward hanging. as we said before (which he himself also signifieth in those words Matthew 26:29). Rocks were rent by it in those places where sepulchres had been built. since it is more proper for an earthquake to break hard things than soft. and lay me on one side. watching Jesus.

both which are improbable.] Josi. and she broke out into adulteries. Now this son of Satda was son of Pandira. By the like agreement of sounds they call the same town both Magdala. such was Papus Ben Judas. and Mary the mother of James and Joses. Mary." I pronounce 'Ben Satda.'" These words are also repeated in Schabath: "Rabh Bibai. the plaiter of young men's hair. and at his burial. a plaiter of hair. for she was the mother of N. the plaiter of women's hair. a town on the lake of Gennesaret. who. Josi. she departed from her husband. Among which was Mary Magdalene. under the name of Mary Magdala. he locked his door upon his wife. and take it out and will not drink. to which the word Satda more agrees than Stada. was mother of Ben Satda: "They stoned the son of Satda in Lydda. and when he went out of his house into the street. As they contumeliously reflect upon the Lord Jesus under the name of Ben Satda. doth not so plainly appear. they also cast reproach upon Mary Magdalene. Whence she was called Magdalene. then either Mary the sister of Lazarus was not present at the crucifixion of Christ. and went out. It is confirmed enough from this very place." &c. and the mother of Zebedee's children. . the plaiter of women's hair. for if Mary Magdalene was not the same with Mary the sister of Lazarus. bring me Mary the plaiter of women's hair. "The angel of death reckoned up to him what he had done before: for this story of Mary. who locked the door upon his wife. a very usual name in the Talmudists: "Five were called Be R. Go. "Papus Ben Juda was the husband of Mary. Indeed. whom see. He went and brought to him Mary. at a time when the angel of death was with him. so there is a shrewd suspicion that. or from that word of the Talmudists. or from the word which signifies a plaiting or curling of the hair. which. he ought not to have done: and hence sprang a difference between them. The title which they gave their Mary is so like this of ours. We leave it to the learned to decide. [Mary Magdalene. [Joses. indeed. "There are some who find a fly in their cup. said to his officer. her husband was Papus the son of Juda: but yet I say his mother was Satda. 'The husband [of his mother] was Satda. as we have observed elsewhere.] That Magdalene was the same with Mary the sister of Lazarus Baronius proves at large. as it is said in Schabath. that you may with good reason doubt whether she was called Magdalene from the town Magdala. namely. the plaiter of women's hair. that she might not speak with anybody. a thing usual with harlots." Where the Glosser says thus. or else she is passed over in silence by the evangelists.56. and Mugdala. that we find he was called Ben Sutdah by the Jerusalem Talmudists. The reason of our thus pronouncing it we fetch from hence.' not that I am ignorant that it is called 'Ben Stada' by very learned men. Let us see what is spoken by the Talmudists concerning Mary Magdala. The Gloss." See the Gloss there at the place before quoted. whether from Magdala. as they say in Pombeditha. Rabh Chasda said. her husband was Pandira. was under the second Temple. and they hanged him up on the evening of the Passover.. they say.

He went to Pilate. and begged the body of Jesus. came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.] In the Jerusalem Talmudists it is in the coming forth of the sabbath.' and not also of 'Judas and Simon. and yet they did not use to deny the honour of a funeral to those whom they had put to death." &c. Chaninah. The first of the sabbath this man stole.' as Mark 6:3. with a pious boldness. judgment passed on him. One may well inquire why this Mary is called the mother of 'James and Joses. [Towards the first day of the week. because the Aramites had brought it." There. Menahem. [Begged the body of Jesus. one for those that were slain by the sword and strangled. [In the end of the sabbath. 58.. they thought it would be better for him to be treated dishonourably after death. to avoid the disgrace of his family. "there was not wine to be found in all Samaria: but at the end of the sabbath there was found abundance.. "R. The second day of the week: and the third day of the week. &c. In the end of the sabbath." Also. as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week." "On the fourth day of the week they set apart him who was to burn the red heifer. One day (or the first day) of the sabbath: two (or the second day) of the sabbath: "Two witnesses come and say. and. had not Joseph. Chapter 28 1. but two burying-places were appointed by the council. Lazar. Chelpatha. and to be neither lamented nor buried. in the going out of the sabbath: On a certain eve of the sabbath. on the second day of the sabbath. to allow the honour of a funeral. "Ezra ordained that they should read the law publicly on the second and fifth days of the sabbath. the other for those that were stoned [who also were hanged] and burnt. He appointed that judges should sit in .] The Jews reckon the days of the week thus. begged of Pilate that he might be more honourably interred: which the fathers of the council. would hardly have permitted. Abdimus.. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered." On the fifth of the sabbath. &c. out of spite to him. for this vilifying of him they fancied amounted to some atonement for him. when the sabbath began. nor to lie all night unburied: "Whosoever suffers a dead body to lie all night unburied violates a negative precept. But they that were put to death by the council were not to be buried in the sepulchres of their fathers. as we have seen before. vulgarly. if they had been asked. As to the dead person himself. at the request of it. for they provide for the feast the first day of the week. they used. Jose Ben R. Jesus should have been buried. according to the custom.Ismael.] It was not lawful to suffer a man to hang all night upon a tree." The third of the sabbath: "A virgin is married on the fourth day of the week. And yet. if the meanness of the common burial would have been a disgrace to their family. Deuteronomy 21:23: nay. namely. and the Cuthites had received it".

The kingdom of Christ took its beginning principally from the resurrection of Christ: when he had now overcome death and hell. and the eve of the sabbath. I." We cannot here pass by the words of the Glossers on Babyl. the memorial of the creation. and the rest of God on that seventh day was chiefly in having perfected the new creation in Christ. the Talmudists call the Christians'. That old sabbath was not instituted till after the giving the promise of Christ." On the fifth day of the sabbath [or week]. III. the bruising of the serpent's head by the resurrection of Christ. and the feast of Pentecost on the first day of the week. Rosh hashanah. the sabbath could not but justly be transferred to that day on which these things were done. It was necessary that the Christians should have a sabbath given them distinct from the sabbath of the Jews. partly by the bringing in of different manners and . or the Christian day: On the Christians' day it is always forbidden for a Jew to traffic with a Christian. which is now changed into the sabbath or Lord's day. or a new creation. and the renewing of the world. and eat onions on the eve of the sabbath. When Christ was to make a new world. it was necessary for him to make a new sabbath. (The Jews themselves confess that the kingdom of the Messiah was to begin with the resurrection of the dead. Psalm 118:24. the finishing of a new creation. that also was the sabbatical rest of Adam. so that the presenting of the sheaf might be on the first day of the week. when now the stone which the builders refused was become the head stone of the corner. that partly by the forsaking of those rites. and the sabbath. IV. For. Genesis 3:15. namely.the cities on the second and fifth days. namely." With good reason did our blessed Saviour remove the sabbath to this day. When therefore that was accomplished which was then promised. that is. so it was provided by the gospel with the like care. "The Baithusians desire that the first day of the Passover might be on the sabbath. For as the law took great care to provide that a Jew might be distinguished from a heathen. II. not at all the week through.) Therefore it was very proper that that day from which Christ's kingdom took its beginning should pass into the sabbath. that a Christian might be thereby distinguished from a Jew. Where the Gloss saith thus: A Nazarene or Christian is he who followeth the error of the man who commanded them "to make the first day of the week a festival day to him: and according to the words of Ismael. the day which the Lord had made. The sabbath of the old creation was not proper for the new. it is always unlawful to traffic with them three days before that day and three days after. the day of his resurrection. rather than the old sabbath. Ezra also appointed that they should wash their clothes on the fifth day of the sabbath." The sixth day they commonly called the eve of the sabbath: "To wash their clothes on the fifth day of the sabbath. and that was fulfilled which was typified and represented in the old sabbath. The first day of the week.

and took their journey to the tomb. Thirdly. All hail.] I. About the same time Magdalene and the other women left their houses to go to the sepulchre: while they met together and made all things ready. among other marks of distinction. were made of a different colour. When they were come. nay. and worshipped him.observances. baptizing them in the name of the Father. appearing visibly before their eyes in human flesh. 19.] In the vulgar dialect of the Jews. Fourthly. she worships him. Jonathan were sitting together. For this was not unusual: "As R. had exhibited an infinite righteousness. that Christians might be of a different colour from the Jews.] This seems to have been done to kiss his feet. trampled upon. and crucified the Creator himself. Janni and R. is thus to be laid together: At the first dawning of the morning Christ arose. Christ appears to her. and said All hail. a certain man came and kissed the feet of R. Secondly. Jesus met them. nor were they henceforward to be counted a peculiar people. Peter and John run to the sepulchre. And the same care it hath deservedly taken about the sabbath: for since the Jews. and thereby fallen to worship the creature. kisseth them. who held them captive. first. a great earthquake happening at that time. however Matthew makes mention but of once going. [Go ye therefore and teach all nations. As soon as she knew him." Compare the evangelists here. he had overcome Satan. who formerly had kissed Christ's feet. The law was not more solicitous to mark out and separate a Jew from a heathen by circumcision than the gospel hath been that by the same circumcision a Christian should not Judaize. and of the Holy Ghost. from all nations. it was necessary. she supposing him to be the gardener. They having seen the signs of the resurrection return to their company. and sent back to the disciples. the sun was up. Jonathan. while the heathens had only conceived amiss of the Creator. they are informed of his resurrection by the angels. &c. So 2 Kings 4:27. and who had gone twice to the sepulchre. which Matthew relates in the plural number." How do they salute an Israelite? All hail. running it over briefly and compendiously. he had taken away the wall of partition: and fifthly. they were now become "Lo-ammi. Go ye therefore. behold. And this is the history before us. by their keeping the sabbath. [All hail. And they came and held him by the feet. baptizing them. whereby the apostles were kept in from preaching the gospel to all the Gentiles. The matter being told to the disciples. the Jews had now lost their privilege. and embracing his feet. according to his manner. Magdalene also followed after them. whom they neither had seen nor could see. they had slighted. as it were. a Christian might be distinguished from a Jew. saying. . 9. The enclosure is now thrown down. in short. Matthew 10:5. and you will find that this was done by Mary Magdalene only. that by the bringing in of another sabbath (since of necessity a sabbath must be kept up). The story. Being ready to return back. And as they went to tell his disciples. Christ had now by his blood paid a price for the heathens also. but she stays there. [They held him by the feet. For." They had exceeded the heathens in sinning. "The Rabbins saw a certain holy man of Caphar Immi. and of the Son. and teach all nations.

when they circumcised their children. Turks." &c. Ezekiel 36:25. Disciple all nations. Baptizing. make disciples. According to its nature. So the Jews. and by the cleansing of grace. because they do doctrinally exhibit the invisible things of the covenant. and this sacrament puts a difference between those who are under the discipleship of Christ. He was first to be proselyted. According to the nature of a sacrament it visibly teacheth invisible things. and in all nations. teaching. &c. the washing of us from all our pollutions by the blood of Christ. over which God exerciseth a more singular providence than over those that are out of the church. that when Christ had commanded to baptize all nations. that is. and. "Blessed be he who sanctified him that was beloved from the womb. that they may be taught. is a seal of the covenant. it obligeth the receivers to the terms of the covenant: for as the covenant itself is of mutual obligation between God and man. Romans 4:11. are of like obligation. and Pagans. I pray. Omitting that argument which is commonly raised form the words before us. that 'justification is by faith. Thus first. and also with us. in the twentieth verse. 2. the seals of the covenant. and then to be taught. they are no longer under heathenism. it is an introductory into the visible church. When they are under baptism. let us argue a little in behalf of infant-baptism. 4. Make disciples. Make me a proselyte. and assert that it is necessary for those that are to be baptized to be taught before they are baptized. and set a sign in his flesh. A certain heathen came to the great Hillel. he who is to bless the action saith thus. who from these words cry down infant-baptism. According to the nature of a sacrament. 6. it is a seal of divine truth. Observe the words here." &c. do by divine appointment sign the doctrine and truth of the covenant. teach them to observe all things. And. as a sacrament. 3. the seal of the righteousness of faith. III. namely. that thou mayest teach me.' which righteousness Abraham had when he was yet uncircumcised. Thus the apostle calls circumcision 'the seal of the righteousness of faith': that is. who do not acknowledge him. Bring them in by baptism. So circumcision is called. and then. 1. infants also are to be taken in as parts of the family. from what hath been said. so the sacraments. and Jews. They are very much out. and sealed his children with the sign of the holy covenant. According to the nature of a sacrament. 1. baptizing. Among the Jews. The words used when a child was circumcised you have in their Talmud. "And he received the sign of circumcision. and saith. namely. Among other things. and those who are not. gave this very title to circumcision. and placeth the baptized within the church. And that is the way whereby sacraments confirm faith. those are made disciples that they may be taught. make them disciples by baptism. It is a distinguishing sign between a Christian and no Christian. And why. but that they seal the divine truth of the covenant and promise. Baptism. like seals. 5. namely. it is the seal of this truth and doctrine. and then after. may not this . But in what sense are sacraments to be called seals? Not that they seal (or confirm) to the receiver his righteousness. Baptism also brings its privilege along with it. while it opens the way to a partaking of holy things in the church. And now. these few things may be observed: I.II. between those who acknowledge and profess Christ. There are divers ends of baptism:--1.

And now tell me. why an infant is not capable of being brought into the visible church. You will grant that this axiom is most true. From hence ariseth also a natural reason of infant-baptism: the infants of baptized . Ahaz. Exodus 24. Heirs are sometimes obliged by their parents. "Rabh Houna saith. as a sacrament.15. and baptism is privilegial. Genesis 17:14. through the indisposition of the receiver. The sacrament doth not lose this its end. seal this doctrine and truth. "that there as a washing away of sins?" It did not. &c. and of receiving the distinguishing sign between a Christian and a heathen. nor was it at all a sign to them of the 'washing away' of theirs: but baptism doth in itself seal this doctrine. the fault is his parents'. that baptism becomes a privilege to him. the seal of the righteousness of faith: is not circumcision the same to all? Did not circumcision. were baptized: did not their baptism. is an obligation. Peter and Paul. as well as an old man. wicked men. For that to which any one is obliged obtains a right to oblige from the equity of the thing. though they are not yet born: see also Deuteronomy 29:11. according to its nature. The Gemarists speak very well in this matter. that a man hath power to perform the law." Upon what is this grounded? On this. and that by God's appointment. And they may endow an absent person with a privilege: or they may bestow a privilege upon one. why are not infants capable. The bow in the cloud is a seal of the covenant: the law engraven on the altar. apostles. "Abraham received the sign of circumcision. indeed. when. The law is imposed upon all under this penalty. Our duty obligeth us to every thing which the law commands. The blood sprinkled on the twelve pillars that were set up to represent the twelve tribes was a seal and bond of the covenant. IV. indeed. "Visiting the sins of the fathers upon the children. of such a sealing? They were capable heretofore of circumcision. An infant is capable of privileges. the seal of the righteousness of faith. Ahab. But now infants are capable of being obliged. were baptized: their baptism. sealed to them the truth of God in his promises concerning the washing away of sins. according to the nature of it. but we cannot perform the least tittle of it." &c. was a seal of the covenant. And they. It is ill arguing from hence. and our infants have an equal capacity. And hence is that of Exodus 20:5." And is not this equally true? Esau. An infant hath been crowned king in his cradle: an infant may be made free who is born a salve. from this doctrinal virtue of the sacrament. received confirmation of their faith. because thus the parents are punished in a part of themselves. &c. II. III. an infant is to be cut off if he be not circumcised. but the equity of the thing itself is very well argued hence. They baptize an infant proselyte by the command of the bench. by the cutting off of their child. So also Judas and Simon Magus. "Cursed be every one that doth not continue in all." because children are a part of their fathers. received the sign of circumcision. that there 'was a righteousness of faith'? The sacrament hath a sealing virtue in itself. Baptism. in like manner. seal the thing itself to them. to whomsoever it was administered. that an infant is part of his parent: upon this account. Tell me then. and not from the apprehension of the person obliged. sign and seal this truth. as well as a grown person. Joshua 8.seal be set on infants? The seal of divine truth hath sometimes been set upon inanimate things. One may add. that doth not depend on the disposition of the receiver. hypocrites. though he be ignorant of it.

Moses (in Exodus 6:14) going about to reckon up all the tribes of Israel. in his gifts and miracles. 19:5. and of the Holy Ghost. about the true God. into the name of the Father. resurrection. He commands them to baptize in the name of the Father. [In the name of the Father. from Acts 2:38. for the present. the Son: and the Gentiles. that. that they might be hereby instructed in the doctrine of the true God. that thus the baptizers might assert. The Jews baptized proselytes into the name of the Father. For this reason. It belonged to the apostles. that thereby they might more firmly establish the doctrine of Jesus. which doctrine being established among them. The apostles baptize the Jews into the name of Jesus. than to the person of the Messias. by how much the more vehemently they opposed him: which being once cleared. II. &c. which they very much celebrate. Above all others. And this was occasioned hereby. they deny and abjure Jesus of Nazareth. and of the Son. V. however he be not named. and of the Son. Thus the doctrine of the ever-blessed Trinity grew by degrees to full maturity: for the arriving at the acknowledgment of which it was . "Grace and peace from God the Father. 8:16. goes no further than the tribe of Levi only. the controversy was about the true Messiah. The Father hath revealed himself in the old covenant. and Galilee. that is. baptize in the name of Jesus. and that the whole parents may be baptized." Where then is the Holy Ghost? He is not excluded.] I. Samaria. Christ commands them to go and baptize the nations. because they are part of them. with good reason. The Jews did more easily consent to the Spirit of the Messias. in human flesh. bless in the name of the Father and of Jesus. into the profession of God. Jesus to be the true Messias. the gospel was first to be preached to Judea. among the Gentiles. Hear this. In like manner the apostles. Of the same nature is that apostolic blessing. doctrine. according to the command of Christ. therefore. and of the Holy Ghost: but among the Jews they baptized only in the name of Jesus. but how much time was past before such a journey was taken! And when the time was now come that this work should be begun. Among the Jews. which met with such sharp and virulent opposition. the acknowledging of the Spirit of Christ would be introduced without delay or scruple. which we have observed before. they would soon agree about the Holy Ghost. and ascension. O Arian and Socinian! IV. therefore. whom they called by the name of Father. In the name of the Father. and of the Son. and of the Holy Ghost. Peter doth not enter upon it without a previous admonition given him from heaven. the more earnestly to assert Jesus (to be the Messias). to baptize the whole family. and from our Lord Jesus Christ. it was. which was chiefly controverted by the Jews. with the master of it. the Holy Ghost.parents are to be baptized. proper among the Jews to baptize in the name of Jesus. III. that he might be vindicated to be the true Messias: among the Gentiles. and takes up with that to which his business and story at that present related. the Son in the new. by his miracles. and the baptized confess. And upon this account they used of old.

except Babylon":-they are the words of Rabbi Solomon. but seeing they lay within the ancient bounds of the land.'--they could not so properly be said to be 'without the land. therefore.' &c.17. therefore." Hence the word 'world' is most commonly used for the Gentiles.' as those which were altogether 'without the limits. "The nations of the world." Heathen cities were on that western coast. nevertheless. &c. would be included all the neighbouring places. which is out of the land. without the land. wheresoever seated within the bounds of the land. the countries of the heathen." and "The region of the sea". Both which phrases the book of the gospel owns: "The land of Israel. the "coast or country by the Mediterranean sea. but it doth not set the bounds on other sides. Matthew 6:32.incumbent upon all who professed the true God to be three in one to be baptized into his name. But it is spoken in relation to the western coast of the land of Israel. But the sea sets the bounds. is the region of the sea." Which title all other cities of the like condition underwent also. John 3:16." The book of the gospel owns that phrase also.' But neither does this please me: for there is no need of so great a distance. and which are. namely.' comes to this. do the Gentiles (or nations) seek": which. as Mark 4:11. &c.--That every region. They distinguish all the people of the world into "Israelites. The sense. And sometimes the unbelieving Jews themselves. are called by a peculiar title. They say. "After all these things. A Chorographical Century Chapters 1-10 A Chorographical Century John (1602-1675) Chapters 1-10 Chapter The Division of the Land. to make any place to be called. 'The region of the sea. fall under the censure of R." and "Without the land": that is." and "the nations of the world." Matthew 2:20: and it calls the heathens. the 'lip of the Mediterranean sea. swallowed up by the land. Nissim: "It is something hard (saith he) to reckon every country. 'The region of the sea. when he saith. Solomon.' Those cities and that country. and swallowed up by the land. on which side there are no [heathen] cities near. 'that every region. "those that are without. 1 John 2:2. as it were. which is like to that region. Which. is. . that the more remote places are called. to be the region of the sea: for then. is so called. of R." 1 Corinthians 5:13. therefore. under that name. 1 Timothy 3:7. &c. in Luke 12:30. Lightfoot 1 The Jewish writers divide the whole world into "The land of Israel. Somewhere a distinction is made into "The land [of Israel]. "And every foreign region is called the region of the sea.

which the Jews. And what is the holiness of it? Out of it they bring the sheaf. which the Holy Scripture doth openly and evidently fix to that land. possess. and that "which they possessed. not although they that do prefer. the land beyond Jordan. Passovers. circumscribe the Holy Spirit himself within the limits of that land." And that I heap not together more.-but also. circumscribed within narrower limits than that. and the two loaves. who went up out of Babylon. from itself. the more exact in observing their bounds. they do. "The land of Israel (say they).") very many others also are circumscribed within the same borders by the fathers of the traditions. that went up out of Egypt. And they do not so out of any other land. They commonly define the 'land of Israel' under a double notion: to wit. and other appointments of that nature (which are commonly. they divide after this manner:-"There are three lands (or countries)--Judea. upon this account. distinguishing this land by known bounds. nor was it truly Israel. and the first-fruits. when. It was not heathen. but. and the gathering together of its waters clean." he excludes Samaria. above all other lands. but in the land of Israel. The law shall go forth out of Sion. in a manner. was not merely heathen. For "Shechinah (say they) dwells not upon any out of the land." Compare Acts 10:45. according to the condition of the nation.Examples will not be wanting as we go along. who went up out of Egypt". and its dwellings clean. such as Sacrifices. and Galilee. for "The land of Samaria is reckoned clean. For besides the rites of that dispensation. that very many mysteries of their religion were to be handled nowhere but within these limits. the Priesthood. not only by reason Samaria was rejected and shut out. both from all others. because they decreed. had passed into the possessions of the heathen." "The law of beheading the cow doth not take place any where. To this received division our Saviour hath respect." "They do not prefer to eldership out of the land of Israel: no." "They do not appoint or determine concerning the new moons. and its paths . that "which they possessed. that came up out of Babylon. as it were. have themselves been preferred within the land. sending his disciples to preach to the "lost sheep of Israel. called "Statutes appendant to that land. which became the possessions of those. Matthew 10:5. in very many places. and not improperly. nor do they intercalate the year any where but in the land of Israel: as it is said. in some places." This was. and. and each of those have three countries":--those we shall take notice of in their places. is sanctified by ten holinesses. because certain portions were cut off (and they neither a few nor small). and beyond Jordan. The land. under the second Temple. which. Now they were.

as between which. possessing all that coast thence forward unto the shore of the Mediterranean sea. Expect not. are those. or part. or other Gentiles. of the walls of the tower Sid. which were. that are said by the Gemarists in the very same page. which were called "The region of the sea. that this is spoken of the 'tower of Strato. "You see isles in the sea. therefore. 36. are of a different condition from those. and so could not properly be reckoned the 'land of Israel'. what the meaning is of some of them. since that the mind of the authors is either altogether unknown.. on this sea-coast. was again the land of Israel. We observe in its place. These places. But these places. yet they were such. nor yet do I know to what it may more fitly be applied." For those places were certain towns. act here according to the uncertain instruction of nods and winks." After the same manner speaks the Targum of . belongs to the land of Israel.clean": which the Jewish curiosity would by no means pronounce of a heathen land. What all these things mean. and if a line were drawn from the mountains of Amana to the river of Egypt. and beyond which were no places at all. but what was reckoned the 'land of the heathen': the Phoenicians. "The tower Sir": which. whatsoever is without the line. nor Sphinx herself. that I go from street to street to knock at all the gates of these places: it will be enough. "These (say they) are the bounds of the land of Israel. and elsewhere. But as to many other things. Chapter 2 The Talmudic Girdle of the Land under the second Temple. by how very little a point it differs from this words. here and there. which may have some tendency towards our entrance into our present business. or it is wholly doubtful." "The division.. and the outmost bounds of the land. that that tower is called by the Talmudists. whether it be known or no. We cannot also pass by those things. nor have we the advantage of any other commentator.' or 'Caesarea'. and how very apt it is by want of care in writing to be confounded with it. they made no difference between them and the Gentiles. indeed. We must. which we are now handling. if we can scrape out. which were the utmost bounds.--whatsoever is within the line.. from whence the scheme before-mentioned is taken. inhabited by heathens. in what regions these places lie. which they possessed that came out of Babylon. or by mere conjecture. concerning which the Talmudists here treat. We will at present take in hand only the first and last clause of this place quoted.. the eye of any reader is witness. I cannot so much as conjecture. is without the land. Syrians." Nor dare I confidently to assert. 3. The Talmudists are silent from making any comments here. nor can I scarce conjecture. fol. to explain and unriddle them. taken out of the Jerusalem Sheviith. and are able to guess at what points of the heaven they are disposed. Neither is there any Oedipus at hand. and that either by saying nothing. The rest (if there be any we can attain unto) we shall handle in their proper places. yea.

This excluded portion is passed into the name of Idumea. by Diodorus Siculus." &c. was something barren. "Hazar-Addar. Joshua 13:3:--for see there.Jerusalem upon Numbers 34:4: "And their western bounds shall be the great sea." Hence it cannot but be observed. enduring the seventy years' bondage in Babylon. but another very great part of Judea. the Edomites. and the parts as far as Idumea the Great. or constrained to . which were almost in the very middle of Judea. Barnea." This country. that their ancient enemies. and the Asmoneans. and the Book of the Maccabees. which was nearest their own: but at length. And having come unto Azotus. fifty-four miles. So that distinction may be made. in "Kadesh. "From Dan even to Beer-sheba. "The country. lying between the mountains. they were either rooted out." Nor that alone. Chapter 3 A great part of south Judea cut off under the second Temple. we find very many places mentioned under the name of Idumea. "And Judas and his brethren left not off fighting with the Idumeans: but fell upon them everywhere: and taking the city Chebron. Whilst the Jews were absent from their own country. who are numbered with the Philistines. and the isles of it." With these passages. Jewish Idumean. And he overran Acrabatene. how the holy text promising to number five nations only. and had fixed their roots in that country especially. and the city Marissa. How far? To the river of Egypt.--namely. from Gaza to the river of Egypt. HazarSusah. Simon of Gerasa overran the towns along the mountainous country. and Jamnia. which follows Gaza." And in Josephus. and Azotus. by the powerful arms of the Maccabees. The Talmudic girdle ends. Hence the habitation of the Avites is called 'Hazerim'. but yet by themselves. and whatsoever space lies between Ascalon and the river of Egypt. Hence the sea of Sodom. Hazar-Gaddah. And one might. called the Upper. to be "about the middle of Idumea. numbers six. &c. Hence Pliny: "Presently from the rising up of the lake Sirbon." And Strabo thus." And again. And it seems to denote some champaign plain and level. is barren and sandy. is excluded. For example's sake. begins Idumea and Palestine. as it were. The Talmudists speak thus of it. Hazar is a word of most frequent mention in that southern land. almost see some footsteps of that exclusion under the first Temple. and the plains of Idumea. indeed. And more to this purpose may be read here and there. Hazar-Shua." Deuteronomy 2:23." &c.--it is easy to be believed. &c. had invaded their possessions. between Idumea the Greater and the Less. as you see. It was anciently inhabited by the Avites. in that very common expression. and Ascalon. compare Mark 3:8. which lies in Gerariku [Gerar] is ill to dwell in. in parallel." &c. And there is mention of "Idumean. is said. "That tract. as much as they could. that was excluded." Isles? What isles? Let the authors of the maps well weigh these passages. and that were so from the very first original of them. "He came even to the Gadari. &c. that these two places are placed.--to wit. "The Avims dwelt in Hazerim.

. . 1. He sent such Tyrian ships. and were not ignorant of the Ophir voyage. and the four Rivers compassing the Land. and of birds an infinite number. To this belongs that. and the country beyond Jordan. that it hath often deceived and supplanted travellers. Perhaps the sandy sea. V. that "he sent seamen.. and to use the Jewish laws.--Idumea. The sea of Sodom. Chaninah Bar R. . The three first named among the seven are sufficiently known. either by any sea. they travelled by the way of the deep. Which fits very well to the lake of Sirbon. The word seems to be derived from a bush. So Josephus speaks of Hyrcanus: "Hyrcanus takes Ador and Marissa. on condition they were willing to be circumcised. IV. 2 Chronicles 8:18. II. and eight hundred kinds of clean locusts. which had much and long traded before in the Red sea. and there is no doubt of the fourth:--only the three names of it are not to be passed by. and called both Idumea and Judea: "And Palestine was divided into five countries. For he relates. is somewhat hard. That. yet not to be doubted of. 2. I. out of a desire of their own country. that that lake. IV. mentioned by the Talmudists. whole armies.embrace Judaism. knowledge of that sea: and they probably not such. concerning Hiram sending ships to Solomon into the Red sea. through which fish might swim out of Palestine into Babylon.. After these seas. except [a certain] fish.. And they. 3. The Sibbichaean. or the Mediterranean. between Jew and Edomite: and the name of the place was mingled also.. The sea of Tiberias. By the same art they bring Jonah in the belly of the whale. to accompany Solomon's fleet. . III. Houna Bar Joseph saith.. to trace a way. yea. what is said. suffered them to remain in the country. is so covered with sand. hear also no lean story of theirs concerning the fish: "R." Chapter 4 The seven Seas according to the Talmudists. having subdued all the Idumeans. or by any river." Hence there became a mingled generation in that country. joining the commentary of Diodorus Siculus. underwent circumcision.. that it is said there likewise (and in 1 Kings 9:27). The lake of Samocho. for the most part. The Great Sea. and returned when Israel returned. that is. into the Red sea. Judea. Abhu said. thinking it to be firm land. out of the Phoenician sea. But how did the fish travel? R. indeed. Galilee. Samaria. travelled with Israel into Babylon. that had knowledge of the sea". cities of Idumea: and. and conformed to the same course of life with the Jews." Surely it requires a Jewish invention (which is able to frame any thing out of any thing).. who had never yet adventured themselves into the Red sea. What! ships to come from Tyre into the Red sea? Which way sailed they? It is answered. Seven hundred kinds of clean fish. "Seven seas (say they) and four rivers compass the land of Israel. and by the deep they came back. but had experience of it before.

concerning which we have spoken. Pliny speaks thus of it: "In length it is more than a hundred miles: in its greatest breadth. that is sufficiently known. Jordan.--in its least. Jarmoch. are not fit."--And of the river of Amanah. In Pliny. as the Gloss speaks. with the spices that made that incense." And the Talmudists: "The waters of Kirmion and Pigah are not fit" (to sprinkle the unclean). seventy-two miles. the other Gomorrha. "Let him devote the use of such a thing to the bituminous sea." "Let the price of an . mixed with the waters of other rivers. The waters also of Jordan. are the sea. of which the Aruch speaks. The Talmudists devote "to the sea of Sodom. "because they are muddy waters. but out of them all I have chosen none. because they are mixed waters":--that is. and the waters of Jarmoch. six.--the eastern. Pigah. They mingled 'bitumen. The use of it was in the holy incense.' and [an herb known to few]. of which mention is made. "Sodom's salt.' 'the amber of Jordan. do refer: "I have created seven seas. This the Jewish writers every where call. and is the same with Amanah. the ground. that is destined to rejection and cursing." But that distance was not directly southward. IV. "the salt sea." &c. Kirmion. Hieramax flowing before it. but by a very long declination eastward. as it was generally every where diffused. "It is extended in length five hundred and eighty furlongs".The four rivers for the compassing of the land (they say) are. eighteen miles. saith the Lord." In which sense word for word. the Dead sea." as "the bituminous sea. but the sea of Gennesaret. those things which are said by Midras Tillim." doth very frequently occur among them. on both sides. one named Sodom. 1." any thing. II. Concerning its distance from Jerusalem. To the seven seas. and that by no means is to be used.--"In breadth a hundred and fifty furlongs". Chapter The Sea of Sodom 5 The bounds of Judea. "The lake Asphaltitis is distant from Jerusalem three hundred furlongs":--about eight-and-thirty miles. Concerning which. mention is made in the Targum upon Canticles 4:8: "They that dwell upon the river Amanah. Solinus also speaks: "In a long retreat from Jerusalem (saith he) a sad bay openeth itself. Joshua 15:2--and defines the breadth. thus the Aruch: "Kirmion is a river in the way to Damascus. it makes five-and-twenty. which they receive within themselves." but properly "Sodom's bitumen. There were two towns there. testifies. which that it was struck from heaven. or the sea of Sodom. 'Hieramax': "Gaddara (saith he). the western bound is the Mediterranean." III. shall offer thee a gift. Pigah is Pharphar. which you may not so properly interpret here." What agreement is there between these two? I suppose Josephus does not comprehend within his measure the tongue of the sea. and Jarmoch is also a river in the way to Damascus. black and dissolved into ashes.

now another burying-place. and there he died. Genesis 19:23. 6 "On the western shore" (of the Asphaltites) "dwell the Essenes.'--Now Sodom was four miles from Zoar. That he devoted the moneys of idolatry into the salt sea. "It is written (say the Gemarists). and of all other nations in the whole world." Note. Below these. I. with his company. do mention a certain Zoar. is placed in the northern bounds of the Asphaltites. see the places in the margin. I do not apprehend. the next to Jerusalem for fruitfulness. fly from on every side. A nation it is that lives alone. got thither before the rising of the sun." Are not the bounds here bent from Gaza to the farthest term opposite to it on the east? II. that Sodom. For. which look to the west. which they also call. and groves of palm-trees. "The City of Palms. "And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire."--"There is a story (say they) of some Levites. is to Zoar. that there were two Zoars. than I should believe. or until thou comest to Sodom. and weigh them well. that the father of the Moabites were not conceived and born near Zoar of the land of Moab. Revelation 20:14. that the farthest coast of the extension of it southward. and devoted the use and benefit of it to the salt sea. indeed. they are without any woman. a castle in a rock. at the northern coast almost of the Asphaltites:--by what authority. The Talmudists. when it seems rather to be placed in the southern extremity of it. guilty of any crimes." Hence is that allusion. the owner whereof is dead. But now Zoar was not far distant from Sodom." Solinus. Of three doctors one saith. The Essenes. whom persons. Josephus. "as thou goest forward. En-gedi. The town Engadda lay beneath the . when Lot. Chapter The Coast of the Asphaltites. when Lot entered into Sodom. From thence stands Massada. and this castle not far from the Asphaltites. depart into the salt sea. speaks the like things: "The Essenes possess the inner parts of Judea. 'The sun was risen upon the earth. all lust banished." But I should sooner believe." The maps show you Zoar and Lot's Cave in Judea. Concerning the age of Sodom. the city of palms: and one of them fell sick. which we quoted a little above. See Isaiah 15:5. Pliny's shadow. whom they brought to an inn. in the maps. &c. was the town Engadda. when it perished. The bounds of the land are thus defined by Moses.oblation for sin." "The proselyte Aquila divided the inheritance with his brother a Gentile. in the description of the Asphaltites." It doth not please me. who travelled to Zoar. most to be admired. hath these words: "The length of it is five hundred and eighty furlongs: and it is stretched out as far as Zoar of Arabia. Genesis 10:19: "The borders of the Canaanites were from Sidon" (on the north) "unto Gaza" (on the south).

1 Kings 9:18.--The 'Tarmudeans. Which if it be true. doth still endure: and in regard of its most lofty woods of palms. and Kimchi following him. too much northward. the maps have laid it a long way distant from its own proper place. Certainly. but it is now destroyed: but its glory for the famous groves. it hath received no disparagement either by age or war." From these we suppose came the Rechabites. that her daughter was dead. Rab. which is also asserted by the authors cited. in the name of R. Judges 1:16: "And the sons of the Kenite. Moses' father-in-law. being set too much towards the north.Essenes. the Chaldee paraphrast. into the deserts of Judah. "Haggai the prophet taught these three lessons:--The rival of a daughter" (of a priest) "may be married by a priest. which is asserted in the text alleged. And the proselytes of Tadmor are fit to enter into the congregation. that the proselytes of Tadmor are fit to enter into the congregation. to be certain poor people. The Moabites and Ammonites ought to tithe the poor's tithe the seventh year. the Essenes. in the Jerusalem Misna: "Mary. Ezekiel 47:19 (the very same which are mentioned Numbers 34 and Joshua 15:2). The castle Massada is the bounds of Judea. be the same with this our Tamar. I beseech you. by those of the Babylonian Talmud. are thus declared. drove them to that version of the word.--and from their stock. 2 Chronicles 20:2. But upon what reason? For how. that Jericho should be the bounds of the south land.--and whether Tadmor in the Talmudists be the same with that Tadmor." It was said a little before. saith. which are related by them-for the sake of such consideration:-"They receive proselytes from those of Cardya and Tadmor. when it was the utmost bounds of Judea northward? It was this."--"From the place Tarmud. But the Babylonian calls her "of Tarmod. "heard in that very juncture of time. having part of the blood sprinkled upon her" (whereby she was to be purified)." &c." This story is recited. since En-gedi would not give place to Jericho. then. If the Essenes were the same with the Kenites in seat and place. Whether Tadmor. that are there. To which we also add this:-The southern borders of the land. and Rabbi Sol. or example. one inch in regard of the glory of palm-groves.' are said. because Jericho is called the City of Palms. not the men:--we might otherwise begin the history of the Essenes from those words.--we leave to the reader to consider. and think of these things. Jericho. in Ezekiel. Jochanan. Nor have we any reason why we should seek another Tamar elsewhere. Jarchi." &c. who got themselves . We produce these few things concerning it.--certainly. went out of the city of palms.--and Tamar signifies a palm. without all doubt. and the Kenites dwelt beyond Arad southward. we make this an argument of the ill placing of En-gedi in the maps. View them. The tradition asserts.--and if below these were En-gedi. of Tadmor. But now Tamar and En-gedi are the same. "The southern coast southward from Tamar to the waters of Meribah in Cadesh. when it ought to have been placed towards the utmost southern coasts. have rendered Tamar. was it possible." We are looking for the places. with the sons of Judah." saith the Gloss. or indeed even with Arad. Abhu.

and Rekam is as the east": that is. they were fed by manna.21. from the barrenness of this place.--to wit. in the south part. or a Kadesh. and pomegranates. Inquiry is made. it is 'Rekam': in the Syriac. Paran was the general name of that dreadful desert. now thirty-eight years before. we suppose." Behold! a Rekam. These. who shall see the destruction of Tadmor: for she communicated in the destruction of the first and second Temple. of which. Numbers 20. whereby they might be sustained one day. while they remained in Kadesh-barnea. was Kadesh-barnea. the complaint arose among them. I. concerning which mention is made. for the land of the heathen). Jochanan said. For they complain. on the east. and that double. Of Kadesh. Numbers 20:5: which they did not at all complain of. Zin only one part of it. whither they came the fortieth year. Number 13:21. whereby the authors of them were drawn to it. there was not provision sufficient. not so much of the place itself. But the Kadesh. the people of Israel came in the fortieth year of their travel. 14:1. Nissim interpreting. in the destruction of the second. Numbers 12:16. Rekam. as I may so say. there is no doubt. or Rekam. 'Rekem': in the Arabic. I. they prejudged of the like barrenness of that land. besides Barnea. that it was a place altogether destitute of seed. departing from Kadesh-barnea. Numbers 20:1. a double Kadesh. were some of the reasons. But the maps have feigned to themselves another Kadesh. there is this mention: "From Rekam to the east.--I answer. that wheresoever they encamped. figs." Chapter 7 Kadesh. "Blessed is he. Whether the doubling it in the Maps is well done. "not for the land of Israel. 'Is it so?' (think they with themselves) 'Does the first entrance of the land of promise. of the place. are said. When they came hither first. as of the ill boding and prejudice. also. R. was in the desert of Zin. In the Chaldee. that Kadesh is rendered by all Rekam. Omitting. Of it.. R.--and the porch. or in a sound very near it. "Rekam itself is reckoned for the east of the world" (that is. because. into which they were to enter. In Kadesh-barnea they encamped many days. and this eastern Rekam. II. to go out of the deserts of Zin.--I answer. "Ye came to the mountain of the Amorites (saith Moses) which the Lord giveth you." Deuteronomy 1:20. in the eastern part. In the destruction of the first. II. whither. as it were. Numbers 20. Because Kadesh-barnea was in the desert of Paran. But in that Kadesh. There are two places noted by the name Rekam in the very bounds of the land. the southern and eastern: that is. also. vines. and selling it. she brought eighty thousand archers: and so she did.. promise no . 'Rakim'. The readers of the eastern interpreters will observe. Deuteronomy 1:46. The searchers of the land. they think.a livelihood by gathering up wood.

But let these things suffice. that we send before us spies. whether it is of so great account. In Kadesh-barnea.better? There is little hope of the land itself. while I read these things. which before had not dried up when they came thither. It is convenient. that the city was in the utmost bounds of the land of Edom: and therefore. by the inducement of which the whole multitude. If you ask. The maps have ill placed the Sirbon between mount Casius and Pelusium. was this. Why had those rivers that followed them." Either my eyes deceive me. which lying contiguous to the mountain of the Amorites. and promised it. They desire. They drank. who may bring us word. And since now. Nothing at all hinders. Chapter The River of Egypt. only that access was winding. whither they came the fortieth year. which border of old was Kadesh-barnea.--I answer. whither they came the last year of their travel. of the rock. Joshua 15:3. they are come back to the same place.--it will be scarce possible not to confound the encampings of Israel in the wilderness. V. into a true sense. Rhinocorura. to wit. they had a supply of water. and very difficult to be passed.17. they desire leave of the king to pass through the land of Edom. Numbers 20:16. Barnea. dried up. which is not hard to do. distrust.--or mount Casius lies nearer Pelusium. after so much time passed. when they were now ready to enter into the land. The Lake of Sirbon. a more level way of the king of Edom. which dried up. is the same with Kadesh-barnea. Numbers 34:4. for the present. Ezekiel 47:19. to have spoke besides our scope. and into agreement with Numbers 33 from verses 31 to 41.'--And hence was that unhappy argument before their eyes. if you do but reduce the sixth and seventh verses of Deuteronomy 10. Numbers 20:13). therefore. by so unanimous a vote. there was no water. that supposing one Kadesh only. Why had they dried up.--that Meribah in Kadesh is assigned for the southern border of the land. which is . Sirbon implies burning. which followed them (1 Cor 10:2). that we should tire and hazard ourselves by going to that soil. when they first came to Kadesh-barnea. is clear enough from hence. but obtain it not. whose first appearance is so horrid and desperate.--I answer. they think. the name of the lake being derived from its nature. 8 Pliny writes. but these things may be spoke of Kadesh-barnea. There will be the same easiness of ordering them. Perhaps that which chiefly moved them. Numbers 20. if the beginnings of it are such. and complain of the same things.--I answer. Concerning the Kadesh. to which they came in the fortieth year (which is called Meribah. that is. &c. to mountainous Judea. it is said. in Kadesh. "From Pelusium are the intrenchments of Chabrias: mount Casius: the temple of Jupiter Casius: the tomb of Pompey the Great: Ostracine: Arabia is bounded sixty-five miles from Pelusium: soon after begins Idumea and Palestine from the rising up of the Sirbon lake. III. as soon as they came at Kadeshbarnea.--then I ask also. showed so great an army an access. when they came to another Kadesh? IV. and their movings from place to place. therefore. concluded and resolved against the land. than the lake of Sirbon. That that Kadesh.

" Once it was fetched a great way off.. "Because there dwelt the divine glory. but towards Jericho and Jordan. lower than the plain. which nevertheless here and there hath its hills. that "it was not lawful to intercalate the year out of Judea." To the mountainous country."--"Nor was the sheaf of the first-fruits of the barley to be fetched elsewhere. which formerly was the Philistines'. Amos 1:1. on the east. It is described by Diodorus Siculus. for they render that in Isaiah 27:12. the coast of the sea of Sodom. which is also called "The king's mount. and the vale." Judea is not divided amiss into four parts:--namely. Isaiah 1:9. Judea did excel all the other parts of the land of Israel in very many privileges. in like manner. and as near as might be to Jerusalem. than from Judea. although "it was a portion of the narrowest limits.--from Emmaus to Lydda is plain. and perhaps was of the like fate and original. [60. Rabbi Jochanan saith. A lake like to that of Sodom. &c. derived from the 'cutting of nostrils. in respect of its superficies. From Beth-horon to the sea is one circumjacent region. on the east. into the country. "unto the stream of Egypt. not only towards Lydda. and in the Temple sat the Sanhedrim:--this was also peculiar to it out of the Canons. What if it be the monument of that dreadful earthquake in the days of Uzziah. its plain.' see Diodorus Siculus. Yet it hath a mountainous part. was of the same nature. 1. Joshua 13:3. The plain of it is the plain of the south. and vale: and that.. by reason of the goodness of the soil. For. it is Rhinocorura. besides that in it was seated Jerusalem. Amos 4:11. joins a plain. which is numbered with Judea. Amos 7:4: so that some cities perished after the manner of Sodom and Gomorrha. lying between mountains. the mountainous country of Judea. but Shihor in the way to Egypt. and in Jerusalem stood the Temple. and at length of Jordan. which takes up the western part. The land of Benjamin. is reckoned with the mountains. Jeremiah 2:18. and the great sea. and others. and a vale. Strabo. the metropolis of the whole nation.--from Lydda to the sea is valley."A valley.] Chapter A Sight of Judea 9 "In Judea is the mountainous country." yet had its mountainous part." Maimonides gives the reason of the thing. The plain of Lydda is as the plain of the south: and its mountainous country is as the king's mountainous country. ." Of which place and name. From Beth-horon to Emmaus is mountainous. To this joins. while they might do it in Judea. a country more low and level than the mountains. whom you may look upon." "Unto Rhinocorura. lib. Zechariah 14:5? when God contended also in fire. In the Seventy interpreters. an example of divine indignation. and mountains in a valley are numbered with the valley. The farthest border of the land of Israel southward is not Nile in Egypt.fiery and bituminous. to wit. the plain. The vale is from En-gedi to Jericho.--namely." To the plain eastwardly joins a valley. which. What is the mountainous country of Judea? It is the king's mountain. a plain.

"The town itself held two-and-twenty furlongs": nor can it well be taken of the whole circumference of the Tyrian jurisdiction." "Between Tyre and Sidon there is the little city Ornithon" (the city of birds). a town of the same name. of Crocodiles. heretofore an island. and Ornithon. that that space may be sailed. The masters of the Jews have observed this neighbourhood in that canon. "At Tyre a river goes out. Then begins Phoenice. which he went. being included. Lebba. in the mountain. Sarepta. Mount Angaris. When. Palae-Tyre. mingling glassy sand with its small shore: it flows from the lake Cendevia. The towns of Rhinocorura. The bounds of Palestine are a hundred and eighty-nine miles from the confines of Arabia." he shows manifestly. is a certain great wood." . lying within. The White Promontory. The mountain Carmel lies between: and the names of some small cities. the river Pagida or Belus. Next that is Ptolemais. but rather of the extent of the bounds of it that way. the same is Caesarea. Sycaminum. The free town Ascalon. formerly called Ace. a colony of Claudius Caesar. and within Anthedon. &c. the one a village" (otherwise Jamne within). The tower of Strato. Rains of some cities. and Sidon. being included." And chapter 19: "We must go back to the coast. and within Raphea. Enhydra. The two Jamnes. And between Ace and Tyre. "Moreover. the compass of Tyre is nineteen miles. of Herdsmen. out of Pliny and Strabo." "Beyond Ace is the tower of Strato. It is in compass nineteen miles. "Joppe of the Phoenicians. it is now a river. Pliny saith. which heretofore was called Ace. Azotus. while it is yet day. "Palae-Tyre. and others. Dorum. at the root of Carmel." "Thirty furlongs beyond Tyre is Palae-Tyrus": three miles three quarters. and nothing more. The promontory Carmel: and. Then the towns. Getta. that lies within. since he saith. and the mother of Thebes in Boeotia." Strabo goes backward: "Tyrus is not distant from Sidon above two hundred furlongs":--five-and-twenty miles. therefore. Tyrus. Thence Apollonia. and Phoenice.Chapter A Description of the Sea-coast. is a shore heaped with sands fit to make glass. Samaria. And going thence. from Tyre" (southward) "is Ptolemais. even on the eve of the sabbath: because it is well known. The town itself contains two-and-twenty furlongs. that it is not to be understood of the compass of the city itself. that nobody betake himself to sail in the Mediterranean sea within three days before the sabbath: "But if any (say they) will sail from Tyre to Sidon. The country along the coast. the artist of glass. The cities of Sycamines. Near that. whereby provision is made. Gaza. heretofore called Ecbatana. he may. There was the town Crocodilon. 10 "Idumea and Palestine begin from the rising up of the Sirbon lake. The town Ecdippa.

almost a hundred miles more than in Strabo. which before had stretched out towards sun-rising." Here we must stop.--that is. Joppa. one thousand three hundred furlongs. the shore of Egypt." "Thence to mount Casius towards Pelusium. at this day.' But now. and the dwellings neighbouring about. there be one hundred and eighty-nine miles. after that. to wit. it should be granted. from Idumea. that by the 'end of Palestine. But it is a more probable opinion.' in Pliny. the shore of Egypt. "Joppa of the Phoenicians. And so was the wood and Carmel." If. that. therefore. The place that divided these meetingbounds to the Jews. doth Pliny's measure extend itself. remains obscure. the distance is a thousand furlongs. Nor is there any thing to answer from the difference of the measure of Strabo's furlongs. where also is the . was Acon. extends them to four or five miles: "For it is extended southward towards Ptolemais. upon the borders of Tyre and Sidon. or Ptolemais. For. run out from Pelusium to Joppa: that is. So far. that Pliny's measure extended so far. washing upon that shore of Palestine." The sum is two hundred and fifty-four miles. and Pliny's miles.--he ascribed their name to Joppa. and the rising of the Sirbon lake. For when he calls Joppa."--he does not conclude Joppa within Phoenicia. to the borders of Tyre and Sidon. one hundred and sixty three miles. that Andromeda was exposed to the whale." "And this place was so well peopled. But he stretched the borders of Palestine a great way farther. therefore. at first sight. And three hundred more to Pelusium. But these ports are receptacles for robbers. which we shall note. a near village. and a little more."After that. and. A place sufficiently high.). "Eight furlongs make a mile".--namely. does remarkably bend towards the north. was divided in common speech into the Phoenician and the Egyptian sea (so Strabo before. according to Strabo's account. For "Arabia (saith he) is bounded sixty-five miles from Pelusium: and the end of Palestine is one hundred and eightynine miles from the confines of Arabia. himself reckoning. that go down to the sea. which. that he computed according to the vulgar and most known distinction. He had named Joppa before. more by far. touching upon Phoenicia properly so called. measuring the borders of the Tyre of his time southward. also. and because the Phoenicians were famous for navigation. or thereabouts: but according to Pliny's." &c. use this port. that from thence (they report) Jerusalem may be seen. is called 'the district of Scandarion. there are from Pelusium to Joppa. to Pliny. the metropolis of the Jews. supposing he makes Joppa the border of Palestine. but because the sea. We must therefore say. so far till they meet with the borders of Tyre and Sidon. and a little more. and the beginning of Phoenice. For they go by the same measure. "Afterward Joppe. as far as to that place. out of Jamnia. Gulielmus Tyrius. when we come thither:--but whether it was so to Pliny. There some talk. themselves being witnesses: for to Strabo. a very eminent haven of that shore.--that. we might compute the length of the land from the Sirbon. indeed. so high. and see how these two authors do agree. next which. might be armed forty thousand men. 'Joppa of the Phoenicians. And then begins Phoenice. The Jews. "A furlong makes a hundred and twenty-five of our paces":--which comes to the same thing. is properly signified the end of it.' which is four or five miles.

doth swell out much with mountains. that runs from the utmost southern cost as far as Hebron. one hundred and eighty-nine miles. that he carried not the gates of Gaza near to Hebron. Tyrius. "in the way by" (or near) "the mountain of the Amorites. Sum total is two hundred and nineteen miles. and reaching almost to the land of Canaan. From the first borders of Phoenice to Tyre. the southern border. and went through all that great and terrible desert. Unless I am very much mistaken. thrust forward itself into Judea beyond Hebron." Joshua 21:11." Let the reader consult Deuteronomy 1:19. Then I said unto you.20: "We departed from Horeb. of the land of Israel. Judges 16:3. which ye saw. Luke 1:39. which have feigned to themselves a very long back of mountains. "in the way to the mountain of the Amorites.--the maps of Adricomus. Chapters 11-20 A Chorographical Century John (1602-1675) Chapters 11-20 Chapter The mountainous Country of Judea. here and there." Those authors are mistaken by an ill interpretation of [a] phrase rendering it. and that with this inscription.river of Egypt. as our Lord commanded us."--when it should be rendered. The mountain of the Amorites took its beginning from Cadesh-barnea.--but to the top of this mountainous country. and others. and almost as Jerusalem itself. by this account: I. II. III. ought to be corrected. beginning almost at the Red Sea. Tirinius. in the way leading to the mountain of the Amorite. the name only being changed into the "Hill-country of Judea. "What is the mountainous country of Judea? It is the king's mountain. Which the Holy Scripture called "The hill-country of Judah." Lightfoot 11 However Judea.--Pliny." &c.--Strabo. yet its chief swelling appears in that broad back of mountains. which runs out to Hebron:--and so are the words to be rendered. "The Amorrhean Mountain. five miles." Whence is that of Samson to be understood. You are now come to the mountain of the Amorites. From Tyre to Sidon. to Sidon. "He carried them to the top of a mountainous . or to the mountain. by a hardened gibbosity.--Gul. whence Hebron might be seen. From the Sirbon to the borders of Phoenice.--and. and came to Cadesh-barnea. twenty-five miles.

" because it was void of cities and towns." &c. "Janneus the king had sixty myriads of cities in the Royal Mountain: and in each the number was equal to them. therefore. They saw a certain heathen. saith R. Away." It remains doubtful. and so left off.--to wit. nor from the west. rose up against them. they could . and then females. some went about to get a freedom from some tithes for the Mount of the King. or in white dust. And these were. Caphar Bish (that is. Hoshaia. as it seems. &c. and told him." Psalm 75:6. Increase and multiply. Rabbi Asai saith. and there slew for three days and three nights. went up to the King's Mountain. they go to Caesar." This story is recited by the Jerusalem Talmudists. and R. who say the town of males is so called. Chaijah. R. The Jews rebel against thee. III. why it is called by the Talmudists "The King's mountain. unless the women departed thence somewhere else. who was suspicious concerning their wine. Eliezer Ben Harsum possessed a thousand. Jochanan. to lead before them a cock and a hen: as if they should say. "Nor from the south." Rabbi Simeon had vine-dressers in the Mount of the King. because by that herb they were nourished. from Hebron? There is much mention of it in the Jewish writers. called "The mountainous desert. The Chaldee paraphrast upon Judges 4:5: "Deborah had white dust in the King's Mountain." Whether because it was king among all the other mountains of Judea? or. "The Royal Mountain was laid waste by reason of a cock and a hen. A myriad of cities stood in the Mountain-royal. Immai. and went up to the Royal Mountain. and wrested the cock and the hen from them: these. but because it was a more barren and rough country. [A town. therefore called so because it afforded not a house of hospitality." "In the days of R. that went out of Egypt. speaking somewhere concerning potters say. Where the Targum thus. nor from the desert of the mountains. therefore. because. "That they work in black dust. when they brought forth the bridegroom and the bride. He was minded to let out his vineyard to heathens. therefore. the Ill Town). It was the custom. of which R. On a certain day a regiment of Romans passed by. and beat them. because it is not from the east. R. so called.] that had its name from a certain herb. potter's clay: for the Gemarists. The town of males. I.place. because the royal dignity of David's house sprang hence. R. in which that number was doubted. because their wives first brought forth males. II. Three hundred thousand drew sword. the mountainous place. This mountainous country is not. Asai saith. which is before Hebron. Issai. as they." This mountainous country is called "The mountainous desert.-excepting three cities." That is.

Ye lie. will meet very frequently with the name of the 'South.not bring forth male children. Judea called 'the South."R. and it is not able to contain even sixty myriads of nests. "A devout disciple learned the intercalation of the year before his master. They said to him.' "Those of Zippor enjoined a fast to obtain rain. "But (saith Ulla) I saw that place. therefore. To whom he replied. and yet rain fell not. He stood forth." that is. And to our brethren. View the place. nor does R. "Go to. but nevertheless a unity of the Deity. and such as dwelt in that country. three years and a half: he came. and Nether Galilee. as well as other countries of the land. . That land is called 'the land of a Kid': but now 'a kid' hath a skin.' of a plain.. that does not contain his flesh: so the land of Israel. Chaninah hinders it from coming upon the people of Zippor. the inhabitants of Upper Galilee." &c.' in respect of Galilee. had Jochanan. and the amanuensis. R. Therefore. Neither doth Joshua Ben Levi obtain rain for the southern people. while it is inhabited.. He that turns over the Talmudical books. ye lie. yet had its inhabitants. And both went out to the fast. said they of Zippor. that the time is come of separating the tithes. sitting with them. but. Jacob of the south". that inhabit the Upper South Country.' And it seems to be the disputation of a Christian purposed to assert a trinity of persons in the Deity. the priest. is spacious. although it were barren above all other parts of the land. whom you have disputing with certain. said a certain sectary of R. They were called. health: we certify you." was of Lydda: and those southern people." Chapter The South Country. and those many. in what sense some Rabbins are called southern: as "R. Joshua Ben Levi. Therefore. for Judea Hence you may understand." But now R. were of Lydda. and the elders sitting together at the ascent into the gallery. R. Joshua Ben Levi. and said before them. which was hilly. more contracted. health: we certify you. The 'Upper South country' consisted of that part of the country. whom the Gemarists call heretics: whom I think rather to have been 'Christians. Which country. who was called "the southern.' taken for 'whole Judea' in opposition to 'Galilee. and intercalated for Galilee: but he could not intercalate for the south. the 'Nether. After you have heard the matter. therefore. perhaps you will be of my judgment. for whom he obtained rain. write to our brethren. in the mount of the Temple. and valley sinking on both sides. 12 Rabban Gamaliel. Chaninah. but the rain came not down. and that inhabit the Nether South Country. Chaninah restrain it from the people of Zippor: but the southern people have a soft heart. to hear the words of the law and be humbled: but the people of Zippor have a hard heart. Joshua Ben Levi obtained rain for the southern people: but R. together to a second fast. when uninhabited. Chaninah sent to fetch R. Samlai of the south".

Gardiki. But behold. by his computation. The Story of the Eighty Witches. of which we are speaking.' in the Samaritan interpreter. Ascalon was distant from Jerusalem five hundred and twenty furlongs: that is. and the New Testament.' by Strabo. with the Jerusalem Targumist. At last it was called 'New Maijuma. 'Ascalon. Acts 8:26. and rendered desert. 3. 'The waste (or desert) of the leper's cloister. of blessed memory. from Azotus to Ascalon. Gerar. which there is no need to repeat here. and Ascalon. 28.' book v. see Eusebius.' Genesis 20:2. or consumed it with fire. There is mentioned the 'mart of Gaza. were. which is in Gerariku? Because it is ill to dwell in. eight miles). "which Ezra. for presently after his death. where we meet with these names. to illustrate those places in the Holy Bible. is "The king of Arad. at length. For thus he writes: "Then" (from Azotus) "is new Ascalon distant two parsae. How far? To the river of Egypt. will grow some light. and of Aco. and 'Gaza desert.' one of the three more famed marts. four leagues.' book iv. the priest. Which is to be understood of the older Ascalon. was laid waste by him. so that it was at last melted into a new city of that name built nearer the sea..' "Wherefore (say they) have they not determined of that country. sixty-five miles. fighting. In the author of Aruch it is. it had walls. now destroyed. 'old Gaza'. and by the 14 . seems to have passed into 'Gerariku..--to wit." Note the affinity of Arad. "And that city.. and of Botna. and of which alone the Holy Scripture speaks. Gerar.--in this city did Alexander the Great. by the space of two months.Chapter Gaza 13 After very many histories of this place in the Holy Bible.' and after that 'Constantia':--concerning which. chap. is the same with 'Gerar." &c. The word Gerar. and thence. where formerly had been 'the haven of the Gazaeans. his captains. besiege Babemeses the Persian. and the new. of 'the Life of Constantine. four-and-twenty miles. or leagues" (that is. Gaza is pleasant to dwell in. There was a place also without the city." So that. gates. and fortifications: but that he divested it of its ancient glory. among the Talmudists. which was called. and Sozomen's 'Ecclesiastical History. built at the seashore.' Chapter Ascalon.' That is called by Diodorus..--(this our) old. Antigonus and Ptolemy. "Bereshith Rabbah (saith he) renders Gardiki. unless I am deceived. which before-time was most famous. chap.now that is distant from old Ascalon.' Genesis 21." Not that he had destroyed the building of the city." 'The king of Gerar. that of Gaza. For Benjamin Tudelensis makes mention of a double Ascalon.

to be without the limits of the land: but some part. and going up into our city we washed. and the festivals of Semiramis' birthday. and ate our Thruma".--viz. Therefore. "when R. The portion of first-fruits belonging to the priests. if not the whole. &c. which we have observed before. The greatest part of the city. "Ten miles from Gaza" (says our countryman Sandes [Sandys]. had. in the shades. of Zeripha in Ascalon. And yet. that survived. and yet he hath not done this: for eighty women. To the student. That is a common saying. Ismael Ben R. But. and what without. hung up by the kernels of the breasts. and related these things. "From Ascalon onward to the south. or at least the apple-yards. and Ben Hakkaphar. He went to him. We will not think much to relate the thing in the words of the Gemarists:--"When as two disciples of the wise men in Ascalon were intent upon the study of the law. I will destroy all wizards. If I shall ever become a prince. Diodorus Siculus being witness. that is. and thence to Azotus four-and-twenty. and said. therefore. five-and-twenty miles. and enjoined a fast. Josi. that are witches. at length dying. Until Simon Ben Shetach came to supply her place." And yet something of Ascalon was within the land of Israel." Let the learned reader turn this clause into English.) "They pronounced it clean from the authority of R. Go. the daughter of Eli. &c. had no funerals performed for him. and Ascalon itself is reputed for a heathen country. under the second Temple. what were within the land. because so much of a blast was seen in Ascalon as the space of the mouth of an oven may contain. dying at that time. and kill the world. the temple of Nebo in Cursi. "and near the sea. and the places next adjacent. Phinchasi Ben Jair. are two-hundred and seventy furlongs: which amount to four-and-thirty miles: namely. two hundred furlongs.e. because some sign appeared of a blast of the corn in Ascalon: "The elders went down from Jerusalem into their cities. were set over the space of Ascalon" (that is. and tell him.--namely. from Gaza to Ascalon. &c. because he sometime swore against his soul." But most famous of all is the story of the eighty women. and when he inquired. How long she was to suffer those things? it was answered. it savours of spite and poison. and of Nishra in Arabia. one of them. and likewise the punishments of the damned publican. for what crime? It is answered. when it was intrusted to them to judge concerning the spaces or parts of Ascalon. and thence we received wheat. On a certain rainy . were within the land. who said. said he. unless my conjecture fail me. The apple-gardens or orchards. We went down to the corn-market of Ascalon." From Gaza to Azotus. of Tiratha in Mapheg. lie hid in a cave at Ascalon. did bound the land of Ascalon on that coast. that were witches." And there is a story of a fast enjoined. the temple of Bel in Babylon. are revealed the joys of his saved companion. I should thus render it: "He saw Mary.computation of Adrichomius. i. he is become a prince. an eyewitness). now of no note. Mention is made of a certain temple in Ascalon among the "five more famous temples. is placed Ascalon. anciently a venerable place to the heathen for the temple of Dagon. hanged by Simeon Ben Shetach in one and the same day. was esteemed.--when yet a publican. is the heathen country. But behold. ten miles.

say they? Saith he." How long time Rabban Jochanan sat here." That is Jabneh with this author. to hanging. Jabneh. therefore. "He was compelled to do this. that each man should lift up from the earth one woman (for so their magical power would perish). R. Such we would have. and his son Rabban Simeon succeeded him.--another. themselves merry. Simeon Ben Shetach hung eighty women in Ascalon. Hence is the tradition. and the young men put on their clean clothes" (free from the rains. Akibah. He utters his voice the first time. but she brought them not. the two Jamnes. "For there they sat in order. A remembrance of this place is in 2 Chronicles 26:6: but the chief fame of it is for the Sanhedrim. wine. at least. that is Jaminia with the other." And it is reported. first presided there. eighty. who perished with the city.Pliny doth dispose the towns here in this order.. and shall make you so. professes himself one of the bewitching society. Jerusalem being destroyed. having eighty young men in company with him. because the women of Israel had very much broke out into witchcraft. in they all come: and a sign being given. who died before the destruction of the city." composed by Samuel the Little. except only the latest of all. Bring wine." Where the Gloss thus. for they had carried them with them covered and safe in certain vessels for the same purpose). Paul's master. who attribute to him two years only. and I will bring in eighty youths handsomely habited. saith he. I will twice utter my voice. But they do not judge two persons in the same day: but this he did out of the necessity of the time. Benjamin. But what can you do. Tiberias: so that "The vineyard of Jabneh" became a proverb. both before the destruction of Jerusalem and after. Therefore. one brings morsels of meat. and hanged them. is doubted. he goes to the cave. "that there were there three hundred classes of scholars. Jamnia. Rabban Gamaliel the second: and after him. Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai obtained of Titus the conqueror.--another. Bring hither now the morsels. Jochanan himself was first president there. &c. he made a hedge to the time. And this in one and the same day.--"Joppah. They say to him. There are some. Rabban Gamaliel. Carry her also away. that their kindred might no way conspire to deliver them. Azotus. as a vineyard. boiled flesh. in the order backward. Joppe. Carry her away to the gallows." Chapter Jabneh. said he. St.day. and after him. 15 . Under whom came forth that cursed form of prayer. Therefore. For. And this place was famous above all the other universities. that was placed there. to expose the thing publicly. "Crying out the second time. which they called "The prayer against heretics. he said to her which had brought the morsels.--or.--viz. He sees them exercising their art. and is let in. muttering certain words together. Gamaliel died eighteen years before the Temple was destroyed. knocks. that he might still receive and retain the Sanhedrim of Jabneh: which being granted by him. and others five: with whom .. but she brought it not. And so it was done with them all. thus."--R.--"Azotus.

if he bind me. Omitting those things. and for ever and ever. if he should cast me into bonds. and slain with him: and the university was removed from Jabneh to Usha. Acrabatta on the north. 'O thou light of Israel. not circumcised) "was brought to Jerusalem. thou strong hammer. they were trees. That the streets of Jerusalem might be crowned with fruits. or soften him with a gift. Being to be slain with his father. his killing would not be eternal: and I might perhaps pacify him with words. pray.--by the intercession of Rabban Jochanan he was delivered. Eleazar Ben Azarias. To whom they said. and he at last was removed from his. for. when Turnus Rufus (in Josephus.we consent. and come back." They are the words of Benjamin. the Lord. if he should kill me. the fruit of a vineyard now of four years' growth. his bonds are not eternal. for the first three years. eight miles) "from Azotus: and was at last called Ivelyn. Terentius Rufus) ploughed up the floor of the Temple. Elath on the south. his anger is eternal. who today is here. his killing is eternal. a busy and severe man. from his headship. who lives and lasts for ever. his anger is not everlasting.--let me produce his dying words. and whom I cannot either appease with words. 51]. And moreover. his bond is eternal. you may well wonder what that means. and Jordan on the east. not yielding to a city in greatness. This Rabban Jochanan I very much suspect to be the same with that John.--if he were angry with me. which is almost become a proverb. as it were. and over him was placed R. in the space of a day's journey on every side. R. there are two ways before me. Should I not therefore weep?'" Ah! the miserable and fainting confidence of a Pharisee in death! Rabban Gamaliel of Jabneh. thou right-hand pillar. Akibah. if he kill me. succeeded Jochanan. holy and blessed. growing within the space of a day's journey from Jerusalem. 'If men were about to carry me before a king of flesh and blood." Concerning its situation. head at that time of the school of Lydda. one to paradise." When you consider this distance." The Gloss. "The wise men appointed. another to hell. while he remained at Jabneh." Not that the distance of the 16 . and I know not which way they will lead me. before it be leavened. and sat forty years. his scholars came to visit him: whom he seeing began to weep. go up to the Temple. Lydda on the west. the Misna hath these words: "The vineyard of four years" (that is. and tomorrow is in his grave. who if he be angry with me. as they are recited by his friends: "When Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai now lay languishing. mentioned Acts 4:6. Now these were the bounds of it. that the second tenth of the fruits. which were done by him. Akibah succeeded him. Chapter Lydda "Lydda was a village. and distance from Jerusalem. But they are ready to lead me before the King of kings. should be carried thither to be eaten. and died a fool. "Jabneh stands two parsae" (that is. whence are those tears?' To whom he replied. "The women of Lydda knead their dough. he was delivered by a way scarcely credible. or soften with a gift. Rabban Simeon. being deceived by Ben Cozba. Sitting in Jabneh he removed R. Being also sought for to be slain. in his Itinerary [p. and should not be redeemed.

Since it was not lawful to intercalate the year any where but in Judea. "He that separates himself from you. which never was any where. do they not transact the intercalation of the year there?--Because they are obstinate. and Tarphon the moderator of the solemnity." Let some maps mark this. When the Sanhedrim sat in Jabneh. Greek. that the authors of the maps have held Lod and Lydda for two towns.--when R. as was said before. Lydda had her schools and her learned men. dwelling . to the barber's shop. Lydda not far from the Mediterranean sea. A Jew. R. as I said before.--the other. and brought before the Sanhedrim. and stoned. but at last yielding to him with this commendation.--unless that that is Hebrew. "Koshab Bar Ulla sometime got away to Lydda to Rabbi Josua Ben Levi. Akibah. because Lod. there flourished eminent schools in Lydda. "because he detained at Lydda more than forty pair of men travelling" (towards Jabneh) "to give their testimony to the Sanhedrim concerning the new moon. is as if he separated himself from his own life. And a little after: "R. and Jabneh lamented her loss of scholars.. and suffered them not to go forwards. not far from Jericho. who paid their vows and performed their religion. we will gather a few. Jeremiah asked before R. one went to the bath. Zeira. I very much wonder. saith he. which have placed a certain Lod. or rather removed. Nehemiah 11:35: but they set Lydda far beyond the bounds of Judea in the land of Ephraim. "a great many went to Lydda out of the school of the Rabbi" (Judah Haccodesh. is brought in. R. but that hence may be shewn. and unskillful in the law. Akibah bore the headship of the school. Yea. viz. The stories of this place are infinite. in the land of Benjamin. when the university was gone away into Galilee. removed. out of Galilee. Joshua were sometime present in the same place at the feast of dedication: but being not enough satisfied concerning the fast at that time enjoined. when Lod and Lydda have no difference at all between them. that Ben Satdah was surprised and taken. Here it was. whom you have sometimes disputing with R. Helena the queen celebrated the feast of tabernacles at Lydda. that no disadvantage accrued to these women. Wherefore. Akibah was head in Jabneh." "Lydda is a part of Judea.. There R. or one versed in Jewish affairs." Gamaliel being dead.places is made less. will laugh at these things. Eliezar and R. Tarphon was rector of the school of Lydda. then. Lod not far from Jordan and Jericho. Is not Lydda a part of Judea? Yes.-this." We read of five elders teaching and erring before Tarphon at Lydda. from his government by Rabban Gamaliel. We read also of a fast enjoined at Lydda for the obtaining of rain.

Josua in Bekiin. if they had built a new house. that they should return back from the war. "His habitation.--namely. say they. The holy page of the New Testament [Acts 9:35] calls it Saron: and that of the Old calls the whole. of which there is this mention: "R. Lazar saith. Hoshaia with him. dying at Caesarea. the chariot and horsemen of Israel. met R. Unless you deliver him to us.. was in the south of the land of Israel. R. Chapter Sharon. Lamenting. R. we will destroy the city. with which they mixed two parts water: and remarkable is that they say concerning the houses of Sharon. Chama Bar Chanina. and R. "I have very many questions. Jochanan Ben Brucha. he beat himself in that manner.' Nehemiah 6:2. Josua Ben Levi. R. to whom I may propound them. 11:35. whom R. whose ground was not fit for bricks: and therefore. Illai. and R." The Gloss is this. by name. "But the men of Sharon withdrew not themselves back" (they are the words of the Jerusalem Gemara). The Romans pursued him. but now there is no man. and it were not yet dedicated. Eliezer. From Jamnia to Joppe (according to Benjamin. "The chamber of Beth-Arum in Lydda. besides those whom I have remembered before: such are. or parsae: "Now Lydda was nigh to Joppa. or some part of it. when he fled from the Romans. they often repaired their . The wine of Sharon is of great fame. and besieged the city. a spacious valley runs out. perhaps. I might mention very many names of Rabbins residing at Lydda. and he was delivered to the Romans. or college." Acts 9:38. let him not return back": which was allowed to others. that blood flowed down upon the earth. Concerning R. here and there widely spreading itself. in the sense we produced before. and others.--O my father. 17 Between Lydda and the sea. "because they repaired their houses within seven years: and the chief priest also prayed for them on the day of expiation." There is a place between Jamnia and Lydda. The Village of those of Lydda. Josua Ben Levi persuaded him. which was called Bekiin. 'the plain of Ono." I might produce numberless things celebrating the name of Lydda. Deuteronomy 20:5. "For when he met his hearse betwixt Caesarea and Lydda. in his Itinerary [p.." The Gloss upon the Babylonian Talmud thus. that their house might not become their graves. Akibah bewailed as well with blood as tears. such as." &c."--We suppose these were schools. 1 Chronicles 8:12. and sprinkled with villages. Eliezer the blind. 51]) are three leagues." "The chamber of Beth-lebaza in Lydda. but I want a moneyer.there. desired to be buried at Lydda. thus he spoke. Caphar Lodim. to change it." He means Lydda. travelling from Jabneh to Lydda. R. the author of Juchasin hath these words. and R. R. Eliezer." "The chamber of Beth-Nethaza in Lydda. "He that builds a brick house in Sharon. I have much money. my father. who are vulgarly called the Southern. "Sharon was the name of a place.

ours. The word also gave name to men. Eleazar had a vineyard of four years' growth. "Tebi the servant of Rabban Gamaliel. let the matter be decided by votes. such are. Acts 9. which hardened. We read of a double Beth-horon in the Old Testament. Tudrus the physician and the rest of the physicians go forth"--(namely. with some delight. which presently melted. scattered up and down in this pleasant vale. as it seems. where. and they placed it openly in the entrance to Lydda. &c.--but with stones. Solomon. R. 18 And this village neighboured upon Lydda. not with hail (the Jews being judges). and. who reckon them clean. R. &c. "Caphar Lodim was without the land of Israel. indeed. the Syriac. the Italian. Yea. rightly do.--and every man-servant. Father Tebi. and was sealed I being present. in the very beginning: "He that brings a bill of divorce from a heathen country is bound to witness thus.. They said. There is mention of it in the book Gittin. that they might judge. seems to be derived from the kids skipping up and down in this fruitful vale. and Tabitha his maid-servant.houses within seven years. Beth-horon. near Caphar Tebi. are very many versions to be corrected. neighbour to Lydda. between Lydda and the sea. at verse 14.--This bill was written I being present." Of it there is this mention also:-"They sometime brought a chest full of bones from Caphar Tebi. and partook of its name. Eleazar saith. we meet with Caphar Lodim. "R. which render the sea." Chapter Caphar Tebi. and . given to this village. Yea. whether they were the bones of men or no. therefore. situate on the east of it. Arabic. and that." Among the villages. whether they were to be esteemed clean or unclean). others that hold them unclean." The name Tebi. Nissim. he that brings it from Caphar Lodim to Lydda": R.--R. Akibah began. "Tudrus said. explaining the place. in the pages of the Talmudists.. the Vulgar." Chapter The northern coast of Judea.: whence ariseth a sense of insuperable difficulty to a chorographical eye: when it should. Here is neither the backbone nor the skull of a man. on the east of Lydda. and he pronounced them clean. Since here are some. every maid-servant of his was called Mother Tabitha. and thereby. Joshua 10. because some people of Lydda were always present there. At that place that great Canaanitish army perished. The woman Tabitha is of eternal memory. as the Chaldee. &c. but one only under the second Temple. which was within [the land]. be rendered of the west. saith thus. the Seventy. 19 This coast is marked out Joshua 18:12.

He intrenched against Jerusalem. in the king's highway. in Josephus. Chapter Beth-el.--that is. or those great stones in the going down of Beth-horon. "The going down of Beth-horon was the place where the army of Sennacherib fell. in length: in breadth. And the whole multitude being spread at the opening of the way. in the same place. a servant of Caesar. saith. where they passed through Jordan." They believe." "But the Jews. where the Israelites passed through the sea. but not unseasonable in this place. or Geba. III. "he came near to Gabaon. but they getting before the Romans who were shut up within the straits of the descent (of Beth-horon). which goes from Jerusalem to Caesarea. nor was there room to bend to the right hand or to the left. "The Benjamites' portion of land was from the river Jordan to the sea. or thereabouts. Josephus. the Roman captain." The Gloss. From the city to Scopo (of which we shall speak afterward). also. "The breadth of the land ." And being pressed farther by them. he betook himself to Beth-horon. in the place above cited.Josephus relating it. six miles and more. For so the Gloss upon the words before spoken." The story of Cestius. whilst he marched along places where there was room. did not much press him. it was bounded by Jerusalem and Beth-el. Beth-aven. who suffered hardly by robbers in this place. Yet the passage and ascent here was very strait. "The ascent of Beth-horon was a strait place. II." Let these last words be marked.lasted unto all following ages. From Geba to Beth-horon fifty furlongs. "He led his forces to Beth-horon. From Scopo to Gabao."--namely. the army of Sennacherib fell. fifty furlongs. where they passed by the rivers of Arnon.--is bound to bless. which the Talmudists do thus describe: "If two camels go up together in the ascent of Beth-horon. in a place called the Scope on the north part of the city (which we shall show hereafter): and being at length forced by the Jews to retreat. forty-three furlongs. And about Beth-horon was a very great roughness of hills. covered the army with their darts. to his former camp. For Gabao was distant from Jerusalem. Hence is that." This was a highway. "Whosoever shall see the place. stopped them from going out: others thrust them that came in the rear down into the valley.. and a very narrow passage. 20 Josephus thus describes the land of Benjamin." Behold! the way leading from Jerusalem to Beth-horon:-I. both fall. relating a story of one Stephen. that it was "in the public way of Beth-horon. is seven furlongs. is sad..

in a right line? But if you look upon the maps. but it was a certain hilly place. when Beth-el and her towns belonged to Judea. "She had gardens in Ramatha. which gave name to the wilderness adjacent." And the Chaldee upon Hosea 4:15: "Go not up to Beth-el". named Beth-aven (see Joshua 18:12. "Go not up to Beth-aven. Not that there was not another town.13): but that Beth-el too deservedly bore the reproach of that name. Joshua 8:9. of which they hear often enough from the prophets). "That town. So the Talmudists. Bethel itself was situate in a hilly country. But upon the very first entrance almost of Israel into the land of promise. 2 Chronicles 13:19: hence the idolatry of those of Judah is sometimes mixed with the Ephraimites'. Genesis 12:8. Beth-el heretofore was Luz: of which the Rabbins upon Judges 1:23. for the Hebrew. &c. running out between Judea and the land of Ephraim: see Joshua 18:12." May we not justly conclude. but that the dwelling of Deborah was at the beginning of that hill-country. 2 Chronicles 13:19. and make them bend and slope from one another. which sometimes was called Beth-el. Joshua 16:1. is called "the region near the wilderness. On the east of Beth-el heretofore was Hai. Sometimes it is called Beth-aven. Genesis 14:18. It is said of Deborah. Joshua 18:12. that Jerusalem and Beth-el were opposite. which yet one would scarcely call the hill-country of Ephraim (since there was a time. being reduced into eternal ashes by Joshua. olive-trees making oil in the valley. in the New Testament. afterward was called Beth-aven. as it were. from these words. Isaiah 1:10." Judges 4:5: where the Targum thus. in the same manner as Jerusalem bore the name of Sodom. there are some that separate these by a very large tract of land. The town Beth-aven was not far from it. do not a little trifle. Chapters 21-30 A Commentary from the Talmud and Hebraica on the New Testament John (1602-1675) A Chapters 21-30 Chapter Jerusalem Chorographical Lightfoot Century 21 The first name of this city was Shalem. and it is still ." So also chapter 10:5." Not that Beth-el properly was in the hill-country of Ephraim.of Benjamin was bounded by Jerusalem and Beth-el. concerning which we shall speak afterward. a valley running between that hill-country and those boundaries.8. Psalm 76:2. that she lived "between Ramah and Beth-el in mount Ephraim." John 11:54. &c. In which we suppose Ephraim stood. it became thenceforth of no name. a house of watering in Beth-el. Joshua 7:2. since that town stood upon the very boundaries of Judea. Which Ephraim.

retained in the writing. For so he speaks. "Jerusalem was holy above other cities. Eleazar Bar Zadok said. put Jod between the letters Lamed and Mem in the word Jerusalem. the Courts. and the second tithe. because they were no man's own. They do not permit a dead body to remain a night in it: they do not carry the bones of a dead body through it: they do not let out houses in it: in it they do not let out a place to a proselyte inhabitant: in it they do not allow a sepulchre. nor do they bring out of it into the streets scaffolds set up against the walls by reason of defilement: nor in it do they make chimneys. "The name of that place is Jehovah-jireh. it will displease Abraham the Just. which were there from the days of the former prophets: nor in it do they suffer a dunghill by reason of creeping things. R. because that small part was in the portion of Judah." By the computation of Aben Ezra. because in it they ate the lighter holy things." In so exact distinction were these lots observed. and the sepulchre of Huldah the prophetess." Compare Matthew 26:17. the whole Court of the Women. "The latitude of Egypt is less than thirty degrees.--Jerusalem. that the word Shalem may be retained. Abraham called the place Jireh. And what in the lot of Benjamin? The Porch of the Temple. if I shall call it Shalem. it will displease Shem the Just. and the Holy of Holies. is within the lot of Benjamin. And the latitude of Jerusalem is three-and-thirty degrees. Abai saith. for the sake of purity: nor is there in it a house for shutting out . girt with walls. however it is read Jerushalaim. except the sepulchres of the house of David. the whole Court of Israel. "The whole breadth of the outmost Court. to his host. and also the skin of his sacrifices. and thenceforward to the west. Therefore. the master of the family received the skins of the sacrifices from the guests. Nor beds also. "From thence the altar. These also are those things which are spoken of Jerusalem. Shem called it Shalem. I will therefore put that name upon it which was put upon it by both. Nevertheless. and in it was the altar built. it is situate in the three-and-thirtieth degree of latitude. and the Temple. therefore." The Gloss. And a line went out of the lot of Judah. when the whole altar ought to have been within the portion of Benjamin. Shalem. and the distinguishing line went through the very court of the Temple: "What was in the lot of Judah? The mountain of the Temple. and passed on into the lot of Benjamin. Saith God. eleven cubits of the Court of the Priests" (these were within the lot of Judah). the Chambers of them that kept it. that a man leave his earthen jug. That houses are not hired out at Jerusalem. Jireh. by reason of the smoke: nor do they nourish cocks in it for the sake of the holy things: nor do the priests nourish cocks throughout the whole land of Israel. If I shall call it Jireh. The Gloss: "The inhabitants of Jerusalem did not let out their houses at a price to those that came to the feasts."--"We do not. That it is a custom." Jerusalem was not divided among the tribes: for the tradition is. but granted them to them gratis. that the south-east corner of the altar had no foundation. on the east part. the city was divided between the tribe of Judah and Benjamin. You may learn this from hence.

Carmelith. nor did ever the gonorrhea happen to the high-priest on the day of expiation. and covered lobbies." What Carmelith is. or breed worms. "Never did serpent or scorpion harm any one within Jerusalem. "It was impossible for him to go forward. 'The place wherein I am entertained at Jerusalem is too strait for me. nor rains put out the fire of the altar. Carmelith is a place. "Because of the stink from weeds. nor the wind prevail over the pillar of smoke. for all things from the walls were fenced up with deep ditches for the gardening. "because of the holy things. might be polluted. in the name of R. The fathers of the traditions give this reason. "They did so press one another by reason of the multitude. "All Jerusalem was Carmelith. R. Jissa. "public. except gardens of roses. they had room enough. Chaijah saith. Hence that in Josephus.' or 'I found not a bed to lie on. nor hath any man stumbled. Nor did ever any one say to his neighbour. why they do not allow gardens in the city: "They make no gardens or paradises in Jerusalem. For there they have eaten the flesh of the peace-offerings." &c. No woman ever miscarried by the smell of the holy flesh. 'I found not a hearth to roast my passover." &c.' In it they do not plant trees.'" "There is no anathema at Jerusalem. . and from thence comes a stink. the Lexicons will teach us." The Talmudists relate also these wonders of the Temple: "Ten miracles were done for our fathers in the sanctuary. nor was any profane thing found in the sheaf of first-fruits. nor was there ever seen fly in the house [or place] for slaughter. in the same place. and it is a custom to dung gardens. much less hogs.suspected of the leprosy: nor is it polluted with leprosy: nor is it become any way a city to be cursed for idolatry. which are thrown out. or the two loaves (of the high-priest). private." The Gloss. R. why they might not keep cocks: "It is also forbidden the Israelites to keep cocks in Jerusalem" (the priests may no where do it). because of the stink. nor did the holy flesh ever stink. because it was like a common court. which are to be eaten." Gardens without the city were very frequent. And it is customary for dunghill cocks to scrape dunghills. as walking on the sabbath). "There are four capacities of the sabbath" (or respects of places." &c. neither public nor private. whilst he rode about the city to spy it. They stood (in the Court) crowded" (the Gloss explains it thus. or in the show-bread. or cocks. and the Gemarists in the tract Shabbath. and thence perhaps they might rake up the bones of creeping things. gives this reason also. Nor hath a fire or a ruin happened there: nor hath any one said to his neighbour. which were there from the days of the former prophets: they do not nourish in it peacocks. concerning the hazard Titus ran. whence those holy things. and many walls. "but when they worshipped. that parted them. and thank-offerings." The same Gloss. and gardens lay cross. that their feet scarcely touched the ground"). and they stretching out a good way from the very walls of the city.

Jochanan. divided with a valley between. that the Temple might overlook it. Psalm 48:2: "The joy of the whole earth is mount Sion. Kartani &c. is not easy to say. who takes a field from a man of Jerusalem. But when the Asmoneans reigned. 'I went down to the bottom of the mountains': whence we learn that Jerusalem was seated upon seven mountains..'" "But the other. or more obscure. on the north side. which was called Acra. they filled up the valley. was steep on both sides. It is an old dispute. Sion. but whether upon a reason more light. We place Sion on the north. The countryman may go up to Jerusalem. Ismael saith. Let him enjoy his argument to himself. and eat it there. that he stood upon "a very high mountain. whether Sion or Jerusalem lay on the north part of the city." "Against this was a third hill [Moriah]. than approve of his argument. bearing on it the lower town. in which valley the buildings. [Metaphr. Ps." Where Aben Ezra hath this note. the . Carmelith is as the shop of Bar Justini. "The mountains of Sion on the sides of the north. near which was." The Gloss." The Seventy. convinced by these reasons:-I.--he saith. "The whale showed Jonah (saith he) the Temple of the Lord. which contained the Upper City was by far the higher. When the prophet Ezekiel takes a prospect of the new Jerusalem in a vision. A countryman." One may sooner almost prove the thing itself. whereby." Chapter The parts of the City. meeting. 22 There is one who asserts Jerusalem to stand on seven hills. and they took the top of Acra lower. or a villager." "Of these hills. in an opposite aspect. and more stretched out in length: and because it was very well fortified." Bezetha and Ophel were other hills also: of which in their place." &c. saith. Sion and Acra. and disjoined from it by a broad valley.] II. as it were. lower than Acra. "The city itself (saith Josephus) was built upon two hills. . "Mount Sion is in the north part of Jerusalem. Apollinar. But the wise men say." Sion's fair hills stand on cold Boreas' coast. The Upper City: which was on the north part. "A Kartani is one of those that dwell in villages. when we shall first have taken a view of these two. we must fetch the situation elsewhere. it was called by king David The Castle: but by us it is called 'the Upper Town. and the situation of each. ended."R. "Mount Sion is on the north side of Jerusalem": and Lyranus. and lasts to this day. it viewed itself. the second tenth belongs to the Jerusalem man... that. desiring that the Temple might touch the city. as it is said.

" And afterward: "But." &c. or in the Upper City. I.building of a city on the south. by reason of the strength of the place. they had conveyed their goods. against the king's court. were before the Xystus and .--but the city in the south part. as being every where of step access. the city and the Temple. as before. Concerning which are those words. call away the Romans thither. and better. That mountain was the Mount of the Temple: for the Temple was to be built in a mountain. and the Xystus. as much as we may. and his rejecting it. On which place Kimchi thus." When Pompey assaulted the city. Chapter The buildings of more eminent note in Sion. and sets his sister Berenice in their view. into which. after the return out of Babylon. in the farther part of the Upper City. and levelled it with the ground. namely." And Titus. the Upper Town.--and then. leading from the Xystus unto the Temple. and delivered the city and the king's court to Pompey. The House of the Asmoneans. "He placed me upon a very lofty mountain." Ezekiel 40:2. "and broke down the bridge that led thence into the city. that the prophet saw two things." When the Romans had fired Acra. There was a bridge.--namely. or open gallery. the Jews took the Temple. "the seditious rushing into the court.--and that the Temple was in the north part. of their situation. King Agrippa calls the people of Jerusalem together into the Xystus." III. when he besieged the seditious in the court in the Upper City. which was above the Xystus. II. after the reciting the explication of some upon that verse. raises the engines of four legions. But others received the army. and plain enough. The 'king's court' claims the first place in our view. Zion on the north part in the Psalmist. and encamped against the king's court. But the associated multitude. "And therefore (saith he) the Hebrews say. be viewed:--of which the reader must be mindful. "on the west side of the city. 23 We shall first take knowledge of the buildings themselves." Behold! reader. and the city on the south part in the prophet! The things which make for this in Josephus are various. Caesar applies his army to the work. that the name of Sion.--but the more vulgar was. "A bridge joined the Temple to the Xystus." And Lyranus again. when it was in vain to assault the Upper City without ramparts. before the buildings of better note in Sion. and the rest of the people. "Cestius" (having wasted the other places of the city) "came at length into the Upper City [Sion]. "upon the House of the Asmoneans. And the city Jerusalem is near it on the south. as it seems. was grown into disuse. which nevertheless we cannot frame into arguments. and joining the Temple to Sion.

But now. was joined. and that not without cause. &c. situate on the north. that Sion was in the tribe of Judah. learn of the same author from these passages that follow:-He saith plainly. Add to these. that the Upper City was the same with the Castle of David. with an open face. concerning which we made mention before. 2. . the Hippic tower. But let it be allowed. and went on to the Xystus. "It began on the north at the Hippic tower. when David conquered it.--and so also was mount Moriah. But now. "he encamped on the north part of the Temple. on the inside. "The Psephin tower lifted up itself at the corner of the north." And a little after. but the court was joined to the outmost northern wall: therefore. which we leave to the reader to consider impartially. which seem. he adds these words. It may be objected. indeed. went not from the east to the west. or Sion. but as he was the king of the whole nation. he pitched against the king's court. 1. Sion was on the north. which was of the lot of Benjamin. produced before. the Court. where the circuit of the wall bends from the north towards the west. and so it cut Jerusalem in two. and mount Sion is to be reckoned within the lot of Judah. There will occur here and there to us. and Sion in two: so that both were in both tribes. that Sion is to be ascribed to Judah. and so westward.--were on the north. But these two we cannot pass over in silence. "He attempted the Temple on the north side. but Jerusalem in the tribe of Benjamin. "Titus (saith he) intrenched two furlongs from the city on the angular part of the wall near the Psephin tower. not as he was sprung of Judah." And in the same chapter." And of Cestius.--how could this be. "Being come to the Upper City. When the court was surrendered into Pompey's hands. that the towers built by Herod." What can be clearer? The court was in the Upper City. these places were in the Upper City: and you learn from Josephus. for so." And in the chapter next after.--the Psephin tower. when Jerusalem. as we proceed. describing the compass of the outmost wall. such things as may defend this our opinion: against which what things are objected."--And when he had described those towers. or Sion.the bridge. we know well enough. lay between Judea and Sion? I answer. that these places were on the north side of the city.--that dividing line. those things that follow in the story of Pompey. "To those towers. between the portion of Judah and Benjamin. it had separated all Jerusalem from all Sion: but it went from south to north. to make against us:-I." We shall not urge more at this time. when the land of Judah was on the south part of Jerusalem. No necessity compels us to circumscribe Sion precisely within the portion of Judah." You see.

describing Acra thus. contracts. according to the different signification of the word. The Archivum. Ophel. called Acra. I wish less credit had been given to them. if ." rather than over-against the Upper City: for. II. The Council-house. and other writers. and public acts. There was also a fourth hill. and the council-house. situate over-against Antonia. which were in the middle of Acra. presently after. by Josephus. "it went onward opposite against the west walk of the Temple. I should more readily understand this of their repository. I answer. Whether he means the magistrates' court. For he saith. "Over-against this was a third hill. whither it went. touching upon the council" (or the court). Now Bezetha. that they study not so much truth in that affair. either the buildings. There were certainly sacred records in the Temple. the council of the Sanhedrim. since it is plain enough that they mistake in many other things: and let it be without all controversy." speaking of Moriah. Chapter Some buildings in Acra. and Ophla: and the fire destroyed unto the palaces of Helen. where writings and memorials of sales. as their own gain. But let us have leave not to esteem all things for oracles. steep on both sides": in the next words he subjoins this. donations. on the south part of the city. &c. as it seems." The council in the Upper City you may not improperly interpret the 'Court of the King': the council-house in the Lower City. He mentions elsewhere the council. which bears the Lower City upon it. and in Josephus. and that. Acra: that is. and went forward to the Xystus. that mount Moriah is said.II. "which was called Bezetha. we do not determine. It is objected. and more search had been made out of Scripture. at this day. were laid up. concerning the situation of the places. and divided from it with a deep ditch. the councilhouse is distinctly named. Ophla." I. In which sense that word doth not seldom occur in the history of the Maccabees. or the repository of the ancient records. saith the same Josephus. that "the outmost wall on the north began at the Hippic tower. 24 Mount Sion did not thrust itself so far eastward as mount Acra: and hence it is. Nehemiah 3:26. IV. and thence. that. which we produced before. to be "situate over-against Acra. Millo. who now show those places. "There is another hill. III. and civil records no doubt in the city. Bezeiha. in the Upper City. The same author thus describes the burning of the Lower City: "Then they fired the Archivum and Acra. than of the magistrates' court. because. which were upon the very head and top of the mount. when it departed from the Tabernae. a hill and ruins are shown to travellers under the name of Sion. which they say. and the tower of David. or some garrison or castle in the mount.

that. "Forasmuch as this people refuseth the waters of Siloah that go softly." When. "in the city of David. of the city of David": or. "Because this people are weary of the house of David." Chapter Gihon. and was not stretched out so far as Acra was. whence they might more easily get up upon the wall: and when David is said to build Millo.38. "But Cestius. "And he restored. In 1 Kings 1:33. who understand it of the valley or street that runs between Jerusalem and Sion. making a city." So also the Jerusalem writers. Let that be observed.--when. in truth." Where Kimchi thus. and banks. the same with the Fountain of Siloam. "the fortification of the city of David. There was also. and the New City. that he erected towers upon these heaps. 2 Chronicles 32:5. The market of beams. appointed for public meetings and assemblies. went onward not a little. with flames." Bezetha was seated on the north part of Antonia. "(The city). Millo was a part of Sion. or some hillock cast up against it on the west side. Another interprets it of heaps of earth.'" And yet there is a place where he seems to distinguish between Bezetha and the New City: for he saith concerning Cestius. so might his kingdom be. and that which is called the beam-market. as our English reads. and so it is commonly marked out in the maps. "Gihon is Siloam. set fire upon Bezetha. as the waters of Siloam slide away gently.'" The bubblings up of Siloam yielded a type of the kingdom of David. The street or valley." .' And Joab repaired the rest. passing over. as the waters of the fountain are everlasting. and a fourth hill is inhabited. abounding with people. as it is said. "Cestius (saith he) wasted Bezetha and Caenopolis. "They do not anoint the king. as if one should say. more inwardly to his own castle. Isaiah 8:6. out of the walls: and on the north side of the Temple. which was called Millo. who supposes it to be a large place. And David commanded. where Sion ended on the east. crept. one might call it 'The New City." &c. and the New City. but at a fountain. The valley or street of cheesemongers." &c. which deals gently with them. which Josephus joins with Bezetha." The Seventy read. 'Bring Solomon to Gihon. therefore. 'he built on the uttermost part of Sion. to wit. thrown up against the wall within. and it is called by a double name. There is one. which is called Bezetha." it is all one as if he had said. by little and little. Interpreters differ about Millo. or fortified. and more inwards. is rendered by the Chaldee. Some others there are. Millo. "Bring ye him to Siloam: and they brought him to Siloam.you would render it in Greek. and that and Caenopolis (or the New City) filled up that space. at the hill. so called. was called. "Bring ye Solomon to Gihon: and they brought him to Gihon". that they should anoint Solomon at Gihon for a good omen. David is said to build "Millo. running between Sion and Acra. 1 Chronicles 11:8. in the Hebrew. 25 I. that which is. Where the Chaldee paraphrast thus.

and are deceived: when in truth it ought to be placed behind Acra." But now the mounts Sion and Acra. because we may see some maps. burnt it all to Siloam. did run out from east to west. saith these things among others. Solomon. they drew the water that was to be mingled with the ashes of the red cow. that the people were not in a heat against all the Romans. saith." This we therefore observe." Thence. The upper. Nehemiah 3:15. containing three logs. through the whole city): and that thence. also." See 2 Chronicles 32:30. V. westward. was that which is called by Josephus. "The pouring out of water": concerning which the fathers of the traditions thus. but against Florus only. but the fountain of Siloam was behind Acra." II. which. The priests.--the Neapolitan tribune. It emptied itself.11. 2 Kings 18:17. he would go about through the city as far as Siloam" (that is. "Why is it called The place of draught?--Because thence they draw out the Holy Spirit. "The Romans. from the peaceable and quiet behavior of the people towards him. "And thence it bends to the south behind the fountain Siloam. and likewise the valley that cut between them. "that taking only one servant. not of Sion. Let that of Josephus be noted. which they called. 'And ye shall draw waters with joy out of the wells of salvation. Siloam was on the back of Jerusalem. Isaiah 7:3. into a double pool. in the same place. perhaps. "The pouring out of water. speaking of the compass of the outermost wall. in what manner was it? There was a golden cup. The lower was on the west. drank the waters of Siloam for digestion's sake. 'the pool of Solomon. when they had drove out the seditious from the Lower City. And the same author. placing Siloam behind Sion. which one filled out of Siloam. The pool. when any unclean person was to be sprinkled. and is called 'The pool of Siloam. whose name is Gihon and Siloam. from the east to the west. The Gemarists inquire. by a double rivulet. "And thence (saith he) the outermost wall bends to the south behind the fountain of Siloam: and thence again bends to the east at the pool of Solomon. coming thither with king Agrippa. he might perceive.And R. do deceive here. . indeed." &c. III." After the tumult raised at Jerusalem by the Jews under Florus. "Siloam is a fountain. in that solemn festivity of the feast of Tabernacles. is besought by the Jews. of Siloam was behind some part of Sion. Levi saith. They drew waters out of the fountain of Siloam. speaking of that deep valley which runs between Sion and Acra. eating more liberally of the holy things. that it is said. for so we call the sweet and large fountain. the upper and the lower. "Whence was this custom? From thence. That fountain was situated on the west part of the city.'" R. Isaiah 22:9. but not far from the southwest corner. to wit. Josephus. "it is extended to Siloam.' John 9:7.' in the place lately quoted. IV.

was the tower Meah: and beyond that. and of ashes. or from the houses? Samuel delivers it. unless you imagine that which is most false. were not that placed on the north side. for they seem to have perished. It will be impossible. and the smoke of the altar was mixed with the smoke of Micah's idol":--but. that "the tower of Hananeel" was on the south side of the city: on which side also was the valley of Ben-Hinnom. and in a more spiritual sense. And Siloam was in the middle of the city." Goathah: the Chaldee. and taken into the compass of the city: but this mystically. but let the reader unriddle them:--"He that is unclean by a dead carcass entereth not into the Mountain of the Temple. from the tower of Hananeel to the gate of the corner. was seated on the south part.' Zechariah 14:10. or Ben-Hinnom. Isaiah 30:33. unless I am very much mistaken. the most foul and abominable: foretelling that that valley. the Hippic tower. That they that should appear should appear in the court. measuring near it to the hill of Gareb. Golgotha." &c. namely. Nehemiah 3:3: The Seventy render it by. if so be they perished near Jerusalem. above all others that compassed the city. And a line shall go out thence. the sink and burying-place of the city. 26 The beginning of the circumference was from 'the sheep-gate.--that the Valley of Hinnom was situate northwardly. and it shall go about to Goath. Piccus. even to the corner of the horse-gate on the east. yet bending also towards the east: as the valley of Kidron bent from the east also towards the north. this on the south. And all the valley of dead carcasses. not amiss.' following the etymology of the word." Chapter The Girdle of the City. . From Gareb to Shiloh were three miles. yet but little removed from that corner. we suppose. on the south part.--a place. Whence do you measure? From the wall. "The city shall be built to the Lord. if you take the beginning of that circumference in Nehemiah. shall be Holiness to the Lord. The words of Jeremiah are well to be weighed. Hence we argue. 'The tower Piccus. That was also southward. famous for healings. The valley of carcasses and ashes. Nehemiah 3. Jeremiah 31:38. where the idol of Micah was. in the valley of Tophet. as Lyranus.--I should suspect that to be. Within was the pool of Bethesda. 'the calves' pool. and all the fields to the brook Kidron. which now was so detestable. Nathan saith. "R. [Judges 17] concerning which the Talmudists thus. From Siloam. And Jeremiah speaks of that valley. "the tower of Hananeel": in the Chaldee paraphrast it is. &c.' That. Going forward. from bellowing. which looks south-east.Let us also add these things.--to interpret these words of Jeremiah in any plain or probable sense. Lyranus. The fish-gate. It is said. "The mount of Calvary. The Chaldee paraphrast and the Rabbins understand this of the place where the army of the Assyrians perished: nor very subtily. for the corner looking north-east. should hereafter be clean. The hill of Gareb:--not that Gareb certainly. which some do.

3. Jeremiah 31:40. and that. which were inward. advancing itself in the very bending of the north-east corner. 'from the Bird-gate': perhaps the gate. running out below the city southward. 5. near which Titus encamped. where the Seventy have something obscure. R. of which is mention. "The Fountain-gate. in case of a siege: taught it by the example of his grandfather Hezekiah. The buildings. we suppose. 2. Nehemiah 12:37. whether more true? This Bird-gate perhaps was that which is called the Old-gate. Many conjecture this gate was called the 'Fish-gate. or Dung-gate. Not far distant thence was the south-east corner. the admired Psephin tower lifts up itself. Zephaniah addeth. Herod built the most famous Pspehin tower. not much after it. Therefore. "On the north-west corner. of which Josephus thus. 3. Within was the 'King's House." verse 14.' and the court of the prison. A thousand cubits thence. A tower. And thence a little . On the west was. Zephaniah 1:10. Near the corner. For hence flowed that fountain by the south wall eastwardly to the Sheep-gate. the Water-gate led into the valley of Kedron: but the Horse-gate into the valley of Hinnom. verse 15. the fountain of Siloam was. And. The pool of Siloam was first a fountain. Nehemiah 3:6. 2 Chronicles 33:14. being now gotten to the foot of mount Acra. Whence was the beginning of the valley of Ben-Hinnom: which. but another.--but I ask. "The Esquiline. On the east were. and the Horse-gate. "And he shall howl from the second. at that place touching on the valley of Kedron. and to the foot of Sion. not that of Siloam. are mentioned. At the turning of this corner. The Water-gate. somewhat sloping. The wall went forward along "burying-places of David. more plain indeed. looking south-west.Of it mention is made. at last bent into the west. nor of Draco. bended eastwardly. in the pool of Siloam.' because fish were carried into the city through it: I rather. Solomon. another pool. but more incommodious. And. and the House of the strong. 20. that the city might be more secured of water. There was no gate on this north side. The Gate of Judgment. Manasseh the king enclosed all. 'from Ophel'.--partly. Kimchi reads. verse 25. being induced to it by reason itself. The Gate Miphkad: the Vulgar calls it. 2 Chronicles 32:3. Nehemiah 3:20-24. of which mention is also made." verse 13. bends towards the north into the valley. 2. 4. because it was the 'fish-market': as the Sheep-gate was the market for sheep. Ophel. And." verse 16. 1. on the west. at length. Nehemiah 3:27. thence the river." &c." verse 15. 1. and the Hippic tower is mentioned by Josephus. without the walls: but at last. whither they went up by certain steps. near unto which fowls were sold. being persuaded by the words of Josephus before alleged." The Chaldee reads. partly. and a river. at the foot of mount Sion.28. And now we are come to the pool of Siloam.--And now we are come to the north side. and ends. "The gate of the valley. as we suppose. See verses 19.

upon which he bound Isaac. Let those words. The other saith. That Ophla." "It is a tradition received by all. when he went out of the ark: that in the same place was the altar. Because thence instruction should go forth to Israel. where formerly was a gate of that name. spoken in Josephus and the Scripture. and the Fish-gate. and thence it inclined to the south behind the fountain Siloam: and hence it bowed again eastwardly unto Solomon's pool." In which words let us observe two things for the asserting the procession that we have gone:--1. "It began on the north at the Hippic (or horse) tower. then touching upon the Council-0house. which they call Ophla. if you begin Nehemiah's delineation at any other place than where we have. to the gate of the Essenes." . Nehemiah 12:31. lay between the south-east corner and the porch of the Temple. if you reckon it to be near Sion." verse 31. it stretched along by a place called Bethos. Levi Bar Chama and R. or Ophel. and went forward on the right hand to the Dung-gate. To these may be added. where Noah built his. and the east. unless according to the procession which we have laid down. seems to be understood that place. He had the same place of expiation as he had of creation. &c. &c. which it is rough and strange not to think. and joined to the east walk of the Temple. describing how the outmost wall went. Because thence should go forth fear to the nations of the world. which cannot at all be conceived.--but now. and passed on to a certain place. Chapter Mount Moriah 27 "Wherefore is it called mount Moriah? R. 2 Kings 14:13. "They went forward on the right hand. On the other side. Let us add also the processions of the choir. here is nothing said. the Fountain-gate. towards the south west. was the place where Abraham built his. was vanished. upon which Cain and Abel offered: that Adam offered there. can in no manner be said. when he was created. Of the gate of Ephraim nothing was said in the delineation given chapter 3. where David built an altar in the threshing-floor of Araunah. and the Old-gate. beginning from the same tower. it ended at the east walk of the Temple.on the south side was the Sheep-gate. the situation of Siloam. of which those things. the city of David. where the Corner-gate is also spoken of. westwardly. Mention also is made of it. verse 37. They went up upon the wall. That this description proceeds from the north to the west. The other part of the choir went on the left hand. 2. Let us add the words of Josephus.--if so be they went up on the wall on the inside of the wall. Chaninah differ about this matter. the south. concerning which. also. and to the gate of Ephraim. and that he was created from thence. In Nehemiah. under the second Temple. One saith. whence we first set out. and extended to the Xystus (or open gallery). verse 29. be observed: which could not be. that the place. The wise men say.

walking in the Court of the Gentiles. 'What is the matter with you. to whom any accident happens: for he goes about to the left hand. And some vessels of stone were fastened to the wall of the steps going up into the Women's Court. and their covers are seen in the Common Court. 'Because I lament': and he replies to him.--that there the tower Antonio was built. is called "The gate whence they go out from the Court of the Women into the Common Court." which yielded delightful walks. or adorned with them. he that carries away the scape-goat might enter into the very court. or both. it is ordinarily called "The Mountain of the house". The whole space of the courts was hollow under-ground: "And the whole platform stood upon arches and pillars. Yea. then Acra.17).Mount Moriah was so seated. and takes him away. and blessed concerning her. because hither the heathen might come: "Rabban Gamaliel. 'He that dwells in this house. 'Because I am excommunicated': and to him he replies. To him that asks." that so no sepulchre might be made within this sacred space. who is to take away the goat? He entereth unclean even into the court. saw a heathen woman. 'He that dwells in this temple comfort thee. but the least space was on the west. that "the city. The mount of the Temple (that is. the use was greater also. 28 In the Jewish writers. and defence also from rains. descending hither from the Court of the Women." "The greatest space of the Court of the Gentiles was on the south." Hence the author of Tosaphtoth." And that." Hence is it. "Is he polluted." And those that were excommunicated and lamented." In the wall compassing this space were five gates: and within. enter the right-hand way. that you go about to the left hand?'--he answers. the next to it. although he were then unclean. towards the north-west corner.'" And not seldom those that are unclean. joining to the wall. "All that entered into the mount of the Temple. and go about: but they go out the left-hand way: except him. lay about the Temple": on this side Sion. the third. put it into their heart to receive thee. in the manner of a theatre. . compassed with a most noble wall. Chapter The Court of the Gentiles. that a gate. It went out beyond this wall. on the north. whereby either the holy things or the people might gather pollution. the place where the buildings of the Temple were) was a square of five hundred cubits (see Ezekiel 42:16. to such a dimension. of most renowned workmanship and story. The Mountain of the House. in the Rabbins. were "double galleries" or "halls.' Or. or the "Common Court. Of that place. where the space was greater.--and that fortified (shall I say?) with double galleries or halls. and a little on the back of Bezetha. on the east. "They go out by the gate leading from the Court of the Women into the Common Court.

and within the fence Chel. gracing this south side. or the Ante-murale. and had appointed thirteen adorations answering to them. was engraven in it.' Acts 3:2. the 'Corinthian' gate: saith he. nine of them were every where overlaid with gold and silver.There was only one gate eastward. in token of subjection. divided from the Court of the Gentiles by a fence. and the lintels. of no use: for so is the tradition. Josephus writes.'" Lamentations 2:8. called in the Holy Scripture. the bridge and way bending thither. . where the Romans kept guard. likewise the posts. "The gate of Tedi on the north was of no use. without the Temple. were shops. or Acra. Acts 21:29. "The second circuit was gone up to by a few steps: which the partition of a stone wall surrounded: where was an inscription. In this gate sat a council of three and twenty. "Of the gates. nor who lay with a menstruous woman. On the north was the gate Tedi or Teri. or the Ante-murale: of which it is said." On this side was the castle Antonia. and that was called. 'Beautiful. "The Chel or Ante-murale" (or second enclosure about the Temple)." Maimonides writes: "Inwards" (from the Court of the Gentiles) "was a fence. made of Corinthian brass. and from hence perhaps might be the reason the gate was deserted. These looked towards Jerusalem. ten hand-breadths in height. in which were thirteen breaches. did much exceed. might come. in the Lamentations. was called "The king's walk. forbidding any of another nation to enter. the metropolis of Persia. ten hand-breadths high." On the east it had only one gate. on this east side." On the south were two gates. 29 The Court of the Gentiles compassed the Temple and the courts on every side. The same also did Chel. By this gate they went down into Sion. that encompassed on every side. On the west was the gate Kiponus." which was trebled. haply so named from 'Coponius. on both sides. nor any unclean by that which died of itself. The Court of the Women.' governor of Judea. both called the Gate of Huldah: of the reason of the name we are not solicitous." Hence happened that danger to Paul because of Trophimus the Ephesian. and the whole gallery-walk. But one. in glory. 'And he caused Chel and the Wall to lament. In Josephus. "That space was ten cubits broad. because the figure of Shushan. which the kings of Greece had made: but the Jews had again repaired them. At the gate. Chapter Chel. those. The hall or gallery. the Gate of Shushan. "was more sacred than the Court of the Gentiles: for hither no heathen. upon pain of death. and of stately building. was called "Solomon's porch." "From hence they ascended into the Court of the Women by twelve steps.

"The old shekels". And all wood in which a worm was found was not fit for the altar. into which were cast the shekels of that year. and. "pigeons and turtles. Before which were the treasuries placed." See Ezekiel 46:21. according to that variety. Upon one was inscribed.that were overlaid with silver and gold. and fifteen broad." In this Court of the Women was celebrated the sacred and festival dance. Shopharoth. but not roofed." Upon another. according to his quality." "On the highest sides" (we follow the version of the famous Constantine L'Empereur). searched the wood. might not enter into it. or the East Gate of the Court of Israel. and the breadth a hundred thirty-five cubits. whether it was unclean by worms. and cut their hair." "At the north-east was the chamber of wood: where the priests." "The length of the Women's Court was a hundred thirty-five cubits. "Frankincense. and one on the north: and galleries." And six chests had written on them. in the same manner as in the outer court. or thirteen chests. "The burnt sacrifice. "The Court of the Women was more sacred than the Chel." On the south was only one gate also. or courtwalks within. each forty cubits. "At the south-east was the court of the Nazarites: because there the Nazarites boiled their thank-offerings. in the feast of Tabernacles. who had contracted such an unclearness that was to be cleansed the same day." "At the north-west was the chamber of the Leprous." Chapter The Gate of Nicanor. "The new shekels". 30 . that the women might see from above. Upon another. "was the smooth and plain Court of the Women. into which were gathered the shekels owing the last year. and the men from below. and put it under the pot." Upon another. called by the Talmudists. defiled with any spot. Upon another. "Voluntary sacrifice. And two gates of every court were each thirty cubits high." Upon another. because any. that they might not be mingled. And there were four chambers in the four corners of it." "At the south-west was the chamber of wine and oil.22. called the "Pouring out of Water": the ritual of which you have in the place cited in the margin. joining to the wall. in which was put the money offered for the various services of the Temple. "The wood. but not double. the chests had various titles written on them: whence the offerer might know into which to put his offering." Upon another. "Gold for the propitiation. but they bounded it round about with an inward gallery.

and hung up his thumbs and great toes upon the gates of Jerusalem. stood upon the fifteen steps going down out of the Court of Israel into the Women's Court. Chapters 31-40 A Commentary from the Talmud and Hebraica on the New Testament John (1602-1675) A Chapters 31-40 Chorographical Lightfoot Century . and infinite other musical instruments. Of the miracle. because concerning that a miracle was shown: others say. and very richly adorned with silver and gold." The history alleged is thus:--Nicanor was one of the captains of the Greeks. Hence 'Nicanor's day' is in the Jewish calendar. they purified the woman after childbirth. a captain of the Grecians. fol. Middoth. because the brass of it did exceedingly shine. that the gate of Nicanor was so called. they subdued them. and the men of good works. and the leper. This gate was 'fifty cubits in height'." &c. speak thus: "The religious men. lyres.From hence they went up from the Court of the Women fifteen steps. except the gate of Nicanor. The east gate of the Court of Israel was called the "gate of Nicanor. because a miracle was there shown."--"All the gates were changed to be of gold. singing according to the number of the fifteen psalms of degrees. see Constantine L'Empereur. the Talmudists.: who also produceth another reason of the name. 2. and said. as there was another in the gate of Susan. and Juchasin. namely. danced and sang. cymbals. to lay them waste!" But when the Asmonean family prevailed. 65. "Oh! when will it be in my power. trumpets. but the gate of Nicanor. the doors contained forty cubits. relating the custom of the dance just now mentioned. "There were fifteen steps (saith Josephus) ascending from the partition wall of the women to the greater gate. None of the gates had (a small scroll of paper fixed to the posts). in these words: "In the book of Josephus Ben Gorion it is said. &c. they made the suspected wife drink the bitter waters. in the days of the Asmoneans: which may also be seen in the end of the second chapter of the tract Taanith. 57. that there they slew Nicanor. The Levites. holding torches in their hands. and slew him. In that gate sat a council of three and twenty. and every day he wagged his hand towards Judea and Jerusalem. with harps." Concerning these steps. laid on to a great thickness." In the gate of Nicanor. p. done about the folding-doors of this gate.

the chamber of Happarva. "The chamber of wood. Contiguous to this was the "gate of waters". whereof one opened towards the Holy Place.--that since. or because the water-course. we observe elsewhere."--The Babylonian Gemara and Maimonides assign them to the north side." III. and the other half in that which was common: and it had two doors." were on the north side: in those. went along through this gate into the chamber of the spring. unless kings only of the stock of David. first. and "Ab Beth Din [the next in rank to the president]. the chamber Gazith. one into the court. the other to the Chel. I. Whosoever was found touched with any spot was clothed in black. Therefore we suppose. for "none might sit in the court. and a pulley: whence water was supplied to the whole court. Whoever was without spot. "the chamber of salt. and when and why."--"And I think (saith the author of the Gloss). was brought in through this gate.--the other towards that which was common":--that is. according to all the Jews (howsoever differing on what side it was placed). which was in Chel. in a half circle.--the council could not sit in the lot Judah. but follow those things that are more probable. westwardly: "where was a well. on the feast of Tabernacles. but on the outside. being clothed and veiled in white. and the elders on both sides. the chamber of the spring water. went into the court. Here. II. The tract Middoth assigns these to the south side. the Middoth being our guide. the chamber of them that was. so called. And half of it was in the Holy Place. if Gazith were not seated about that place which we assign. The great Sanhedrim sat in that part. that we should weary ourselves in deciding this controversy. that the fountain Etam was the same with the waters of Nephtoah. that the chamber Gazith was on the south side of the court. either because the water. and was veiled in black. In Middoth. and judged concerning the priests. That fountain was deeper than the pavement of the court three and twenty cubits. near the east corner: and that upon this reason. conveyed into the Temple from the fountain Etam." "The president sat in the west part of the chamber". this chamber was not in the middle of the three chambers before named. to be poured out upon the altar." How the Sanhedrim was driven from this chamber. We enter not into disputes. "The chamber of the spring" was next to this." "In the chamber of Gazith sat the council of Israel. they differ. concerning the chambers. of which mention is made in the book of . "Abai saith. on his right hand. "The chamber Gazith was in the form of a great court walk. they are said to be on the south. and went away. The matter is hardly of so great moment. and ministered with his brethren.Chapter 31 Concerning the Gates and Chambers lying on the South Side of the Court. either on the one hand or on the other.

after the search about it was made in the 'chamber of wood' (which was in the corner of the Women's Court. was the "chamber of salt": where salt was laid up for the offerings. and above that. 32 I." II. consulting about the affairs of the Temple and Service. V.) whether there were any worms in it: that which was found fit for the altar was laid-up here. as it was commonly called. 33 . where the stones of the altar were laid up by the Asmoneans. 4. where a fire continually burnt for the use of the priests. which were slain on the north." joining to that. that through that he might see what was here done by the high priest: "For in a covered place of this chamber there was a bath for the great priest. whence they went down into the bath. After this gate was the 'chamber of wood'. where the priests and Levites watched. IV. Thence was the 'gate of offering. After that gate. they washed the inwards of the sacrifices. westward. In 'BethMokadh' were four chambers:--1. or. in this. This was also called "the gate of a song. 'The chamber of the show-bread. and that place was the highest in the land of Israel. Parva. In that. because the wood was conveyed hither. built this chamber. made a secret hole in the wall of this chamber. The "chamber of them that wash" was next to that: and the "chamber of Happarva." Chapter The Gates and Doors on the North Side. 2.' 3. Beyond that was "the gate of offering": and. 15:9. Chapter The Court itself. we meet with the "gate and chamber Nitsots"." or the "gate of burning": so called from a chamber adjoining. that that magician. First. in the day of expiation. they salted the skins of the sacrifices. from thence it descends and slopes into the east and west. after that. Following that was the "gate Beth Mokadh. that it might be more in readiness. between this and the gate last named was the chamber. "the chamber of the magistrates"." III.Joshua. others.' or of 'Corban': this was also called 'the gate of the women. The 'wood-chamber' seems to be called so upon this account. "the gate of kindling. "the chamber of the counsellors": where there was a sessions of the priests. where the public treasure of the Temple was laid up. "that by this gate they brought in the Most Holy sacrifices. a magician." But the reason of the latter is more obscure: perhaps before that gate the women delivered their sacrifices into the hands of the priests." IV. V. when the kings of Greece had profaned the altar.' The reason rendered of the former name is. The chamber. 'The chamber of lambs': where they were kept for the use of the altar. This also was called the "gate Corban": for. The chamber. Some believe one Parva.

Therefore. to the farthest part of the Chel. each half a cubit. twelve steps. and along the space between the altar and the Pronaon.11 The breadth of the Court of the Priests . The Laver.22 The length of the Pronaon and the Temple . or the 'Porch of the Temple. after the ascent of one cubit.32 The space between the altar and the Pronaon .100 Behind the Temple to the west wall . Through all this court one went in a level. but rising: when any went on.--whereof every step was half a cubit in height. and thence went up into the Court of the Priests by one step of a cubit high: on which was set a pulpit (where the choir of the Levites that sang stood). and thence went up into the Court of Israel fifteen steps. The Court of the Priests was a hundred thirty-five cubits in length. the Court of the Priests is found to be two cubits and a half higher than the court of Israel. from east to west. The breadth of the Court of Israel .--he went all in a level." The Court of Israel was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length. and the same they did along the space by the altar. he went up into the Court of the Women. The Rings. 34 The altar was. To wit. The length of the whole court was a hundred eighty-seven cubits. it . Along the whole Court of the Women he went in a level. every step half a cubit in height. The floor of the Pronaon and the Temple was all level: and was higher than the floor of the east gate of the Court of the Gentiles. eleven in breadth. eleven in breadth. from the east gate of the Court of the Gentiles.11 The breadth of the altar . and in it were three steps. two and twenty cubits. that is. From the Chel. each half a cubit high.11 Chapter The Altar.' Thither they ascended by twelve steps. They went through the Court of the Priests in a level. two-and-thirty cubits. on every side. And they divided the heads of the beams between the Court of Israel and the Court of the Priests."The floor of the whole sacred earth was not level.

" As the lion is narrower behind. The place of the horns on every part was the space of one cubit. jetting out on both sides.--the breadth seventy: including within this measure the porch. and flowed into the brook Kedron. on which the sacrifices were hung. The Temple was strait on the hinder part. because it is said. The place of the priests' walk. A scarlet thread begirt the middle of the altar. and they were flayed on marble tables. was the place of slaughter. which were between those pillars. each of which contained four. each half a cubit in height. so that there it was eight and twenty cubits on every side. the city where David encamped. or a wheel.--that is. but broad on the fore part. They went up thither by twelve steps. as the Gloss explains it. "Ben Kattin.was so straitened. and again was straitened a cubit. And these things. when he was the chief priest. overthwart. "Woe to Ariel" (the lion of the Lord). and each contained six. made those cocks for the cistern. therefore. the chambers. two and thirty cubits. "to Ariel. upon this ascent. through which the sprinkled blood descended. to discern between the upper bloods and the lower. The basis of the altar towards the south-east had no corner."--namely. hither and thither. whereby water might be drawn for the use of the cistern. which we . while they strove who should first get up to the altar. He also made the machine of the cistern": that is. Near by were low pillars set up. that the waters might flow out of them. were laid up. The length of the Temple contained a hundred cubits. at which they killed the sacrifices: there. There was a time. he made also a pulley. There are some who assert there were four orders. It went up five cubits." Between the altar and the porch was the space of two and twenty cubits. and fifteen cubits on the south. was one cubit. which before had but two. upon which were laid. so also was the Temple. beams of cedar: in these were fastened iron hooks. "Ben Kattin made twelve cocks for it. so that now it was six and twenty cubits every way. like nostrils. and resembled the figure of a lion. and the thickness of the outward wall. For the porch was broader than the Temple fifteen cubits on the north. and it lay a little to the south. on the south. to trace all which would be too much. used in killing of the sacrifices. where the holy knives. on every side thirty cubits. was called "The place of knives. There was a laver or cistern between the porch and the altar. because that part was not within the portion of Judah. so that the place of burning extended four and twenty cubits round about. On the north were six orders of rings. and broader before. and that space. one priest stabbed another priest with his knife. and the breadth sixteen cubits. The ascent to the altar was. At the horn between the west and the south were two holes. that it was less by one cubit in the whole square. when.

though much more unlearnedly. where the cities were gathered together. R. therefore." . to go up with him into the mount of the Temple. was clean. The ascent to the mount of the Temple was not so difficult but cattle and oxen might be driven thither. "At Jerusalem was a great court. "In the new city there was a wool-market. went down unto Siloam. except that which was found in the upper street. This way they went from the Temple to mount Olivet. That this was in the street of those that dealt in wool. the high priest. but that it required some pains of those that went up." III. was eastward by the Horse-gate. have heretofore done these things in a just volume.] VI. II." VII. There was a street leading from the Gate of Waters to the mount of the Temple." Here I remember the story of Ismael Ben Camithi. and defiles. Chapter Some other memorable Places of the City." Josephus hath these words. that they might the more willingly come thither for the sake thereof." Ezra 10:9. treated of them. nor so easy. until" (according to the school of Hillel) "he was able. probably. and a market of garments. who when he went out on the day of expiation to speak with a certain (heathen) captain. and the street (the most noted of the whole city) went onward to the west. The Upper Street.--"Any spittle." The Gloss thus. found in the city. which seems to be called "the street of the Temple. "A child was free from presenting himself in the Temple at the three feasts. called Beth Jaazek. some spittle was sprinkled upon his clothes from the other's mouth: whereby being defiled. both because the famous Constantine L'Empereur hath. and because we ourselves largely enough. "The spittle of any unclean person is unclean. "that divided between the hill of the Upper City and the Lower. Now the strangers dwelt in the upper street. "The street of those that dealt in wool. run through with the more haste. IV. he could not perform the service of that day: his brother therefore officiated for him. and braziers' shops. they locked the door" (on the sabbath)." The entrance into this vale. his father taking him by the hand." "In the butchers' street. Buxtorf. 35 I.have said. which was at Jerusalem. as those that have a flux. and delicious feasts were made ready for them there. "The street of the butchers. But strangers of another country are as unclean among us."--namely. that they might testify concerning the new moon: "and there the Sanhedrim took them into examination. very learnedly and largely." [Saginatorum. "and laid the key in the window which was above the door. we have. "The vale of the Tyropaei" (or the cheesemongers). V. in our English tongue. Jose saith.

until they became seven or eight years old." before Antonia. After which. he brought a trench to the nether new city" (the Upper was the hill Bezetha. Thence bending to the south. "R. and enclosing the mountain where Pompey pitched his tents. he came even into the vale of the fountain. (if that were not the same with Bethesda. We cannot also pass over "The stone of things lost": where publicaiton was made concerning any thing lost or missing. Some courts also were built upon a rock. Hither they brought some teeming women. and Schools. with purifying water. who also cites Tosaphtoth. IX. 'the house. Hoshaia. where the thing is to be done. that they might be delivered there. (So R. There were not a few caves in the city.) there was "the Sparrow-pool. there born and brought up. which we observed concerning the hollowed floor of the Temple." that is." that is. that those children. XII.") And when the sprinkling of any one is to be performed. riding upon oxen. X. Of whom you have a memorable story in the place quoted. hollowed out of the rock. Besides the pool of Siloam. and going forward as far as the village. and there the number ariseth to four hundred and eighty. they are brought with the like care and curiosity to the place. the Nether was a place somewhat lower on the east of Sion). 36 "R. XI. being so thick. and might there also bring up their children. Into one of these Simon the tyrant betook himself with his accomplices. he shut up the mountain round. ascending along the sepulchre of Anan the chief priest. where he encamped. which lies over the valley of Siloam. And the reason of that curiosity was. "and after that . might be clean without doubt. where they were so secure from being touched by a sepulchre. to the rock called the Dove-cote. he bended to the north side. From thence bending on the west. These things are recited elsewhere." on the north side of the city. of Solomon. We conclude with the trench brought round the city by Titus. in the name of R.--and the hill beyond. he came eastwardly to his own intrenchment. because their bellies. such as were polluted with a dead carcass.VIII. and fit to sprinkle. or place of turpentine'". The children were shut up in those courts. when he despaired of his affairs. Solomon. which is called." "A house of the book for the Scripture. under which there was made a hollow. There were four hundred and sixty synagogues in Jerusalem: every one of which had a house of the book. and a house of doctrine. that by no means any sepulchre might be there. the Beth Midrash." . and "the Almondpool. wherein he shut it up in the siege. "until they are eighteen years of age. might defend them the more securely from the defilement of any sepulchre in the way. "and thence along Kedron to mount Olivet. where nevertheless it is. Phinehas.taking in the sepulchre of Herod. in the name of R." Chapter Synagogues in the City. There were four hundred and eighty synagogues in Jerusalem. where the Scripture might be read: "and a house of doctrine for traditions. saith. of Bethesda. "Beginning from the tents of the Assyrians. saith. Hoshaia. Phinehas. where traditions might be taught.

make haste. and out of the city: and this. "We find in Pesikta: R. and they for Alexandrians have The Braziers. the wise men brought artificers in brass from Alexandria to mend it." &c. and go. but. that the letter aleph is not computed." is mentioned by the Talmudists: concerning which also the Holy Scripture speaks. from R. every one. as they call it. perhaps. if you will. therefore they called them by their name. one Arsela. because they hated the Babylonians. who used to pull off his hair." &c. Note. tav." means in that legend. Zadok received (for a price) the synagogue of the Alexandrians. "Eleazar Ben R. [men=40. They were not Babylonians. 'two artificers': "and they talked together in the language of Tursi" (where the Gloss. and to say. We do not make inquiry here concerning the numbers being varied: the latter is more received: and it is made out by gematry. yod]. &c. aleph. from this story: "There was a brass cymbal in the Temple. Take it. that are made free": of whom the Talmudists speak infinitely. they themselves sold to R. which was at Jerusalem. lamed=30. The Gloss renders 'the braziers' by 'workmen by brass." 'The synagogue of the Libertines. yod=10] "The synagogue of the Alexandrians. There was also a brass mortar in the Temple. Hoshaia. and did his necessary works in it. "They made him a footstool. out of the word 'full. Chapter Bethphage 37 . The Alexandrians had built it at their own charge. according to the arithmetical value of the word full" [mem. Why does this goat tarry. Four hundred and eighty synagogues were in Jerusalem. delay not. Take it. who was an Israelite. or the scape-goat: "The chief priests permitted not an Israelite to lead away the scape-goat into the wilderness: but once. and to say. the wise men brought artificers from Alexandria to mend it. and there being a crack in it. Menahem. our sins are yet upon us. and that he understood seventy languages." The Gemara thus. In the place noted in the margin." And after. you may fetch. tav=400. that he might be higher: and upon this he went out of the court. saith. these words are related concerning the sending away the goat Azazel. "and they knew not that Mordecai was one of the elders in the chamber Gazith. in which they beat their spices.'--The reason why the Alexandrians were so called. but Alexandrians. or something to put under his feet. lest the Babylonians should touch the goat: for they used to pull of his hair. what "The language of Tursi. and go. "Rabba Bar Bar Channah saith. lamed. Consider well. and there being a crack in it. "Bigthan and Teresh (perhaps) were two Tarsians": or. 'Tursi is the name of a place'). therefore. when the sins of this generation are so many?" Where the Gloss thus.' Acts 6:9: "The synagogue of those." This story is recited by the Babylonian Talmudists. led him away: and they made him a footstool because of the Babylonians. carrying himself irreverently and indecently. Eleazar.' Isaiah 1:21. Acts 6:9. For so they write: "The synagogue of the Braziers.&c. "The inhabitants of the land of Israel hated the Babylonians." &c. begone. they called by their name. Go.

"The two loaves" (daily offered by the chief priest) "and the show-bread are baked aright either in the court or in Bethphage. a more careful comparison of the maps with those things which are said by them of the situation of this place is worthy to be made. What is without the wall? R. "He that kills a sacrifice of thanksgiving within the wall. "Bethphage is the outmost place in Jerusalem: and whosoever is without the walls of Bethphage. II. It is disputed. and he may eat it. whether the passover be to be slain in the name of a person in prison singly. to come to him. if he betook himself thither to measure for the beheading of the cow. among other things. "He found the council sitting in Bethphage: for example's sake. who. after the determination and sentence pronounced in that cause. Jochanan saith." Observe. according to the law. obtained in the case propounded."--The Gloss writes thus. and shall rebel against the sentence pronounced by them there." V." . where is no place to eat the holy things. "Bethphage was a place within the walls of the city. and go up to the place. Deuteronomy 17:8. and the bread of it is without the wall. that the place itself" (the chamber Gazith only) "adds force to the sentence.--and when that judge of the lower council." is recited also elsewhere. and shall deny to behave himself according to their sentence. and these words are added. 'Bethphage was within the walls of Jerusalem': so that if the sentence of the Sanhedrim." For it was by no means lawful to eat the passover without Jerusalem." which. certainly. that stubbornness be to be judged for rebellion." The Aruch.--is guilty of death. when pronounced in Bethphage. Why? Because it is possible. when they place it in mount Olivet. is to be punished with death: and it is answered. unto the place which God should choose. that he may eat it. and such things as concerning which the lower councils could not judge. the case "of a stubborn judge" (or elder) is handling." VI. In the place cited in the margin. "Bethphage is the outmost circuit of Jerusalem.There is very frequent mention of this place in the Talmudists: and. but without the wall of the court. That which we produced first concerning the cause "of the stubborn elder. which he propounded. shall refuse to obey. Whence it is taught. IV.--"The wall of Bethphage is the wall of Jerusalem. were to be brought unto the chief council. "He thrashes within the walls of Bethphage. it is holy. For when. "Bethphage is the outmost place in Jerusalem: and thither they carry the passover to the person imprisoned. "Whether if he shall find the Sanhedrim sitting in Bethphage. these make it contiguous to the buildings of Jerusalem. the bread is not holy. inquiry is made. by the prescript of the law. because he is there within Jerusalem. verse 12. or to add to the space of the city. difficult matters. I. "The text saith. 'Thou shalt arise." III.' &c."--The Gloss. it is thus determined: "If he be within the walls of Bethphage. let them kill it for him singly. is without Jerusalem."--The Gloss thus. or the courts. and. and was reckoned as Jerusalem itself. Without the wall of Bethphage. pronounced at Jerusalem (out of the chamber Gazith). in respect of all things."--The Gloss.--it had obtained.

indeed. that is. To the determining. and according to the variety of these. out of Jerusalem through Bethphage within the walls. in the place last cited. to the derivation of the word: Bethphage is rendered by some a 'house or place of a fountain. but rather a great tract of the mountain was so called. of the business. in the morning. which runs out next the city.--when the word Phagi most vulgarly. Acts 1:12. was Bethphage seated. and Bethany. more rightly and plainly. did touch upon one another. "as far as Bethany. which seems openly to delineate Bethphage at the mount Olivet. and the outermost street of Jerusalem within the walls was called by the same name. why they should either feign or dissemble any thing in this matter. a paved 'causeway'. by reason of its nearness to that tract. "On the right hand. That lowest part. from the green figs. and Bethphage without the walls. and there he ascended. So our countryman Sandys. next adjacent. by reason of the vicinity of that place. nor is there any reason. arrived at that place and tract of Olivet. writes concerning it: "We now ascend mount Olivet (saith he). we must have recourse. of the mountain. known by those names. therefore. which we note elsewhere. where the name of Bethphage ceased. therefore. not far from the top. also. it is rendered. True." Luke 24:50. well regarded. and you have Bethphage seated far from the walls of the city. therefore. whose very foundations are confounded. I doubt. growing in divers tracts of the mount." which mount Olivet was not a little famous for? For although it took its name from 'Olives' yet it produced both 'fig' trees and 'palms'. and in all men's mouths. or thereabouts. and the name of Bethany began.' from the Greek "a fountain": but this is something hard: by the Glosser in Bava Mezia. the footsteps of it (even at this day) are falsely shown to travellers." They took their resolutions concerning the situation of this place not elsewhere certainly than from the gospel history. He had lodged in Bethany. who render "At the valley of Shaveh. going onward. And from these things. denotes "green figs. Mark 11:1. since they illustrate the thing with so many examples. which they added to it. From thence. He went. an eyewitness. asserting it to be within the walls of Jerusalem. not very far from the top of mount Olivet: where. he is said to come to Bethphage. but we may believe the Jews. and yet nothing hinders. understand the story of Christ coming this way. he had described the ascent to Bethany). therefore. But what needs is there of wandering abroad either into a strange or more unusual dialect. is called Bethphage. is called. first. the town of Lazarus." To which that of the Targumists seems to agree. another way bending more northwards" (for before. "The outmost compass of Jerusalem (saith he). and seems to me to denote a beaten way. And when he was about to ascend into heaven. he is said to lead out his disciples." Genesis 14:17. whereas the town. from whence Christ. so various names were imposed upon those tracts. one may. but not farther than a sabbath-day's journey.--and measuring a sabbath-day's journey. went in triumph to Jerusalem: the father-guardian every Palm Sunday now superstitiously imitating him.Now consult the maps and the commentaries of Christians. where Lazarus dwelt. whether there was any town in Olivet called Bethphage. where those tracts of the mountain. "Bethphage": by which name also that part of Jerusalem. John 12:1. was almost twice as far. is called. sitting upon the foal of an ass. to that place. John 11:18. .

The sheaf of first-fruits was reaped from the Ashes'-valley of the brook Kedron. and were not moved out of their places. a great company attending them. which were within Jerusalem. seated in an inconvenient place. and so the whole action be rendered useless. 'Well. and they answered. a great multitude being present. or a foot-bridge. who was to burn the cow. 'Reap. and they answered. that the thing might be done. that it might not pollute any man. 'Reap." "They built a foot-causeway. and they answered. from the mount of the Temple to the mount of Olives.'--'In this basket'. where it was not possible to touch a place of burial. or Sadducees.'--If it were the sabbath. 'Well. 'Well. therefore." By such a pipe and evacuation under-ground. bounds the mount of Olives. which was in the Temple. and they answered. and they answered. 'Well. and they answered. and they answered. because the Baithuseans. 'Well. The first day of the feast of the Passover. went forth into that valley. "Hence it appears (saith R.'--'In this basket'.'--'On this sabbath'. did not think well of doing that action on that day: therefore.'--'With this reaping-hook'.'--'I will reap'. and they answered. "The blood poured at the foot of the altar flowed into a pipe. deputed from the Sanhedrim. in the way he was to go. upon which they led away the scape-goat: both were built at the charges of the public treasure. that there was a certain cave.--and of the sepulchres of the sons of Huldah. 39 . called Kedron. 'On this sabbath'. and they answered. 'Well. upheld with arches. whereby he might be defiled.' This he said thrice.'--'With this reaping-hook'. and they answered. The like care and curiosity was used in leading away the scape-goat. such a foot-causeway they made.'" In the place. and very many out of the neighbouring towns flocked together. which lies against the city eastward. they are treating concerning removing a sepulchre. saith.'--'I will reap'. he said. there might be. and they answered thrice. and emptied itself into the valley of Kedron: and it was sold to the gardeners to dung their gardens. 'Well. on whom the office of reaping laid.Chapter Kedron 38 "A deep bottom. In like manner. he. And the reason of the pomp was fetched thence. Akibah). whereby filth and uncleanness was carried down into the valley of Kedron. that they might cross that crossing opinion. 'Well. 'The sun is set'. they performed the business with as much show as could be." Chapter The Valley of Hinnom. which were moved out of their places. they thought no caution enough to keep him safe from uncleanness. When. did the filth of the Court of the Temple run into the valley of Kedron. certain persons. upon arches joining to one another. perhaps.--they made him a path. marked in the margin." The reason of that curiosity concerning the red cow was this:--when the ashes of that cow were especially purifying above all other things (for they cleansed from the uncleanness contracted by the touch of a dead person). 'Well. at no small cost. some sepulchres not seen. "When it was now even. upon which they led away the red cow (to be burned). all the way.'--'The sun is set'. Examples are brought-in of the sepulchres of the house of David.

went out by the gate "Hacharsith. whereby bones. or did some work. "Jehoshaphat means all one with the 'judgments of the Lord. after some space." So also Jarchi [on Joel 3:2]. as it had done before. chapter 66." &c. to wit.'" Some of the Rabbins apply that of Isaiah hither. The Mount of Oil. What is to be resolved concerning the 'valley of Jehoshaphat. the common burying-place of the city (if so be. verse the last: "They shall go out. ran out along the south side of the city. And a little after.' he himself doubts. 'This is the door of Gehenna. until there be no more any place." But Luke saith." But now a sabbath-day's 40 . and leaves undetermined: "For either Jehoshaphat (saith he) here erected some building. "The mount called the mount of Olives. 'by the East-gate. and shall see those that rebel. they are historical. whither all filth. "Then they returned from the mount called Olivet. met. 'The palms of the mountain are fit for iron. In the Rabbins commonly.' For thence was the beginning of the valley of Hinnom. The Mount of Olives. It was the common sink of the whole city. "There was a tradition according to the school of Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai. and shall see the carcases of Gog and Magog. the Rabbins and others being interpreters. and all kind of nastiness. were consumed. idolatry. that even now it did as much bear to the life the representation of hell. There is no need to repeat those very many things. a sabbath-day's journey. when those things were vanished. 2 Samuel 15:30. that rebel against me.--yet so much of the filthiness." Jeremiah 19:2. is distant five furlongs. which is near Jerusalem. which are related of this place in the Old Testament. Zechariah 14:4. "They shall bury in Tophet. that is. Acts 1:12. probably. and other filthy things. which. There are two palm-trees in the valley of Ben-Hinnom. and from sabbath to sabbath. or it is called 'the valley of Jehoshaphat' because of judgment. they did now bury within so small a distance from the city).'" Chapter Mount Olivet. and see the dead carcases of the men. and their fire shall not be quenched. shall go out without Jerusalem into the valley of Jehoshaphat."--"Those Gentiles (saith Kimchi upon the place) who come to worship from month to month. It was. and of the abominable name remained. And there was there also a continual fire. and the howlings of infants roasted to Moloch. bending itself westward." &c. Under the second Temple. between which a smoke arises: and this is that we learn. and is transferred to denote the place of the damned. the Sun-gate. lest they might offend or infect the city.' Jeremiah. which had set an eternal mark of infamy upon this place. for their worm shall not die." Jeremiah 7:32.' And. "The just shall go out without Jerusalem into the valley of Hinnom.A great part of the valley of Kedron was called also the 'Valley of Hinnom. going forth into the valley of Hinnom. The mention of it in the New is only mystical and metaphorical. lying over against the city.

The first foot of the mount was distant five furlongs from the city. shall be rolled under the earth. The Gemarists inquire. For this last measures the space to the first foundation of Olivet. And he who held up the flame in Beth Baltin. under one of which were four shops. What the captivity means? Rabh Joseph saith. from Sartaba to Gryphena. forty seahs" (certain measures) "of pigeons. where all things needful for purifications were sold: out of the other. "Two cedars (they say) were in the mount of Olivet. until he sees another doing so in a second mountain. they fetched." There was a place in the mount. and that. or rather two monsters of cedars. and the fruit better. "When the dead shall live again (say they). goes up upon his house. what 'from Beth Baltin' means? This is Biram. the Messias shall converse very much in this mountain: which is . And when he sprinkled its blood there. The Jews believe. mount Olivet is to be rent in two. And one. doth Luke fight against Josephus. from Gryphena to Hauran. for those flames gave notice: and the Cutheans sometime held up flames in an undue time. beneath this mountain. yea. all the dead are to be raised. and shakes the flame up and down. going up to the mount. that every one taking a torch in his hand. and fat-wood. or a whole mile. and bound these together with a thread. they held up flames. This is Pombeditha. as it was said before. "They held up the flames presently after the time of the new moon was stated: and there was no need to send messengers to those. and so deceived Israel. it was decreed. but waved his flame up and down. to that place of Olivet. and another so in a third mountain. Neither yet. that was to burn the red cow. put fire to it. directly opposite against the east gate of the Temple. because the number of these perhaps was greater. But whence did they lift up these flames first? From the mount of Olivet to Sartaba. for all this. and the coarse part of the flax. Among other trees. and canes. The custom and manner is thus described: "Formerly. he directly levelled his eyes at the Holy of Holies. and all the dead of Israel shall come out thence. The mount had its name from the Olive-trees. Those signal flames also. this way and that way. this way and that way. are worthy of mention. to which the priest. departed not thence. accustomed to be waved up and down on the top of this mount in token of the new moon now stated. from Hauran to Beth Baltin. and shall come forth under the mount of Olivet.journey contained eight furlongs. that." It is a dream like that story. to give them notice of the time. but when the Cutheans spoiled this. but Christ. What means abounding in flames? There is a tradition. those righteous persons. however other trees grew in it. the other. two cedars are mentioned. whence all the women to be purified were supplied. went along a foot-bridge laid upon arches. who died in captivity. where our Saviour ascended. being about to ascend. that they should send messengers." &c." The Gloss is this. every month." The text goes forward: "How did they hold up the flames? They took long staves of cedar. that were afar off in captivity. until he saw the whole captivity abounding in flames. went up the mountain three furlongs farther.

"and. "The Divine Majesty stood three years and a half in mount Olivet. while he is near. was the Fullers' field.--we do not dispute. going away.--bended after that manner. westward. "The gardening was all compassed about from the wall with trenches. bowed towards the south side of the city. while he burnt the red cow. which. which were sold for three or four assarii each: and yet neither the Truma. and many walls. directly over against the east gate of the Temple. that their heads might bow over the top of the altar. Among them "a garden of Jerusalem is famed. while he may be found. or 'from a fuller's monument. In that place. and preached. was ever taken of them. Ophla and the Horse-gate. at length. in which is a brook. there was a place" (we do not dare to mark it out) "which was called Motza: hither they came down" (in the feast of Tabernacles) "and cropped off thence long boughs of willow" (it may be. wherein figs grew. leading to the Temple. Between the mount and the city you might see a valley running between. Janna saith." &c. From the Horse-gate. R. compassing Sion on the right hand. from the banks of the brook Kedron). near the wall. which whether it was so called from wood framed together.' of which Josephus writes. saying. From thence. was the beginning of the valley of Hinnom. and Jerusalem on the left: the Gate of Waters against you. 'Seek ye the Lord.'" And now let us from this mountain look back upon the city. when there were none within. For when they think his primary seat shall be at Jerusalem. placed them near the sides of the altar. and every thing was divided with crooked gardens. It is no marvel. as we have said." Josephus hath these words. Imagine yourself sitting in that place. call upon him. and spreading abroad itself in a more spacious breadth." Chapters 41-50 A Commentary from the Talmud and Hebraica on the New Testament John (1602-1675) A Chapters 41-50 Chapter Bethany.agreeable to truth and reason. nor the Tenth. if there were a multitude of gardens without the city. "Below the city. Chorographical Lightfoot Century 41 . they cannot but believe some such thing of that mount. Beth-hene. where fullers dried their cloth. where the priest stood. on the left hand. whence the valley takes its name--embracing Sion also on the north. runs out the valley Kedron.

They inquire. Beth-jone. and the dates of Tubni. if this be done by any one from Zophim . which signifies the "dates of palm-trees. They treat in the place. concerning eating of fruits the seventh year. because thence there was a prospect on all sides. till it reached the distance of a sabbath-day's journey only from the city." that is. stretched out from Sion northward. Chapter Scopo 42 In that manner as mount Olivet lay over-against the city on the east." Hence those canons and cautions: "He that pisseth. "They are not mentioned in the schools among fruits. Bon saith. noted in the margin. The figs of Beth-hene. R. when he had received a legion by night from Ammaus. there was a town also. and in that place is Gethsemane. such figs as are not yet ripe. Until the last ceases in Gush Chalab" (in the tribe of Asher). The green figs of Beth-hene are not mentioned. Judah saith. Here you may see olive-trees. behind a valley somewhat broader. at the place which from thence was called Zophim. The Viewer. and Tubni is writ Tubina." The Gloss is this. And now take a prospect a little of mount Olivet. Of which they write thus. had branches of palm-trees ready at hand. touching upon the north coast of the city. and that place was called Bethphage. Beth-hene certainly seems to be the same altogether with our Bethany. Josi Ben R." And we may observe in the gospel-history. let him turn his face to the north: he that easeth nature. From Zophim and within":--that is. how those that met Christ. is truly called Scopus. "They eat dry figs. And the coast of that name went on. and the name to be drawn from the word Ahene.Bethany seems to be the same with Beth-hene among the Talmudists. and concerning Beor. Where the city appeared. to the south. of which we have spoke before. unless in respect of tithing. How long one may eat of these or the other fruits?--And they state the business thus: "They eat Olives (say they) until the last ceases in Tekoa. "The place of green-figs. Concerning it Josephus thus: "Caesar. The town was fifteen furlongs distant from Jerusalem. R. the valley of Kedron running between. over-against it. until green figs cease in Beth-hene. Eleazar saith. R. the land swelled into a hill." These words are recited in Erubhin: where the word Beth-hene is writ. as the tradition is. are bound to be tithed. "The place of oil-presses." not come to ripeness: as the figs also signifies "green-figs. called of the same name. The tradition is. unless in respect of the tenths. on the north. and that place is called Bethany." There you may see palmtrees growing." Therefore. but especially towards the city. and the greatness of the Temple shining out: as that plain tract of land. the day after moving his tents thence. He entered into Scopo so called. "The place of dates. There you may see figtrees growing. as he was going forward from Bethany. some part of Olivet was called Bethany from the palm-trees.--so.

See 1 Samuel 22:6. Gibeah. where Samuel was born. "the long Valley of Thorns": perhaps." But another Gloss doth not understand the thing here of that proper place. 1 Samuel 9:5." They blindly look over Ramah in the tribe of Benjamin. this. going from the south to Jerusalem. that holy flesh is in his hand. "The town called Gabath-Saul. why Saul remained two years and a half in Gibeah. which is distant from Jerusalem about thirty furlongs. let him burn it in the place where he is. 1 Samuel 1:1. wheresoever the city could first be seen. once Ramathaim Zophim. Gibeah was Saul's town. not far from Jerusalem. Josephus calls the neighbouring place of Gibeah. one of the two Ramaths. let him go back. Hosea 5:8." That town of Samuel was Ramath Zophim.--and look only at Ramah in Ephraim. "The third day they came to Zophim: but when he came to Zophim. but of the whole compass about the city. in the tribe of Benjamin.' A like form of speech is that 1 Samuel 18:21. upon Isaiah . where it is named with Gibeah:-and elsewhere. was Ramath Zophim also: but by a different etymology. Saul's great-great-grandfather. This signifieth Saul's-hill. that he expose not his buttocks before it. when he is now within the prospect of the city. "Saul sat in Gibeah. 43 There was a certain Ramah. as it seems:--that. and that within sight of Jerusalem. he saw the glory of the Divine Majesty sitting upon the Mount" (Moriah). 44 That Nob was placed in the land of Benjamin. Eliezer. it may be. Ramathaim Zophim. let him turn his face to the north. and burn it before the Temple.) "But if he be not beyond Zophim. "Zophim is a place whence the Temple may be seen. under a grove in Ramah. Judges 19:13. His native town is very often called Ramah. Joshua 18:25. Chapter Nob. "If any one. "There was a certain man of Ramathaim": that is." (For it is polluted by being carried out of the walls of Jerusalem. thou shalt be my son-in-law. Chapter Ramah. the valley under the rock Seneh: of which mention is made. that the speech of Samuel of Ramah was the cause. as it seems. and this of Benjamin. from Zophim." Where the Gloss thus.--the words of the Chaldee paraphrast. Bahurim. whence Jerusalem also might be seen. from Zuph. 1 Samuel 14:4. shall remember. "In one of the two. that he do not expose his modest parts before the Temple: when he easeth nature. let him turn his face to the south.inwards." Here the Gemarists trifle: "Whence is it (say they) that Ramah is placed near Gibea? To hint to you. whence that country was so called." Hence you may guess at the distance of Rama from Jerusalem. which towns were not much distant. of which place we have spoke in the foregoing chapter. which were surnamed also 'Zophim. So R. being gone out of Jerusalem. when he pisseth. if he be now gone beyond Zophim. of Abraham.

" in the place alleged in the Book of Samuel. Kiriath-jearim." &c. who was "a scribe of the council. Joshua 21:18. The tabernacle sometime resided at Nob. and in his very words. "And David the king came to Almath. dismissed the army. were travelled through by the enemy with his army in one day. the Chaldee renders. 1 Chronicles 6:60. Where Kimchi thus. 1 Chronicles . he saw Jerusalem.10:32. The Jews certainly do write this otherwise. "Bahurim was a city of the Benjamites. "And David came to Bahurim." Josephus. called Ammaus. 45 "From Beth-horon to Emmaus it was hilly.--"To eight hundred only. for them to inhabit: it is sixty furlongs distant from Jerusalem. adding this moreover. which are numbered-up by Isaiah in the place alleged.." By the same author is mentioned also. when he despiseth any thing.' was called Chammath. and by extraction from Ammaus. Which when he saw from thence." &c.. which. 2 Samuel 16:5." Where Kimchi thus."--It was sixty furlongs distant from Jerusalem. The Talmudists do concur also in the same sense with the Chaldee paraphrast. mentioning some noblemen. for Bahurim and Alemeth are the same." one of the seditious of Jerusalem. and wagging his hand up and down. before the walls of Jerusalem. a city of the priests. the same with Almon. "And the days of Nob and Gibeon" (they are the words of Maimonides) "were seven-and-fifty years. "Jerusalem might be seen from Nob. against which I have raised my whole army. and is called in the Books of the Chronicles. when that was destroyed. "Ananus of Ammaus. Those words. slain by Simeon the tyrant. 'Alemeth'. 2 Samuel 6:2. whether this word hath the same etymology with Emmaus near Tiberias. from the 'warm baths. And Jarchi thus. do argue. "Sennacherib came and stood in Nob. 'Is not this the city of Jerusalem. it was translated to Gibeon. and said to his army." Both sound as much as. he wagged his hand. or Baalath. "The family (say they) of Beth-Pegarim." &c. For so he speaks. It was a Levitical city. Chapter Emmaus."-The Gloss is this." I inquire. and have subdued all the provinces of it? Is it not small and weak in comparison of all the fortifications of the Gentiles. which I have subdued by the valour of my hand?' He stood nodding with his head against it. and the priests married their daughters. and Beth Zipperia was out of Emmaus. which is also called Alemeth. numbers one Aristeus. as a man is wont to do. whose inhabitants were Israelite gentlemen." We meet with mention of Bahurim. (Vespasian) gave a place. who nevertheless at last fled over to Caesar. "Emmaus was the name of a place.--that all those places. young men. Kiriath-jearim was before-time called Baale. "When he stood at Nob.

yet a certain barren mountain hangs over it. narrow. and the utmost coast of the Asphaltites. Matthew 3:5. is called the Great Plain. these are Judah. In this is a mountain. a city of Ephraim). and Baaleth. in Kiriath-jearim. 1 Samuel 7:1. "namely." means. but to Jordan and the Asphaltites. the Jerusalem writers speak thus. "and Jordan cuts it in the middle. but alike desert. 46 Here we will borrow Josephus' pencil. encamped the distance of ten furlongs from Jericho": that is. "and from Jordan sixty furlongs" (seven miles and a half). Concerning it. that they intercalated the year in Baalath. however they. to the country of Sodom.)." In Psalm 132:6. Chapter The country of Jericho. these are of Dan" (it should be written. "We heard of it" (the ark) "in Ephratah" (that is. and Gibbethon. where the two spies. Shiloh.--and southward. Joshua 4:19." Hence you may understand more plainly those things that are related of "the plains of Jericho. and the situation of the City.--to wit. and Azem. which bounds the rock of Arabia. "We find. of Dan. But concerning the distance between Jericho and Jerusalem. the houses were of Judah. a hundred and twenty furlongs" (fifteen miles). in Gilgal. Eltekah." 2 Kings 25:5." (Here is a mistake of the transcribers. "we found it in the fields of the wood" (that is. "Jericho is distant from Jerusalem a hundred and fifty furlongs" (eighteen miles and three quarters)." Of this mountain mention is made. "The space from thence to Jerusalem is desert and rocky. more plain. and sometimes to Dan. lies a mountain on the other side Jordan. for it runs out northward to the country of Scythopolis. and barren. travelling forward fifty furlongs from Jordan. the . "in breadth. Joshua 2:22.) "Baalah. which is called the Iron mountain. beginning from Julias on the north. in the east coast of Jericho. feign very many things to be heard from Jerusalem as far as Jericho. "Jericho is seated in a plain. Joshua 15:29). he does not seem to agree with his countrymen. behold." "Opposite against this. indeed. Joshua 19:44. in length a thousand two hundred furlongs" (a hundred and fifty miles). of Judah. and received by Rahab.13:6. &c. extended from the village Ginnaber to the lake Asphaltites. according to their hyperbolical style." This our author asserts the same distance between Jericho and Jordan elsewhere. in these words: "But the Israelites. For. and stretched southward as far as Somorrha. for it should be written. sent by Joshua. are said to "conceal themselves. But the country which lies between these two mountainous places. indeed. and Jiim.--behold. and what "the region about Jordan. But Baalath was sometimes assigned to Judah. reaching out as far as the land of Moab. but long.--the fields of Dan.

When you take a view of that famous fountain. and Jesus the son of Nave took it." &c. pronouncing the name Jehovah. let . indeed. and produceth opobalsamum. but also the offspring of women. The hinges of the gates of the Temple are heard as far as the eighth bound of the sabbath". it riseth near the old city. which in some places bend to it after the manner of a theatre.sound of the gate of the Temple. which before were the cause of barrenness and famine. &c. that whatsoever place they touch. (see 2 Kings 2:21). and twenty in breadth: and there they nourish very fair and thick gardens of palm-trees of divers kinds. &c. &c." "Near Jericho is a very plentiful spring. Hence the city is called. And Pliny. that is. in the Hebrew. thence you understand what waters of Jericho the Holy Ghost points out in Joshua 16:1." "And they overflow the plain seventy furlongs in length. and cyprinum. who make it to be the distance of 'ten parsae. So that those waters. "Jericho is a plain surrounded with mountains. reckoning the city of palm-trees to be near Hebron: whom see. and Kimchi there. was heard. A grove of palm-trees is there. 'a divine country. The royal court and paradise of balsam is there." &c. the palms that grow in whose banks are more flourishing and more fruitful than those that grow more remote." There is an hyperbole in their measuring of the space. and well watered with springs. abounding with palm-trees for the space of a hundred furlongs. and full of habitations." Deuteronomy 34:3. "And that plain burns in the summer. and myrobalanum: so that one might not call it amiss. See also the Targum upon Judges 3:13. in the day of expiation. Strabo speaks like things. but the gates themselves are heard to Jericho. as far as a sabbath-day's journey eight times numbered. from thence thither the voice of the high priest. and. as it is described by Josephus. and was universally unwholesome and harmful to all: but it was changed into a better condition by Elizeus. they bring on to a very speedy ripeness. in former times. That place also feeds bees. not farther.--the sound of Migrephah. renders the air unhealthful: for it is all without water. which.--And when you think of that most pleasant country watered from thence. and the Targum upon Judges 4:5. the Targum hath From the city Jericho: which nevertheless Kimchi approves not of. &c. Rabbi Jochanan saith. is From the city of palm-trees. the "city of palm-trees. when it was opened. did thenceforth produce fruitfulness and abundance: and they have so great a virtue in their watering. The Gloss hath these words. from Jerusalem to Jericho were ten parsae: and yet. and Judges 1:16: where for that. that. by too much heat. "Jericho.' "Rabbath Bar Bar Channah saith. as well as in the rest. "The hinges.'" &c. yet there are some of them. except Jordan. with which are mixed also other garden plants. and very rich for watering and moistening the ground. it did not only make the fruits of the earth and of the trees to decay. all well watered. Of which spring there is a report. planted with groves of palms. or the little bell. a fruitful place.

--being once done.--how it came about. who are fit to receive the Holy Ghost. and "a noble troop of those. 47 We read." And yet I know not by what chance this city crept out of dust and rubbish. the Bath Kol went forth. Lazar. upon Numbers 10:29. that the pious king Jehoshaphat should suffer such a horrid thing to be done within his kingdom? Much more. "Nor was another city to be built (says the Talmudists). to wit. that waited in their courses at the Temple. and Jericho of Benjamin. were to be slain. which was to be called by the name of Jericho: nor was Jericho itself to be built. and it flourished with the rest of the cities of Judea unto the destruction of the nation by the Babylonians. although to be called by another name. but because she would give place to Jerusalem. that this city was not only wasted by Joshua with fire and sword. A little after its restoration. granted to the sons of Hobab. it was made noble by the schools of the prophets. where his will was publicly opened. There are two among you. and Hillel is one of them: they cast their eyes upon Samuel the Little. That. who shall rise up and build that city Jericho. and half a station" (that is. Chapter Jericho itself. Another time the elders assembled together in a chamber in Jafne. There are two among you. Hiel did a cursed thing in building Jericho: yet Jericho was not to be cursed. and Samuel the Little is one of them: they cast their eyes upon R. and flourished. It flourished more under the second Temple. yea. A royal palace was in it. "Hiel (say they) was of Jehoshaphat. Jericho also could have produced a whole station. the same with Jechiel. where the Jewish nobility. 2 Chronicles 21:2. being imprisoned by him. that their judgment agreed with the sentence of the Holy Ghost. who are fit to receive the Holy Ghost. 2 Kings 2:5. at Jerusalem. as the second. lived again. The same persons which were just now cited. "Cursed be he before the Lord. Moses' father-in-law: of which see Baal Turim." ." "The elders sometime assembled together in the chamber Beth-gadia in Jericho: the Bath Kol went forth. and sometime a sessions of the Sanhedrim. of The gift of Jericho.that Rabbinical story come into your mind. of five hundred cubits square. but cursed also. so that it gave place to no city in Judea. we hasten somewhere else. when he expired: an amphitheatre. which ought not to be done." Joshua 6:26. and became the second city to Jerusalem. suppose that the restorer of it was Hiel. all gave place to it. where Herod ended his days: a Hippodromus. stands good." "There is a tradition. the son of Jehoshaphat. being now built. twenty-four thousand men of the station. that there were. and said. she produced only the half of a station. and the Rabbins upon Judges 1. besides Jerusalem. how this should have been done by his son? Let them dispute the business. twelve thousand men) "at Jericho." And that is a just scruple. and said to them. and read over. which R. David objects. And they rejoiced.

Let the description of this city and place be concluded with those words of the ." Those things. Luke 10:31. which they either joined together. and they took care of supplying them with necessaries. wherein these things are done. See the Gemara and the Gloss. and therefore it was not accounted fit to be offered unto the Mincha. II. there could not but be some council of threeand-twenty. or omitting some doxologies or prayers. or they ingrafted. also certain fruits of the sycamine-trees. II. or daily sacrifice. in the same manner as a corner of the field was granted for corn. together. the nature of the place. one. on the sabbath-day. and so many to be governed. such fruits. as fell from the tree. See the Gloss. III. either not speaking them out distinctly. "They reaped. but very obscure. that were older. In so famous and populous a town. The business of the men of Jericho was about palm-trees. and of the groves of palms. The three things." although they were uncertain whether they had fallen on the sabbath-day or the eve of the sabbath: for such as fell on the sabbath were forbidden. unless. of more remark. but in the other three they consented not. were these:-I. "They ate. concerning which the wise men consented not to them. required it. "They ingrafted. and gathered-in their sheaves. "The men of Jericho are famed for six things done by them: in three of which the chief council consented to them. and they produce one. that travelled between Jerusalem and Jericho. as it seems. Such fruits and branches. who officiated at Jerusalem. if you hear of a priest and a Levite passing along in the parable of him. would scarcely have been suffered. "They folded up the recitations of their phylacteries": that is. if there were any such at Jerusalem. who were fit to be employed in government. palm-trees every day. III.Behold! five hundred men of every course residing at Jericho! But what were they? They were ready at hand to supply any courses that wanted. which their fathers had devoted to sacred uses.32.--they alienated into common. They granted a corner of the garden for herbs. if not more. because of the too early ripeness of their corn in that place. or (as they commonly say) inoculated the more tender sprouts of the branches into those. So much indulgence was granted them by the wise men concerning the time. partly. at least.--when so many of the stations dwelling there were at hand. concerning which they opposed them not. Hence it is the less to be wondered at. or pronouncing them with too shrill a voice. under the tree. partly. and. were these:-I. which elsewhere. and mingled males with females." Here is need of a long commentary. or folded. because their corn grew in a very low valley. before the sheaf [of first-fruits] was offered": and this.

" Of the stones. threescore miles. Nor is it unfit so to believe: for it. For the most part to sixteen cubits." The Gloss is. Judah saith.' This I have seen in the book of Josephus Ben Gorion." From Jordan to Gilgal were fifty furlongs (six miles and a quarter). From Abel to Jordan.'--How far is that? Twelve miles. it is called Jericho: and it is that Pannag of which mention is made in the Book of Ezekiel. but when the wind drives it. for its smell. "It is forbidden a scholar to teach a tradition before his master. "that the people passed over against Jordan. that the tents of the Israelites in the wilderness contained a square of twelve miles. being deceived by the ambiguity of the word Gilgal. "The ointment of our land: for it grows at Jericho. Chapter Some miscellaneous matters belonging to the Country about Jericho. reader. and R." They believe. When. in some part of it: "A fire sometime passed over Jordan" (that is. and. were sixty furlongs (seven miles and a half). stood upon those stones. also. to thirty. set up by Joshua in Jordan and Gilgal. and when the wind blows. and more: whom see afterward quoted in the eighty-eighth chapter. in the place noted in the margin: "Do they use a certain form of prayer upon balsam? Blessed be he. Aba Chalaphta. The breadth of Jordan from bank to bank was but of a moderate space. that. But whence is that space proved? 'And they encamped near Jordan from Beth-jeshimoth to Abel-shittim. and. To thirty cubits. and reckoned them to weigh forty sata 48 . Joshua 3:4. to fifty. while the ark stood in the middle of Jordan. Let us begin from the last encampings of Israel beyond Jordan. Judah saith. Eleazar saith. to a hundred. it is said." It is a most received opinion among the Jews. who hath created the ointment of our land. seems at least to have taken up a very large space in its passage: this especially being observed. not to do it. 'Judah and the land of Israel were thy merchants in wheat of Minnith and Pannag. according to the space of the encamping of Israel. "Saul went. extend it to sixty miles. from Abel to Gilgal. Eleazar Ben Mathia. the Gemarists have these words:--"R. a flame kindled on this bank flew over to that). was fourteen miles. that the bulk of the host took up the same space.--or of those that carried the ark. upon Number 2:2. The Talmudists. or thereabouts." Judge. The Jerusalem Talmudists do write thus of it.--R. So the Targum of Jonathan. yea. "But how far is the flame carried? R."--"From Beth-jeshimoth to Abel-shittim were twelve miles. "The encamping of Israel was twelve miles in length. Therefore the whole journey of that day. and of those that went next after the ark. none might come within two thousand cubits near it. until he be twelve miles distant from him. therefore. and twelve miles in breadth. and Chaninah Ben Chakinai. when the wind drives it." And the Gemarists say.Talmud. To fifty cubits. indeed.--R. It is thus said in Midras Tillin." it is to be understood of the middle of the host. Akibah saith. while they passed Jordan. Numbers 33:49: "They encamped near Jordan from Beth-jeshimoth unto Abelshittim. in one day.

and. All which things compared. said. whither he who was sent to see went up. and when he saw the face of the east shining." The Gemarists sift what that means: "Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt. to Hebron. might occur at the daily sacrifice. "Let me go. It is light. 'As the garden of the Lord. &c. that I may pay my vow. far off in situation." &c. upon that text of Moses." So also the Gloss upon Tamid. yielding grass acceptable to sheep." And they reduce it to this sense. out of which those are especially to be marked. Well. "The president of the service in the Temple was wont to say every morning. Jericho was buried in rubbish.--And why to Hebron?--R. that thine eyes may see Hebron?--And he answered. at that time.each." And to this they apply that of Absalom. or. as Egypt': nor is there in Egypt any place more excellent than Zoan. that were buried in Hebron. than Zoan. a burying-place of the dead is there. Bar Bar Chanan saith. more stony than Hebron: thence. Go." For this tradition obtained among them. 'Her princes were in Zoan'. however it were rocky. You may observe the situation of Hebron. I pray." They are the words of the author of Juchaisn." "And therefore they made mention of Hebron. in all the land of Israel. in respect of Jerusalem. as it is said. when it went before Jerusalem itself in name and honour. and consult the Gemarists upon the place quoted: for they understand those words. (although the east was on that coast). which you may find cited also in R. that thence he might fetch lambs for sacrifice. lambs from Hebron. from those things which are related of a daily custom and rite in the Temple.--if credit may be given to these .--"What! As the light is unto Hebron?"--of the light reaching as far as Hebron. that was sent to see. and yet Hebron was seven times nobler. Is the light come so far. because they could see Hebron thence. "There is no place. Upon which words Rambam thus. said. he. but next to it in dignity: yea." Consider which words. who is on the roof) is seen as far as Hebron. The whole face of the east is light unto Hebron: to whom another answers. just as the Gloss understands them of his eyes reaching thither that went to look. "There is no land more excellent than Egypt. while the first foundations of the kingdom of David were laid. as it is said. as in the mountainous country of Judea.-namely. If it were time. but yet in a very fruitful coast. "Though the east was on that coast". come at last to this." &c. "There was a high place in the Temple. "Rams from Moab. that the memory of the merit of those." Chapter Hebron 49 From Jericho we proceed to Hebron. Yes. And they who were in the court. Solomon. and Jerusalem was trampled upon by the profane feet of the Jebusites. For the turf was fine. and see whether it be time to kill the sacrifice. What! As the light is unto Hebron?--That is. he said. Numbers 13:22. "The morning (saith he. "Though the east were on that quarter of the heaven. Mathia Ben Samuel said. so in a place very rocky. Hebron was placed. He went thither. It is light. there was a time.

excites us to remember the rest. 'in a cave within a cave." Chapter Of the cities of Refuge. refuge. And these three were so equally disposed. will worship them. the most eminent among them. against them. as there was from Hebron to Shechem. Not a few believe Adam was buried there in like manner: some. "Let him that kills the high priest by a sudden chance. three other cities are to be added to those six which are mentioned in the Holy Scripture. and as much from Hebron to Shechem." . Isaac.] and. No hillock or river was allowed to be in the way. at least. or in the parting of the ways.authors. The Jews dream. Let the reader judge. fly to a city of refuge. that they might not pray for the death of their sons.8]. and the Kadmonites. Joshua separated three cities in the land of Canaan. 50 Hebron. (say they). and as much from Shechem to Kedesh. And in every double way. but let him never return thence. and Jacob. that for murder were shut up in the cities of refuge. the Kenizzites.--that Hebron. and might be seen from the high towers in the Temple and in Jerusalem. a consociation. "The Rabbins deliver this.--perhaps.--and they to be among the Kenites. Moses separated three cities of refuge beyond Jordan.-since the fugitive was to be restored to his country and friends at the death of the high priest: but if he died before in the city of refuge. yet did decline somewhat towards the east. was written "Refuge. [Josh 20:7. that he was buried once. and their wives. that in the days of the Messias. his bones were to be restored after the death of the high priest. and by removing every stop. The mothers of the high priest used to feed and clothe those. by enlarging them. and. or the doubled cave. The city was called Hebron. from the pairs there buried. as from Shechem to Kedesh. Abraham. against which one might either stumble or dash his foot. was. and buried again. the burying-place near Hebron. that is. the cave Machpelah.' It is therefore called. they will come perhaps. as from Kedesh to the north coast of the land."--lest he that fled thither might mistake the way. over which there was not a bridge: and the way. "Adam said. leading thither." It was the Sanhedrim's business to make the ways to those cities convenient. [Deut 4:41-43. And these were placed by one another. After my death. very many things are said by very many men. taking my bones. that there was so much space from the south coast of the land of Israel to Hebron. Of Machpelah. just as two ranks of vines are in a vineyard: Hebron in Judea against Bezer in the wilderness: Shechem in mount Ephraim against Ramoth in Gilead: Kedesh in mount Napthali against Golan in Basan. two-andthirty cubits broad. however it be placed south of Jerusalem. but I will hide my coffin very deep in the earth.

thirty-five furlongs distant from Jerusalem": and that towards the south. this only excepted. was profaned by the temple of Adonis: for the asserting of which he cites these words of Paulinus: "Hadrianus. It is vulgarly written. the contrary seems to be in Origen against Celsus: and that more true. "Beth-lehem is a certain town in the land of the Jews. and profaned Beth-lehem with the temple of Adonis": as also like words of Jerome: yet. Beth-thera: not illy. nor was seated far from the city of Jerusalem). "But now. or Bither: but I find it written in the Jerusalem Talmud pretty often . The same father of the annals adds.--but with the Jews. For Adrian had no quarrel with the Christians.Chapters 51-60 A Commentary from the Talmud and Hebraica of the New Testament John (1602-1675) A Chapters 51-60 Chapter Beth-lehem Chorographical Lightfoot Century 51 The Jews are very silent about this city: nor do I remember that I have read any thing in them concerning it. Bitter. But by what liberty the other should render it Beth-lehem. the war was more vehemently kindled near the town called Beth-lehem (which was very well fortified with all manner of defence. of the destruction of which the Jews relate very many things with lamentation: which certainly is scarcely to be reckoned the same with Beth-lehem. from the times of Adrian to the times of Constantine. however it be not rendered according to the letter: perhaps crept into the word instead of by the carelessness of the copiers." &c. in the place of the passion dedicated the image of Jupiter. Eusebius doth certainly treat of the city Betar (it is vulgarly written Bitter). he confesses. that Beth-lehem. when in the eighteenth year of the empire of Adrian. that cursedly rebelled against him. but a most clamorous noise in the Talmudic writings. and rendered by Christians. The interpreter of Eusebius renders. Betar. that the Jerusalem Gemarists do confess that the Messias was born there before their times. supposing that he should destroy the Christian faith by offering injury to the place. Chapter Betar 52 Of this city there is a deep silence in the Holy Scriptures. let himself see. besides those things which are produced out of the Old Testament. citing these words of Eusebius. The father of the ecclesiastical annals. and Christianity.

' He therefore wrote. when the children contracted marriage. and destroyed the whole horn of Israel. when an infant female. he marched against them. each containing three bushels. and his rebellion against the Romans. was it not distant forty miles? They say. and casting away the first tau. a pine. and two parts water. for he hath sold it among us." Josephus mentions "Betaris. It was delivered also. They cut down such a cedar. to be read. 'If N." Chapter Ephraim 53 . because the vineyards were made fruitful enough by the blood of the Israelites. 'There is no such thing in my mind. and Cephartobas. properly so called. You will say. and the children. that it was near the sea." &c. It was told the emperor that the Jews rebelled. was Bathara laid waste. that the heathen gathered the vintages. the women. without dunging the land. [The Jews] rose up against them. that three hundred skulls of young children were found upon one stone: and that there were three chests of torn phylacteries. they slew the men.' But he answered. that R. "For the foot of a chariot.'" The principal cause of the destruction of Beth-Tera was Ben-Cozba. 'the house of the inquirer. nine chests. and brought it to her.--the other. It was a custom. 'Nor did this come into my mind. two midland towns of Idumea":-where by Idumea he means the southern part of Judea. especially that that was mountainous: as appears by the context. that you are about to sell your wealth. Be-Tar. of which one flowed this way. He calls Idumea.--And when they took it. endeavours to come again to the possession of his wealth. The Babylonian writers assign another cause. "For if you say (say they) that it was near the sea. and his fellow sealed it: and they sent this feigned instrument to their friends. they said to him. and the foot of her chariot broke. That there were two rivers in the valley of Jadaim. write it. 'Whatsoever you ask of this man." The Jerusalem writers do hyperbolize enough concerning the distance of this city from the sea. And when they saw any going up to Jerusalem. Eliezer the Great saith. they planted a cedar. And the Rabbins computed that the third part of them was blood.' Then would one of the company say.'--'We hear of you. which is very usual in the word. On a certain day the daughter of the emperor passed by. and beat them. for the space of seven years.in the same page. but it was a mile distant. 'We hear of you. The tradition is. Being angry.'--"Wherefore (say they) was Beth-Tar laid waste? Because it lighted candles after the destruction of the Temple. And why did it light candles? Because the counsellors at Jerusalem dwelt in the midst of the city. out of those trees they made the bridechamber. or a counsellor': but he answered. perhaps. "Hadrian besieged Bether three years and a half. as it seems Beth-Tar. saying. that you are ambitious to be made a captain. and. each chest containing nine bushels: but there are others that say. that when an infant male was born. "Idumea the Great. suffer him not to do it. so that their blood flowed into the great sea. and I will seal it. that.

"Jannes and Mambres said to Moses. Aba Saul saith. Ephraim in the valley obtains the next place to them. Those of the Mishnaioth. on the day of expiation.. R. of which it is thus written in the books of the Chronicles. they set ." "For oil. John 11:54. and of which the Talmudic writers speak: "What is the best flour." And elsewhere: "He eateth the clusters of Keila. it hath Zanoah.: the Aruch also hath Michmas: but for Mezonechah... Ephraim.--and Caphar Sigana. and of Caphar Achum." Karchiim and Atolin "produce the best wine: Beth Rimmah and Beth Laban.--before that. Eliezer Ben Jacob saith. hath these words. in that story. as we have writ it: the Tosaphtah also reads Michmas: but the Talmud." to be offered in the Temple? "Michmas and Mezonechah obtain the first place for fine flour. 54 When they sent forth the goat Azazel. very fruitful in bread-corn." Chapter Tsok: and Beth Chadudo. two small cities. Do you bring straw into Ephraim?" Which the Aruch reciting. said unto him. in the hilly country. which is the city of bread-corn. how doth any carry in straw thither?" &c. obtains the next to it. this story being added. together with them. Ragab. but he drinks not wine: honey and milk are brought in. R. he took two Toparchies. "Ephoraim is a city. in Galilee. but a certain town in the confines of that land: of which you read 2 Chronicles 13:19." Let us also add these words elsewhere: "He eateth all manner of victuals. Let us also add these things from the places alleged above. Tekoa deserves the first praise. Josi saith.--namely. and drinks honey and milk. you therefore are like one bringing straw into Ephraim. in the valley.. "There was a city in the land of Israel." These words are not read the same way by all. adds these words. Josephus. Gush Chalab. "After he went into the hill country. in the eighth chapter. speaking of Vespasian.the Talmud Ephoraim: the Gloss saith.--Jannes and Mambres. and out of which is provision for many places: therefore. This is our business. He drinks all manner of drink.'" The Gemarists read it after the same manner. "They brought also of the wheat of Barchaim. beyond Jordan. and enters into the Temple. who were the chief of Pharaoh's magicians." Into this Ephraim. which were near Jerusalem. next to them. read. called Ephraim: when Moses therefore came with his miracles. Beth-el and Ephraim. and eateth not flesh: the clusters of figs of Keila are brought in. and we can do thus with our enchantments. Gophnitica and Acrabatena: and. we suppose it was that Christ retired.We mean not here the land of Ephraim. 'And Abijah took Ephraim. obtains the third place.

were from the valley of Beth-cerem. who brought forth the goat. They went forward the space of a mile. a mile distant one from another: where some betook themselves before that day. They went forward the space of a mile. which." The first entrance into the desert was three miles from Jerusalem. 'Was not this a great sign to them?' From Jerusalem to Beth Chadudo were three miles. were two miles. that the goat was sent out towards Beth-horon.--See the Gemarists. treating concerning the blood of women's terms. Hence is that. Nehemiah 3:14. The goat is now come into the wilderness. . and ten miles. hardly coming to the middle of the precipice. which both was twelve miles distant from Jerusalem. went not farther than a mile with him. Tsok." But whence knew they." The rock Tsok therefore was twelve miles distant from Jerusalem. From these things compared. upon which the working iron came not.up ten tents. as well of the altar. Judah saith. "They say to the high priest. Was not this a great sign to them? From Jerusalem to Beth-horon were three miles. and they tarried the space of a mile: and so they knew that the goat was now come to the wilderness. "The stones. and. standing there." The fathers of the traditions. And thence they are wont to bring whole stones. and went back the space of a mile. Chapter Divers matters. 55 I. There others received him.' The Misna of Babylon writes thus of it. Those of the better rank went out of Jerusalem with him. according to later computation. therefore. and had rough and very craggy rocks near it: and that the sense of the Gemarists was this. "she went up to the top of the rocks and fell. who assign nine-tenths only.--and the name of the place was Beth Chadudo." &c. who received him there. and the other to the rock: and thrust the goat down." Where the Gloss writes. were three miles to the first verge of the wilderness. standing on them. "Tsokin are high and craggy mountains. as of the ascent to the altar. "He snapped the scarlet thread into two parts. Judah saith. that they might not exceed a sabbath day's journey: but. among the Talmudists. they observed what was done by him. is any more craggy and lofty rock. Beth-cerem. whence the goat was cast down. which they digged out beneath the barren land. of which he bound one to the horns of the goat. and hence they knew that the goat was now got into the wilderness. and that place was called 'Beth Chadudo. and so to the tenth. and conducted him to the second. From the tenth to the rock Tsok. they shook handkerchiefs. others to the third. But there are some. R. The Jerusalem Misna thus: "R. They.--In the way to Beth-horon. that they might be ready to accompany him. it is no improbable conjecture. and accompanied him to the first tent. that he was now come into the wilderness? They set up high stones. was dashed and broke into pieces.

Mention is made of Migdal Zabaaia (a word of the same etymology). this was not that Bitar. but they received them not. and in the tribe of Simeon: therefore. Now they refused them. Let the author of Aruch render it for me: "The mount of Simeon brought forth three hundred bags of broken bread for the poor every sabbath evening. R. but because they were brought in an unlawful time: for "they offered not the first-fruits before Pentecost. out of the valley of Beth-cerem. Chabul for discord: Shichin for magical arts: and Migdal Zabaaia" (or the town of dyers) "for fornication. and he approached near to the land of the Philistines: and when he came to Kubi. Out of the valley of Sicni. 'Let us arise up against him':--when they were come to Be Teri. "Be Teri and Kubi. For fornication:--others say." II. "which is like the water of the earth. 'Do they kill the lion between the two she-whelps?'" Where the Gloss writes thus: "David pursued them flying." The Gemarists." wheresoever it was. "Rabbi Simeon brought forth." III. "Beth-cerem is the name of a place: whence a man fetches turf. and puts it into a pot. they said. "Two tribes had nine hundred cities." See Joshua 21:16. "Nittai the Tekoite brought a cake out of Bitur but they received it not." The Gemarists. they said." Therefore.--he renders it. The Alexandrians brought their cakes from Alexandria. The Gloss is. examining this clause. Socoh. He fetched the turf out of the valley of Beth-cerem. whose destruction we have mentioned before. Also out of the valley of Genesara. Out of the valley of Jotapata. "Mount Zeboim. where also this same story is repeated." VI. hath these words: "R." &c. Thence was Antigonus. among which that. "But why was it laid waste? Some say." The town Simonias is mentioned by Josephus in his life." The Gloss is: "There were nine hundred cities in the tribe of Judah."--Where the Gloss writes thus. in that notable story: "Three cities were laid waste. Meir saith. Jose saith. nine became the priests' and Levites'. R. and the water swims upon it: that is. some time president of the Sanhedrim. "Antigonus of Soco received the Cabala of Simeon the Just.reckon up five colours of it." saith the tradition. "in the confines of Galilee. and weigh the proportion. make mention of these things: "When they were come to Kubi (say they). Simeon saith. until the water swims above the turf. Joshua 15:35. was certainly within the land: for otherwise the first-fruits were not to be received from thence. Akibah saith. Because they played at bowls. not because they were unlawful in themselves." V. "Bitar was without the land.'--whence it might be taken for the lot of the land of Simeon." &c. but they received them not. which was between the land of Israel and . The inhabitants of mount Zeboim brought their first-fruits before Pentecost. IV. R. he puts water to it." But instead of 'the mount of Simeon brought forth. speaking of David's battle with Ishbi-benob. 2 Samuel 21.

'" Chapter Samaria. Of the eleven Toparchies. Josephus saith these words concerning Titus marching with his army to Jerusalem: "He passeth swiftly through the country of Samaria unto Gophna:. therefore it is called to this day. they said. after some days. pitches his station along the valley of thorns unto a certain town called Gabbath-Saul. Meir. R. Juda. the Toparchy of Gophna. and R.where tarrying one day. and yet their posterity stood great priests. Be Teri is also the name of a place.. and offered at the altar.--Concerning the situation of this place it is doubted whether it is to be assigned to Judah or to the land of Samaria. lying in the Great plain. Simeon. in one night. These things certainly seem plainly to lay it to Judea. "They do not bring the sheaf [of first-fruits] but from some place near Jerusalem." &c. Nehemiah. the second after Jerusalem was Toparchia Gophnitica. 'What concerning the sons of the envious woman?' (as 1 Samuel 1:6)." You will scarce find so many priests in the country of Samaria. then they fetch it farther off. He answered. in Pliny Zophanitica. 'The Rock of Nails. Jochanan Sandelar. Lazar Ben Jacob. the school of Shammai and of Hillel. "They sometime asked R.] . that they may dash out my brains: but I testify concerning the family of Beth Anubai. of Beth Zebuim." X. R. &c. Joshua. There was a time when a sheaf was brought out of the gardens of Zeriphin. "There was a marble rock there: into which every one fastened a nail. and ends at the Toparchy of the Acrabateni: the nature of it nothing differing from Judea. the space of a day's journey northwards. Jose.the Philistines. "The synagogue of the men of Gophna was in Zippor":--whom you will scarcely believe to be Samaritans. priests. For it begins at a town called Ginea." VII.'" IX. that they were the sons of the envious woman." And a little after. [Acrabata was distant from Jerusalem. 56 "The country of Samaria lies in the middle. in Gophna.--namely. in the morning he marches forward. R. R.. Sychem. R."--"Seven elders came together to intercalate the year in the valley of Rimmon:--namely. married fourscore pair of sisters. Gophna. and the two loaves out of the valley of En-Socar. of Beth-Koshesh. VIII. 'Ye put my head between two high mountains. and." The Jerusalem Talmudists write thus: "Fourscore pair of brethren. between Judea and Galilee. priestesses. R. of the family of Beth-Nekiphi. But if some place near Jerusalem shall not produce those first-fruits. The word Gophna is derived from the vineyards. "The valley of Rimmon.

is the city Sychem. 'and Jacob hid the idols under the grove. Benjamin thus writes of them: "Sebaste is Samaria. as odious to the Jews as heathenism. And it is seated in a valley between the mountains Gerizim and Ebal: and in it are about a hundred Cutheans observing the law of Moses only. the sonin-law of Sanballat. "Woe to the drunken Ephraimites. and as it was an apostasy from it: although both religions indeed departed not a hair's breadth from deceitful superstition. thence through the country of Samaria. but to the idols which are under it: for it is written'. "A place destined to revenges": and which the Jews. and the feast-days. many went back to mount Gerizim. the scholars of Antigonus. In that Temple. and it perished by the sword and fire of Hyrcanus: but the Samaritan superstition perished not. and vineyards. did flourish.--and after that into Samaritanism. and instituted rites out of their own heart. Manasseh. but lasted for many ages. and well-watered land. upon the altar. went to Neapolis. which was near Shechem. and in it were springs." That Temple flourished about two hundred years." And a little after. Maabartha. the son of Joshua. "In mount Gerizim are fountains and paradises: but mount Ebal is dry. Its metropolis at that time was Sychem.--namely. Neapolis. which is also Sychem in mount Ephraim." Josephus speaking of Vespasian. And two parsae thence (eight miles) is Neapolis.--namely. Part followed Simeon the Just. 'I see that ye do not worship to that mountain. And afterward. John 4:5. which they built upon mount Gerizim. The Cutheans came to him: to whom he said. and olive-yards. The mountains of Gerizim and Ebal touched on it. and hence was the beginning of the schism. and Antigonus his scholar. when. Josi. and his son-in-law: and they offered sacrifices without the Temple of God. in the valley.Samaria. Now that city was in a mountain." &c. in the days of Antigonus. before the building of the Temple at Gerizim. Sanballat. from the words of the prophet. as they had learned from Ezra and the prophets: part. and their fountains clean. and by Neapolis so called." Isaiah 28:1. as it seems.--under the second. the son of Jozedek the high priest. Yet they confess that "the land of the Samaritans was clean. on the day of the Passover. and Sychem. was the name of a city. "R. And at that time Zadok and Baithus. and gardens. R. like the stones and rocks: and between them. and paradises. "He turned away to Ammaus. and they are called Samaritans: and they have priests of the seed of Aaron. as it was distinguished from Judaism. performed the priest's office. of those stones which the children of Israel set up when they passed over Jordan. and well fortified. Ismael Ben R. under the first Temple. where still the palace of Ahab king of Israel is known. The author of Juchasin does not speak amiss here: "Then" (under Simeon the Just) "Israel went into parties. The city Samaria was at last called Sebaste.'" You may not improperly divide the times of Samaria under the second Temple into heathenism. John 4:9. of a country. but Mabartha by the inhabitants. "They sacrifice in the Temple in mount Gerizim." &c. and their school. and their dwellings . reproached under the name of Sychar.

for the Syrians had brought it. and called the city Sebaste." But much dispute is made about their victuals. from whom when he asked something to drink.It is something difficult what that means.' R. there was abundance.' which is to be understood of that food with which their wine and vinegar is not mingled.--or of the Jews residing with them. And they have not . in the middle of this work. Benjamin) have not the letters he or ain. it is lawful. they are suspected.. He is in the name of Abraham. and the Samaritans received it of them. when they make their unleavened bread with the Israelites. but. "he doubted about it. 'The victuals of the Cutheans are lawful. Simeon Ben Gamaliel saith. If it be open. Josah saith. both hence and elsewhere.clean. Why the wine of En Cushith? Because of Caphar Salama." &c. but as to their courts. "The Cuiheans. but now.'--It is a tradition. and the Jews here and there among the Samaritans. when they have neither precept nor any remainders of a precept. But the tradition contradicts R." &c. R. and they are corrupted"." And a story concerning R.. But that deserves to be observed. "They were scattered in their towns. w